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Title: The complete servant

Author: servant Samuel Adams

Sarah Adams

Release date: December 6, 2022 [eBook #69487]

Language: English

Original publication: United Kingdom: Knight and Lacey, 1825

Credits: MWS, Quentin Campbell and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at (This file was produced from images generously made available by The Internet Archive)

cover image

Transcriber’s Note

The cover image was created by Susan Ehrlich from elements of the original publication and is placed in the public domain.

The word “receipt” appears frequently in this book and is an archaic form of the word “recipe”.

Click any image to enlarge.

See the end of this document for details of corrections and other changes.












Fifty years Servants in different Families.



At the James Watt, in Paternoster-Row.

Price Seven Shillings and Sixpence.

D. Sidney & Co. Printers,
Northumberland-street, Strand.


As no relations in society are so numerous and universal as those of Masters and Servants—as those of Household Duties and the performers of them—so it is proportionally important that they should be well defined and understood. It is a species of knowledge as important to the head of a family as necessary to the servant; and, if thoroughly studied, would relieve life of half its anxieties and vexations.

Yet, till the present book, no special attempt to define these relations, and illustrate these duties has ever been made. We have had Sermons on the moral obligations of masters and servants, and many books of religious advice, addressed to the latter, all good in their way; but we have had no work, which, like the present, addresses itself to the actual personal practice of their duties; which defines them as they actually belong to the various classes; and instructs servants in the way and mode of performing them with skill, advantage, and success.


The want of such a manual of duty and practice having often been noticed in servants’ halls, in families in which the authors of this book have resided, it occurred to them, many years since, to make notes, with a view to a work like the present. They hoped long ago to have been able to submit them to the public; but the constant avocations of servitude rendering it impossible to digest their materials, the task has been deferred till they have been enabled to retire on a moderate competency; the publication may therefore be regarded as the legacy of their old age to servants of the present and future generations, and as the last duty which in this world they are likely to perform.

The author, educated in a foundation school, entered service as a footboy, in 1770, and during fifty years he served successively as groom, footman, valet, butler, and house-steward. His Wife began the world as maid of all work, then served as house-maid, laundry-maid, under-cook, housekeeper and lady’s maid, and, finally, for above twenty years, as housekeeper in a very large establishment.[v] Their experience is, therefore, such as has fallen to the lot of few, and they have freely and fully displayed it in the following pages.

They profess no skill in authorship, their sole object having been to set down every thing likely to be useful, in language that may be understood by all.

At the same time, important and necessary as the book will be to all Servants who desire to perform their duty with ability, and to rise in their career to higher and more profitable situations, yet it will prove equally useful in the parlour, by assisting Masters and Mistresses of families in arranging their establishments, advising them of their own duties, and enabling them to estimate the merits of valuable servants. It may, indeed, be a question, whether the volume will not be as desirable to those who are served as to those who serve.

Conviction of its probable use to all classes, led a lady of high rank, in whose family Mrs. Adams resided, to honour her with advice and assistance in some articles, particularly in that of Governess,[vi] and it is to be regretted that a delicate reserve prevents the acknowledgement being made by name.

At the time the work was prepared there existed no general collection of Receipts like that published two years since by Mr. Mackenzie, consequently, a variety of practical receipts, which the Authors had taken much pains to assemble, were rendered less necessary. Nevertheless, as many of these receipts were identified with the duties of the several servants, they have retained the most important of them, and it is believed that they will be considered as adding much to the value of the work.

Being desirous of rendering the volume as perfect as possible, they will thankfully receive, and incorporate in new editions, any suggestions with which intelligent servants may favour them, if addressed to them at their publishers.

Edgeware Road,
June, 1825.


Respectfully addressed to the Heads of Families



We feel persuaded that the following work, professedly written for the use and instruction of Domestic Servants, may, with great propriety, be dedicated to the Illustrious Heads of Families in the United Kingdom;—to you, who are the immediate Patrons of that numerous Class of the Community. We are aware too, that, by endeavouring to instruct and improve those around you in the moral and practical Duties of their respective Stations, we best evince our attention to your particular Interests, and indirectly promote your Domestic Comforts:—and we feel further assured, that the same precepts that are calculated to teach servants the duties of their several occupations, will serve to remind their masters and mistresses of what they have to expect from them. Under these impressions we presume, with the greatest deference and respect, to claim your patronage and protection.

And, though Domestic Servants are the principal[2] Agents by means of whom the greater part of all Household Concerns are transacted, yet, there are many important branches of family arrangement, the direction and controul of which, either directly or indirectly, fall within the sphere of the Heads of Families, some of which are exclusively their own Concerns, and others necessarily and unavoidably connected with the business of Servants, but respecting which no instruction can be given to them. On these points, therefore, we shall, in this place, take the liberty, respectfully, to offer a few observations previous to entering on a subject of so comprehensive and complicated a nature as that of A General Directory for Servants.

Dr. Johnson held as a maxim, that “Every man’s first care is necessarily Domestic.” Independent, therefore, of public Engagements,—of Politics, the Arts, Sciences, and Literature;—of attention to Horses, Hounds, &c. it is considered that the first care, and the peculiar province of the Master of a Family, is his Revenue; and that attention to his Land-Stewards, Agents, and Tenants, and to his Expenditure, are the principal objects that most immediately solicit his regard; and when a gentleman has satisfied himself that his real or net Income exceeds his Expenditure, then, and not till then, may he consider himself as an Independent Man—for, “it is not abundance[3] that maketh rich, but Economy;” and Lord Chesterfield has truly remarked, that “great Fortunes frequently seduce their possessors to ruinous profusion.” The great Bacon has also observed, “that he would live even with the world should calculate his Expenses at half his Income, and he who would grow Rich; at one-third.” A few Minutes in every Day, spent in keeping a regular Account of all Monies received and spent, Dr. and Cr. will afford any gentleman the satisfaction of knowing the true state of his affairs,—will operate actively against excess of Expenditure,—will imperceptibly teach him the art of practical Economy, and will enable him to appropriate due portions of his Income to the support of his different Establishments.

With a view to this latter point, the following Rule, though given in round numbers, may be considered as affording Gentlemen a brief, but tolerably correct, idea of the most eligible and practical mode of appropriating a large Income.—

Viz. 33 per Cent. or One-third, for Household Expenses, including Provisions and all other Articles of Household Consumption.

25 per Cent. or One-fourth, for Servants and Equipage including Horses, Carriages, and Liveries.

25 per Cent. or One-fourth, for Clothes, Education of Children, Medical Assistance, Pocket, Private, and Extra Expenses; including Entertainments, &c.


12½ per Cent. or One-eighth, for Rent, Taxes, and Repairs of House and Furniture.

4½ per Cent. as a Reserve for Contingencies.

Hence may be deduced the following general Table of Expenses according to Income, viz.—

Net Ann.
Servants &
Clothes &
Rent and
  33 pr. Ct.
or 1-3rd.
25 pr. Ct.
or 1-4th.
25 pr. Ct.
or 1-4th.
12½ pr. Ct.
or 1-8th.
4½ per
£. £. £. £. £. £.
  1000  333  250  250  125   42
  2000  666  500  500  250   84
  3000 1000  750  750  375  126
  4000 1333 1000 1000  500  168
  5000 1666 1250 1250  625  210
  6000 2000 1500 1500  750  252
  7500 2500 1875 1875  937  315
10,000 3333 2500 2500 1250  420

Thus may any Gentleman, with very little trouble, apportion his Income:—and as no two Gentlemen live exactly alike, this Table will shew, by inspection only, what branch of Expense may best be curtailed, so as to afford an addition to any other branch, and still keep his whole Expenses short of his actual Revenue. It will also point out, to those who are economically disposed, in what departments saving may best be effected, as an addition to the fund of reserve, for the augmentation of the fortunes of Children, or for unforeseen Contingencies.

Smaller Incomes must be appropriated in a different manner; and according to the number of Children in the family: thus the Expense[5] of a family with Children will be from 1-4th to 1-3rd for each of the Principals, and about 1-10th or 1-12th for each Child.

As Hints to the Formation of a Household, or the Reformation of an Establishment, we insert the following list of the number and description of Servants that are usually employed, according to Income; viz.—

Income per Annum.
£100 or guineas. 

A Widow or other unmarried Lady, may keep a Young Maid Servant, at a low salary; say from 5 to 10 Guineas a year.

£150 to £180. 

A Gentleman and Lady without Children, may afford to keep a better Servant-Maid, at about 10 or 12 Guineas.

About £200. 

Ditto. A professed Servant-Maid of All-Work, at from 12 to 14 Guineas.


Ditto, with one, two, or three Children. Two Maid-Servants.


Ditto, Ditto. Three female Servants, or two and a Boy; viz.—A Cook, House-Maid, and Nursery-Maid, or else, instead of the latter, a Boy,—with a Gardener occasionally.


Ditto, Ditto. Three females and a Boy; viz.—A Cook, House-Maid, and Nursery-Maid, with a Boy as Groom, and to assist in the House and Garden. A Gardener occasionally.

£500 to £600. 

A Gentleman and Lady with Children. Three Females and one Man; viz.—A Cook, House-Maid, and a Nursery-Maid, or other Female-Servant; with a Livery-Servant, as Groom and Footman. A Gardener occasionally.


£600 to £750. 

Ditto, Ditto. Three Females and two Men; viz.—A Cook, House-Maid, and another Female servant; a Footman, and a Groom, who may assist in the Garden, and a Gardener occasionally.

£1000 to £1500. 

Ditto, Ditto. Four Females and three Men; viz.—A Cook, two House-Maids, a Nursery-Maid, or other Female Servant; a Coachman, Footman, and a Man to assist in the Stable and Garden.

£1500 to £2000. 

Ditto, Ditto. Six Female and five Men-Servants; viz.—A Cook, Housekeeper, two House-Maids, Kitchen-Maid, and Nursery-Maid, or other Female Servant; with a Coachman, Groom, Footman, Gardener, and an assistant in the Garden and Stable.

£2000 to £3000. 

Ditto, Ditto. Eight Female and eight Men-Servants; viz.—A Cook, Lady’s-Maid, two House-Maids, Nurse, Nursery-Maid, Kitchen-Maid, and Laundry-Maid; with a Butler, Valet, Coachman, two Grooms, a Footman, and two Gardeners.

£3000 to £4000. 

Ditto, Ditto. Nine Female and eleven Male Servants; viz.—A Housekeeper, Cook, Lady’s-Maid, Nurse, two House-Maids, a Laundry-Maid, Kitchen-Maid, and a Nursery-Maid; with a Butler, Coachman, two Grooms, Valet, two Footmen two Gardeners, and a Labourer.

£4000 to £5000. 

Ditto, Ditto. Eleven Female and thirteen Male Servants; viz.—A Housekeeper, Cook, Lady’s-Maid, Nurse, two House-Maids, Laundry-Maid, Still-Room Maid, Nursery-Maid, Kitchen-Maid, and Scullion, with Butler, Valet, House-Steward, Coachman, two Grooms, one Assistant Ditto, two Footmen, three Gardeners, and a Labourer.


We have been favoured with the following as the present Household Establishment of a respectable Country Gentleman, with a young family, whose Net Income is from 16,000l. to 18,000l. a Year, and whose expenses do not exceed 7000l.; viz.—




Female Teacher




Head Nurse


Second Ditto




Upper House-Maid


Under House-Maid




Upper Laundry-Maid


Under Ditto




Second Ditto


Still-Room Maid




A French Man-Cook








Under Ditto


Groom.—His Liveries and a Gratuity.


Lady’s Groom


Nursery-Room Boy, Clothes and a gratuity.


Head Game-Keeper 70 Guineas a year, and 13s. per Week for Board-Wages;—a Cottage and Firing.


Under Ditto, one Guinea per Week.


Gardener 40 Guineas a year, and 13s. per Week for Board-Wages;—a House and Firing.


Assistant Ditto, 12s. per Week.



The Board Wages of Servants in general, when the family is absent, is 10s. per Week, for the females, and 12s. per Week for males.—Perhaps all the servants on a large establishment may be reckoned at an average of 10s. per head, per Week, expense, for Board. The Men are allowed a Pot of Ale per day, and the Women a Pint, besides table-beer.

Besides the ordinary Establishment of Servants, Noblemen and Gentlemen of superior fortune employ Land-Stewards, Bailiffs, Wood-Wards, Game-Keepers, Park-Keepers, Hunts-Men, Whippers-in, Racing-Grooms, Jockies, and others of inferior capacities: also Men-Cooks, Groom of the Chambers, Page, Lady’s-Coachman, Postillion and Footman, Seamstress, Second Lady’s-Maid, Chamber-Maids, Boy for the Steward’s Room, another for the Hall, and various other Servants.

Having premised thus much as to income, and its proportionate appropriation, we next proceed to offer a few hints on such parts of interior management, as in most families are considered as belonging to the lady, or mistress of the house.

The first is, naturally, the attention due to her husband and children—to make home, “sweet home,” the pleasing refuge of a husband, fatigued, perhaps, by his intercourse with a jarring world,—to be his enlightened companion, and the chosen friend of his bosom.


“Oh, speak the joy, ye, whom the tender tear
Surprizes often, when ye look around,
And nothing strikes your eyes but sights of bliss.”

