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Title: Cook book of tested receipes

Author: Ida Lee Cary

Release date: September 13, 2022 [eBook #68983]

Language: English

Original publication: United States: A. V. Haight Co, 1920

Credits: The Online Distributed Proofreading Team at (This file was produced from images generously made available by The Internet Archive)





Originator of Vassar Tea Room


Copyright, 1920
Ida Lee Cary

This book is dedicated
my daughter


No. 2 College View Ave.,
Poughkeepsie, N. Y.

I started serving College Students lunches and waffle suppers in a small way in my parlor and selling homemade candy. My business became very popular with the College Students and I was obliged to extend my facilities.

So I had three rooms arched and made in one large room and decorated very prettily. The room seated 104 students very comfortably and was very popular among the students and their friends as it was one of the most attractive Tea Rooms established for College Women.


Cary Cottage, Cary Cottage, Are we in it, well I guess
Cary Cottage, Cary Cottage, Yes, Yes, Yes.

The tea room

[Pg 5]


2 cups of butter or lard make 1 pound
4 cups of pastry or bread flour make 1 pound
3⁷⁄₈ cups of entire wheat flour make 1 pound
2²⁄₃ cups of oatmeal make 1 pound
4³⁄₄ cups of rolled oats make 1 pound
2 cups of granulated sugar make 1 pound
2²⁄₃ cups of powdered sugar make 1 pound
3 teaspoons make 1 tablespoon
16 tablespoons dry ingredient make 1 cup.

[Pg 6]


Beef Soup.

Four (4) lbs of rib beef, boil four or five hours, take out meat, skim off all grease. Add one-half cup each of chopped carrots, potatoes, salt, pepper to taste. Makes three (3) quarts.

Chicken Soup.

Take a fat chicken after cleaning, let it lay in fresh water an hour, boil the chicken at least two hours, let cool and skim off the fat and add a little celery cut into bits, cup of rice and bits of chopped parsley. You can use the chicken either for salad or pressed chicken loaf.

Tomato Soup.

To one pint of canned tomatoes or four (4) large raw ones cut up fine, add one qt. of boiling water and let it come to a boil. Then add one-half teaspoon of soda and immediately one of sweet milk and cream, season with salt, pepper and butter.

Virginia Soup.

Put soup bone on in 1¹⁄₂ quarts of cold water, cut a small turnip in squares, also two (2) medium size potatoes, put in with bones and salt to taste. Drop in small handful cabbage chopped fine, 6 tablespoons canned corn, small handful of carrots cut in dice and two (2) tablespoons of tomato to color, 1 tablespoon of flour and pepper to taste. Keep closely covered, cook slowly simmering for 3 or 4 hours. Then take out bone and if clear soup is preferable strain out vegetables also. Serve at once in hot tureen with toasted crackers.

Potato Soup.

Four (4) potatoes boiled and mashed. Save water left, boil two quarts milk; add potatoes and water, also tablespoon of flour, salt and pepper and a little chopped parsley. Let come to a boil and serve.

Corn Soup.

Take one (1) can of sweet corn and 1 pint of water and let it cook slowly for almost fifteen (15) minutes. Strain and add a cup of milk and cream and little minced parsley, thicken with 1 tablespoon of flour. Let come to a boil and serve.

Black Bean Soup.

One (1) quart of beans, parboil in three quarts of water, add 1 teaspoonful of soda, add few slices of salt pork, when they have cooked tender, drain and serve with slices of hard-boil eggs and slice lemon.

Pea Soup.

Take one can of peas and press them through a sieve. To the pulp add 1 cup of hot water, 1 cup of milk and cream. Dissolve one tablespoon of flour in a little cold milk and add to your soup with 1 tablespoonful of melted butter and salt and pepper to taste.

Clam Chowder.

Four (4) quarts of water to 25 clams.
Four (4) slices of pork fried and chopped.
¹⁄₂ dozen of potatoes, 3 onions chopped.
¹⁄₂ lb of cracker rolled, added before serving. Cook all together for 2¹⁄₂ hours.

Soup Stock.

Buy 3 lbs Shank, have it cut up and the bone cracked. Wash and put on to boil in a gallon of cold water with ¹⁄₂ tablespoon of salt. When it comes to a boil take off the scum put the kettle[Pg 7] where it will just simmer for an hr. Then strain into a tin or jar which is to be kept for the purpose and set away to cool. In the morning skim off the fat, then turn gently into the soup kettle being careful not to turn in the sediment. It is now ready to make any kind of soup. Do not boil vegetables in the stock as they cause it to sour. Celery is an improvement in all soups.

Cream Celery Soup.

Wash and peel 3 celery roots, cut in thin slices, cover with 1 qt of boiling water and cook 38 minutes, rub through colander. Put 1 qt milk on in a double boiler and slice of onions, when scalded mix with celery sauce and thicken with 1 tablespoonful of flour and 1 heaping lb of butter and serve with croutons.


Broiled Shad.

Have it split down the back and lay it on a large meat platter and season with pepper and salt for an hour before cooking. Then rub the bars of a double gridiron with lard or beef suet to prevent sticking. Lay the fish on and broil slowly doing the inside first. Turn frequently. It will take from eight to fifteen minutes according to size of fish. When the bone may be easily lifted from the fish, the cooking is completed. Remove at once to a hot platter, pour over it an ounce of melted butter with a teaspoonful of minced parsley and serve hot.

Roes of the shad seasoned, roll in flour on both sides and put them in a fry pan of grease and fry light brown on both sides.

Baked Fish.

Take a good size white or blue fish, stuff with stale bread seasoned highly with butter, salt, pepper and chopped parsley, sew the fish up, bake. Before serving put over it a dressing of drawn butter made as follows:—¹⁄₂ cup of flour mixed well with a small cup of butter, pour on this enough boiling water to make a nice gravy, stirring constantly. Cook until thick and pour over the fish.

Boiled Fish.

Take 2 or 3 lbs of salmon or cod and tie it up in cheese cloth and cook for ¹⁄₂ hr with 1 teaspoon of salt in the water to cover it, when done serve with drawn butter.

Creamed Salt Cod Fish.

Take 1 pint of shredded codfish soaked in cold water enough to cover it for ¹⁄₂ hr. Drain the water off add 1 pint of milk, 1 tablespoon of flour dissolved in cold milk and 1 beaten egg, small piece of butter cook for 10 minutes and serve hot.

Frog’s Legs.

Soak over night in salt and water and in the morning drain them off dry, roll in cracker crumbs, fry in hot butter or lard.

Codfish Balls.

1 pint raw codfish, 2 pints pared potatoes, cooked and mashed, 2 eggs, butter size of an egg. Cook the codfish and add to the potatoes, make in balls and fry in lard.

Fried Perch.

Place fish in cold water for 1 hour, dry, dip in egg, then in cracker crumbs or corn meal. Drop in deep hot fat and fry.

Lobsters (To select and Open.)

Buy those that have been boiled but a few hours. The heaviest whether large or small are best. In opening them care must be taken to remove the poisonous part. This lies in the head, all of which must be thrown away, as well as the vein which passes from it through the body. All the other parts are good. Break the shell with hammer and cut open the body on the under side[Pg 8] with a sharp knife. Carefully examine the tormelly or green part to see that there is none of the poison vein in it. If you are going to make salad put it on a platter, the meat from the body in the centre and that of the large claws at each end of the dish, arrange some of the small claws around the edge. Garnish with lettuce and serve with a boiled dressing.

Deviled Lobsters.

Cold boiled lobster taken from the shells, cut up in small pieces and equal amount of bread crumbs mixed in milk, a very little red pepper, salt, a good deal of butter and if liked a little mustard ready mixed is added, after washing the shells replace the mixture and bake in a quick oven. This mixture can be made into balls, dipped into beaten egg and rolled in cracker and makes delicious croquettes if fried.

Oyster Stew.

Pour oysters into porcelain kettle put in not too much cold water. Stir well, heat gradually until the scum rises, skim very clean. Then add cup of hot milk thicken with 1 tablespoon flour and 1 tablespoonful of butter, a little pepper and salt, serve hot.

Oyster Patties.

Make crust the same as pie crust, roll out with biscuit cutter, using two rings for one bottom crust, for the filling; Take one quart of new milk, ¹⁄₂ cup of butter, salt, pepper and liquid from one quart of oyster, set this in pan of water to cook. When scalding hot (do not boil) add one small tablespoon of corn starch, stirred up with a little cold milk. This will thicken about like cream then add oysters, when hot remove from fire, put a few oysters and some of the cream in the shells and serve hot.

Fried Oysters.

Roll cracker crumbs fine season with salt and pepper mix into them a handful of flour. Take a handful of the crumb in one hand, lay on 2 or more oysters put crumb over them and press into round patties, have ready, hot fat and fry quickly a nice brown, watch carefully as much depends on the frying.

Oyster Loaf.

Cut the top from a well baked loaf of bread remove the soft part leaving the crust ¹⁄₂ inch thick, make a rich oyster stew, thicken a little and fill the loaf with alternate layers of bread crumbs and oysters. Replace the top of loaf, glaze the whole with beaten yolk of egg and place in oven for 10 minutes. Serve very hot.

Escalloped Oysters.

Use a deep baking dish first put in a layer of oyster, then a layer of oysters, then one of crumbs sprinkled with a little salt and pepper and small pieces of butter then a layer of oysters, finish with a layer of crumbs and bits of butter over the top. Take the liquid from the oysters pour it in the pan and fill well up. Allow room for the crumbs to swell. If it seems dry after trying it with a spoon when removing from oven, pour into it a little milk and set back again until the contents are heated again hot enough to serve.


Roast Beef.

The sirloin is considered the best for roasting. Split the meat, pepper the top and baste it well while roasting with its own drippings and throw on a tablespoonful of salt. Put it in a hot oven, keep the fire bright and clear. From 15 to 20 minutes to the lb is the rule for roasting.

Yorkshire Pudding.

¹⁄₂ pint milk, 2 eggs, 1 cup of flour, ¹⁄₂ level teaspoon salt. Beat the yolks of the eggs, then add the milk and flour, add the salt to the whites and beat them very stiff and then mix them with other ingredients. Now take the egg beater and beat the whole batter very thoroughly for 5 minutes[Pg 9] this makes it light and porous as cake. Then pour the mixture into the roasting pan under a rack if you use one if not then beside the meat about ³⁄₄ hr. before the beef is done and cook in the drippings to a nice brown basting it when you do the meat, cut in squares and serve with the meat. Double the quantity if your family consists of more than four or five. This is nice served with roast beef.

Broiled Steak.

Broil a porterhouse steak one and one half inches thick over a clear hot fire for 5 minutes, turning till both sides are well seared, having ready a hot tin, lay the meat on it season with salt and pepper and plenty of butter. Place at once in a hot oven for about 10 minutes before serving.


Have a steak cut 2 inches thick and cut a pocket in one side, fill with dressing and roast.

Beefsteak Smothered in Onions.

Put tablespoon butter in frying pan when hot put in steak trimmed and salted slice onions thin and cover steak, salt and pepper onions add good size lump of butter, cook slowly 1 hour, add water to prevent burning.

Pig’s Feet.

Scrape and wash, put in cold water and when boiling add teaspoonful of salt and cook tender. Place in jar 2 qt vinegar to one of water and whole cloves.

Pot Roast of Beef.

Place a small piece of suet or fat in kettle let it get very hot. Place the roast in kettle, sprinkle with pepper and grated nutmeg, brown on all sides watching carefully to prevent burning. Then cover with boiling water and cook till tender. Salt about ¹⁄₂ hr. before removing from the kettle, make a brown gravy. Beef not suitable for oven roasts will be excellent cooked this way.

Leg of Lamb.

Leg of lamb baked in the oven until tender and served with a mint sauce or it can be cooked the same as a beef roast and served with a brown gravy or mint sauce.

Creamed Veal.

Simmer one slice onion and one half inch bit of bay leaf in one rounded tablespoonful butter, remove the onions and bay leaf, add one level tablespoonful corn starch, when well mixed add gradually 1 cup thin cream and ¹⁄₂ cup strained tomato, season with salt and pepper and heat quickly in it 2 cups of cooked veal cut in small dice.

Boiled Ham.

Soak the ham over night in water which should cover well. Then set it on fire to boil, the rule for boiling ham is 15 minutes to each lb. When it is half boiled change water and add a cup of molasses, when done set it to cool when cold enough skin and stick in a few whole cloves and put in the oven to brown.

Liver with Bacon.

Pour boiling water on liver, drain and dip in flour. Cook with bacon.

Roast Pork.