The attention of an amiable woman, will next be directed to the care of her offspring,—to raise them up in the ways of virtue and usefulness,—

“——To rear the tender thought,
To teach the young idea how to shoot,—
To pour the fresh instruction o’er the mind,—
To breathe the enlivening spirit,—and to fix
The gen’rous purpose in the glowing breast;”

“these, these are woman’s duties, and delightful ones they are! Happy the man who can call her his wife; blessed are the children who call her mother!” For the foregoing sentiments we are indebted to an amiable and celebrated authoress of the present day, and to the no less celebrated and amiable Thomson; and we feel impelled to quote the concluding sentence of the above-mentioned lady, on this interesting subject.

“When we thus observe the mistress of a family exercising her activity and best abilities in appropriate cares and increasing excellence, are we not ready to say she is the agent for good, of that benevolent being who placed her on earth to fulfil such sacred obligations, and not to waste the talents committed to her charge.”

“Next to the care and attention due to your husband and children,” says another female[10] writer, “your servants claim, as your nearest dependents; and to promote their good, both spiritual and temporal, is your indispensable duty.—Let them join your family devotions, and endeavour to make them spend their Sabbath properly.” She further adds, “It was the remark of an old domestic, that the worst mistresses a servant can live with are young married women—They are unreasonable,” said she, “in their commands; they expect too much; nor do they rightly know when to commend, or when to blame.”

In your manner to your servants, be firm, without being severe, and kind, without being familiar. Never converse familiarly with them, unless on business, or on some point connected with their improvement; but with this reserve, and distance of manner, be particularly careful to maintain kindness, gentleness, and respect for their feelings. Their patience is often unnecessarily exercised, and their tempers wantonly irritated. “I have been sometimes shocked,” says the same amiable writer, “with the want of politeness, by which masters and mistresses provoke impertinence from their servants.”—A lady, who filled every station of life with honour, both to her head and heart, attending the death-bed of an old domestic, who had been thirty years in her service—“How do you find yourself, to-day, Mary?” said the mistress, taking hold of her[11] withered hand. “Is that you, my darling mistress!” and a beam of joy overspread the old woman’s face; “O, yes,” she added, looking up, “it is you, my kind, my mannerly mistress!” The poor old creature said no more; but she had, by that last simple sentence, expressed volumes of panegyric on her amiable mistress. Human nature is the same in all stations; and if you strive to convince your servants that you have a generous and compassionate regard for their comfort, they will, in return, evince their gratitude. If to protect and encourage virtue be the best preventive from vice, then will your deserving female servants be liberally encouraged.

Let your commands to your servants be consistent and reasonable; and then mildly, but firmly, insist on obedience to them.—“My servants never remember what I tell them to do,” is a complaint but too common, but that might, in some degree, be obviated. Let them see that you will not pass over any neglect of orders; and when they find that this decisive measure is accompanied with kindness and consideration, and that you are not to be disobeyed with impunity, they will soon learn to remember what you command them to do. A little effort very easily overcomes a bad memory.

It is very disheartening to a poor servant to be continually found fault with. Praise and[12] reward them when you can;—human nature will not bear constant chiding.

Never keep servants, however excellent they may be in their stations, whom you know to be guilty of immorality.

When servants are ill, their mistress will, doubtless, recollect that she is their patroness as well as their employer, and will not only remit their labour, but render them all the assistance of proper medicine, food, and comfort, in their power.—Tender assiduity is half a cure; it is a balsam to the mind, which has a powerful effect on the body—soothes the severest pains, and strengthens beyond the richest cordial. The poor dependent creatures may have no where to go to—no one else to turn to; and their pale and impaired looks will always have a claim on your sympathy.

As we shall have occasion to make further remarks on the management of servants, when treating of the business of the Housekeeper, we beg leave, in order to avoid repetition, to refer to that subject, under the head—housekeeper.

“Economy,” says Mr. Cobbett, “is management.”—The fact is, that management and regularity, is Economy verified by practice; and all persons ought to regulate their conduct by circumstances. A moderate income, appropriated to the expenses of housekeeping with prudence and economy, without[13] parsimony, but banishing superfluities and preventing waste, may be made sufficient to furnish every comfort in life; and, strange as it may appear to those in affluence, an income of from 150l. to 200l. a year, will be enough to maintain a man and wife, with two or three children, and a servant girl; nor “beyond that amount, need they spend one shilling per week, whatsoever may be their income.”

It is an excellent plan to have a set of rules for regulating the ordinary expenses of a family, (such as are given in the Appendix to the practical economy,) in order to check any innovation or excess, which otherwise might, unawares, have occurred to derange the proposed distribution of the annual income.

The mistress of a family will always recollect that, in all cases, the welfare and good character of her household depends on her own active superintendance.

Though habits of domestic management are now generally precluded in the education of young ladies of the superior class, yet, happily, attention to family concerns is not unfrequently found in those of less exalted rank, whose minds, amidst the blandishments of modern accomplishments, have been taught to relish, as in days of yore, the more rational, solid, and lasting pleasures, of a social and comfortable home. And were young ladies[14] early instructed in the delights of domestic occupation, before they enter the delusive scenes, presented by modern modes of dissipation, we should probably find the number of votaries to private happiness greatly increased, and a life of domestic employment would become the source of numberless gratifications. In short, were they on all occasions, when at home, under the immediate eye of their mother, to be taught the science of practical economy—the business of examining and keeping accounts,—and a few other of the leading points in the management of a family, they would imperceptibly become competent, and the happiest results, as to their future conduct in life, might be most pleasingly anticipated. Many families have owed much of their advancement in life to the propriety of female management.

One of the principal objects of the mistress of the house is, the economy or management of the table, the general display of which will evince her judgment and taste; and this will be shown, not so much by the profusion with which the table is covered, as by its neat and pleasing appearance, according to the present fashion, so far as regards elegance, combined with frugality,—the circumstances of fortune and condition being also considered.—People in business should not imitate the pomp and splendour of high rank, nor should those of[15] the higher circles descend to such frugal arrangements as in them would appear to be parsimonious.

The prudent manager will consider the number of her guests, and consult their appetites, rather than feast their eyes; thus will she be enabled to entertain them much oftener, and much better, at the same expense.

It is well understood that the mistress of a family should have, at least, a competent knowledge in the art of carving, not only as it enables her to do the honours of the table with propriety, but with a view to frugality also; and if the young ladies of a family were to practise, under the direction of their mother, when there is no company, they would, in time, become quite au fait to this graceful and elegant accomplishment; as much practice is required to make a good carver, even when the theory has been previously acquired. (See Instructions for Carving, under the head housekeeper.)

An esteemed writer of the present day, has introduced to public view, a pleasing picture of a small and well-regulated family, of which the following is a slight sketch:—

“The mistress of the family is a good manager, without any ostentatious display of it.—Elegantly nice, without being a slave to dress or furniture—Easy and affable with her servants, but firm in her commands,—every one[16] appearing to be contented and happy.—The household business going on regularly, like a good clock;—and every thing being kept in its proper place. No scolding in the kitchen or servants’-hall.—The table plentifully covered, but not with incitements to luxury; the food plain and in season, and sent up well dressed;—with a few well chosen luxuries introduced, when company is asked.”

Ladies, whose minds are framed for the practical enjoyment of domestic comforts, will admire and copy this beautiful picture!




The supreme Lord of the universe has, in his wisdom, rendered the various conditions of mankind necessary to our individual happiness:—some are rich, others poor—some are masters, and others servants.—Subordination, indeed, attaches to your rank in life, but not disgrace. All men are servants in different degrees. The nobles and ministers of state are subservient to the king, and the king himself is the servant of the nation, and is wisely submissive to its laws. It manifests a divine superintendance, that civil society should thus be composed of subordinate and superior classes. By this wise arrangement, all may enjoy an equal share of real happiness, while each possesses a due opportunity to communicate and to receive the various benefits and kindnesses of human life. Every wise and good person will therefore enquire, what are the special duties of his or her station; with a steady purpose, by the assistance of God, to discharge them faithfully; and those are the most worthy characters who best perform the various duties incumbent on them, in that state of life unto which it has pleased God to call them. Perhaps, there is not a more useful,—a more numerous,—nor a more indispensably necessary description of persons in society, than those who are denominated Servants; and so entirely dependent are mankind[18] on each other, that it may truly be said of these, in relation of the social system, as Pope has said of the several parts of nature in relation to the universe; that

“—from this chain whatever link you strike,
Tenth or ten-thousandth, breaks the chain alike.”

Young persons, on their first entering into service, should endeavour to divest themselves of former habits, and devote themselves to the controul of those whom they engage to serve. They will probably find every thing different from what they have been accustomed to at home, or in common life; and as their mode of living will be greatly altered, if not wholly changed, so must be their minds and manners. They should endeavour to discard every low habit and way of thinking, if such they have; and as there will be set before them, by those of superior rank, and cultivated understandings, the best modes of conduct and the most approved behaviour, they will wisely take advantage of the opportunity which Providence fortunately presents to them, to cultivate their minds and improve their principles: perhaps, the best proof they can give of their wisdom, in this respect, is to resolve to conform with alacrity to the duties required of them, so far as is consistent with justice and moral government; to be respectful and faithful to their superiors, obliging and good-natured to their equals, and charitable to all; as the most grateful return they can make for the emolument, superior comforts, and gratification they will enjoy. They will eagerly embrace every opportunity of learning every thing that may be useful to themselves, and of doing any thing that may be useful to others. Young[19] persons are too apt to fancy themselves wise, but that, generally speaking, is impossible, for wisdom is the result of experience and reflection; and youth must of course be almost as much strangers to one as to the other.[1] But the instruction we are about to give, is not intended merely for the young and uninitiated;—but will be found, we trust, of great advantage to those of riper years, and of some experience; as we are never too old to learn, and can only approach towards perfection by regular gradations, and, as it were, step by step:—to those of greater experience our labours may serve as a Remembrancer.

The grand foundation of your good character must be Industry, fidelity to your employers, and an inviolable attachment to truth, both in words and deeds. To utter a falsehood to the prejudice of others, argues malice and baseness—to lie in excuse of one’s self, guilt and cowardice;—in both cases it evinces a design to deceive, with a view to benefit one’s self by the deceit;—besides, a liar is always in fear of being detected, and if once found out, he sinks into contempt, and is deservedly divested of all credit—all confidence—and all society.

But truth in speech must be accompanied by integrity and fidelity in all your dealings; for it is impossible for a dishonest person to be a good servant; therefore, let no temptation prevail on you to part with these inestimable[20] jewels; nor suffer yourself even to wish to convert the property of another to your own use; more especially when it is confided to your charge; for breach of trust is a heinous aggravation of dishonesty.[2] And, always remember, that “Honesty is the best policy.” Moreover, it is not only incumbent on you to be honest yourself, but you must scorn to connive at the dishonesty of others. He that winks at an injury he might prevent shares in it; and it is as scandalous to fear blame or reproach for doing your duty, as it is to deserve reproof for the neglect of it; therefore, should there be a confederacy among your fellow servants to abuse the confidence or credulity of your employer, divulge it the very instant you perceive it, for fear your very silence might give rise to a suspicion of your participation in their guilt.

On the contrary, avoid Tale-bearing, for that is a vice of a pernicious nature, and generally turns out to the disadvantage of those who practise it. Those who cannot help telling all that they hear, will be supposed to tell more than they know, and will, consequently, be discredited.

Carefully avoid all reproachful, indecent, or even familiar terms in speaking of your master, mistress, or superiors; and, on the other hand, endeavour, at all times, to vindicate them from the open aspersions or latent insinuations of others. There is nothing more detestable than defamation.—Avoid it.

“The man who filches from me my good name,
Robs me of that which not enriches him,
But makes me poor indeed!” Shakspeare.


To know—to be thoroughly master of your business in the department you undertake, is indispensably necessary; and not only to know the several branches of your duty, both by theory and practice, but to be determined, from principle, to do it. In order to this, let your whole conduct be actuated by diligence, and governed by temperance. Banish sloth and the love of ease; and, as poor Richard says, “up, and be doing.”—Be ever active.—Let your whole mind be in your business.—Think of what you have to do—of what must be done, and do it,—even before it is wanted,—and do not wait till you are ordered to do it. Never think any part of your business too trifling to be well done. Consider your business as a pleasurable amusement and you will make it so—and,—“do not leave till to-morrow, that which may be done to-day.”

Idleness is a great source of evil, and whilst we give way to its enjoyment, we sacrifice both the duties and the best purposes of our existence.

“Delays are dangerous;—take a friend’s advice,
Begin,—be bold, and venture to be wise:—
He who defers his work from day to day,
Does on a river’s bank expecting stay,
Till the whole stream that stopt him shall be gone,
Which, as it runs, for ever will run on.”

But, it is not enough merely to avoid sloth, for you must be guarded against the allurements of pleasure—Pleasure, when it becomes a business, but too frequently makes business a torment; and as it is impossible to attend to your duty and follow your pleasures, the inevitable consequence must be loss of place, disgrace, and poverty.—Not[22] that you are to debar yourself from innocent amusement, at proper times, and with moderation; it is not, nor can it be expected of you, who are to get your bread by the sweat of your brow, that you are not to reap the harvest of your labours; neither the laws of God nor man exact this of you; but unlawful and intemperate pleasures are interdicted, as alike detrimental to your employers,—your morals,—your character,—your health,—and your purse.

Intemperance, or excess, is a pleasurable evil,—it smiles and seduces—enchants and destroys. It assumes a variety of shapes, all tending to flatter the appetite and inflame desires;—it presents to each the allurement to which he is most prone, and to all a pleasing poison that impairs the body, enervates the mind, and imperceptibly destroys all the energies necessary to our happiness and advancement in life.

Above all things, then—Be temperate.—Avoid excess in eating and drinking—“One expensive mouth, will wear out several pairs of hands,”—and, “one shilling will appease the wants of nature as effectually as a pound.” Nor is it because you may for a time be able to indulge those vicious habits at the expense of others, that they are the less exceptionable.

The loss of health and the loss of character are the certain consequences; and the debauch of the evening is followed by pains and sickness in the morning, when that which was before poison, is administered as the cure! Practice becomes habitual, and thus a whole life is frequently wasted in debauchery; poverty itself only cutting off the means, not[23] the inclination; and the unhappy object himself, destitute of health, character, and friends, is left to pine and sink in misery and contempt.

Intemperance in dress is another evil that ought to be carefully guarded against. In most men this argues both weakness and effeminacy; but in men-servants an affectation of this kind is unpardonable—and in females it opens a door to temptation and extravagance, which but too frequently ends in ruin.

The virtue of Silence is highly commendable, and will contribute greatly to your ease and prosperity. Those who talk much cannot always talk well; and many much oftener incur censure than praise. The best proof of wisdom is to talk little, but to hear much—Remember, “A silent tongue argues a wise head.” Never talk of yourself,—but when others speak of themselves, listen to them;—such attention will please them, and probably profit yourself, as it is a chance but something escapes them that may afford a clue to their whole character. If it be thus dangerous to speak much of one’s self, it is much more so to take freedoms with others. A jest may tickle, but if it hurt any one, resentment may follow, that in some way or other may be injurious.—Always remember to hold the secrets of the family sacred, as none, not even the least of these, may be divulged with impunity.

Quarrels are much more easily avoided than made up; let it not, therefore, be in the power of trifles to ruffle your temper. A weathercock is the sport of every wind; and a choleric man is sometimes exposed to the[24] scorn, at others to the resentment, and always to the abhorrence of all around him. For these reasons rather wink at all small injuries than study to avenge them—“He that to destroy a single bee that has offended him, should throw down the hive, instead of one enemy will have made a thousand.”

It is abundantly better to study the good will of all, than to excite the resentment of any. Make a trial, therefore, of your affability, and you will find your own happiness and the goodwill of all around you, to be the certain result.

We would further recommend to you to practise frugality; it is a virtue which is intimately connected with, and leads to our best prospects in life; and if it be expedient to any, it is more especially so to such as you, who have, like the silk-worm, to spin your riches out of your own bosoms. It gives you credit with others, confidence in yourself, and enables you to look forward with satisfaction.—In short, it renders even the independent man doubly independent. Nothing is more true, than the old proverb, that, “a penny saved is a penny got;”—nor is that saying less true, that “if you have sense to save your pence, your pounds will take care of themselves.” If out of every shilling you get you save something, you will soon find yourself in the direct road to wealth.—Remember, that the most magnificent edifice is raised from a single stone, and every accession thereto, however small, helps to raise the superstructure.

Whilst on the important subject of frugality, we cannot do better than to recommend to your notice The Savings Bank.


These most useful and excellent establishments are to be found in every district, and offer, to provident and well-disposed servants, a means of depositing small sums, in perfect safety, for the purpose of accumulating with interest, to be resorted to in case of illness,—any unforeseen occurrence,—or for the purpose of establishing themselves in some way of business that may make them comfortable to the end of their days. Indeed, the advantages of savings-banks are become so well known, that almost every one can appreciate the result of small savings and prudent foresight. It is an axiom universally admitted, that he who rests his expectations more on his own care and diligence, than on the aid of others, will escape many wants and disappointments, and enjoy many gratifications, which those who are not possessed of this happy spirit of prudence and independence, can never hope to attain; and we may add, that the sufferings of those in poverty and distress have been but too frequently increased, by the recollection that they might have been averted or decreased by proper attention.

The encouragement which these depositories hold out to young persons for the safe deposit of trifling sums, (even so low as a shilling,) is not unfrequently attended with the salutary effect of inducing a perseverance in saving, and of stimulating to habits of industry and frugality that lead to the happiest results. Those who adopt this plan, soon begin to feel their independence; and this feeling once acquired, the most pleasing consequences inevitably follow; for he who labours for his daily bread, and has learnt to live within[26] his income, has learnt the art of independence; and he that is above want, though but a little, looks upon every fellow subject for his equal: indeed, so advantageous is an early habit in the art of saving, that no patrimony can be equal to it, and it will generally be found, that he who is sagacious enough to save a fortune, will enjoy it infinitely better than he who inherits it by patrimony, or has one given to him.

Every savings-bank has its appointed days and hours for transacting business, at which times, a committee of trustees and managers attend to pay and receive monies. Among other advantages which these banks give, they admit of the deposits and interest being taken out at a very short notice, at any time, by the depositers themselves, or by his or her executors, administrators, or other lawful claimants. Printed particulars of the specific terms and regulations, may be had gratis, at the respective offices.

The following is a sketch of the way in which money is made by saving, according to the terms of many savings-banks, established in and near the metropolis; and there are some (the Southwark, Limehouse, and others,) that give interest at the rate of a halfpenny per calendar month for every twelve shillings deposited, which is upwards of four per cent. per annum.


a   Savings Interest  Total 
    £ s. d. £ s. d. £ s. d.

Suppose, that in the course of this year, you deposit in the Savings Bank, the sum of

4 0 0            

In the last day of next year, the Savings Bank will add as interest on that deposit, at least, the sum of

      0 3 0      

And suppose that in the same year, you deposit the further sum of

4 0 0            

Your Stock at the end of the 2nd year, will be, at least

.. .. .. .. .. .. 8 3 0

On the course of the third year, add

4 0 0 0 6 6 12 9 6
4 4th year   4 0 0 0 10 0 16 19 6
5 5th year   4 0 0 0 13 6 21 13 0
6 6th year   4 0 0 1 17 6 26 10 6
7 7th year   4 0 0 0 1 0 31 11 6
8 8th year   4 0 0 1 5 0 36 16 6
9 9th year   4 0 0 1 9 6 42 6 0
10 10th year   4 0 0 1 14 0 48 0 0
11 11th year   4 0 0 1 18 6 53 18 6
12 12th year   4 0 0 2 3 0 60 1 6
13 13th year   4 0 0 2 8 0 66 9 6
14 14th year   4 0 0 2 13 0 73 2 6
15 15th year   4 0 0 2 18 6 80 1 0
16 16th year   4 0 0 3 4 0 87 5 0
17 17th year   4 0 0 3 10 0 94 15 0
18 18th year   4 0 0 3 16 0 102 11 0
19 19th year   4 0 0 4 2 0 110 13 0
20 20th year   4 0 0 4 8 6 119 1 6
  Principal deposited £ 80 0 0 39 1 6      
  Interest added   £ 39 1 6            
  Total made by saving in 20 years £ 119 1 6            

Again, let us admonish you, as at first, to be Industrious. “Teach a man to be industrious and you will soon make him rich.” And, “money got by Industry, is heaven’s gift.” Frugality and temperance, are virtues to be practised chiefly on your own account, but Industry is an indispensable duty that you owe to your employers and to society. “Without frugality few would be rich, and with it few[28] would be poor.” The man who promises himself success without endeavours, or despairs at the sight of difficulties, is always disappointed; but, on the contrary, he that is determined, and is indefatigable, succeeds even beyond his expectation. Depend upon it, there is not a more certain sign of a cowardly spirit than to have the edge of one’s activity soon blunted by opposition: on the other hand, there is no disputing the fortitude of him who boldly contends with obstacles, and pursues his object till he has attained it. To men of such temper few things are impossible. It was an ingenious device that a man made use of, by way of sign:—A pair of compasses, with this motto, By constancy and labour; one foot being fixed and the other in motion.—Make this your motto, and you will be very little in the power of chance or fortune.

What we have already said, may be considered as addressed chiefly to men servants; we have therefore to add a few admonitory precepts, particularly appropriated to our female readers.

One of the most advantageous qualifications in all servants, and particularly in females, is that of preserving a good temper, and endeavouring, to the utmost of their abilities, to give satisfaction. Possessed of a strong desire to please, you will seldom fail of doing so. Persons of a good disposition will be charmed with your readiness, and those of a bad one, will be disarmed of a great part of their harshness; and though you may, in some instances, be deficient in the due performance of your business, if it be apparent that your fault proceeds not from disobedience, indolence, or[29] obstinacy, great allowance will be made, and you will rather be instructed as to the future than blamed for the past. If you are fearful of offending you will scarcely ever offend. In short, humility is a commendable virtue, and, combined with good temper, is the most valuable of female qualifications, and will, infallibly, conduct its possessors with ease and tranquillity through life.

Cleanliness is another qualification incumbent on every female servant, and particularly in Cooks, and those employed in the department of the kitchen. These should be very careful to keep themselves,—every place,—and all the utensils used in cooking, perfectly clean and neat.

We have already remarked, that those who are fond of telling all that they hear, are very naturally suspected of telling more than they hear. The best rule is, to do your own duty conscientiously, and leave others to take care of theirs: by this means you will preserve peace and acquire the love of all your fellow servants, without offending your employers; who, even though they may appear to give countenance to your tale, will not in their hearts approve of your conduct.

Take great care how you contract new Acquaintances, for to be easily drawn into a familiarity with strangers must be attended with ill consequences to yourselves, and those with whom you live. Never accept the invitations of other servants, nor go to feast at the expense of their masters and mistresses; as you must, in that case, be deemed an interloper, at least;—besides, it lays you under an obligation to return the treat, and induces you,[30] after their example, to make free with the property of your own employers, under a consciousness of guilt, and a continual fear of detection.

Give nothing away without the knowledge and approbation of your employers, nor commit wilful waste, for that is a crime which seldom goes unpunished.

All duties are reciprocal. If you hope to obtain favour, endeavour to deserve it. A steady perseverance in the duties of your station is the only sure course infallibly to promote your progress to independence.

In addition to the foregoing, we should deem ourselves guilty of the sin of omission, were we not to insert the very excellent moral hints to female servants, written by the Rev. H. G. Watkins, in furtherance of the views of the London Society, for the improvement and encouragement of female servants.

[We have great pleasure in mentioning this society, the object of which is, to promote the moral and religious improvement of female servants.

The society bestows annual rewards, on those who are duly nominated, to encourage them to view their employers as their friends, to be correct and trust-worthy in their conduct, and to continue as long as possible in the same service.

To prevent, also, the hazard to good servants of resorting to common Register Offices, a Registry is instituted, to which—cooks, house-maids, and nurses, wanting situations, who have lived two years in one service—servants of all work who have lived one year in their last place—and young women above sixteen, who[31] have never been in service—may apply, without any expense whatever.

Plans of the institution, and rules of the registry, may be had gratis, at the society’s house, No. 110, Hatton Garden, where attendance is given on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays only, from ten o’clock to four.]

Though much of this address is applicable to servants of both sexes, yet, it is for the assistance of domestic female servants, that such plain advice is here offered, as, it is hoped, may be found useful in the direction of their conduct, and for the promotion of their comfort. As many servants cannot enjoy the daily counsel of their parents, we endeavor to supply their place, by entering into more particulars, in the way of caution and advice, than we otherwise should have thought it right to do.

When young persons first enter upon service, they should be thankful to God if they have obtained a situation where they may be instructed in those domestic duties which are to be the business of their lives. They ought also to be very thankful, and very submissive, to those who will take the trouble to teach them. Such cannot shew their gratitude in a better way than by continuing, as long as possible, in their first service. Endeavour, during this season, to remember, by thinking often upon, every direction you receive. This will prevent the trouble and vexation of often repeating to you the same thing—a circumstance which frequently makes even good mistresses fretful, and occasions many changes of places and servants.—Habituate yourself, as much as possible, to every kind of domestic service; it will[32] make you to be more generally useful, and less likely to be long unengaged. Here may be hinted, the great importance to your character, of lodging, when out of place, with only respectable persons. Avoid sauntering in the street, especially in the evening, and ask your way, not from those who are passing, but at a shop.

Make it your daily study and concern in all things to maintain an unblemished character. You may then always hope to find a new situation, if you need one, through the medium of your last mistress, or your own friends; for very good employers, or very good servants, seldom need apply to common Register Offices. It is a fact well ascertained, that many females, totally unconscious of their danger, have been hired from such offices, as servants, by keepers of infamous houses, for no other actual purpose than that of seduction, or prostitution! Many decent looking, but wicked women, are employed, even in the streets, to find out, and strongly recommend, young girls to places as servants. By this horrible deceit, many artless females are unawares drawn into disgrace, disease, and hasty death!

In your application at any time for a new service, express yourself with frankness and sincerity on every point of enquiry—Avoid the error of requiring too high wages—many good situations have been lost through it. Do not undertake a service to which you are not competent. It is no disgrace not to know every thing; but it is dishonest to say you can do things which are beyond your capacity.

It is really important to your good here and hereafter, to stipulate for attending public worship[33] once at least on every Sabbath-day. A good mistress, who wishes to keep a good servant, will afford other and better opportunities for seeing your friends. Sunday pleasures, in which there is generally a sad mixture of company, put a young woman in the highway of danger—and of ruin!