Take a leg of pork and wash it clean, cut the skin in squares, making a dressing of grated bread, sage, onion, pepper and salt, moistened with an egg. Rub this under the skin of the knuckle and sprinkle a little powdered sage into the rind where it is cut and rub it over with pepper and salt and place it in a hot oven. 8 lbs. will require about 3 hrs. to roast it a light brown. The shoulder, loin sparerib are roasted in the same manner.

[Pg 10]

Roast Veal.

In roasting veal follow the direction as in roasting pork. Roast before a brisk fire till it comes to a light brown color, be sure to baste it while roasting.

Broiled Lamb Chops.

Take the lamb chops and wipe them off, place them on the broiler over a good hot fire, keep turning them first on one side then the other until a nice light brown, remove from the broiler, place them on a hot plate with pieces of butter pepper and little salt, place in the oven for a few minutes then serve with peas laid around the out side of the chops.

Lamb Stew.

3 or 4 lbs of lamb cut up in small pieces, wash off with hot water and put in a kettle, cover the meat with water and cook until tender about 20 minutes, before removing from the fire, add dumplings, cook them 20 minutes, then take them out and thicken the liquid with 1 tablespoonful of flour put all on a large platter and serve.

Veal Loaf.

3 lbs of veal, ¹⁄₂ lb of fat salt pork chopped together, 1 cup of cracker crumbs, 3 eggs, pepper and salt to taste, moisten all with 1¹⁄₂ cups of water, bake 1¹⁄₂ hrs.

Fried Sausages.

Prick the casing with a fork in order to keep it from bursting, put in a frying pan and fry until a light brown, turning frequently.

Stewed Kidney.

Take 1 or 2 kidneys, cut them in half, remove the skin and center fat or core, give each a dust of pepper and salt. Chop finely 1 teaspoonful of onion and parsley, melt a piece of butter the size of a large walnut in a small saucepan, when hot put in the kidneys, the outside down, also the onion. Fry quickly a nice brown, now shake in 2 teaspoons of flour stir it in and let it brown, next pour in not quite a teacup of hot water, stock, stir till it boils.


CAUTION:—To roast fowls the fire must be quick and clear. Baste frequently and if you don’t use a double roaster, keep white paper pinned on the breast till it is nearly done.

Take the turkey, draw it and wash it clean and dry with a clean towel. Turkey Dressing. Take 1 loaf of stale bread, free of crust cut into inch cubes and pour over it 1 pint of hot milk, stir it all soft and smooth, then beat an egg light and add to the mixture, season with pepper and salt and poultry seasoning, 1 table spoon of melted butter. Then stuff your turkey with this mixture. Then sew it up and draw legs back close to the body and the wings back against the side so that the breast will stand out prominently. Dust the turkey with salt and pepper and drawn butter, then lay on a grate in the roast pan with down. This permits the juice to run down into the breast and makes it tender and juicy. The oven should be very hot when the turkey is first put in and the heat slightly reduced after the first ¹⁄₂ hour. Cook in the original position for the first hour then turn it over on its back and cook until a light brown, allowing for cooking 15 minutes to a lb.

Roast Duck.

After drawing the duck, wiping out with a clean towel, do not wash them, cut off wings to the second joint. Roast in a very hot oven from 15 to 20 minutes in a baking pan containing a little water, any one of the dressings may be chosen for the filling but I use just the plain dressing and always serve apple sauce with duck.

[Pg 11]

Chestnut Dressing.

Take 1 pint of chestnut, prepare the nut by making a cut in each with a sharp knife. Then put them in a kettle, cover with cold water, bring to a boil and boil exactly 2 minutes. Remove from the water, drain, turn in a pan with a little butter and shake over fire, after this the shells and skins may be removed together. Chop the nuts, add a large cupful of grated bread crumb, 4 tablespoonful of butter, melted, 1 tablespoonful of shredded parsley, ¹⁄₂ teaspoonful of ground poultry seasoning salt and pepper to taste. This gives rather a dry dressing and sufficient hot water to mix to a paste may be added if a moist dressing is preferred.

Oyster Dressing.

1 quart of oysters will be required for an ordinary sized turkey. Grate into a mixing bowl 4 large cupfuls of bread crumbs, add a teaspoonful of chopped celery, drain the oysters either chop or leave them whole, 1 salt spoonful of white pepper, 1 tablespoonful of chopped parsley, and 1 tablespoon of melted butter, and add the cup of oyster liquid. ¹⁄₂ cup of sherry may be added.

Fricassee Chicken.

Singe, draw the chicken and disjoint it, put a ¹⁄₄ lb. of bacon in a sauce pan and let the fat fry out slowly. When the bacon is crisp lift it out and put it aside. Flour the pieces of chicken, drop them in the hot bacon fat, shake and turn them until brown then draw them to one side of the saucepan. Add to the fat 3 level tablespoonfuls of flour, mix and add 1 pint of boiling water, stir until boiling, add a level teaspoonful of salt, cover and simmer gently until the chicken is done (1 hr.). Remove from the pan and place on a good size platter with the gravy poured over it and split biscuit laid around the outside of platter.

Broiled Guenia.

Guenia is split open on the back and placed on a broiler over a hot fire and cooked to a light brown on both sides. Remove the guenia season with salt and pepper and tablespoon of hot butter poured over then place in oven for about 10 minutes before serving and serve hot.

Roast Goose.

Select a young goose weighing 8 or 10 lbs., wash and scrub the skin thoroughly and cleanse with warm water. Wipe the fowl dry and stuff with any of the preceding dressings. Sew the goose and steam for ¹⁄₂ hour to draw out the oil. Then place in a pan, dredge with salt, pepper and a little flour, rub over the outside, pouring in a little hot water into the pan and put the goose in a hot oven to roast when it begins to brown baste often. Cook for 1 hour and ¹⁄₂ until brown and tender.

Creamed Chicken.

Prepare it the same as for fricassee chicken, put in a kettle, cover it with water and let it cook till tender, before removing from the kettle season with salt and pepper, then remove from the kettle when cool, remove it from the bones and thicken the gravy with 2 tablespoonsful of flour in a little cold water to dissolve the flour, then add 1 cup of milk and cream and serve with hot waffles.

Waffles With Creamed Chicken.

3 eggs beaten separate, then add 1 pt. of milk, 1 large tablespoonful of melted butter, 1 even teaspoonful of salt and flour enough to thicken the same as for pan cakes. Stir all together with 2 tablespoonsful of Baking Powder and the whites of the eggs beaten stiff the last thing. Have waffle iron hot and bake until a light brown. This will serve 6 people.

Broiled Chicken.

Prepare the same as Fricassee chicken then split open through the back. Place on a broiler over a hot fire and cook by turning them from one side to another until light brown, then remove from the broiler place on a hot plate large enough to hold the chicken and place in the oven with pieces of butter, pepper and salt over it about 10 minutes before serving.

[Pg 12]

Chicken Croquettes.

2 cups of chopped chicken, 3 eggs beaten light, a little salt and pepper. Beat the chicken and eggs together and drop from a tablespoon in hot fat.

Chicken Pie.

Cook the chicken well done, seasoning well with small piece of butter, pepper and salt to taste, remove it from the bone or not as preferred. Line a baking dish with a rich biscuit dough rolled out the same as for pie crust and fill the dish up with the chicken and the liquid, sprinkle over with flour and cover with a top crust. This is very good.

To Cook Rabbits and Squirrels.

Dress and wash same as chicken. Put in water enough to cover and slice into the water an small onion. Boil till onion is soft, drain and remove onion, cover with boiling water and cook till tender and season with salt and pepper to taste. Serve with brown gravy or stew down and fry in butter.


Baked Potatoes.

Select nice smooth potatoes for baking. Put in a hot oven for 1¹⁄₂ hrs. It depends on the size of the potatoes how long it will take them to bake. Serve as soon as they are done to let them stand after being baked will make them soggy.

Stuffed Baked Potatoes.

Bake the potatoes until they are well done, then remove from the oven and cut off one end and take a teaspoon and remove all the inside and put in a dish and add 2 tablespoonsful of sweet cream, piece of butter size of a walnut, pepper and salt to taste. Cream all together the same as for mashed potatoes, then fill the potatoes skin, return to the oven for about 10 minutes and serve hot.

French Potatoes.

Pare and wash potatoes, cut them length wise into ¹⁄₂ inch pieces and fry them in hot lard. When a light brown, remove from the fat and lay on paper to drain.

Creamed Potatoes.

Cold potatoes cut in dice and 1 cup of milk with 1 tablespoonful of flour stirred in with 1 piece of butter the size of a small egg, salt and pepper and cook until creamy.

Scalloped Potatoes.

Slice potatoes thin, put in layer salt and pepper add piece of butter, dredge lightly with flour, fill the dish with three layers within an inch of the top, cover with rich milk. Grate cheese over the top is very good.

Potato Chips.

Pare and slice potatoes very thin with potato slicer or sharp knife, let them remain in ice water about 2 hours, drain and wipe dry and fry in hot lard, salt while hot.

Potato Balls.

Take cold mashed potatoes, make into flat balls and dip them in flour and fry in hot butter a light brown.

Boston Baked Beans.

Soak beans over night, in the morning pour off the water and parboil with ¹⁄₂ teaspoon of soda until half tender then pour off the water and cover again with hot water and small piece of salt pork, cook until tender then remove from the kettle and put them in a bean pot or earthen dish, add a little mustard, salt 1 tablespoonful of molasses, bake 8 hours, keeping them covered with hot water until the last hour when they will brown.

[Pg 13]


Cook the asparagus whole in salt water, when tender serve on toast with a cream sauce made of milk, butter, salt and thicken with flour or pour over melted butter.


Do not peel, cut in large pieces and steam till tender, scrape out inside season well.


Scrape well, cut in thin slices, cook in water till tender about 20 minutes season well, drain off the water and flour each piece and fry in hot butter.


Boil till tender then put into chopping bowl and chop quite fine or mash them fine, add butter and little cream, pepper and salt to taste.

Fried Tomatoes.

Peel tomatoes by pouring boiling water over them, slice crosswise in large slices, salt and pepper them, dip each slice into wheat flour and then into the beaten egg and fry at once in hot lard. Serve hot.

Egg Plant.

Peel slice and sprinkle each with salt and pepper at noon. Put in a bowl with plate on top a flat iron to press it down. At dinner time wash dry, roll in flour, season with pepper, fry in hot drippings to rich brown.


Choose such as are young having red gills, cut off the part of the stalk which grew in the earth, wash them remove the skin from the top, stew them with some salt in a little water and when tender add butter into which you have rubbed brown flour. They are good broiled on a griddle and laid around beefsteak.


Three things must be exactly right in order to have good bread, the quality of the yeast, the lightness or fermentation of the dough and the heat of the oven. It requires careful attention and good judgement to decide when all are right, no precise rules can be given.

Good Bread (White)

Scald 1 qt of milk when cool add 1 Fleischmann yeast cake dissolved in luke warm water. 2 tablespoons of sugar, 2 tablespoons of lard or butter melted, 1 tablespoon of salt, stir in 6 qts of sifted flour or more, enough to make a stiff dough, then put in a bread pan or deep bowl to rise over night. In the morning knead and put in pans. Let rise to the top of the pan. Put in hot oven, bake 45 minutes.

Grandmother’s Old Fashioned Yeast.

Wash pare and boil 6 large potatoes until soft. If the water boils away very much, add enough more to make about 3 pints. After removing the potatoes from the kettle, add to the water in which they were boiled a very small pinch of hops. The water should be but slightly colored. Let the water boil hard for 10 minutes, now take a large pitcher or earthen crock which will hold 2 to 3 quarts. Put the potatoes in the pitcher and mash them smooth. Then add ¹⁄₂ cup of flour, the same of sugar and a tablespoon of salt, being sure to rub out all the lumps. Place a fine strainer in the top of pitcher and as the hop water boils, add 1 or 2 cups of water and stir again until all is smooth. Then add the rest of the water. There should be about 2 quarts of yeast. When just warm add ¹⁄₂ cake of magic yeast. 1 cup will raise a sponge for 5 or 6 loaves. This yeast should be as thick as thin cream and about the color. This yeast will rise very quickly[Pg 14] and when it begins to foam, stir 2 or 3 times. Do not bottle yeast but keep in the pitcher and place a saucer over the top. Keep in a cool place in winter and in the refrigerator in summer. It will keep sweet for two or three weeks.

Whole Wheat Bread.