In commencing a new service, determine to do your duty in it; and avoid every thing that you found was displeasing in your former place. Judge of your employers from your own observation, and their behaviour to you, and not from any idle reports you may hear to their prejudice. Should you find yourself in a reputable situation, but yet are uncomfortable, through the unkind or unfeeling tempers of your superiors, double your own diligence and civility, and avoid every thing, as much as possible, that might, however unwarrantably, excite their suspicion. By this you may improve their temper and conduct towards yourself; and the very vexation they have occasioned, may dispose them to make their domestics more comfortable, and themselves more happy.

Endeavour to serve with such good will, readiness of mind, and attention to the lawful interest and convenience of your employers, as to render your services almost necessary to them; that they may know and feel that they are blessed, above many of their neighbours, in having gotten a good servant, one who serves, not with eye-service as a man-pleaser, but in simplicity of heart as a Christian. You will be sure to gain esteem by cheerfully doing any lawful necessary service; though it were not agreed for when you were hired.


Whatever qualifications you may possess, if you are not scrupulously honest, you will soon be detected—considered as worthless—and dismissed your service. No civility or diligence can be a recompence for dishonesty. The more you are entrusted, the more careful you should be to maintain the confidence reposed in you. Avoid all lotteries, gaming, and secret modes of spending money. Take care that you are not deceived by the name of privileges and perquisites, beyond what was agreed upon.

A waste of household necessaries, and the breaking of articles through carelessness, are a sort of robbery of your employer—raise bad passions—and mostly deprive a servant of many extra encouragements that she would otherwise receive. These things are therefore to be strictly guarded against. There should be painted over every kitchen fire-place, “want not—waste not.”

Every employer has a right to establish rules for his household; therefore, do nothing in your master’s house, or with your mistress’s business, that you feel obliged to conceal, to keep your situation; for then, you may depend upon it, whatever it be, it is wrong in itself, and will bring you to harm.

Industry is necessary for all, that they may lead a useful life; but it is especially needful to those who engage to serve others. Idleness hath clothed many with rags. Your wages are the yearly pay for your honesty, and your time; therefore lying late in bed, or being over long on errands, or making frivolous excuses to be from home, have occasioned many suspicions—deprived many of good places,[35] and eventually of good characters. “He that is slothful in his work is brother to him that is a great waster.” Exercise due diligence as to what are the particular duties of your station. Make it your study to put it out of the power of a reasonable mistress to find fault.

Dress as becomes your station, if you desire to please your employers,—to avoid personal harm, and to diminish the number and power of your temptations. The happiness of society arises from each of us keeping in our station, and being contented with it. Among other ways of shewing your wisdom, dressing clean and neat, is of the greatest importance. By this means, you may save a little money to assist your relations, or yourself when unemployed, or in time of need.[3]

Mildness of behaviour will help you through many difficulties. If your temper be hasty, your duty and interest are to govern and subdue it. Our comfort requires us to be patient with other people, and very watchful over our own tempers. “Do all things without murmuring or disputing. A soft answer turneth away wrath, but grievous words stir up strife.” Mere hastiness of temper and of tongue, or the neglect to consider consequences, has crowded the gaols with malefactors,—the streets with prostitutes,—and the workhouses with poor.

Young Persons, Female Servants, and others of a similar rank in life, we more especially address ourselves to you! You think with horror of murder, and of prostitution; but you perhaps little reflect, that idleness and[36] self-will,—that the love of dress, and of indulgence,—that petty acts of dishonesty,—that misbehaviour in a place—that refusing to submit to reproof,—that rashly throwing yourselves out of a situation in a regular family,—that wasting your money, and thus leaving yourselves unprovided for when out of employment,—that breaking the Sabbath, and particularly rambling about in idle company on the evenings of the Sabbath-day—you perhaps little reflect that these, or any of these evil practices, or habits, may lead you, and that by no very long or winding path, to the atrocious crimes which I have mentioned. Act therefore on consideration and reason, and not by passion. You know not how you may irritate, and what mischief may follow. Many a servant has lost a comfortable home, and a mistress a useful assistant, by suffering passion to run headlong into imprudent expressions. You are more interested in retaining a good service, than your employer in retaining you; for she will continue to find suitable servants, while you may be depriving yourself, for a long time, of bread!

A female servant should never make friendships with, or take the advice of, milk people, butchers’ or bakers’ servants, keepers of chandlers’ shops, green-stalls, charwomen, &c.; for mostly they seek only their own interest and profit in every thing. If any proposal that is new, or unexpectedly profitable, force itself on your notice, do not act on your own opinion, nor hastily, but, confidentially, consult your mistress, or some relation, else you may be as hastily ensnared to your utter undoing.


For want of the confidence and esteem I allude to, there seems to be, in most families, two separate interests—that of the employers, and that of the servants.—Some servants communicate none of their personal affairs to their mistresses, and therefore mistresses are not incited to take any special interest in their future welfare. Hence, although such parties may live a considerable time together, they are almost strangers, and nothing like friendship can take place. This is a great loss to a servant. If you expect to have confidence placed in you, be sincere in all your expressions, and open, explicit, and communicative in all your dealings.

In regard of your fellow-servants—conduct yourselves with great caution towards those whose habits are immoral and irreligious—with studied discretion and modesty towards fellow-servants of the other sex, and with a constant good example before them all. This will oblige them to respect you, and speak well of you: but place yourself under obligation to none of them. Do nothing that you would wish them to keep secret for your sake. Whatever demands secrecy, you may be sure it is wrong for you to do, or suffer to be done. If you connive with fellow-servants, or low tradesmen, at any thing fraudulent, you are defrauding a master or mistress, whose property you are bound to watch and protect; and you incur the guilt and shame of the fraud, though you may not participate in the gain.

As far as you can, give good advice to your fellow-servants, especially younger ones—read the Bible to those who cannot, and, if you have time, teach them to read it for themselves,[38] and pray with them, and for them. This conduct will promote good will, and may preserve the young and unwary from evil.[4]

Servants in other families ought not to be told the peculiar habits and conduct of your own employers, except it be done to their commendation; for it may create disrespect, and can do no good.

In all cases, one way to escape harm is to be diligent and useful. Let others see that you are virtuous from principle, and wish to set a good example, and you will not be assailed by the temptations of the designing and wicked, as vain and trifling girls render themselves liable to be.

Be very careful of your reputation for virtue and discretion in regard of the other sex; for it is the foundation of your happiness in this world; and the loss of it will bring you to misery. Avoid as much as possible going out in the evening, especially on frivolous errands. Be cautious as to whom you give your company. “Evil communications corrupt good manners.” Never go to fairs, dances, nor to the theatres. Ask yourself, before you engage in any pleasuring scheme—what may be the probable end of it?

On all unnecessary occasions, avoid as much as possible being alone with the other sex: as the greatest mischiefs happen from small circumstances. Who that is wise would risk the loss of her virtue and happiness on mere[39] promises, made by men of worthless character, and which are made only to be broken? Never trust entirely to your own fortitude—it can only be tried by opportunity; and if, in this case, it fail but once, you are undone! The best resolve you can form is, never to give opportunity to the tempter. A reserved modesty is the best safeguard of virtue.

If a virtuous affection seems to be rising, be sure you instantly calculate on the age and temper, religious conduct, and probable ability of the man to maintain a family, before you suffer your mind to be carried away, lest your affections run headlong, and at length are taken advantage of, to the complete loss of your comfort.

Servants, as well as others, are under peculiar obligation, to manifest a meek and quiet spirit—to follow, in their practice, Him who said, “I am meek and lowly in heart.” They will, therefore, submit to a few inconveniences, if, by so doing, they may be useful to their fellow-servants, by shewing a Christian spirit, and will consider daily, that self-denial, when our station may require it, is the duty of all.

Our Saviour has thus commanded us:—“Whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do ye even so to them.” This is a summary of the law and the prophets as to our conduct. It is a general rule, applicable in a thousand cases to persons in every situation. On its due observance by all the people of a house, each toward the other, depends the measure of comfort which may be attained in the present state. The Rule is so reasonable, so just, and so useful, that the neglect of it shews the sad state of our fallen nature. Put[40] yourself, for a moment, in the place of your master, mistress, or fellow-servants; and then judge what you might fairly and justly expect from the servants in the same house. Were you a mistress, you would expect all those duties to be discharged by your servants, which we recommend, and consequently, the mistress, whom you actually serve, justly expects these things from you. Where this mode of thinking and acting is adopted, it prevents many disputes—maintains peace in the house—or soon restores it, if, on some uncomfortable occasion, it happens to have been lost. None of us are without some failings. The best of people are very far from being, at all times, so good as they should be, therefore good servants and good employers will endeavour to put the best construction they can on each others conduct; and judge of each other rather by the general behaviour, than by any particular action.

Obedience is the grand duty which includes almost every other, in the relation between masters and mistresses, and servants. Disobedience to lawful commands in a servant is dishonesty. Act therefore with submission to the will and judgment of your superiors. If they require things to be done, that are contrary to the laws of God or man, you may with meekness decline them. If they constantly require the performance of what is beyond the reasonable limit of your strength, your ability, or your time, shew your obedience and respect, by explaining your reasons, when you signify your intention to leave. Whatever personal inconvenience you may feel, do not slander your employers, either abroad or at home,[41] respecting it, but apply to them for its removal. Always be contented and cheerful in your service, or respectfully retire from it. It is very unworthy to behave improperly, or to watch an opportunity to give warning, merely because you hope to gain higher wages in the next place. Rather respectfully ask for advance, and if you are a good servant, and your wish is not unreasonable, it will be granted. Never suffer yourself to leave a family, without leaving your best wishes for the welfare of those whom you have served.

It is a more serious thing to leave a good situation than many are aware of. You may never obtain such another place, all things considered; and may be long unsettled. “A rolling stone gathers no moss.” A servant that is not stationary seldom obtains friends that are able and willing to assist her. You now know all the inconveniences that attend your present situation, but you cannot know whether much greater may not be found in the next you obtain. Most situations have their advantages and disadvantages. Calculate, as far as you can, upon both, as they are found in the place where you now are. Higher wages for another service is no proof that it would be a better one, all things considered.

Nothing is so comfortable and creditable to all parties, as when a servant lives many years in the same family. Such servants never want a real friend. Though you may perhaps obtain a new service by a three months’ character, you will be respected if you have lived three years in your situation, but still more, if you have lived seven.

The great master principle of all faithful[42] service is an earnest desire and endeavor to act according to the will of God. The reason why servants as well as others, are so defective and partial in the discharge of their duties, and therefore are so often uncomfortable and distressed, is, that they are not influenced as they ought to be, by this principle. Those, who think of their need of God’s help, and love him with their hearts, and minds, and strength, he will love and honor. “I love them that love me,” saith the Almighty. “They that honor me, I will honor; and those who despise me, shall be lightly esteemed.”

The celebrated Dean Swift, of facetious memory, who was a man of great genius and talent, and had an extensive knowledge of the world, in his burlesque Advice to Servants, by holding up their faults and vices as laudable examples for imitation, teaches them, in one continued vein of sarcastic irony, what they ought not to do;—we therefore transcribe a considerable portion thereof, by way of negative advice.—Good servants will applaud this artifice, and bad ones will feel its force.

“When your master or lady calls a servant by name, if the servant be not in the way, none of you are to answer, for then there will be no end of your drudgery: and masters themselves allow, that if a servant comes when he is called, it is sufficient.

“When you have done a fault, be always pert and insolent, and behave yourself as if you were the injured person; this will immediately put your master or lady off their mettle.

“If you see your master wronged by any of your fellow-servants, be sure to conceal it, for fear of being called a tell-tale: however, there is one exception in case of a favourite[43] servant, who is justly hated by the whole family; and you are bound in prudence to lay all the faults you can upon the favourite.

“The cook, the butler, the groom, the market-man, and every other servant who is concerned in the expenses of the family, should act as if his master’s whole estate ought to be applied to that servant’s particular business. For instance, if the cook computes his master’s estate to be a thousand pounds a year, she reasonably concludes that a thousand pounds a year will afford meat enough, and therefore, he need not be sparing; the butler makes the same judgment, so may the groom and the coachman; and thus every branch of expense will be filled to your master’s honour.

“When you are chid before company, it often happens that some stranger will have the good-nature to drop a word in your excuse;—in such a case you will have a good title to justify yourself, and may rightly conclude, that, whenever he chides you afterwards, on other occasions, he may be in the wrong; in which opinion you will be the better confirmed by stating the case to your fellow-servants in your own way, who will certainly decide in your favour;—therefore, as I have said before, whenever you are chidden, complain as if you were injured.

“It often happens, that servants sent on messages are apt to stay out somewhat longer than the message requires, perhaps two, four, six, or eight hours, or some such trifle; for the temptation to be sure was great, and flesh and blood cannot always resist: when you return, the master storms, the lady scolds; stripping, cudgelling, and turning off, is the word. But here you ought to be provided with a set of excuses, enough to serve on all occasions: for instance, your uncle came fourscore miles to town this morning on purpose to see you, and goes back by break of day to-morrow:—a brother servant that borrowed money of you when he was out of place, was running to Ireland:—you were taking leave of an old fellow-servant, who was shipping for Barbadoes:—your father sent a cow to you to sell, and you could not get a chapman for her till nine at night:—you wrenched your foot against a stone, and were forced to stay three hours in a shop, before you could stir a step:—a bailiff, by mistake, seized you for a debtor, and kept you the whole evening in a spunging house, &c. &c.

“Take all tradesmen’s parts against your master; and when you are sent to buy anything, never offer to cheapen it, but generously pay the full demand. This is highly to your master’s honour; and may be some shillings in your pocket; and you are to consider, if your master has paid too much, he can better afford the loss than a poor tradesman.

“Never submit to stir a finger in any business, but that for[44] which you were particularly hired. For example, if the groom be drunk, or absent, and the butler be ordered to shut the stable-door, the answer is ready, An’t please your honour, I don’t understand horses. If a corner of the hangings wants a single nail to fasten it, and the footman be directed to tack it up, he may say, he doth not understand that sort of work, but his honour may send for the upholsterer.

“Masters and ladies are usually quarrelling with the servants for not shutting the doors after them: for neither masters nor ladies consider, that those doors must be open before they can be shut, and the labour is double to open and shut them; therefore the best, the shortest, and the easiest way is to do neither. But if you are so often teazed to shut the door, that you cannot easily forget; then give the door such a clap as you go out, as will shake the whole room, and make every thing rattle in it, to put your master and lady in mind that you observe their directions.

“If you find yourself to grow in favour with your master or lady, take some opportunity in a very mild way to give them warning; and when they ask the reason, and seem loth to part with you, answer that you would rather live with them than any body else, but a poor servant is not to be blamed if he strives to better himself;—that service is no inheritance,—that your work is great, and your wages very small. Upon which, if your master hath any generosity, he will add five or ten shillings a quarter rather than let you go: but if you are baulked, and have no mind to go off, get some fellow-servant to tell your master, that he hath prevailed upon you to stay.

“Whatever tid bits you can pilfer in the day, save them to juncket with your fellow-servants at night, and take in the butler, provided he will give you drink.

“Write your own name, and your sweet-heart’s, with the smoke of a candle, on the ceiling of the kitchen, or the servants’-hall, to shew your learning.

“If you are a young sightly fellow, whenever you whisper your young mistress at tea-table, run your nose full in her cheek; or, if your breath be good, breath full in her face; this I have known to have had very good consequences in some families.

“Never come till you have been called three or four times, for none but dogs will come at the first whistle: and when the master calls, Who’s there? no servant is bound to come; for Who’s there is nobody’s name.

“When you have broken all your earthen drinking-vessels below stairs (which is usually done in a week), the copper pot will do as well; it can boil milk, heat porridge, hold small beer, or, in case of necessity, serve other purposes;[45] therefore apply it indifferently to all these uses; but never wash or scour it, for fear of taking off the tin.

“Let it be a constant rule, that no chair, stool, or table, in the servants’-hall, or the kitchen, shall have above three legs, which hath been the ancient and constant practice in all the families I ever knew, and is said to be founded upon two reasons; first, to shew that servants are ever in a tottering condition; secondly, it was thought a point of humility, that the servants’ chairs and tables should have at least one leg fewer than those of their masters. I grant there hath been an exception to this rule with regard to the cook, who by old custom was allowed an easy chair to sleep in after dinner; and yet I have seldom seen them with above three legs. Now this epidemical lameness of servants’ chairs is by philosophers imputed to two causes, which are observed to make the greatest revolutions in states and empires; I mean, love and war. A stool, a chair, or a table, is the first weapon taken up in a general romping or skirmish; and after a peace, the chairs are apt to suffer in the conduct of an amour, the cook being usually fat and heavy, and the butler a little in drink.

“When you stop to tattle with some crony servant, in the same street, leave your own street-door open, that you may get in without knocking when you come back; otherwise your mistress may know you are gone out, and you may be chidden.

“I do most earnestly exhort you all to unanimity and concord: but mistake me not: you may quarrel with each other as much as you please; only always bear in mind, that you have a common enemy, which is your master and lady, and you have a common cause to defend. Believe an old practitioner; whoever, out of malice to a fellow-servant, carries a tale to his master, will be ruined by a general confederacy against him.

“The general place for rendezvous for all the servants, both in winter and summer, is the kitchen: there the grand affairs of the family ought to be consulted; whether they concern the stable, the dairy, the pantry, the laundry, the cellar, the nursery, the dining-room, or my lady’s chamber: there, as in your own proper element, you can laugh, and squall, and romp in full security.

“When any servant comes home drunk, and cannot appear, you must all join in telling your master, that he is gone to bed very sick; upon which your lady will be so good-natured as to order some comfortable thing for the poor man, or maid.

“When your master and lady go abroad together, to dinner, or on a visit for the evening, you need leave only one servant in the house, or even one black-guard boy to answer[46] at the door, and attend the children, if there be any. Who is to stay at home is to be determined by long and short cuts; and the stayer at home may be comforted by a visit from a sweet-heart, without danger of being caught together. These opportunities must never be missed, because they come but seldom, and all is safe enough while there is a servant in the house.

“When your master or lady comes home, and wants a servant who happens to be abroad, your answer must be, that he had but just that minute stept out, being sent for by a cousin who was dying.

“If your master calls you by name, and you happen to answer at the fourth call, you need not hurry yourself; and if you be chidden for staying, you may lawfully say, you came no sooner, because you did not know what you were called for.

“When you are chidden for a fault, as you go out of the room, and down stairs, mutter loud enough to be plainly heard; this will make him believe you are innocent.

“Whoever comes to visit your master or lady when they are abroad, never burthen your memory with the person’s name; for, indeed, you have too many other things to remember. Besides, it is a porter’s business, and your master’s fault he does not keep one; and who can remember names? and you will certainly mistake them; as you can neither write nor read.

“If it be possible, never tell a lie to your master or lady, unless you have some hopes that they cannot find it out in less than half an hour. When a servant is turned off, all his faults must be told, although most of them were never known by his master or lady; and all mischiefs done by others, charged to him. [Instance them.] And when they ask any of you, why you never acquainted them before? the answer is, Sir, or Madam, really I was afraid it would make you angry; and besides, perhaps, you might think it was malice in me. Where there are little masters and misses in a house, they are usually great impediments to the diversions of the servants; the only remedy is to bribe them with goody goodies, that they may not tell tales to papa and mamma.

“I advise you of the servants, whose master lives in the country, and who expect vales, always to stand rank and file when a stranger is taking his leave, so that he must of necessity pass between you; and he must have more confidence or less money than usual if any of you let him escape; and according as he behaves himself, remember to treat him the next time he comes.

“If you are sent with ready money to buy any thing at a shop and happen at that time to be out of cash, sink the[47] money, and take up the goods on your master’s account. This is for the honour of your master and yourself; for he becomes a man of credit at your recommendation.

“When your lady sends for you up to her chamber to give you any orders, be sure to stand at the door, and keep it open, fiddling with the lock all the while she is talking to you; and keep the handle in your hand, for fear you should forget to shut the door after you.

“If your master or lady happen once in their lives to accuse you wrongfully, you are a happy servant; for you have nothing more to do, than, for every fault you commit while you are in their service, to put them in mind of that false accusation, and protest yourself equally innocent in the present case.

“When you have a mind to leave your master, and are too bashful to break the matter for fear of offending him, the best way is to grow rude and saucy of a sudden, and beyond your usual behaviour, till he finds it necessary to turn you off; and when you are gone, to revenge yourself, give him and his lady such a character to all your brother-servants who are out of place, that none will venture to offer their service.

“Some nice ladies, who are afraid of catching cold, having observed that the maids and fellows below stairs often forget to shut the doors after them, as they come in, or go out into the back yards, have contrived that a pulley and a rope, with a large piece of lead at the end, should be so fixt, as to make the door shut of itself, and require a strong hand to open it, which is an immense toil to servants, whose business may force them to go in and out fifty times in a morning: but ingenuity can do much, for prudent servants have found out an effectual remedy against this insupportable grievance, by tying up the pulley in such a manner, that the weight of lead shall have no effect; however, as to my own part, I would rather chuse to keep the door always open, by laying a heavy stone at the bottom of it.

“The servants’ candlesticks are generally broken, for nothing can last for ever. But you may find out many expedients; you may conveniently stick your candle in a bottle, or with a lump of butter against the wainscot, in a powder-horn, or in an old shoe, or in a cleft stick, or in the barrel of a pistol, or upon its own grease on a table, in a coffee-cup, or a drinking-glass, a horn-can, a tea-pot, a twisted napkin, a mustard-pot, an ink-horn, a marrow-bone, a piece of dough, or you may cut a hole in the loaf, and stick it there.

“When you invite the neighbouring servants to junket with you at home in an evening, teach them a peculiar way of tapping or scraping at the kitchen-window, which you[48] may hear, but not your master or lady, whom you must take care not to disturb or frighten at such unseasonable hours.

“Lay all faults upon a lap-dog, or favourite cat, a monkey, parrot, a child; or on the servant who was last turned off: by this rule you will excuse yourself, do no hurt to any body else, and save your master or lady from the trouble and vexation of chiding.

“When you want proper instruments for any work you are about, use all expedients you can invent, rather than leave your work undone. For instance, if the poker be out of the way, or broken, stir the fire with the tongs; if the tongs be not at hand, use the muzzle of the bellows, the wrong end of the fire-shovel, the handle of the fire-brush, the end of a mop, or your master’s cane. If you want paper to singe a fowl, tear the first book you see about the house. Wipe your shoes, for want of a clout, with the bottom of a curtain, or a damask napkin. Strip off your livery lace for garters. If the butler wants a jordan, he may use the great silver cup.

“There are several ways of putting out candles, and you ought to be instructed in them all: you may run the candle-end against the wainscot, which puts the snuff out immediately: you may lay it on the ground, and tread the snuff out with your foot: you may hold it upside down, until it is choaked with its own grease; or cram it into the socket of the candlestick: you may whirl it round in your hand till it goes out: you may spit on your finger and thumb, and pinch the snuff till it goes out. The cook may run the candle’s nose into the meal-tub, or the groom into a vessel of oats, or a lock of hay, or a heap of litter: the house-maid may put her candle out by running it against a looking-glass, which nothing cleans so well as candle-snuff: but the quickest and best of all methods is, to blow it out with your breath, which leaves the candle clear, and readier to be lighted.

“There is nothing so pernicious in a family as a tell-tale, against whom it must be the principal business of you all to unite: whatever office he serves in, take all opportunities to spoil the business he is about, and to cross him in every thing. For instance, if the butler be a tell-tale, break his glasses whenever he leaves the pantry door open; or lock the cat or the mastiff in it, who will do as well: mislay a fork or a spoon, so as he may never find it. If it be the cook, whenever she turns her back, throw a lump of soot or a handful of salt in the pot, or smoking coals into the dripping-pan, or daub the roast meat with the back of the chimney, or hide the key of the jack. If a footman be suspected, let the cook daub the back of his new livery; or[49] when he is going up with a dish of soup, let her follow him softly with a ladle-full, and dribble it all the way up stairs to the dining-room; and then let the house-maid make such a noise, that her lady may hear it. The waiting-maid is very likely to be guilty of this fault, in hopes to ingratiate herself: in this case, the laundress must be sure to tear her shifts in the washing, and yet wash them but half; and, when she complains, tell all the house that she sweats so much, and her flesh is so nasty, that she fouls a shift more in one hour, than the kitchen-maid doth in a week.”





Although it is obvious that a good education can be no impediment to domestic management, but may be of material assistance in the furtherance of family comforts, yet it is pleasing to reflect that many of the essential duties of life are within the reach of less exalted attainments; and that the woman who has been reared in useful pursuits, and whose chief aim is to perform the social obligations, will seldom fail of acquitting herself with credit and satisfaction, and especially if accompanied with that well-directed ductility of mind which bends its attention to the lesser objects of life, and is frequently found to be essential in the management of a family.

A housekeeper possessed of such facilities, as a ground-work for other qualifications, must be a desirable acquisition in a family where the mistress is of rank and consideration, and feels herself superior to the management of her own household affairs. Indeed, the situation of a housekeeper, in almost every family, is of great importance.—She superintends nearly the whole of the domestic[52] establishment,—has generally the controul and direction of the servants, particularly of the female servants—has the care of the household furniture and linen—of all the grocery—dried and other fruits, spices, condiments, soap, candles, and stores of all kinds, for culinary and other domestic uses. She makes all the pickles, preserves, and sometimes the best pastry—She generally distils and prepares all the compound and simple waters, and spirits, essential and other oils, perfumery, cosmetics, and similar articles that are prepared at home, for domestic purposes. In short, she is the locum tenens, the Lady Bountiful, and the active representative of the mistress of the family; and is expected to do, or to see done, every thing that appertains to the good and orderly management of the household.

She ought to be a steady middle-aged woman, of great experience in her profession, and a tolerable knowledge of the world.—In her conduct, she should be moral, exemplary, and assiduous, as the harmony, comfort, and economy of the family will greatly depend on her example; and she must know, that no occurrence can be too trifling for her attention, that may lead to these results, and whereby waste and unnecessary expense may be avoided.