Take 1 Fleischmann yeast cake, dissolved in 1¹⁄₂ cups of lukewarm water. 1¹⁄₂ cups of milk, scald and cool. Then add 2 tablespoons of lard or butter melted. 3 tablespoons of sugar, 1¹⁄₂ teaspoons of salt, 7¹⁄₂ cups of whole wheat flour, stir until a stiff dough. Then place in a deep bowl to rise over night and in the morning mould out in tins let rise again. Then put in the oven to bake 1 hour, bake slower than white bread.

Steamed Brown Bread.

1 cup of Indian meal, 1 cup of molasses, 1 cup of rye flour, 2 cups Graham flour, 1¹⁄₂ pints of sour milk, 1 teaspoon of soda, 1 teaspoon of salt, 1 egg. Mix the dry ingredients together, dissolve the soda in two tablespoons of boiling water, add it to the milk, molasses stir well and pour in the other ingredients, beat the egg and add it. Mix thoroughly and pour into well buttered tin pan that holds 2 quarts. Steam 4 hours and then put in the oven for ¹⁄₂ hour.

Boston Brown Bread Baked.

1 cup corn meal, 2 cups of boiling water, 1 cup of Orleans molasses, 2 cups of sour milk or buttermilk. 1 teaspoon of salt, 2 quarts of Graham flour not sifted. Grease well five tall and narrow qt. buckets or cans, fill half full and cover tightly. Bake two and one half hours in moderate oven.

Baking Powder Graham Bread.

1 qt of Graham flour, ¹⁄₂ a cup of sugar, ¹⁄₂ teaspoon of salt, 1 tablespoon of melted lard, 2 heaping teaspoons of baking powder, 2 cups and ¹⁄₂ of milk or part water can be used. The wetting depends on the flour. It should be mixed quite soft. Bake in moderate oven in covered pan 1 hour.

Raisin Bread.

Dissolve yeast and 1 tablespoon of sugar in luke warm water. Take 2 cups of milk, scald and cool, then add ³⁄₄ cup of sugar, 2 tablespoons lard or butter, ³⁄₄ cup raisin, 1 teaspoon of salt, 6 cups of sifted flour, then add the yeast cake. Mix a stiff dough and put to rise in a greased bowl to rise overnight. In the morning knead out in loaves and put in greased pan to get light, then bake in a hot oven.

Nut Bread.

Dissolve yeast in a little warm water, take 2 cups of milk scalded and cooled, then add 1 large tablespoon of lard or butter ¹⁄₂ cup of sugar, 1 cup of chopped walnut, 1 teaspoon of salt, add 6 cups of flour or more, to make a stiff dough and set to rise over night, in the morning when light, knead and put in pans to rise again and when light bake in a hot oven.

Oatmeal Bread.

Pour two cups of boiling water over oatmeal, cover and let stand until cool. Dissolve yeast in a little warm water and add this to the oatmeal and water with ¹⁄₄ cup of sugar, 1 tablespoon lard or butter, 1 teaspoon of salt, add 4 or 5 cups of flour enough to make a stiff dough. Then set to rise overnight and in the morning knead the bread and put in greased pan to rise until light. Then bake in hot oven 45 minutes.

Wheat Muffins.

2 eggs well beaten, add 1 large tablespoon of lard or butter, 1 large tablespoon of sugar, 1 level teaspoon of salt, beat this all together, then add 1 cup and ³⁄₄ of milk and flour enough to make a stiff batter to drop from the spoon, lastly 2 teaspoon of baking powder, place in hot greased muffin tins and bake a light brown.

[Pg 15]

Whole Wheat Muffins.

May be made in the same way as the above receipt using whole wheat instead of white flour or corn meal, graham all made the same.

Rice Bread.

Allow half a pint of ground rice to a qt. of milk, or milk and water, put the milk and water over the fire to boil, reserve enough to wet the rice. Stir out the lumps add a large teaspoon of salt and when the milk and water boil, stir in the rice, exactly as when you make gruel. Boil it up two or three minutes, stirring it repeatedly, then pour it out into your bread pan and immediately stir in as much flour as you can with a spoon. After it is cool enough and of this be very sure, as scalding the yeast will make heavy, sour bread, full of holes, add a gill of yeast and let it stand until morning. Then knead in more flour until the dough ceases to stick to the hands. It is necessary to make this kind of bread a little stiffer than that in which no rice is used, else there will be a heavy streak through the loaf. It is an elegant bread, keeps moist several days and is particularly good toasted.

English Muffins.

3 eggs beaten light, 2 cups of milk, 1 large tablespoon of melted butter, 1 teaspoon of salt, ¹⁄₂ compressed yeast cake dissolved in lukewarm water. Stir all together in a stiff dough, mix well and put in buttered pans, cover and set to rise. When light put in muffin pans to bake in a moderate oven.

Raised Biscuits.

¹⁄₂ cup of milk scalded and cooled then add ¹⁄₂ cup of luke warm water with 1 compressed yeast cake dissolved in lukewarm water, 1 tablespoon of lard or butter melted, ¹⁄₂ teaspoon of salt, beat thoroughly together and make in a stiff dough, add more flour if necessary and put in a warm place to rise about 2 hours. Then mould out in biscuits, place in pan to get light, then bake in hot oven 10 minutes to a light brown.

Lunch Rolls.

1¹⁄₄ cups of milk scalded and cooled, 1 tablespoon of sugar, 1 egg beaten light, 2 tablespoons of lard or butter, 1 compressed yeast cake, ¹⁄₂ teaspoon salt. Beat all together with 4 cups of flour or more to make a stiff dough, cover and set in warm place to rise when light knead the dough, roll out and cut with biscuit cutter and fold them over with melted butter spread light over before you fold. Then set them to rise again and bake 10 minutes in a hot oven.

Baking Powder Biscuits.

Take 1 pint of flour, sifted, add ¹⁄₂ teaspoon of salt, 2 heaping teaspoons of baking powder, 1 large tablespoon lard and butter, mix this all together before adding your milk, then gradually add enough milk to make a stiff dough. Then roll out and cut in biscuits with a cutter, prick with a fork and place in a hot oven to bake 10 minutes.

Buttermilk Biscuits.

Sift a quart of flour, add 1 tablespoon of lard, ¹⁄₂ teaspoon of salt, 1 teaspoon of soda, stir this in 1 cup of buttermilk. Stir the dry ingredients all together, then add the cup of buttermilk and mix to a soft dough, roll thin, cut into small biscuits and bake in a hot oven to a light brown.

Maryland Beaten Biscuits—Southern.

1 qt. of sifted flour, ¹⁄₂ teacup of lard, 1 teacup of sweet milk, 1 teaspoon of salt, mix all dry ingredients together thoroughly before adding milk, add the milk gradually and knead the dough until firm and glossy. Then beat with a flat iron for 20 minutes or until the dough will spring large elastic, then cut out in small biscuits, prick the top with a fork and bake for 30 minutes. This is the southern beaten biscuit.

[Pg 16]

Parker House Rolls.

Mix about 7 or 8 o’clock in the morning 1 cup of milk scalded and 1 large tablespoon of butter. Let it cool and add 2 scant tablespoons of sugar, ¹⁄₂ teaspoon of salt, 1 yeast cake dissolved in a little warm water, stir all together with flour enough to make stiff dough. When it is light, knead out and cut out with biscuit cutter, brush over with melted butter, fold over and put them in a baking pan, let them rise more, then put them in a hot oven to bake about ¹⁄₂ hr.

Caution for Baking Griddle Cakes.

In using all griddles, the heat should be greatest when the batter is first poured on, this browns them quickly, then reduce the heat and cook more slowly as undone griddle cake is a failure.

Wheat Griddle Cakes.

Sift into a large mixing bowl 1 quart of flour, 3 teaspoons of baking powder and a scant teaspoon of salt. Beat until very light, 2 eggs, add 1 teaspoon of molasses and a pint of milk, mix well and very gradually blend the liquid into the flour. Beat the batter until it is full of air bubbles, add 1 tablespoon of melted butter, beat again and pour into a pitcher. Bake immediately on a heated griddle. The cakes must be served as fast as they are baked as even the lightest cakes will spoil if allowed to stand and steam in the oven. If the batter seems too thick add a little more milk as the thickening quality of the flour and the size of the egg may vary.

Graham Griddle Cakes.

For these are required a pint of graham flour and ¹⁄₂ pint each of yellow cornmeal and flour with these mix ¹⁄₂ teaspoon of salt, 1 teaspoon of brown sugar, 2 heaping teaspoons of baking powder and after they are thoroughly stirred together, mix to a batter with ¹⁄₂ pint each of milk and water and 1 egg well beaten. The griddle must be very hot to bake these cakes brown. Serve with cream and grated maple sugar.

Corn Meal Pancakes.

1 cup of cornmeal, 1 cup wheat flour, 2 teaspoons baking powder, 1 scant teaspoon salt, ¹⁄₂ tablespoon sugar, 1 tablespoon melted butter, 1 egg, 1 cup of milk. Mix to a batter and bake on a hot griddle.

Yellow Johnny Cake.

1 cup of yellow corn meal, 1 cup of sifted flour, 1 tablespoon sugar, 1 scant teaspoon of salt, 2 eggs, well beaten, 1 tablespoon of melted butter, 2 teaspoons of baking powder. Mix in the order given beating the eggs in the milk and mix this with the other ingredients well blended add baking powder last. Bake in a shallow pan for 20 to 30 minutes.

Old Fashioned Buckwheat Cakes.

Put into a stone jar with a rather narrow neck 1 teaspoon of salt, 3³⁄₄ cups of buckwheat flour and 1 teaspoon of molasses. Then slowly mix in 1 quart of water from which the chill has been taken and ¹⁄₂ cake of compressed yeast that has been dissolved in 2 tablespoons of tepid water. Beat the batter until smooth and very light, cover the top of the jar with saucer and stand in a warm place over night about 65 Degrees. In the morning dissolve ¹⁄₂ teaspoon of baking soda in 2 tablespoons of hot water, stir this into the buckwheat batter, beat thoroughly and bake immediately on a hot griddle. A cup of this batter may be saved and added to the cakes of tomorrow instead of using fresh yeast and may be continued for a number of mornings.


Fried Apples.

Quarter and core apples without paring, butter half size of an egg in frying pan, when melted put in apples and cover with light brown sugar, stir to prevent burning, cook until soft, serve hot.

[Pg 17]

Escalloped Tomatoes.

Slice 5 or 6 large tomatoes, add 1 teacup of cracker or stale bread, 1 teaspoonful of butter, salt and pepper. Put a layer of tomatoes then the crackers or bread and then a layer of tomatoes, place seasoning over top and bake ¹⁄₂ hour in hot oven.

Stuffed Baked Ripe Tomatoes.

First cut large slice off top and then remove all inside with a teaspoon, put this in chopping bowl and chop with 1 small onion, 1 large cup of bread crumbs, salt, pepper and big piece of melted butter (do not peel tomatoes), mix all the above and fill the tomatoes. Bake until done.

Macaroni with Cheese.

¹⁄₄ lb or twelve sticks of macaroni, broken in 1 inch lengths and cooked in 3 pints boiling water (salted). Cook 20 minutes, turn into a colander and pour over it cold water, drain. Make a sauce of 1 tablespoon each of butter and flour and 1 and ¹⁄₂ cups of hot milk, put a layer of grated cheese in bottom of baking dish, then a layer of macaroni and one of sauce then cheese and macaroni and sauce and cover the top with bread crumbs with bits of butter dotted over and a little cheese. Bake until brown.

Cabbage Slaw.

To a piece of butter size of small egg slightly browned, add medium size head of cabbage chopped with salt and pepper to taste, cover over with hot water and cook till tender then add ¹⁄₂ cup of vinegar 1 tablespoonful sugar, let this cook up for about 10 minutes and serve hot.

Macaroni and Tomato.

¹⁄₄ lb or 12 sticks of macaroni broken in 1 inch length and cooked in 3 pints of boiling water, salted, cook 20 minutes, drain off the water put in a baking dish, 1 layer of macaroni season with butter the size of a walnut, pepper, salt then a layer of tomatoes sliced or canned tomatoes, sprinkle over the top bits of butter and 1 chopped pepper after removing seeds. Then cover over with layer macaroni and lastly a layer of tomatoes. This is very good.

Tomato Fritters.

A delicious fritter to serve with cold meat and dinners. 1 can of tomatoes chopped fine and then drained. To this is added 1 beaten egg, ¹⁄₂ teaspoonful of salt and the same amount of baking powder sifted with enough flour to make a light batter. Fry this fritter in butter and serve with cold or hot meats.

Prune Fritters.

Cook 1 lb of prunes with 1 tablespoon of ground cinnamon when cool remove the stones and mash. Cut 2 day old bread into thin slices, spread these slices with mashed prunes and cut in quarters. Each slice of bread upon which is spread the prunes is again covered with another slice of bread. Beat 3 eggs light with ¹⁄₂ cup of milk, add a pinch of salt, dip the quarters in the mixture and fry in hot lard a light brown. Serve hot.

Cream Giblets.

Take a lb of giblets, wash and put them over. Cook covered with cold water and ¹⁄₂ teaspoonful of salt, cook until tender, then thicken with 2 tablespoonsful flour add 1 cup of milk or cream, pepper and salt to taste. Serve on toast or in patties crust. Wine may be added.

Sweet Potato Croquettes.

Boil 4 potatoes till tender, remove skin, mash, add ¹⁄₂ teaspoon salt, ¹⁄₂ teaspoon pepper, shape into croquettes. Dip into 1 egg beaten and 1 tablespoon cold water, roll in crumbs. Fry in hot fat till light brown.

Scalloped Corn.

1 can sweet corn, 2 eggs beaten light, added to 1 pt. milk, 1 level teaspoonful of salt, ¹⁄₄ teaspoonful of black pepper. 1 piece of butter size of a small egg, 1 level tablespoon of cornstarch stirred in and then sprinkle with bread crumbs over the top.

[Pg 18]

Peas in Ambush.

Take a 2 inch square of bread cutting out the center form a box. Brush with butter and put in oven until golden brown, now fill these boxes with creamed peas, and serve very hot.

Fried Bananas.

Take the bananas. Peel, cut them in two length wise, put them in a baking dish or pie plate, take the juice of lemon, 3 tablespoons of water, 1 tablespoonful sugar, mix together, pour over the bananas and bake until a light brown. These are good served with meats.

Chicken Chop Suey.

Take a pint bowl of chopped chicken and 2 cups of cold boiled rice, then fry 3 or 4 slices of bacon to a light brown, remove the bacon, chop it fine and put all together in the pan with ¹⁄₂ teacup of boiling water, heat it all together for 15 minutes and serve with peas over the top. This is a good dish for luncheon. Chicken gravy added to this improves it.

Stuffed Egg Plant.

This is an excellent dish. Cut a fine egg plant in half, lengthwise. Do not peel it but scoop out the interior to within about ³⁄₄ of the edge. Use a large silver spoon for the purpose and hold the vegetable under water as much as possible while doing this prevents discoloration. As the interior is removed, put it also under water and when the whole is finished cover with new cold water, adding to every qt. of water a tablespoonful of salt. Let the egg plant, both shell and scooped out portion, rest in this salted water 2 or 3 hours or until the water turns dark. After soaking put the vegetable into fresh cold water and let it come to the boiling stage. Boil until tender, salting the water slightly. It will take about ¹⁄₂ hour. It is well to cook the scooped out pulp longer then the shells, so as to have it very soft. The shells should be tender but not so tender that they will lose their shape. Set the shell aside on an earthen plate. It is well not to let them come into contact with tin. Now mash the pieces of scooped out egg plant to a pulp with a wooden potato masher and to every cupful add 2 or 3 cupfuls of soft bread crumbs. Mix the two together and if they seem too stiff add a little milk. Season with a tiny minced onion, a scant teaspoonful of salt and white pepper. Mix the seasoning thoroughly with stuffing and fill the prepared shell with it, spread soft butter all over the tops and set the shells with their contents in a buttered dish. Bake in a brisk oven for about ¹⁄₂ hr. until done.

Stuffed Beefsteak.

Take a thick and tender slice of rump of about 2 lbs, make a dressing of cup of bread crumbs, 1 egg, 1 tablespoon melted butter, 1 tablespoon poultry seasoning, mix all together with hot milk with pepper and salt to taste. Roll the dressing up in the steak, wind a piece of twine around it, taking care to secure the ends. Have ready a fry pan or deep stew pan with slice or two of bacon fried crisp. Take out the bacon and lay in the steak, turn it on all sides until it is done. Then put in 2 cups of water or meat stock with 1 teaspoonful salt and pepper, cover close and let it cook slowly for 1¹⁄₂ hrs. A small onion may be added to the gravy, when done thicken the gravy and pour around the steak, remove the string carefully before serving.

Scalloped Salmon.

Take 1 can of salmon after it has been shredded, place in a baking dish in layers. First a layer of bread crumbs or rolled cracker crumb, then one of salmon. Butter, salt, pepper, repeat this process until the dish is nearly filled. Moisten well with milk, then take a tablespoonful each of butter and flour, beaten well together and stir into 1 cup of boiling milk when cooked sufficiently stir in a well beaten egg. Pour this over the dish and bake ¹⁄₂ hour or until nicely browned. Serve hot.

[Pg 19]

Little Pigs in Blankets.

Wrap a half slice of bacon around an oyster and fasten with a wooden tooth pick, when ready to cook put them in a shallow pan, brown on one side, then on the other and serve. Do not remove the toothpicks.

A Fancy Oyster Dish.

The fleshey part of two dozen oysters, cut in small pieces, 1 cup of chopped fresh celery, 1 cup of milk, 2 tablespoonsful butter, 2 tablespoons flour, 1 saltspoon or more of salt, a dash of tabasco sauce. Make a white sauce of butter together adding the milk gradually, then add the oysters, salt and tabasco sauce, cook 5 minutes and just before serving add celery. Serve on thin slices of buttered toasted bread.

Lobster Chips.

Cut ¹⁄₂ lb. of the flesh of a boiled lobster into small dice, put two ounces of butter into a stew pan and when it bubbles sprinkle in 2 tablespoons of flour, cook it, then pour in a cup of boiling milk and dice. Stir until scalding hot then take from the fire and when slightly cooled stir beaten yolks of 3 eggs, grating of a nutmeg, a little cayenne pepper and salt to taste. Return the mixture to the fire and stir it long enough to well set the eggs. Butter a flat dish in which spread the lobster an inch thick, when cold form into the shape of chips, at each end roll in bread crumbs again, fry in hot lard, stick a clove in each chip after it’s cold.

Cheese Fonda.

Soak 1 cup of fine dry bread crumbs into cup of rich fresh milk or it will curdle. Beat into this 3 eggs whipped very light, 1 tablespoon of melted butter, pepper and salt, lastly ¹⁄₂ lb of cheese. Put in a buttered dish, strew some bread crumbs over the top and bake in a quick oven. Serve immediately in the baking dish for it will soon fall.

Boiled Mush (Corn Meal).

The water must be fresh and boiling then sprinkle in gradually with one hand and stir with the other hand using wooden paddle for stirring add scant teaspoonful of salt, cover and let cook for a half day. The average rule would be four quarts of water to 1 quart of meal.

Fried Mush.

Make as above and pour into pans with straight side as bread pans. When cold cut into half inch slices, roll in wheat flour and fry in hot fat a quarter inch deep. Fry to a nice brown.

Stuffed Green Peppers.

Prepare the ordinary bread stuffing as if for a roast turkey (only in place of the sage put the middle of the peppers.) Add a little raw tomato put the whole in the skin of the pepper. You may add chopped chicken if you have it.

Creamed Sweetbreads.

First soak them in cold salted water for one hour, then put them into a kettle of hot water and boil for 20 minutes, then take them out and plunge them in cold water, when cool enough to handle, remove all skin and fine membranes, cut up with scissors, heat again and season with salt and pepper and pour over them a sauce made of cream thickened a little, 1 tablespoon of melted butter. Serve on toast or put in pattie crust.

Banana Fritters.

Make a batter of 1 cup of flour, 1¹⁄₂ teaspoons of baking powder, a little salt, 1 beaten egg and 1 cup of milk beat very light and add 3 or 4 chopped bananas. Fry in deep fat to a light brown.

Corn Fritters.

Make the batter the same as above, add 1 cup of canned corn or fresh corn. Fry in deep fat to a light brown.

[Pg 20]

Apple Fritters.

Make batter the same as for the other fritters adding 1 large cup of chopped apples. Fry in deep fat a light brown.


Beat 2 eggs slightly with one quarter teaspoon of salt. Add 1 cup of milk and 1 cup of flour and beat until smooth. Heat your iron before dipping it into the batter. Dip quickly into the batter then into hot lard and cook for 20 seconds. Slip timbale from hot iron with a clean cloth.

Frizzled Beef.

Use a quarter of a lb of dried beef shredded very fine. Into a pan put 1 tablespoon of butter, let it melt, then add 1¹⁄₂ tablespoons of flour. Rub it to a smooth paste, pour in 1 cup of milk or cream, add a dash of paprika, then the beef, allow it to boil up then serve on rounds of toast.

Veal Cutlets.

Cut slices of veal in pieces for serving, sprinkle with salt and pepper. Dip in flour, egg and lastly bread or cracker crumbs and fry slowly in hot fat until a light brown. Remove from the pan, add 1 tablespoon of flour and water enough to make the quantity of gravy desired. Arrange cutlets on a hot platter and pour gravy around the cutlets. A tomato sauce may be used if preferred.

Corn Fritters.

Make a batter of 1 cup of flour, ¹⁄₂ teaspoon of baking powder, a little salt, 1 beaten egg and 1 cup milk, add 1 cup of corn and fry in hot lard.

Corn Beef Hash.

Take equal parts of corn beef or any kind of meat and cold potatoes. Mix well and put in a spider with a tablespoon of melted butter and enough water to make it moist. Season to taste and cook very slowly. This makes a good dish for breakfast as well as luncheon.

Meat Pie.

Take 2 cups of flour, a pinch of salt, 2 teaspoonsful of baking powder, 2 tablespoons of shortening, 1 egg, well beaten, 1 cup of milk, stir until a smooth batter and lay over chicken or any kind of meat, well seasoned with pepper, salt and butter and a cup or more of hot water to make the meat moist.

Meat Balls.

1 pint cold roast beef or any other meat, ¹⁄₂ pint of stale bread crumbs, ¹⁄₂ teaspoon of grated rind of lemon, 1 teaspoon of salt, 2 eggs slightly beaten, ¹⁄₂ cup of flour, drop meat balls into this batter and then into smoking fat.


Beat the white and yolks of three to five eggs separately. Then add a tablespoon of milk for each yolk, add pinch of salt and pepper. Have the frying pan quite hot and let a small piece of butter melt in it then throw the yolks, milk, pepper and salt which have been mixed into the whites and put all into the frying pan, when set turn over into a fold. This is delicious and should be eaten hot as it may fall.

Scrambled Eggs.

Take three to five eggs and put them in a frying pan with a piece of butter when the butter has melted put in your eggs with a little pepper and salt, when they begin to set take a cooking fork, a tin one is better and stir them, do not let them get too dry. Serve them quite soft.


Try the freshness of eggs by putting them into a pan of cold water. Those that sink the soonest are the freshest. Never attempt to boil any egg without watching a clock or egg timer. Let the water boil before the eggs are put in. In three minutes an egg will boil soft, in four the white part is completely cooked, in 10 it is hard enough for a salad.

[Pg 21]

Poached Egg.

Drop nice fresh egg in boiling water with a pinch of salt, when the white has nicely set remove carefully on slice of toast bread and serve hot.

Deviled Eggs.

Boil eggs hard, shell and cut in halve slipping the yolk into a dish, cut with a spoon until fine.

Dressing for Deviled Eggs.

1 tablespoon of melted butter, 1 of vinegar, 1 teaspoon of sugar and 1 scant teaspoon of mustard, add salt and pepper and pour over the yolk. Mix all together and replace in the whites of the eggs. Cut a slice from the end so they will stand and place on a dish. Garnish with lettuce.

Egg Timbales.

6 eggs, ¹⁄₂ cup of milk, 1 teaspoon salt, 2 dashes of pepper, 1 teaspoon of chopped parsley, ¹⁄₄ teaspoon of onion juice. Beat eggs add seasoning and stir all in the milk, butter mould and fill and let stand in pan of hot water in oven till set.

Curried Eggs.

Boil eggs hard, remove from the shell and serve hot with cream sauce as follows:—1 tablespoon of butter, 1 tablespoon of flour, pinch of salt. Heat 1 cup of milk or cream, stir in butter and flour and salt till it is smooth and thick, add a curried sauce to taste and pour over the eggs.

Egg Nests.

1 cup of chopped meat, ¹⁄₂ cup of bread crumbs or rice, ¹⁄₄ teaspoon of salt, butter, little pepper and moisten with water. Put in muffin pans leaving hole in center into which break an egg. Bake and serve hot.


The best sandwiches are made from bread one day old. Always cream the butter before buttering the bread. Spread the loaf with butter before cutting the slice from the loaf. Cut each slice as thin as possible. After cutting, spread the slice with the sandwich mixture, and cover with another slice. Press the slices to-gether, cut off all crust and cut in any shape desired.