When the entire management of the servants is deputed to her, her situation becomes the more arduous and important. She will invite and excite their integrity, frugality, and assiduity, by her own liberal conduct towards them, and will shew them, that “according to their pains will be their gains.” Thus will she give encouragement to merit, ensure to herself respectful attention, inspire zeal, and[53] exact a grateful return from all whose dispositions are tractable; she will also find such conduct tend much to her own comfort, and greatly to promote the interest of her principals. She will never discharge a good servant for a slight offence; but will remember, that “to bear and to forbear is the great art of living.” She will endeavour to govern with suavity and mildness; ever stimulating to good conduct, by admonition or praise, when deserved, rather than seeking by threats or harsh measures to correct trifling faults or inadvertencies;—imposing no commands that are unreasonable, nor reproving but with justice and temper. If servants have hardships to undergo, she will let them see, that she feels for the necessity of urging them. To cherish the desire of pleasing in them, she will convince them, that they may succeed in their endeavours to please her. Human nature is the same in all stations. Convince the servants that you have a considerate regard for their comforts, and they will be found to be grateful, and to reward your attention by their own assiduity: besides, nothing is so endearing as being courteous to our inferiors. A most excellent maxim is,

“Be to their faults a little blind,
And to their virtues very kind.”

By these, and similar means, bad servants may be converted into good ones, and the whole household rendered comfortable and happy.

The prudent housekeeper will carefully avoid all approaches to familiarity; as that destroys subordination, and ultimately induces contempt; and then, “Her occupation’s gone.” When servants are indisposed, she will best[54] consult the feelings of her superiors, as well as her own, by remitting their labours, paying them attention, giving them advice, and the assistance of suitable food and comfort. Tenderness and assiduity, in such cases, have great effect;—and in the language of humanity, is half a cure.

Female servants who would pursue an honest course, have numberless difficulties to contend with, and should, therefore, be treated kindly. The housekeeper in a great family, has ample means of doing good; and she will, doubtless, recollect that it is a part of her duty to protect and encourage virtue, as the best preventive from vice.

It behoves every servant to maintain a good character, nor ought it to be refused when due.—Servants have nothing to depend on but their good name, which it would be the height of injustice wantonly to deprive them of.[5] It ought to be made a point, by all persons hiring servants, most scrupulously to enquire into their characters, from their last places.—To refuse countenance to the bad, and to encourage the good servant, are indispensable duties which we owe to society.

In families where there is a house-steward, the marketing will be done, and the tradesmen’s bills will be collected, examined, and discharged, by him; but in many families, the business of marketing, and of keeping the accounts, devolves on the housekeeper. It is, therefore, incumbent on her to be well informed of the prices and qualities of all articles[55] of household consumption in general use; and of the best times and seasons for procuring them, in order that by comparing prices and qualities, she may be able to substitute those that are most reasonable, but equally to her purpose, and best attainable, for others that are more costly or more scarce.[6]

Before the housekeeper goes to market, she will look over the larder with the cook, especially when company is expected, and on a Saturday, and consider well what things are wanted, not forgetting even the smaller articles, that so there may be no necessity for sending out in a hurry, or on a Sunday, for any thing.

The best and most economical way possible for marketing, is to pay ready money for all that you can, especially for miscellaneous articles, and to deal for the rest with the most respectable tradesmen, whose bills should be settled weekly, or, at any rate, frequently, to prevent mistakes; without these precautions, even those of much experience, may chance to be cheated by unprincipled strangers, with old poultry—stale fish—tough mutton—or cow beef.—It should always be recollected, that without good provisions the skill of the cook will avail nothing.

But, by whomsoever the provisions may be bought, it behoves the housekeeper to examine them as they come in,—to see that in weight and measure they agree with the tickets sent with them,—and to make the necessary[56] arrangements, in conjunction with the cook, for their due appropriation.[7]

Besides being a good market-woman, the housekeeper ought to be ready at figures, and to understand the nature of common accounts, as it will generally be her business to keep the detailed accounts of the family, to examine the tradesmen’s bills by the checks, to pay them, and pay for all miscellaneous articles as they are brought in, for which vouchers must be given, to be produced when the account is settled; and to avoid the possibility of mistake, this should be done weekly, or at short and stated periods; for this purpose, a book must be kept, in which entry should immediately be made, of all monies paid, and in the evening, the book should be cast up, and compared with the cash in hand, by which means, any omission that might have taken place in the course of the day may easily be recollected and set right, and the account will be ready for inspection when called for.

The elegant and tasteful arrangement of the table is a very essential object in every Establishment; and when that department devolves on the housekeeper, will require her very serious consideration; as much of the credit and respectability of the family will depend on her.—Economy, taste, and tact must necessarily be displayed, and its execution involves much judgment, great attention, and unceasing assiduity. In order to have a table well served, and tastefully arranged, the skill[57] and ingenuity of the cook, as well as the housekeeper, will be required—of the cook to dress it according to the fashion, and of the housekeeper, afterwards, to see that it be dished and served up according to the present costume.[8]

The etiquette of the table being arranged by the bill of fare, previously made out, and the dishes laid in order below stairs; it is the province of the housekeeper, when dinner is served up, to see that the butler has placed them properly on the table above; this requires a quick glance of the eye, and a correct taste to measure distances,—and to see that the dishes accord with each other, and thereby form a pleasing, inviting, and well-grouped picture.[9]

The housekeeper will employ the little leisure time she may have before the servants’ dinner hour, which in most families is generally early, in preparing the best pastry, or in doing any other things she can assist in, preparatory to the family dinner; at any rate, she will look around and see that the household business is, every where, going on regularly, and the culinary preparations getting forward. She then takes her seat at the head of the table, in the steward’s, or her own room, with the principal female servants and the men not in[58] livery. In this situation she will have to carve, and as she will occasionally be required to assist the cook in dissecting a dish to be sent up stairs, it is indispensably necessary that she be proficient in the art of carving: and besides, to carve meat well, is a great saving.[10] It would argue prudence and economy in her, to see that the pieces of bread which are brought down stairs, be eaten at this table, or in the servants’-hall, and it would be extravagance to suffer new bread to be eaten below stairs.

When the dinner is gone up, her attention will be directed to the dessert, which she prepares and lays out in her own room, previous to the removal of the cloth above stairs; when she makes her appearance with it, and arranges it on the dining-room table.

The Housekeeper now begins to find herself at leisure; by this time too, the maids will have done the principal part of their work above stairs, and the cook, kitchen-maid, and scullion, have washed up, and cleared away every thing, and cleaned up the kitchen.—After tea, the provident housekeeper will begin to think about to-morrow; evening being the best time for preparing all things that are likely to be wanted soon.—Small quantities of spices should be pounded and ground, and laid by in bottles, well corked, ready for use.—Much less spices are necessary, in gravies, &c. when thus prepared, than when boiled whole.—Raisins may be stoned, if wanted next day.—Currants may be washed, picked, and perfectly dried. White sugars should be broken,[59] or pounded, rolled with a bottle, and sifted. Some of the oranges and lemons, to be used for juice, should be pared, and the rind put by to dry; and of some, when squeezed, and the pulp scraped out, the rinds may be kept dry for grating.

[The Salary of the Housekeeper is from twenty-five to fifty guineas per annum, dependent on the extent of the family, and the nature of the business she undertakes.]

Useful Memorandums.

Provisions that will keep, should be laid in in quantities when cheapest, to be ready when wanted.—The best of all kinds are the most economical, not only because they are best, but also, because they go furthest.

As sugar is an article of considerable expense, it is to be understood that, of the white sugars, the most refined goes furthest and sweetens best. Chuse those that are close, heavy, and shining.—The best sorts of the brown have a bright gravelly look. The coarser sorts are strongest and fittest for wines, sweetmeats, &c.

The only certain road to regularity, is to do every thing in its proper time—keep every thing in its proper place—and apply every thing to its proper use.

The great Dutch statesman, De Witt, attributed the whole art of dispatching a multitude of business, to the doing of one thing at a time.

The want of regularity gives to families the appearance of chance and confusion; on the contrary, order in a family is productive of much happiness.


Accustom all the servants under your direction to rise early, and let them breakfast at an early hour. If orders be given betimes in the morning, there will be more time to execute them,—servants will perform their work with more ease,—and less hands will be required. If the economy of time were duly considered, and a regular plan of daily employment laid down, much business may be effected without hurry or fatigue.

As some preparation is necessary in all families for accidental visitors, care should be taken to have things in readiness for lunch, chocolate, sandwiches, &c.

An inventory of furniture, linen, china, plate, &c. should be kept, and the articles examined by it twice a year, at least, or oftener if the servants be changed, and a correct list of the articles delivered into the care of the new servants should be kept.—House-cloths, knife-cloths, &c. should be numbered, and always be accounted for, either whole or in part—which would be done if a note were inserted at the top of the list of the articles delivered out.

Tin fenders, and other things that are painted, should be painted every year or two.—Tin vessels, if suffered to become damp, soon rust, and are eaten into holes.

The best way to scald fruits or to boil vinegar is, to put it in a stone jar on an iron hearth—or to put the jar in a saucepan of boiling water, called a water bath.


These rooms are entirely under the management[61] of the housekeeper. The store-room is appropriated as a depository for such imperishable articles of household consumption as are in continual request, and may be laid up, when purchased in quantities,—at times when cheapest,—most in season, or best—to be ready at hand when wanted.

Let every thing, not only here, but all over the house, be kept in its proper place, applied to its proper use, and replaced when worn out or destroyed.

N. B. To save the trouble of referring to different places, for the several methods of storing or preserving many articles which are proper to be kept, we shall insert under this head every thing of this description that may occur to us.

Soap will be the better for keeping—indeed, it should not be used when newly made. The cakes should be cut with a wire or string, into oblong squares, and laid up, on a dry shelf, a little distance apart, and across each other, so as to admit the air betwixt them, to harden it.—This method will save one third. Note,—If dried fast, soap will crack and break when wetted.

Candles and soap made in cold weather, are best; and when the price of these articles are likely to be high, a reasonable stock of both should be laid in.—Candles, if kept packed in a chest, will be the better for keeping eight or ten months, and may be kept well, if necessary, for two years.

Starch should be bought when flour is cheap, and may be kept in a dry warm place, if closely covered, as long as may be necessary.


Loaf Sugars should be kept tied up in paper, and hung up in a dry place. Brown sugars should be kept covered up, and in a moderately dry place.

Sweetmeats, Preserves, &c. must be carefully kept from the air, and in a very dry place.

Teas, Coffee, Chocolate, Dried fruits, and generally, all kinds of Grocery and Condiments require to be kept dry and free from air.

The various kinds of seeds and rice, pearl-barley, oatmeal, &c. must be kept in a dry place, and be covered close, to preserve them from insects.

Bread is best kept in an earthern pan with a cover. A loaf should not be cut till it is a day old. The bread that is cut unnecessarily in the parlour, should be eaten at the second table before more is cut.

Writing and other papers, that are constantly wanted, should be bought by the ream or bundle, and kept in a dry place.

Apples should be spread, separately, on clean dry straw, on a dry upper floor, and care must be taken to preserve them from frost.—The Americans throw a clean canvas cloth over them, which will answer the purpose.

Pears should be hung up, singly, by the stalk in a dry place.

Grapes should be gathered before they are ripe, and may also be preserved hung up in single bunches the same way;—or they may be kept in saw-dust, in boxes with covers, to exclude the air—Every bunch being laid apart.

Oranges and Lemons, if bought when cheapest, may be preserved a long time,[63] packed in fine, dried sand, with their stems upwards, and kept from the influence of the air.

Fresh Meat, Poultry, Fish, &c. should be kept in a cool, airy place.

All salted and dried meats, hams, tongues, &c. should be tied up in strong paper, and must be kept in a cold, dry place, (not in the kitchen) else they will become musty and rancid.

Green Vegetables should be kept on a damp stone floor, and excluded from the air by a damp cloth thrown over them.

Carrots, Parsnips, and Beet-roots, must be kept in layers of dry sand for winter use. Neither these nor potatoes should be washed till wanted.

Potatoes must be carefully covered, to protect them from frost, in winter.

Onions should be tied in traces, and hung up in a cold dry place. If the root of each onion be seared, it can never grow.

Parsley should be cut close to the root, and dried in a warm room.

Truffles, Morels, &c. must be kept in bags in a dry place.

A bag should be kept to save all the waste rags; this will not only be economical, but will prevent litter.

For the management of savoury and sweet herbs, see Vegetables, p. 87.


The business of this servant is to wait on and assist the housekeeper; not only in the distillation of aromatic waters, spirits, and[64] oils,—in the making of essences, perfumery, &c. but also, in the making of pickles, preserves, pastry, and confectionary; in making coffee, &c. to go up stairs; in washing up the china; in the management and arrangement of the store-room; and whatever else she may have to employ her in.

[Wages from eight to twelve guineas per annum.]



The art of carving is an useful and elegant accomplishment; and, according to the fashion of the present day, cannot be too well understood by the Heads of Families. It may best be acquired by observation and practice; and to Young Ladies who can attend to the example of their parents, the following plain and familiar instructions may not be unacceptable.—A previous knowledge of the conformation of the several parts, and the peculiar nature of the article to be carved, will, with due attention, render the business easy, and it would be still more so, if the loins, breasts, and necks of mutton, lamb, and veal, were to be properly jointed and divided, before they are sent home.