Lettuce Sandwich.

Butter thin slices of bread, arrange on bread crisp lettuce leaves spread with mayonnaise dressing.

Nut Sandwich.

Mix one cup each of chopped peanuts and walnuts with two tablespoons of mayonnaise dressing. Spread between buttered slices of brown bread.

Chicken Sandwich.

Put through the meat chopper one cup of cold chicken add to it one cup of celery cut very fine and four tablespoons of mayonnaise dressing. Butter thin slices of white bread and spread.

Club Sandwich.

Toast a slice of bread evenly and lightly and butter it. On one half put first a thin slice of bacon which has been broiled till dry and tender, next a slice of the white meat of either turkey or chicken over one half of this place a slice of a ripe tomato and over the other half a tender leaf of lettuce. Cover these with a generous layer of mayonnaise dressing and complete this with the remaining piece of toast.

Egg Sandwich.

Chop the whites of hard boiled eggs, mix the yolks smooth with mayonnaise dressing, add the whites and spread on thin slices of buttered bread.

[Pg 22]

Ham Sandwich.

Butter thin slices of white bread and put thin slices of ham spread lightly with prepared mustard lay between two slices of bread.

Cream Cheese Sandwich.

After cutting the crust from the bread, cut in very thin slices and butter lightly. Put two slices together with the filling, cream cheese or cottage cheese, in which has been chopped olives. Brown bread is excellent.


French Dressing.

4 tablespoons of salad oil, 2 tablespoons lemon juice, or vinegar, ¹⁄₂ teaspoon of salt, ¹⁄₂ teaspoon of pepper. Place a small piece of ice in a bowl, add the oil and lemon juice or vinegar, beat with a fork until the dressing is thick. Remove ice and place the dressing in a cold place until ready to serve.

Boiled Salad Dressing.

1¹⁄₂ teaspoons of mustard, 1¹⁄₂ teaspoons of salt, 2 teaspoons of paprika, 1¹⁄₂ teaspoons of melted butter, 2 egg yolks, ¹⁄₄ cup of vinegar. Mix ingredients in order given in the top of a double boiler, cook over hot water until thick like soft custard, pour immediately into cold bowl and ¹⁄₂ cup of cream which has been beaten stiff.

Mayonnaise Dressing.

1 teaspoon each mustard, salt and sugar, few grains cayenne pepper. Yolks 2 eggs, 2 tablespoons each vinegar, lemon juice, 1¹⁄₂ cups of salad oil. Mix dry ingredients and eggs yolks and when well mixed add oil gradually drop by drop at first, stir constantly as the mixture thickens, thin with vinegar or lemon juice, alternately until all is used beating constantly. All the ingredients should be kept cold while making this dressing.

Thousand Island Dressing.

1 cup of mayonnaise dressing, 1 cup of whipped cream, 1¹⁄₂ cups of Chile Sauce or catsup, 2 tablespoons minced pimentos, 2 tablespoons minced green pepper, 1 tablespoon chopped cucumbers, 1 tablespoon chopped nuts. 1 tablespoon Worchester Sauce. Mix in the order given and use at once.


Every salad, no matter how plain and simple it may be should be made to look inviting and tempting. The method of draining or drying is a very easy performance so long as the salad leaves whatever they may be are almost free from moisture. This is effected best by putting the leaves which should be broken, not cut with knife into a wire basket and drying them well until the outer moisture of the leaves is well absorbed. The salad then is ready for mixing.

Any cold boiled vegetables left over from dinner is useful as giving variety to salad and helps to make a good accompaniment to cold meats served to luncheons.

Waldorf Salad.

2 cups of celery chopped fine, grated rind of 1 orange, 1 cup of apples cut in dice, 1 cup of chopped English walnuts, mix all together and place on nest made of lettuce leaves and dressing on top.

Pear Salad.

Use canned pears, place ¹⁄₂ pear in nest of lettuce with mayonnaise dressing over the top and ¹⁄₂ cup of chopped English Walnuts sprinkled over the top of each salad.

[Pg 23]

Shad Roe Salad.

Soak the roe in cold water 5 minutes then lay it carefully into a pan with 1 qt of boiling water, 2 teaspoons of salt, 1 teaspoon minced onion, ¹⁄₂ of bay leaf, 1 teaspoon of mixed whole spice and 2 tablespoon of lemon juice. Pour off the water, add cold water carefully so as not to break the roe. Add a piece of ice and when the roe is chilled and firm, dry it in a napkin. Divide it into long strips and then cut in slices. Serve on lettuce leaves pour French dressing over the whole.

Fruit Salad.

Blanch the meats of 2 dozen English Walnuts and break in pieces, skin and seed 2 dozen white grapes, cut 1 pineapple in slices and slice cubes slice 3 bananas separate the sections of 2 large oranges and remove all skin. Arrange each in piles, pour over a dressing made of ¹⁄₂ cup of Madeira wine, 1 cup of sugar, 2 tablespoons of lemon juice and ¹⁄₂ cup of orange juice. Garnish with Maraschino cherries.

Sweetbread Salad.

Soak 1 pair of sweetbreads in cold water for 20 minutes, then cook in boiling salted water 12 minutes. Cool and cut in slices, mix with 1 cup of celery cut in small pieces, cover with french dressing and chill for at least ¹⁄₂ hr. Serve in nests made of the crisp inner leaves of a head of lettuce and garnish with 1 cup of mayonnaise dressing.

Potato Salad.

Cut 6 cold boiled potatoes into even dice, mix with these chopped whites of 3 hard boiled eggs. Mix the yolk with a scant teaspoon of dry mustard and stir into it a large cup of thick sour cream, add a little paprika, pour the dressing over the potatoes and mix gently.

Salmon Salad.

Place on a bed of lettuce leaves in a flat salad bowl the contents of a can of salmon freed from oil and bones and flaked. Pour over the fish a little boiled salad dressing or mayonnaise and garnish with slices of hard boiled eggs and lemon.

Asparagus Salad.

Take a can of asparagus or fresh cooked asparagus, drain asparagus and chill and place on nest of crisp lettuce leaves with mayonnaise dressing.



Paste for pies should be quite thin and rolled a little larger than the tin to allow for shrinkage. Allow more paste for the upper than the under crust and be sure to perforate the former. Always brush the under crust with cold water and press the upper one down on it. When baking juicy fruit pies make an incision in the crust and place a small funnel shaped piece of paper into the incision. This will keep the juice from escaping at the sides of the pie. Never grease pie tins. Properly made pastry will grease its own tins. For baking pastry requires from 30 to 45 minutes.

Crust for Pies.

Use ³⁄₄ of a cup of shortening to each cup of flour. You may use all lard or part butter if preferred. Take the shortening with level teaspoon of salt and mix in the flour then stir in as little water as possible and form with a spoon into a very stiff paste. Put it on a mixing board and roll out lightly for your pies. Always make a few slits in the upper crust to allow the steam to escape. Never put the filling in until you are ready to bake it.

[Pg 24]

Apple Pie.

Take ripe tart apples, pare, core and cut them into very thin slices, fill the under crust, then strew over the apples as much sugar as you think they require, a little nutmeg or cinnamon to taste and bits of butter. Cover with the upper paste, make a few small incisions in the middle of the upper crust and bake in a mild oven.

Lemon Pie No. 1.

4 eggs, 1¹⁄₂ cups of sugar, 2 heaping tablespoons of cornstarch, the grated rinds and juice of a lemon, 2 lemons, 1¹⁄₂ cups of boiling water. Beat the yolks and whites of the eggs separately. To the beaten yolk add the sugar, cornstarch, lemon juice, rind and last the boiling water. Cook in a double boiler and when it begins to thicken add to it ¹⁄₂ of the beaten whites, stir this in thoroughly and let it cook until it is as thick as desired. Use the remaining whites of the eggs for the meringue on top of the pie. After your custard has cooled, fill your pie tins and pile the meringue on top and bake in a very slow oven to a light brown.

Lemon Pie No. 2.

The juice and grated rind of 1 lemon, 1 cup of sugar, the yolks of 2 eggs, 3 tablespoons of sifted flour, milk to fill the plate. This makes a large pie and should be made with an undercrust but not any top crust, bake nearly done then take from the oven and pour over it a frosting made of the beaten whites of 2 eggs and 2 tablespoons of powdered sugar, set back in the oven and brown lightly.

Buttermilk Pie.

2 tablespoons of butter, 1 cup of sugar, yolk of 2 eggs, 2 scant tablespoons of buttermilk, and the whites of 2 eggs, well beaten. Flavor with lemon and bake with one crust. This will make 2 pies and is delicious.

Cream Pie.

Make a rich paste, roll out and cover your plates.

CREAM:—Put a pint of milk to boil, break 2 eggs into a dish and add 1 cup of sugar, ¹⁄₂ cup of flour, after beating well, stir into the milk as it commences to boil, stir until it thickens use any flavor you prefer, fill the pie tins and bake.

Cocanut Pie.

1 pint of milk, add 2 eggs well beaten, 1 scant teaspoon of salt, 2 large tablespoons of cornstarch. The cornstarch should be mixed smooth with milk and eggs beaten up in it, sweeten, season to taste with nutmeg. Pour into the pie pans lined with paste, bake in a moderate oven.

Cherry Pie.

Line the dish and with ripe cherries regulating the quantity of sugar used by their sweetness, sift over this a small tablespoon of flour, a little butter and a sprinkle of cinnamon or nutmeg, then cover and bake.

Rhubarb Pie.

Skin the stalk, cut in small pieces, line the plate and well with raw fruit, strew lavishly with sugar and sprinkle over this a little flour and flavor with cinnamon and pieces of butter strewed over the top. Cover and bake about ³⁄₄ of an hour.

Peach Pie.

Make a nice short crust and cover the pie dishes, have ready pared and quartered ripe peaches or canned peaches, put a layer of them in a dish, sprinkle thickly with sugar, bits of butter and sprinkle with cinnamon and 1 tablespoon of flour, roll out another crust, double it over and cut a row of slits through the center, wet the edge of the lower crust, press lightly on the edges, trim it around, close to the dish with a knife dipped in flour and bake in a quick oven ¹⁄₂ to ³⁄₄ of an hour. All fruit pies should be eaten the day they are baked.

[Pg 25]

Mince Pie.

Boil 4 lbs of lean meat, chop very fine, add twice the quantity of apples, also chopped and ¹⁄₂ lb of raw suet chopped very fine, then add 3 lbs of seeded raisins, 2 lbs of currants, 2 lbs of citron chopped, grated rind and juice of 4 lemons, sweeten to taste with brown sugar and add 3 qts of cider and 1 pint Madeira Wine, 1 tablespoon of cinnamon, cloves, mace. This mixture can be put in glass jars to use when needed, between 2 rich pie crusts for pie.

Pumpkin Pie.

2 teacups of pumpkins, 2 eggs, 3 cups of milk, ¹⁄₂ teaspoon of salt, 1 tablespoon cornstarch, 1 tablespoon cinnamon, ginger, 1 cup of sugar.

Berry Pie.

Make a rich crust and line the pie dishes, put in the fruit with ¹⁄₂ cup of sugar, bits of butter and 1 tablespoon of flour, sprinkle over the top. An egg beaten up and added to it will keep it from running out.

Chocolate Pie.

2 cups of milk, 2 eggs, ²⁄₃ cups of sugar, 2 tablespoons of corn starch, 2 tablespoons of chocolate, butter, size of a hickory nut. Heat milk, chocolate and sugar together, then add cornstarch dissolved in a little cold milk and the beaten yolks of the eggs. Let all cook until thickened. Flavor with vanilla and bake with only the under crust. When baked cover with 2 beaten whites of eggs mixed with a little sugar. Put in oven again and brown slowly.

Sweet Potato Pie.

Take 1 cup of sweet potatoes and rub through a colander, then add ¹⁄₂ cup of butter, beat it to a cream, then add ¹⁄₂ cup of sugar, 1 pint of milk, 2 eggs well beaten, 1 tablespoon of cinnamon, ¹⁄₂ of ginger. Bake with one crust, to be eaten cold.

Apple Dumplings.

Make a light biscuit dough and roll quite thin, cut in pieces about four inches square and roll in each ¹⁄₂ of an apple cut in pieces. Put in a deep tin, 1 cup of sugar, ¹⁄₂ cup of butter, 1 large cup of boiling water, lay the dumplings in and bake one-half hour.

Strawberry Short Cake Crust No. 1.

1 qt of flour, ¹⁄₂ cup of butter, 3 teaspoons of baking powder wet with cold water with 1 level teaspoon of salt.

Strawberry Short Cake No. 2.

1 cup of sugar, 1 cup of milk, 1 egg, 1 tablespoon of melted butter, 2¹⁄₂ cups of flour, 2 teaspoons of baking powder, 1 level teaspoon of salt, mix a cake, bake in layers and put berries between and over the top and serve with whipped cream.

The berries that you put between the layers are better mashed and seasoned with sugar to taste.

German Peach Pie.

Beat 1 egg, add 1 cup of milk, a little salt, 2¹⁄₂ cups of flour, 2 tablespoons melted butter and 1 heaping teaspoon of baking powder. Spread in a shallow tin and cover with slice peaches and sugar. Serve with maple syrup or any good sauce. Apples are good in place of peaches.

Prune Short Cake.

Sift together twice, 2 cups of flour, 4 teaspoons of baking powder, 1¹⁄₂ teaspoons of salt, 2 large tablespoons of sugar. Blend with this mixture ¹⁄₂ cup of butter and ³⁄₄ cup of milk mixed with beaten yolks of 2 eggs. Bake in layers. Use best prunes, soak several hours, then let them cook very slowly without boiling until tender but not broken, adding the sugar when half done. To 1 pint of prunes allow 1 tablespoon sugar and 1 teaspoon lemon juice, when the prunes are done, remove them carefully and cook the juice until like syrup. On the lower layer of shortcake place prunes with syrup poured over, on the top use prunes well drained. Then heap lightly with whipped cream slightly sweetened.

[Pg 26]

Green Tomato Pie.

Have ready 4 qts of chopped green tomatoes, 3 lbs of brown sugar, ¹⁄₂ a nutmeg, 1 tablespoon of allspice, 1 teaspoon of cloves, 2 lemons, 1 lb of currants, 1 lb of raisins. The tomatoes and lemons should be chopped fine, boil them together with the sugar, salt and spices until reduced to half of the original quantity. No water is needed. Then add the currants and raisins and continue to cook for 2 or 3 hours, fill 2 rich crusts with the filling having any left may be put in glass jar to use when needed.

Chocolate Pie.

1 cup of sweet milk, 1 cup sugar, 2 tablespoons grated chocolate and stir until smooth, yolks from eggs, 1 teaspoon of cornstarch wet with a little milk and stirred into milk while boiling. Cook until it dimples, put into crusts and bake. Frost with whites of 4 eggs and 4 tablespoons sugar, flavor with vanilla.

Harlequin Pie.

1 cup of cranberries, 1 cup of raisins, 1 cup of apples, run all through meat chopper. Mix thoroughly, add 1 cup of sugar, little salt and 2 or 3 tablespoons of water. Bake in rich crust.


Hints for making cakes. The flour should always be very dry and well sifted. White sugar is purer and sweeter for cakes and pastries than the brown sugar. If the butter is very hard soften but do not melt it when soda is used dissolve it before adding to the ground mixture. Fruit should be thoroughly dry if added to the other ingredients damp, cakes will be liable to be heavy. Dust your fruit with a little of the flour to be used for the cake and stir into the other ingredients just before putting in the rest of the flour. The ingredients should be well beaten before mixing in the flour except in a few plain cakes that are beaten all together. All cakes bake nicer if the pan used is lined with buttered paper.

Good Sponge Cake.

Beat the whites of 3 eggs, dry and the yolks until thick into the yolks gradually beat 1 cup of sugar then 1 tablespoon of lemon juice and 2 tablespoons of cold water, fold in part of the whites then add 1 cup of sifted flour and the rest of the whites. Bake in a tube pan from 30 to 40 minutes.

Jam Cake.

1¹⁄₂ cups sugar, ¹⁄₂ cup of butter, 2 eggs, 1 cup of jam, 3 tablespoons sour milk, ¹⁄₂ teaspoon of soda, 1¹⁄₂ cups of flour.


1 cup of sugar, ¹⁄₂ cup water, ¹⁄₂ cup chopped raisins white of 1 egg, boil all but egg until waxy add beaten white.

Hickory Nut Cake.

1 cup sugar, butter size of an egg, whites of 2 eggs, ²⁄₃ cup of sweet milk, 2 cups of flour, 2 teaspoons baking powder.


1 cup of chopped nuts, ²⁄₃ cups of sour cream, pinch of soda, 1 cup of sugar boil until it begins to thicken, let cool before putting in the cake.

Roll Jelly Cake.

3 eggs, 1 cup sugar, 1 cup flour, 1 teaspoon baking powder, 2 tablespoons sweet milk, salt, sift baking powder with flour last add beaten whites and flavor. Bake in dripping pan, turn out on a towel, spread with jelly and roll while warm.

Soft Molasses Cake.

¹⁄₂ cup sugar, ¹⁄₂ cup of molasses, ¹⁄₂ cup lard, ¹⁄₂ cup sour milk, 2 eggs beaten with sugar, 1 teaspoon of ginger, 1 teaspoon of soda, 2¹⁄₂ cups of flour.

[Pg 27]

Ginger Bread.

4 tablespoons shortening, 1 cup of good N. O. molasses, 1 teaspoon ginger, teaspoon soda, 4 tablespoons of boiling water, just a little salt, put 2 tablespoons of hot water on 1 teaspoon alum and 2 on soda, mix the same as for cookies, divide in four parts, roll out the size of your tin and mark the top with a knife.

Devils Food No. 1.

Grate ¹⁄₂ cube of Bakers Chocolate, yolk of 1 egg, 1 cup of sugar, ¹⁄₂ cup of sweet milk, mix together put on the stove and heat, cool before adding other ingredients. 1 cup of sugar, ¹⁄₂ cup of butter, 2 eggs (stir to a cream), ¹⁄₂ cup of sweet milk, 2 cups of flour, 2 teaspoons of baking powder, 2 teaspoons of vanilla. Stir in the chocolate, bake in layers and put together with icing or make a loaf cake.

Devils Food No. 2.

Grate ¹⁄₂ cake of chocolate, yolk of 1 egg, 1 cup of sugar, ¹⁄₂ cup of sweet milk, mix together put on the stove and heat all together. Cool before adding the other ingredients. 1 cup sugar, ¹⁄₂ cup butter, 2 eggs (stir to a cream) ¹⁄₂ cup of sweet milk, 2 cups of flour, 2 teaspoons baking powder, 2 teaspoons of vanilla. Stir in the chocolate bake in a loaf cake or layers and put together with icing.

Spice Cake.

1 cup of sugar, ¹⁄₂ cup of molasses, ¹⁄₂ cup of butter, ¹⁄₂ cup sour milk, ¹⁄₂ cup cold coffee, 2 eggs, 1 teaspoon soda, 1 teaspoon cinnamon, 1 teaspoon cloves, 1 tablespoon grated chocolate, 2 cups of flour, bake in two layers making filling of 1 cup chopped raisins and boiled frosting.

Oatmeal Cookies.

1 cup of butter, 1¹⁄₂ cups of sugar, 2 eggs, 4 tablespoons sweet milk, 2 cups of oatmeal (uncooked), 2 cups of flour, ¹⁄₂ teaspoon baking powder, 1 cup of raisins (seeded) cut and flavored with 1 teaspoon of cinnamon, a little nutmeg. Cream the butter and sugar together add the eggs well beaten then the milk and oatmeal. Sift the baking powder in the flour and add the raisins nutmeg last. The batter should be very thick and is dropped on well greased tins in small circles and baked for 15 or 20 minutes.

Plain Cookies.

¹⁄₂ cup of butter, 1 cup of sugar, 2 eggs, 1 tablespoon of milk or cream, 2¹⁄₂ cups of flour, 1¹⁄₂ teaspoon lemon extract, ¹⁄₂ teaspoon of grated nutmeg. Cream the butter and sugar together, add the eggs, milk and flavoring sifted flour and baking powder in last. Small bits of citron look well on top of these cookies.

Canada War Cakes.

2 cups brown sugar, 1 teaspoon salt, 2 cups of hot water, 1 teaspoon cinnamon, 2 tablespoons lard, 1 teaspoon cloves, 1 box of seedless raisins. Boil these ingredients 5 minutes let mixture get cold add 1 teaspoon soda dissolved in 1 teaspoon of hot water. Stir in 3 cups of flour. This makes 2 loaves. Bake 45 minutes in moderate oven.


1 cup of sugar, ¹⁄₂ cup of butter, ¹⁄₂ cup of flour, 1 cup of chopped walnuts, 2 eggs, 2 squares of chocolate. Cream butter and sugar together. Beat whites of eggs stiff beat yolk thoroughly and add to butter and sugar. Add the flour chocolate melted and the walnuts. Stir until well mixed and turn in buttered cake tins. Bake 20 minutes in a moderate oven.

Chocolate Drop Cakes.

¹⁄₂ cup of sugar, 1 cup of molasses, ¹⁄₂ cup of shortening, ²⁄₃ cups of hot water, 1 level teaspoon of soda, 1 heaping tablespoon of cocoa, flavor with vanilla, 2 cups of sifted flour, 1 teaspoon salt. Beat well sprinkle sugar on top. Can be dropped from spoon in greased pan a few inches apart or in small tins, (very nice).

[Pg 28]

Cream Puffs.

Melt ¹⁄₂ cup of butter in 1 cup hot water and while boiling beat in 1 cup of flour, when cold, stir in 3 eggs without first beating. Drop the mixture in tins in small spoonsful and bake in moderate oven when done they are hollow and should be filled with the following custard.

CUSTARD:—1¹⁄₂ cups of milk, 2 eggs, 4 tablespoons of flour, 2 tablespoons sugar, cook in double boiler, stirring constantly, cool and flavor with whatever you wish then fill the puffs.


Boiled frosting with whites of 2 eggs, 1 cup of sugar, ¹⁄₃ cup of water. Add 1 cup finely chopped nut meats. Take unsalted wafers, cover with the icing, bake in a slow oven till a delicate brown.

Chocolate Layer Cake.

Whites of 3 eggs, 1 yolk, 1 cup of sugar, ¹⁄₂ cup of butter, ¹⁄₂ cup sweet milk, 2 teaspoons of baking powder, 2 cups of flour, bake in layers. Filling 2 squares of chocolate melted, ¹⁄₂ cup of sugar, 1 egg, 1 teaspoon of butter, 2 tablespoons of sweet milk, cook until thick and spread between the layers, 1 teaspoon vanilla flavoring.

Angel Food.

Whites of 11 eggs, 1 and ¹⁄₂ cups of granulated sugar, 1 cup of flour after once sifted, 1 teaspoon cream tartar, 1 teaspoon vanilla, sift the flour and cream of tartar, 6 times, beat the eggs not stiff, then beat in the sugar thoroughly. Add vanilla and flour stirring lightly but thoroughly bake in an ungreased tin in a moderate oven 40 minutes. Be careful about jarring the oven.


3 eggs, 1¹⁄₂ cups of sugar, 1 cup of butter, 1 cup of chopped raisins, 1 cup of currants, 1 teaspoon of cinnamon, 1 teaspoon nutmeg, 1 teaspoon soda, ¹⁄₂ cup of sour milk, flour to make stiff and drop a teaspoon on a buttered tin.


The proof of the pudding is the eating.

Snow Pudding.

This fine, easy to make. Dissolve 2 tablespoons of cornstarch in a little water, add 1 pint of boiling water and cook 5 minutes, remove from fire, add the beaten whites of 2 eggs and beat until smooth add a little salt, sugar and vanilla.

Chocolate Pudding.

1¹⁄₂ pints of milk, 3 tablespoons of melted chocolate or cocoa, boil the milk and chocolate thoroughly, remove from the stove and when nearly cold add yolks of 3 eggs, 3 tablespoons of cornstarch, 1 cup of sugar, set in the oven until set and spread over meringue made of the whites of 3 eggs and 3 tablespoons of sugar.


Mash several bananas to a pulp, add the juice of 1 lemon and gelatine, when quite cold add whites of 3 eggs, beaten to a stiff froth. Lay 2 whole bananas in the bottom of the dish and slices of bananas around sides, then fill up with the mixture and serve with whipped cream.

Almond Custard.

Blanch 3 ounces of almonds and pound to a paste, mix with a little cream add the beaten yolk of 4 eggs, 1 cup of sugar. Have a pint of cream hot add the mixture to this and stir thoroughly. Put into cups or a baking dish, bake slowly in the oven in a pan of hot water. Serve with whipped cream with a few brown almonds in the cream.

[Pg 29]

Rice Pudding.