The master and mistress of the family, who do The honours of the table, when dinner is announced, will see, of course, that the upper places are taken by the married ladies of the highest quality that are then present; the dowagers or widows next, and lastly, the unmarried ladies; all, nearly according to their respective ages. The gentlemen will be seated according to the same etiquette, which is perfectly understood by the fashionable world.[11]

Beef.The Surloin. This joint is brought to table with the skin side upwards—Cut off the outside, in the direction of the ribs, quite down to the bone, and take off slice after slice of a moderate thickness, in the same direction.—Or, you may cut through the middle of the sirloin. Give a little of the soft fat with each slice, which will be found covering the roll, on the inside. Give also, a little of[66] the roll, when preferred, as it is short-grained and tender. To get at this and the fat, turn the joint up, upon the chine-bone, and cut it across the ribs.

The Ribs are to be carved exactly in the same way.

The Edge-bone or isch (hip) bone. Cut off a thick outside slice from the upper surface, the whole length, horizontally, and follow the cut. The delicious soft fat, resembling marrow, will be found at the back of the bone, and the hard fat may be taken, in thin, horizontal slices, from the edge of the joint. The upper part of this joint is the richest and best.

The Buttock is to be carved in the same way.

The Breast-cut.—Cut off thin slices, either parallel with the ribs, or across. The fat on the upper side is firm and gristly, that on the under side soft, and more delicate; therefore offer that which is best liked.

Veal.The Fillet. This is the joint similar to a round of beef. Cut off a slice from the upper surface, evenly, as from a round or edge-bone of beef, and this outside is often preferred. The next slices should be cut thin and smoothly. With every slice give a little fat, and some of the stuffing, which lies under the flap.

The Breast. Separate the ribs from the brisket, across, where the bones are broken, and again, the gristly part of the breast-cut from the ribs, in the same direction. Give some of the gristly part, with a bone of the ribs or neck, and a little of the sweetbread, cut across the middle, to each person.

The Calf’s-head. Every part of this joint is rich and delicious. Cut it lengthwise, from the nose to the neck, passing the knife through the flesh under the eye, quite to the bone, all the way. The throat sweetbread lies in the thick part of the neck end, and delicious short slices of it may be taken off from the lower side, crosswise, to be given with the former. The eye is esteemed a great delicacy and[67] may be taken out with the point of a knife, and divided into two parts. Some fine lean will be found under the jaw-bone, when taken off, and the palate in the lower or under part of the head is deemed a dainty. Both sides of the head are to be carved alike. A part of the tongue and brains, which are usually served up in a separate dish, with egg sauce, must be given to each person.

Mutton.The Shoulder. This joint should be sent to table with the back upwards, and with paper twisted round the shank. When properly roasted, it is very full of gravy, and has many nice parts. The first cut should be made in the thin, hollow part, and several slices may be taken thence. When that is all cut away, some fine slices may be taken from both sides of the ridge of the blade-bone, cutting straight up the back from the thick end towards the shank. The under side affords several nice cuts of fat and lean intermixed, and is full of gravy. Some prefer the jelly part near the knuckle;—the lean on the under side of the blade-bone, is the most tender. The fat lies in the round prominent part or flap, opposite the hollow part of the shoulder, which is cut lengthwise and a thin bit of this should be given to each person.—A shoulder of mutton over roasted is spoiled.

The Leg. When boiled, it should be served up lying on its back; but when roasted, with the back upwards. Cut into the hollow part a little distant from the knuckle, through the pope’s-eye, quite to the bone, and take out thin deep slices towards the thickest part. The back of the leg affords some nice slices at the thick end, which must be cut out the long way of the joint.—Slices of fat may also be taken from the under side, or back part of the leg, in the same direction. Some prefer the knuckle part, which, though dry, is full of jelly and very nutricious. The cramp-bone forms a slight prominence at the back of the leg, near the shank, and may be cut out by passing the knife round it. As[68] this is a heavy joint, some writing paper should be wrapped round the shank, to enable the carver the better to turn it up, with his left hand.

The Haunch, is to be carved in the same manner as venison.

The Saddle, is the two loins together. Cut out long thin slices on each side of the chine-bone, from the tail to the end. If any person like a part of the tail, it may be readily divided, the joints being about an inch apart. Rich gravy is found in the cut along the chine-bone, where the incision has been made.

The Loin may be carved the same way; or it may be cut the other way, in the direction of the bones.

Lamb.The Fore-quarter. Separate the shoulder from the ribs or breast, (by some called the crust or scoven,) taking care not to leave the bones bare. Then squeeze half a lemon or Seville orange, rub a slice of butter, and sprinkle a little pepper and salt over the ribs, and replace the shoulder for a few moments; after which, put the shoulder on another dish; and proceed to divide the neck from the breast, where the bones have been previously broken; then separate the gristly part from the breast, the whole length, and give a little of the gristle with each bone of the breast or neck, as may be chosen. If any part of the breast is to be put by to be eaten cold, let it be sprinkled while hot, with chopped parsley. All parts of young lamb are nice, but the shoulder of a fore-quarter is the least approved. It is to be carved as mutton.

The Hind-quarter, is usually divided into the leg and loin, and is to be carved as mutton. The close firm flesh about the knuckle is reckoned the best.

Pork.The Leg, whether roasted or boiled, is sent to table with the back upwards, like a leg of mutton roasted: it is to be carved as mutton.

A Ham may be carved three several ways; viz. The first and most common way is to cut off the[69] hock, and then to take off thin slices, in a circular manner, round the bone, towards the thick part and proceed as with venison. This is the most economical way.

The second way is to cut a round hole in the top of the ham with a sharp pointed knife, and to enlarge the circle by cutting out thin slices. This is a good way, as it keeps the meat moist, and preserves the gravy.

The other way is, to cut across, near the middle of the ham, quite down to the bone, and then to take off thin slices each way.

Tongue.—A tongue is to be cut across towards the thickest end; slices taken from that part, both ways, are the most tender and juicy; towards the tip of the tongue, the meat is hardest and dryest. For the fat and kernel, cut off a slice from the lower side of the root.

Sucking Pig.—The head and collar is usually cut off, and the carcase slit down the back into two equal parts; the head being also divided and laid at each end, and the ears on each side. But if the pig be sent up whole, before any one be helped, the shoulders and legs should be separated from the body, and the ribs divided into two or more parts; the shoulders may each be divided into two or more parts, also; and nice slices may be taken from the gammon and fleshy parts. The ribs are very delicious, but the collar and neck are most esteemed; the chaps are also much approved by many.

Venison.The Haunch. First make a deep incision across, down to the bone, towards the knuckle end, to let out the gravy; then turn the broad end towards you, and take off thinnish deep slices, lengthwise, from the cross cut to the end. The fat, which is the most delicious part, lies, as in a shoulder of mutton, in the round prominent part, which, when the broad end is towards you, will be on the left side. Give some of this, and also some of the gravy, with each slice.


Hare.—The best and readiest way to cut up a hare, is to put the point of the knife under the point of the shoulder, and cut all the way down to the rump, on both sides of the back at equal distances from the back-bone, dividing the body into three parts; the middle or back may then be cut across the spine, into four or more pieces. These are by far the most tender and delicate, and the fullest of gravy. The shoulders or wings must be taken off in a circular direction, and the legs may be easily separated from the belly. The shoulders and legs may each be divided. The pieces of the back, and the fleshy parts of the shoulders and legs, should be given with a spoonful of the stuffing and gravy to those most respected. This method can only be practised when the Hare is young. If it be old, do not endeavour to divide it lengthwise, but put the knife between the leg and back, and give it a turn inwards, at the joint, which you must try to hit.—A nice cut or two may then be taken from each side of the back-bone;—then divide the back into parts, and take off the wings, which are called the sportsman’s pieces. When all are helped, cut off the head, and separate the ears, close to the roots, which some may approve; then with your knife divide the upper from the lower jaw, and laying the upper one flat on your plate, enter the point of your knife in the centre near the back of the skull, and divide it in two. The head and brains are liked by some.

Rabbit.—A rabbit is to be carved as a hare in the latter way; but it being smaller, the body may be divided into fewer parts, and the head, the ears having been taken off, may be given, to any one who likes it.

Goose.—A goose, fowl, turkey, pheasant, and partridge, are to be cut up nearly alike. First cut off the apron of the goose, and pour into the body a glass of port wine, and the gravy, well mixed with a large teaspoonful of ready made mustard; then turn the neck towards you, and cut the whole breast into long slices quite down to the bone, and take[71] them off; turn the goose upon one side, and proceed to take off the leg, by putting the fork through the small end of the bone, and pressing it close to the body, which will raise the leg from the body and shew the direction in which the knife may be passed, in order to separate it; this may then be done by turning it back, but if it be an old bird, it will require some strength. To take off the wing, pass the fork into the small end of the pinion, and press it close to the body, then enter the knife at the point of the wing, and divide the joint (which requires some practice to hit cleverly) and separate it from the side. Next take off the merry-thought, at the neck end, across the body, and where it joins the body, on each side, you will find the joint of the neck bones, then put in the knife, and pass it the longest part of the bone, when you will lift it up and break it off from the breast bone, to which it is attached. All parts being thus separated from the carcase, divide the breast from the back by cutting through the tender ribs on each side from one end to the other. Then lay the back upwards, fix your fork under the rump, and pressing the edge of your knife hard across the back, lift up the rump, and the body will divide into two parts. The rump part may then be divided into three, cutting it lengthwise through the bones on each side of the back, and taking off the side-bones. It is not always necessary to cut up the whole goose, at once, but as you proceed, the breast may be distributed, the fleshy parts of the wings, when disjointed from the pinions, and the thigh parts of the legs, (the drum sticks being taken off), may next be given, remembering to draw out the sage and onions, gravy, &c. from the inside, and give a spoonful on each plate. The neck-bone and merry-thought are approved by some, and others approve different parts of the carcase, which are very savoury.

A Green Goose must be cut up the same way; and the best parts are the breast, and the gristle at the lower end of it.


Fowl.—Fowls, whether roasted or boiled, are to be cut up alike. The best way is to take the bird on your plate, and sticking your fork into the breast, upright, cut of slices, down the breast on each side, as long as you can; then proceed to take off the legs, by passing the knife between the legs and the body from the upper part of the thigh towards the rump. Next take off the wings by entering your knife at the point of the shoulder, and with your fork lift up the pinion and drawing the wing towards you, by which means it will separate very nicely without cutting. After this, take off the merry-thought, the neck-bones, and all the remaining parts, as described in the goose. The prime parts of a fowl are the wings, breast, and merry-thought: the legs are coarse dry, and of a darker colour, except those of a chick, which are full of gravy and most esteemed. The drum-sticks should be cut off from the legs of the fowl at the joint, when given.

Turkey.—A turkey is to be dissected as a fowl or goose, but it has no merry-thought. The white meats of a Turkey are best. The gizzard is sometimes scored in different directions, and when salted and peppered, it is sent down to be broiled; is divided into several parts, and sent round to the company as a bonne bouche.

Pheasant.—This bird is to be carved the same way as a fowl, first cutting off the head. The best parts of the pheasant are the breast, wings, and merry-thought; but the leg has a higher flavour. The head is sometimes preferred, because of the brains.

Partridge.—Partridges are to be carved as fowls.—The prime parts, as of nearly all birds, are the white meats; viz. the wings (the tip of which is reckoned the most delicious morsel,) the breast, and merry-thought.

Pigeons.—Pigeons are generally divided into two parts, to do which there are several ways; the most fashionable of which is, to cut from the top[73] of the leg on each side, quite through and across the body to the breast bone.

Fish,—in general, requires but little carving.

A Cod’s head. The thick fleshy part on the back and shoulders, close to the head, is most esteemed, but many parts of the jowl are very delicious, particularly those about the jaw-bones, which consist of a fine jelly. The tongue, palate, and firm parts about the back-bone on the shoulders are also considered as dainties.

Take off a large piece across the shoulders, close to the head, and quite through to the back-bone, this will lay bare the sound, which is under the back-bone, some of which should be taken out with a spoon, and given with every slice. Care must be taken to preserve the beautifully fine flakes of this fish entire.

Salmon and all other fish that have a short grain, should be cut with the slices the long way of the fish, and not across. The belly part is the richest and most esteemed of salmon, but the head, and particularly the jowl, afford many rich and delicate bits, which are much prized.



[We presume that the following will be found to be the best instructions on this important subject that have ever yet appeared in print.]


General observations respecting it.

The best of every kind of provision is cheapest, affords most nourishment, and goes farthest.

As this is the most nourishing of all animal food, and constitutes a considerable portion of our constant aliment, a knowledge, not only of the nature and properties of the several kinds of animals destined for our use, but also of the manner in which they have been bred and fed, would be very essential if to be obtained, as it would enable us to judge of their wholesomeness, and their fitness for our healthful support and nourishment.

The flesh of cattle, of all kinds, fatted in confined and filthy places, on oil-cakes, or rank and half-decayed vegetables, should be rejected, as unfit for use. On the contrary, those animals which have been bred and pastured in open situations, on high lands, extensive downs, dry commons, heaths, and large enclosures, where the air is pure, and particularly where the grass is short and sweet, and where they require much exercise to obtain their sustenance, have their juices pure, their flavour excellent, and the texture of their flesh delicate, nutritive, and wholesome. Hence the superiority of the Welch and South Down mutton, the Scotch and Welch[75] beef, &c. This fact is clearly evinced in the superior qualities that venison, and the flesh of all wild animals possess over that of tame ones.

Buttocks of beef, fillets of veal, and legs of mutton and lamb, as they have most solid meat and least bone, in proportion, are best for large families.