Take ¹⁄₃ cup of rice, 4 tablespoons of sugar, 1 quart of milk, butter the size of a walnut, a little nutmeg, 2 eggs may be added if desired. Bake 2 hours in a slow oven.

Prune Whip.

Sweeten and stew 1 lb of prunes, when cold add the whites of 4 eggs, beaten stiff. Stir all these together until light, put in a pudding dish and bake 20 minutes, when cold cover with whipped cream and serve.

Dainty Dessert.

6 bananas, ¹⁄₂ can of pineapple or a fresh one, ¹⁄₂ lb. of grapes (seeded) 2 oranges, sweeten to suit the taste. Prepare gelatine as for fruit jelly, then put in a dish or mould a layer of chopped fruit of ¹⁄₂ inch thick while you require 1 inch of the gelatine jelly. When cold slice and serve with whipped cream with little bits of citron through the cream.

Tapioca Pudding No. 1.

Soak 3 tablespoons of tapioca in a little water overnight, in the morning add 3 cups of sweet milk and a pinch of salt. When hot add the beaten yolks of 3 eggs to which ²⁄₃ cup of sugar has been added. When it thickens up, remove from the stove. Beat whites of eggs and put on the top with 1 tablespoon of sugar.

Apple Tapioca No. 2.

Soak 1 cup of tapioca in a quart of tepid water at least 3 hrs. Fill a pudding dish two thirds full of tart apples, add 1 cup of sugar, 1 tablespoon of cinnamon, pour over the tapioca, bake 1 hr. and serve with whipped cream.

Date Puffs.

2 eggs, 1 cup of sugar, ¹⁄₄ cup of butter, ¹⁄₄ cup of milk, 1 teaspoon baking powder, flour to make a thin batter. Stir in 1 cup of stoned dates, fill muffin cups half full, steam 30 minutes. Serve with liquid sauce.

Graham Pudding.

1 cup of molasses, 1 cup of milk, 1 egg, 1 teaspoon of soda, 1 tablespoon of butter, 1 cup of seeded raisins, 2 cups of sifted graham flour, cinnamon, nutmeg, ¹⁄₂ teaspoon of salt. Steam 2 hrs and serve with sauce.

SAUCE:—¹⁄₂ cup of sugar, 1 tablespoon of flour, 2 tablespoons of butter, 1 cup of boiling water over it and flavor to taste with lemon juice.

Queen Pudding.

1 qt of milk, 2 cups of grated bread crumbs, 4 eggs, whites and yolks beaten separately, butter the size of an egg and 1 cup of white sugar, juice and grated rind of 1 lemon. Heat the milk and pour it over the grated bread crumbs, add the butter, cover and let the mixture get soft and add to the mixture with the grated rinds of 2 lemons. Bake in a buttered dish for ¹⁄₂ or ³⁄₄ of an hour, when a light brown, take out and when cold spread a glass of currant jelly over the top and spread the whites of eggs with 1 tablespoon of sugar over the top.

Plum Pudding.

1 cup of suet chopped very fine, 1 cup of light brown sugar, ¹⁄₂ cup molasses, ¹⁄₂ cup sour milk, 3 unbeaten eggs, 2 cups of stale bread crumbs, 1 cup of flour, 1 level teaspoon soda, ¹⁄₄ cup of cold water, 1 cup of raisins, 1 cup of currants, ¹⁄₂ cup of citron, 1 teaspoon each cinnamon nutmeg, mace cloves and allspice. Thoroughly mix these ingredients and pour into a buttered mould and steam 7 hours or put in lb baking powder tins and steam 3 hrs.

Baked Indian Pudding.

1 qt of milk, 1 cup of Indian meal stirred in while the milk is hot. Let it cool and add 1 egg, 2 tablespoons of molasses, butter ¹⁄₂ size of an egg. Cinnamon and salt to taste, bake ³⁄₄ of an hour.

[Pg 30]

Cornstarch Pudding.

Boil 1 qt of milk, then beat the yolks of 3 eggs with 3 tablespoons of cornstarch and a little milk, stir into the boiling milk, let it boil up at once, sweeten and flavor to taste and turn in a pudding dish.

Baked Apple Dumpling.

Make a crust as for baking powder biscuit, peel and core your apples, cut the dough in square pieces and put 1 apple for each dumpling. Put them in a baking dish and place in the oven, then make a syrup with water and sugar, 1 cup of sugar to a pint of water and pour into the pan, baste with syrup while they are cooking, when done eat with sweet cream.

Soft Pudding.

¹⁄₂ cup of milk, ¹⁄₂ cup of chopped meat, ¹⁄₂ cup of molasses, 2 cups of fruit and nuts chopped together, 1 cup of flour, pinch of salt, 1 small teaspoon of soda dissolved in warm water, steam 3 hours. Any sort of fruit and nuts may be used.

English Plum Pudding.

6 ounces of fine bread crumbs, 2 ounces each of lemon, orange and citron peel cut into fine shreds, ¹⁄₂ ounce of mixed spices (cloves, cinnamon, nutmeg) ¹⁄₄ lb of chopped apples, ¹⁄₂ teaspoon of minced lemon rind, ¹⁄₂ lb of chopped and seeded raisins, ³⁄₄ lb of currents, 1 lb of flour, 1 lb of finely shredded suet. Mix the ingredients thoroughly then add 6 eggs and a little milk if needed. This should make a stiff batter. Boil in a pudding basin or mould 5 or 6 hours.

Cottage Pudding.

Cream together 1¹⁄₂ cups of sugar and ¹⁄₄ cup of butter, add 1 beaten egg, ²⁄₃ of a cup milk, 2¹⁄₂ cups of flour, sifted with 2 teaspoons of baking powder. Bake in a buttered tin for 30 to 40 minutes. 1 cup of stoned cherries or berries may be added to this recipe.

Marshmallow Compote.

1 lb of marshmallows cut with scissors into small pieces. 1 pineapple sliced and cut up. Put the two together in layers in a glass dish with sprinkling of sugar the night before and place in cold pantry or ice chest to ripen when ready to serve heap with whipped cream, maraschino cherries added is an improvement.

Orange Dessert.

Pare 3 oranges, cut in thin slices, ¹⁄₂ coffee cup of sugar, boil ¹⁄₂ pint milk add the yolk of 2 eggs, 1 teaspoon of cornstarch, (make smooth with cold milk). Stir all the time when it thickens pour over the fruit with the whites of the eggs beaten stiff with 1 tablespoon powdered sugar over the top. Put it in oven until a light brown and serve cold.

Charlotte Russe.

2 tablespoons of gelatine, ¹⁄₄ cup cold water, ³⁄₄ cup of sugar, 1 qt of cream, 2 tablespoons vanilla. Soak the gelatine in cold water then dissolve entirely by setting the cup in boiling water, whip the cream add sugar, dissolved gelatine and vanilla, line a mould with lady fingers or sponge cake and pour in the mixture. Put in a cool place to set before serving.

Macaroon Pudding.

Cover the bottom of a pudding dish with 12 broken macaroons. Make the following custard and pour over them. Scald 1 pint of milk in double boiler, add 1 tablespoon cornstarch dissolved in a little cold milk, yolks of 2 eggs, 3 tablespoons of sugar and 1 teaspoon of vanilla. Cook until thick. Beat the eggs whites stiff with powdered sugar and vanilla to taste put on top and slightly brown it over.

Raspberry Cream.

Place 1 cup of sweetened raspberry juice where it will boil, then stir into it 2 rounding tablespoons of cornstarch, wet in 2 tablespoons of cold water. Add 1 cup of sugar and stir until it looks transparent, then add 1 level tablespoon of butter and juice of ¹⁄₂ lemon. Fold in the stiffly beaten[Pg 31] whites of 3 eggs. Turn mixture into a fancy mould and set in a place where it is cold, when serving place on a cold dish with whole berries in center, serve with whipped cream or plain sweet cream.

Raspberry Mousse.

To 1 cup sweet milk cream whipped stiff, add 1 cup sugar, 1 cup raspberry, juice of 1 lemon. Put in a pail, then pack in ice and salt allowing it to stand 4 hours. I use the juice from my preserves. This is delicious and easy to make.

Birds Nest Pudding.

For a pint of milk take 3 eggs, 1 tablespoon of sugar, 1 large tablespoon of butter, mix the sugar and butter together then add the eggs and milk. Add enough flour to make a stiff batter with ¹⁄₂ teaspoon of salt then pour this over about ¹⁄₂ dozen apples sliced up in a baking dish. Bake it about an hour and serve with a melted sauce.

Bavarian Cream.

Half a lemon grated rind and juice ¹⁄₂ cup of orange juice, ¹⁄₃ cup of sugar, yolk of 2 eggs. Mix well over fire until it thickens, then add 1 teaspoon of granulated gelatine which has been soaked in water, beat whites of 2 eggs stiff, add to above and set the mixture in cold water beating until thick enough to hold its shape. Turn in mould and chill.

Farina Pudding.

Heat 1 qt of milk to the boiling point, stir in dry five tablespoons of farina and continue to stir it until quite thick, add 1 cup of sugar and ¹⁄₂ teaspoon of salt. Flavor with vanilla serve with sweetened cream, flavored with nutmeg or vanilla.

Peach Tapioca Pudding.

Soak 1 cup of tapioca in cold water for 2 or 3 hrs, then set on the stove until it cools clear, then add sugar to taste with a teaspoon of cinnamon. Peel and slice ripe peaches to nearly fill a baking dish sprinkle over with sugar. Then pour over the tapioca and bake slowly for about an hour. To be eaten with sweetened cream.


Orange Marmalade.

6 oranges, 4 lemons, 1 grape fruit. Wash the fruit, slice very thin, first cutting in quarters to remove the seeds. To each lb of sliced fruit add 3 pints of cold water, let this stand 24 hours, then boil 2 hours or until the peel is perfectly tender. Let stand until the next day. To each pint of boiled fruit, add 1 pint of granulated sugar, boil together for 2 hours or until it jellies. This makes 24 glasses.

Currant Jelly.

Put currants in kettle, do not stem but wash and drain well, then mash with potato masher, let them cook slowly until all soft, then when cold squeeze the juice out and to every pint of juice add a bowl of sugar and boil 20 minutes and pour glass jars.

Grape Jelly.

Grape jelly is made the same as currant jelly.

Quince Jelly.

Take very ripe quinces, peel and core and boil in a little water till very soft, drain off the juice through cheese cloth. To 1 pint of juice add 1 pint of sugar and boil 20 minutes.

Preserve Peaches.

Select peaches that are ripe, pour boiling water over them and let them stand 6 minutes then pour it off and pull off the skins. Weigh equal quantities of fruit with the stones and granulated sugar and put them together in earthen pan over night, next day pour off the syrup and boil it[Pg 32] a few minutes, then set off the kettle to the fire and when it boils lay the peaches into it. Boil them very slowly ³⁄₄ of an hour, then lay them into the jars. Boil the syrup 15 minutes more and pour over them.

Green Tomato Mince Meat.

1 peck green tomatoes chopped and drained, 4 lbs brown sugar, 3 or 4 qts apples chopped fine, 1 lb suet chopped fine, cook for 3 hrs then add, 2 lbs of raisins, 1 lb of currants, 1 tablespoon each of spices, 1 tablespoon of salt, 1 cup of vinegar, cook for ¹⁄₂ hour.

Corn Relish.

18 ears of corn, 4 onions chopped, 3 green peppers, 1 cabbage, 4 cups of sugar, 2 qts of vinegar. Boil ³⁄₄ of hr, 1 tablespoon of mustard.

Cucumber Relish.

4 onions, 1 bunch celery, 2 red peppers, 4 green peppers, 6 large cucumbers. Pare onions and cucumbers, take the seeds from the peppers and put the above through the food chopper. Chop the celery fine, sprinkle the mixture with salt and let stand over night. Drain, make dressing of 1 qt vinegar, 2 cups sugar, ¹⁄₂ cup of flour, 1 tablespoon of mustard, 1 teaspoon of tumeric. Cook 10 minutes and pour over the mixture.

Pickle Peaches.

8 lbs of peaches, 4 lbs of sugar, 1 pint of vinegar. Take the selected peaches after wiping them all off with a towel, stick 2 or 3 cloves in each peach, then cook a few at a time until they are cooked up, then place all in jars and boil the vinegar to thick syrup, add ¹⁄₄ lb of cinnamon sticks and pour over them.

Chili Sauce.

12 large ripe tomatoes, 4 ripe peppers, 2 onions, 1 tablespoon of salt, ¹⁄₂ cup of sugar, 1 tablespoon cinnamon. Peel tomatoes and onions and chop peppers and onions and mix all together in a kettle with 2 cups of vinegar and cook slowly for 2 hrs, if not sweet enough add more sugar to taste.

Green Tomato Pickles.

1 peach basket of tomatoes sliced up over night and covered with 2 cups of salt and water enough to cover them. The next morning drain off the salt water and rinse thoroughly and then stand and drain quite dry. Then take 1 qt of vinegar and cook the tomatoes in the vinegar a few at a time and skim them out of the vinegar and put in a jar after drain them until all have been cooked. Be sure you drain off all the vinegar you can, then set them aside until the next day when you drain them again. Take another qt of vinegar, 3¹⁄₂ lbs of sugar, ¹⁄₄ lb of cloves and whole mustard seeds and cook the syrup quite thick and pour over them and seal tight for use.

Rhubarb Marmalade.

5 lb of rhubarb, 5 lbs of sugar, 1 lb of raisins, 1 lb of figs, mix all together with 2 cups of water, cook slowly on back of the stove until thick then place in glass jars.


Ice Cream No. 1.

1 pint of cream, 1 qt of new milk, 1¹⁄₂ cups of sugar, 1 tablespoon of vanilla. Let stand in the freezer with ice and salt around it for 10 minutes before freezing.

Ice Cream No. 2.

1¹⁄₂ qts of milk, 1 cup of sugar, 4 eggs, 1 tablespoon of cornstarch, 1 scant teaspoon of salt. Steam in dish of water until creamy, flavor with lemon or vanilla and freeze.

[Pg 33]

Hickory Nut Ice Cream.

1 pound of hickory nut meat, 2 cups of sugar, 1 qt of cream, 2 tablespoons of sugar, burnt brown, chop meats very fine, put 2 tablespoons of sugar over fire without water and let it melt and brown. Pour in little water to dissolve it, then add it to the cream with sugar and nut meats and freeze.

Strawberry Ice Cream.

3 pints of thin cream, 2 boxes of strawberries, 2 cups of sugar, 4 grains of salt, wash and hull the berries, sprinkle with sugar, cover and let stand 2 hrs. Wash and squeeze through cheesecloth, then add salt. Freeze cream to the consistence of a mush, add gradually fruit juice and finish freezing.

Peach Ice Cream.

Prepare a pint of boiled custard from 1 pint of milk, a ¹⁄₄ teaspoon of salt, 1 tablespoon of cornstarch blended with a little cold milk, 3 tablespoon of vanilla extract. Cool chill and fold in a ¹⁄₂ pint of cream with a tablespoon of powdered sugar. Turn into a chilled freezer and when the mixture begins to congeal stir with powdered sugar. Continue freezing until firm and smooth.

Lemon Sherbet.

Mix 1 cup sugar with juice of 1¹⁄₂ lemon, when it has stood until nearly melted, add slowly 2 cups of milk. If you do not mix carefully, the lemon juice will curdle the milk. Pour into the freezer and freeze. The sherbert will be smooth solid and as white as milk.

Strawberry Ice.

Use 1 qt of berry juice, 4 cups of sugar, the juice of 2 lemons, 3 pints of water and a few whole strawberries, mix all together and freeze.

Lemon Sherbet No. 2.

1 qt of water, 1¹⁄₂ cups of sugar, ³⁄₄ cup of lemon juice. Make a syrup of the boiling water and sugar, add lemon juice, cool strain and freeze. When half frozen add the white of 1 egg beaten stiff.

Orange Sherbet.

Made in the same manner as the above recipe, using orange juice with the juice of 1 lemon added.

Grapefruit Cocktail.

Cut 3 medium size grapefruit into halves, remove pulp and membrane and separate the pulp into flakes. Mix this lightly with ¹⁄₄ lb. of Malaga grapes, which have been skinned and seeded sprinkle liberally with sugar and chill thoroughly. Serve in the grapefruit shells with a little crushed ice.

Peach Cocktail.

Have the fruit chilled on the ice. Peel quickly and slice small, place in each chilled cocktail glass the equivalent of 1 sliced peach and add powdered sugar to taste the juice of ¹⁄₄ lemon, 2 tablespoons of grape juice, the same of cracked ice and a few fresh mint leaves. Serve immediately before the ice melts.


Cream Candy.

Use the white of 1 egg and the same of water, for 1 pound of sugar. Whip the egg and water together, then add sugar until you cannot add more. Knead as bread, use figs or nuts for filling.


Whites of 7 eggs beaten to a stiff froth, 1 lb confectionery sugar add lightly drop a tablespoon of the mixture on buttered paper, bake in moderate oven until a light brown.

[Pg 34]

Sea Foam.

2 cups of light brown sugar, 1 cup of water, white of 1 egg, put the sugar and water in a sauce pan and boil until it will form a hard ball when dropped in water. Beat the whites of the eggs till stiff then pour the liquid in it slowly while pouring and beat till stiff. Then pour in buttered pans.

Divinity Candy.

4 cups sugar, ¹⁄₂ cup of water, 1 cup peanuts, 1 cup Karo corn syrup, the whites of 3 eggs. Let boil together except egg and peanuts until it hardens in water. Then beat the eggs and pour into the syrup and add the peanuts and flavor with vanilla. Pour in platter and when cool cut in squares.


2 cups of brown sugar, ³⁄₄ cup of milk, ¹⁄₂ cup of walnuts, 1¹⁄₂ tablespoons of butter. Boil sugar and milk until a firm ball is formed, remove from the fire and butter, set pan in cold water, leave until syrup thickens, remove, beat till creamy, add vanilla and chopped walnuts when nearly done.

To Blanch Almonds.

Shell the nuts and throw boiling water over them, let them stand a few minutes and then throw in cold water; rub between the hands.

Raisin Fudge.

2 cups of sugar, ³⁄₄ cup milk, butter size of an English walnut, 2 sq. of chocolate, 1 teaspoon of vanilla.

Fruit Cakes.

Take ³⁄₄ cup of raisins and ¹⁄₄ cup of walnut meats and a few grains of salt. Mix well and press through a meat grinder. Shape into small flat cakes and wrap in waxed paper.

Chocolate Nut Bar.

Melt 6 ounces of sweet chocolate over hot water, beat until nearly cool then add ¹⁄₂ cup each of chopped raisins and peanuts with ¹⁄₄ teaspoon of salt. Mix well and press into the top of a tin cracker box. Leave until firm when it will come out without breaking.

Cocanut Kisses.

2 cups of grated coconut, 1 cup of sugar, 2 tablespoons of flour, whites of 3 eggs, beaten stiff, 1 teaspoon of vanilla. Bake on buttered paper.

Stuffed Dates.

Take nice fresh dates, cut a small opening, remove the stone and fill with nuts or cream filling, roll in sugar.

Peanut Crisp.

¹⁄₄ cup of butter, ¹⁄₂ cup of sugar, 2 eggs, 1 cup of flour, 1 teaspoon of baking powder, ³⁄₄ cup of coarsely chopped nut meats, ¹⁄₂ teaspoon of salt. Mixed in order given and drop by the ¹⁄₂ teaspoonful on buttered tins and bake in a moderate oven.



Whip 4 eggs add 4 tablespoons of milk, salt and pepper, butter chafing dish, when very hot pour mixture in, when done fold the edge quickly over.

Ham Omelette.

Follow the same directions as for omelette before folding spread with chopped ham. Cheese omelette made the same way.

[Pg 35]

Chicken Croquettes.

4 cups minced chicken, 1 cup bread crumbs, 3 eggs, tablespoon of butter and seasoning. Mix and make into balls, dip into beaten eggs and bread crumbs. Fry a nice brown.

Welsh Rarebit.

1 teacup of grated cheese, 3 eggs, 1 tablespoon of butter, 3 tablespoons of sweet cream or milk, 1 tablespoon of mixed mustard, ¹⁄₂ teaspoon of salt. Put the cheese, butter and cream into a double boiler, when the cheese is melted, stir in the eggs well beaten, add the seasoning and cook until it thickens, then pour over slices of hot buttered toast.


When boiling fish add a dash of vinegar to the water and the fish will be much whiter and firmer.

Add a teaspoon of baking powder to old potatoes when mashing them and beat briskly. This will make them light and creamy.

To prevent the saucepan containing cabbage or cauliflower from boiling over, add to the water a piece of butter the size of a walnut. This will make the vegetables cook steadily and they will not require watching.

If cake pans are greased when cold, cake will not stick to them.

The flavor of stewed pears will be improved if a little vinegar is added to them while cooking.

Cleansing with mustard is said to remove the smell of fish from pots.

The clothes wringer will last twice as long if the pressure screw at the top is loosened after using.

When mixing pie crust if the lard, flour and salt are mixed before adding the water the crust will be rich and flaky.

A few pieces of Gum Camphor kept in the boxes in which silver is placed in wrappings will prevent its turning dark.

When boiling eggs wet the shells thoroughly in cold water before dropping in the boiling water and they will not crack.


To remove fruit stains from a tablecloth apply powdered starch to the stained parts and leave for several hours till all the discoloration has been absorbed by the starch.

When Heating Irons.

When the fire is not good or there is a draft across the range, irons to be heated quickly should be covered with an inverted dishpan or a pot to concentrate the heat and prevent them being cooled by cold air playing over them.

Rust Stains.

Rust stains no matter how bad can easily be removed by putting vinegar and salt on the stains and placing it in the hot sun.

To Remove Soil Marks from Raincoats.

A simple and excellent way to remove soil marks from a raincoat is to cut raw potato into slices and rub it well on the marks. It will also remove mud stains from dress skirts, children and mens coats.

Peach Stains.

Peach stains can be removed by wetting spot with water and putting on layer of cream of tartar. Then place in hot sun.

[Pg 36]

Coffee Stains.

The most difficult of all stains to take out are those made by coffee. With care however the stains can be removed from the most delicate silk or woolen fabric. Rub the marks gently with a little piece of glycerine, then rinse it in lukewarm water, lay cloth over the damp part on the wrong side and press with a cool iron until dry.

To remove Scorch.

To remove scorch from linen cut an onion in half and rub the scorched part with it and then soak it in cold water. The mark will disappear.

To Keep Out Moths.

First shake each garment then brush or beat it and hang it out of doors if possible. Spray the box or trunk which is to hold the woolen with turpentine and line it well with newspapers. Fill the trunk or box with garments laying them smoothly and with newspapers between them and over the top. If moths should be seen during the warm months just sprinkle the top papers lightly with turpentine or kerosene as the odor will disappear very quickly.

To Clean Furs.

To clean white furs buy 5 cents worth of plaster of paris and sprinkle the article to be cleaned, rubbing lightly with the fingers or a soft brush, dust and if not clean repeat. It will clean much better then corn meal, requiring but a few minutes and the article looks like new.

Transcriber’s Notes

The transcriber advises caution in actually replicating the recipes, which often seem to be missing ingredients or instructions or have seemingly very odd proportions. These oddities have been replicated as per the original.

Errors in punctuation have been fixed.

Page 8: “15 ot 20 minutes” changed to “15 to 20 minutes”

Page 16: “Scolloped Potatoes.” changed to “Scalloped Potatoes.”

Page 17: “and than a layer of tomatoes” changed to “and then a layer of tomatoes”

Page 18: “tesapoonful salt” changed to “teaspoonful salt”

Page 19: “its cold” changed to “it’s cold” “fine membrances” changed to “fine membranes”

Page 22: “¹⁄₂ tesapoon of salt” changed to “¹⁄₂ teaspoon of salt” “apples cut n di e” changed to “apples cut in dice”

Page 23: “cup of Maderia” changed to “cup of Madeira”

Page 24: The coconut pie did not list any coconut in the original ingredients.

Page 25: “sweeten to tate” changed to “sweeten to taste” “Maderia Wine” changed to “Madeira Wine”

Page 28: “while boiling heat in” changed to “while boiling beat in” “Snow Puddiug.” changed to “Snow Pudding.”

Page 30: “1 teaspoon cinnamon each nutmeg” changed to “1 teaspoon each cinnamon nutmeg” “marachino cherries” changed to “maraschino cherries” “dissolve entirely be setting” changed to “dissolve entirely by setting” “broken macraoons” changed to “broken macaroons”

Page 31: “tesapoon of cinnamon” changed to “teaspoon of cinnamon” “sweetened cram” changed to “sweetened cream”

Page 33: “through cheesecoth” changed to “through cheesecloth”

Page 34: “n squares” changed to “in squares” The raisin fudge recipe has no baking instructions in the original (and no raisins). “nice fesh dates” changed to “nice fresh dates”

Page 35: “cocentrate the heat” changed to “concentrate the heat” “into slice” changed to “into slices”