The most economical way for marketing, is to buy what roasting and boiling pieces you want in one lot. Butchers will sell quantities, thus assorted, much cheaper than they will sell single joints; and prime roasting joints, when bought alone, are always charged extravagantly.

Beef and mutton, of a proper age, is more easy of digestion, and more nutritious, than veal and lamb. The same remark holds with respect to pork; for though young pigs are fat and luscious, yet they are not so nutritive as those of more mature age. The heart and other viscera of animals are nutritious, but hard to digest. Pork is a strong meat, but that which is fed at dairies, is mildest and best. Fat meat is not so easy of digestion as the flesh of well fed animals, though not so fat. The flesh of old animals is dry and hard of digestion, and affords but little nourishment.


Instructions for choosing it.

An ox is in its prime, for food, at five or six years old.

Beef is never out of season, but it is in the greatest perfection in November, December, and January.

The lean of the finest ox-beef, if of a proper age, has a fine smooth grain, it is of a bright or carnation red, feels tender, and appears to be marled or intermixed with fat. The fat parts are firm, of a cream colour, and rather white than yellow. This latter distinction is of importance, because, if the beef be old, the fat will be yellow and skinny;[76] and if the ox has been unnaturally fed, or in a confined place, and particularly if it has been fed with oil-cake, it will be very yellow, soft, flabby, and greasy. On the other hand, if the beef be too young, the fat will be white, almost like mutton fat, and the lean will be of a pale colour.

The grain of cow-beef is closer than that of the ox, and the lean is of a darker red.

Heifer-beef has all the appearances and qualities of good ox-beef, except that the grain of the lean is of a finer texture.

Bull-beef is coarser and redder than any other, the fat hard and skinny, and it has a strong, rank smell.

The Joints of Beef, according to the London method of cutting.

The Hind Quarter. The Fore Quarter.
1 Sirloin 11 Middle-ribs
2 Rump 12 Chuck-ribs
3 Edge-bone 13 Leg-of-mutton-piece
4 Buttock 14 Brisket or Breast-cut
5 Mouse-buttock 15 Clod
6 Veiny-piece 16 Neck or sticking-piece
7 Thick-flank 17 Shin
8 Thin-flank 18 Cheek
9 Leg A Baron of beef is the
10 Fore-ribs two sirloins cut together.


The best joints are the sirloin, rump, edge-bone, buttock, and the five or six fore-ribs; and the thin-flank, the sticking-piece, the leg, shin, and cheek, are the worst.


Instructions for choosing it.

Veal is best and cheapest from March to July.

Veal ought to be fine in the grain, firm, white, and fat. The leg bone should be small. If fresh, the eyes will be full and bright, the flesh not clammy but dry, and the large vein of the shoulder of a bright red. The kidney taints soonest, and if that be sweet, and neither soft nor slimy, the whole calf is fresh. On the contrary, if any part of the flesh be green or yellow, or feels flabby, it is stale. The fillet of a cow-calf is preferable on account of the udder, but the meat of the bull-calf is generally firmest, whitest, and best, when dressed. The finest calves have the smallest kidneys.

The Joints of Veal.

Hind-Quarter. Fore-Quarter.
1 Loin, best end 5 Fore-knuckle
2 Loin, chump-end 6 Neck, best end
3 Fillet 7 Neck, scrag end
4 Hind-knuckle 8 Blade-bone
9 Breast, best end
10 Breast, brisket end


A shoulder is the fore-knuckle and blade-bone together; and a leg is the fillet and hind-knuckle together.

The best end of the loin, the fillet, and the best end of the breast, are the choicest pieces: the knuckle, and scrag end of the neck, are the worst.


Instructions for choosing it.

Mutton is best from Christmas to Midsummer.

When, if in its prime, (that is about four years of age,) it will feel tender when pinched with the finger and thumb, but if older, it will feel harder and fibrous. The grain of the lean should be a fine deep red, the colour bright, and the fat firm and white. Wether mutton is the best flavoured, and may be known by a prominent lump of fat at the edge of the broadest part. Ewe mutton is paler than wether mutton, is of a finer texture and of less value; ram mutton is strong flavoured, high coloured, and its fat is spungy.

The mutton of the small Welch sheep, which are driven up, and fatted on Banstead Heath, and the mutton bred and fed on the South Downs, in Sussex, are the most esteemed in London. At Bath, the short-shanked Dorsetshire, and the Lansdown mutton are most in request; in Yorkshire and the northern counties, the Moor mutton; and in Norfolk and Suffolk the long-shanked is most approved; but the sheep bred in the Fens and deep lands of Lincolnshire, and that neighbourhood, are large, coarse-grained, and ill-flavoured.—Mutton tastes strong of the coat in May and June, or just before shearing.


The Joints of Mutton.

1 Leg 5 Neck, scrag-end
2 Loin, best end 6 Shoulder
3 Ditto, chump end 7 Breast
4 Neck, best end
A Chine is the two loins together; and a Saddle
is the two necks together.


Instructions for choosing it.

Lamb, like veal, is fresh when the eyes are full and bright, and the vein in the neck is of a fine blue colour; but if it be green or yellow, or if there be a faint smell about the kidney, it is stale. The earliest house-lamb, in London, is from the Dorsetshire ewes, which are sold in great numbers at Weyhill-Fair, on the 10th of October, whence they are driven towards London, quite forward, frequently dropping their lambs on the road. This comes in at or before Christmas, and is generally cut into quarters. Grass-lamb comes into season about Easter, and when large and plentiful is cut up in joints, like mutton.


Directions for choosing it.

The rind of all pork should be thin, and if young[80] and properly fed, the lean will break when pinched, and will be smooth and of a delicate white; the fat will be white and fine, and the joints will look blue; but if the rind be tough and loose, or thick and hard, and the joints look red, it is old. If the flesh be clammy it is stale. The knuckle part taints first. When measles are seen in the fat, the meat is unwholesome, and should not be eaten. A pig is in its prime at two years old.

The Joints of Pork.

1 Spare-rib 4 Fore-loin
2 Hand 5 Hind-loin
3 Belly or spring 6 Leg


The rind of good bacon is always thin, the fat firm and white, or rather inclined to a pink tinge, and the lean is of a bright red, tender and adhering close to the bone. If there be any appearance of yellow, it is rusty. The Wiltshire and Hampshire bacon is best, but the Yorkshire is much esteemed. Irish bacon is, in general, bad; but this article is now so re-manufactured in London, as to resemble, in appearance, the most beautiful Wiltshire bacon.

Hams.—The Westphalia or bear’s hams, are the best; but the Westmorland, Wiltshire, and Yorkshire are the most desirable, of the English curing. Choose these latter short in the shank; and to know[81] whether they are good, thrust a picked-pointed knife under the bone, and if it comes out clean and sweet, the ham is good, otherwise it is not.


Venison is chosen by its fat, which should be thick, clear, and bright. A knife stuck in under the shoulder or shank will shew whether it be sweet. If venison looks green, or approaching to black, it is stale.

The Joints of Venison are only four; viz. The haunch, neck, breast, and shoulder.

Hares.—The claws of a young hare are smooth and sharp, the ears are tender and will easily tear, and the cleft of the lip is narrow; but the claws of an old hare are blunt and rugged, the ears dry and tough, and the cleft of the lip is wide, and the haunch is thick.—If fresh the body will be stiff. A hare is best when kept ten days or a fortnight, which, in favourable weather, may be done; but it should always be dressed as soon as it begins to bleed at the nose.

Leverets may be distinguished from hares, by their having a knob or small bone on the fore leg, near the foot, which hares have not. Leverets will not keep, therefore should be dressed as soon as possible.

Rabbits.—The age of Rabbits, whether wild or tame, may be known by nearly the same rules as that of Hares: observe also, that if old, their hairs are intermixed with the wool, their claws will be limber, and their flesh, instead of being white, will have a blue cast, and be slimy.


(Poultry is in the greatest perfection when most plentiful. It is generally dearest from February to Midsummer, and cheapest in September.)

Geese.—The bill and feet of a young Goose[82] will be yellow, the breast fat and plump, and the fat white and soft; but if old, the bill and feet will be red, and the fat yellow and skinny. If fresh, the feet will be limber, but if stale, stiff and dry. Green-Geese are in season in April, May, and June. They should be scalded. Stubble-Geese come into season in September.

Turkeys.—Choose cock birds. The very best have black legs, but the white legged birds are nearly as fine. If young their legs will be smooth, and the spurs of the cock will be very short and tender; but if old, the legs will be rough, and the spurs long and hard, unless filed or cut off. But the best criterion, by which to judge of both Turkeys and Fowls with certainty is, that the toes and bills, if they be young, will be soft and pliable, but will feel hard and stiff, if old. A Turkey should be kept without meat thirty-six hours before it is killed, and should be hung up in its feathers a week before it is dressed.

Fowls.—Young Pullets are in their prime before they begin to lay; but Hen Fowls are best when full of eggs, at which time the vent is soft. The comb, skin, and legs of old Hens are rough. A good Capon has a large rump, and much fat at the shoulders, and its comb is pale.

To know whether any kind of Fowl in its feathers is fit to dress, pull the feathers off the vent very gently, and if they come off easily, it ought to be dressed immediately.

Ducks and Ducklings.—These may be chosen by the same rules as Turkeys and Fowls; but the bills and feet of wild Ducks are smaller and redder than those of tame ones; their plumage too is different. Young wild Ducks will not keep. All young Ducks should be scalded, as that sweetens them, and improves their flavour.

[Norfolk is famous for Turkeys, Geese, and Ducks; Surrey and Sussex for Fowls and Ducklings.[83] The Dorking Fowls are in high estimation in London.]

Pigeons.—These birds should be both young and fresh, and when they are so, they are fat and full at the vent; their legs are limber and of a dusky white: young Pigeons have also a yellow down round their necks and heads. If old, their legs and feet are large, harsh, and red, and the vent discoloured and flabby. Tame Pigeons are best, as wood Pigeons are harder and darker coloured.


To judge whether these are young and fresh, observe the rules given above for tame Fowls; recollect also that these birds should be fat, and when they are so, they will be hard at the vent; if stale, the skin will peel off when rubbed with the finger.

Pheasants.—Cock Pheasants are best. Hens are excellent when full of eggs.

Woodcocks.—These are fine, high-flavoured birds, and when in the best condition, they feel thick and firm, and have a vein of fat down the sides of the breast. When stale they run at the nostrils. Land Rails and Snipes are chosen by these rules.

Partridges.—The yellow legs of young partridges become blue when old, and their bills changed from yellow to a dark hue.

Quails.—These come chiefly from France and Germany, but the finest and best that are sold in London, come from Cambridgeshire, and are fed by the poulterers with herbs, seed, or boiled bread and milk. They are so extremely delicate, in feeding, that two of them will not eat out of the same trough.

Teal is of a beautiful plumage, and very delicate to eat. Their bills and feet are black, and are shaped like those of a Duck.

Ruffs and Rees are chiefly found in Lincolnshire and Cambridgeshire; and in April or May,[84] when most in season, they are a perfect lump of fat. If poor, when caught, they should be fattened with white bread and milk boiled, given them in separate troughs.

Moor Game, and even Grouse, may be kept good a long time. Old birds of all kinds will keep longest, and will be the better for keeping; but young birds should be dressed soon.

Small Birds, of every description, should be dressed immediately.


General Rules for choosing it.

(The price of fish depends on the supply; and it will often be found, that one kind of fish, equally as good and seasonable as another, may be bought for much less money; therefore, never buy at an extravagant price.)

When fish is fresh, it is firm, bright, and stiff; the gills are of a lively red, hard to open, and smell sweet; and the eyes are full and clear. If stale, the whole fish, and particularly the gills and fins, will always be flabby and limber, the gills will be pale, and the eyes sunk and dull. By these rules alone, good fish may be distinguished from bad; but besides these, some kinds of fish have other distinguishing peculiarities, which are as follow; viz.

Sturgeon.—The grain of the flesh of a fine Sturgeon is smooth and very white, interspersed with blue veins. The skin is soft and tender, and its smell is very pleasant. When the veins and gristles are brown or yellow, instead of blue, or the skin is hard and dry, the fish is not good.

Caviare.—This is the roe of the female Sturgeon. It should be taken out and beaten flat, then sprinkled with salt and dried, first in the sun and air, and afterwards in an oven, till it becomes very dry and of a reddish brown colour. Thus prepared, it is a fine relish; it is to be eaten with oil and vinegar.


Turbot, when good, is thick, firm, and plump; and the nose, and fins all round the belly, tinged with a pink colour; but if it has lost this beautiful tinge, or if the belly be changed from a yellowish white to a blueish cast, the fish is either stale or poor, or both.

Soles are to be chosen by these rules, particularly as to the pink tinge round their bellies and under their noses.

Cod Fish should be thick at the neck, having the gills red, the flesh very white, firm, hard, and dear, and the eyes bright.

Haddock are to be chosen by these rules. The shortest fish are the best.

Salmon should be chosen for its small head and thick neck; its scales should be bright, and its gills and flesh of a fine red colour. The Thames and Severn Salmon are mostly esteemed.

Skate, Maids, and Thornbacks are all of one species; they ought to be white and thick. The two latter should be kept a day, or perhaps two, to make them tender, and Skate may be kept longer. The maiden Skate and the young male, or Thornback, are the best; but large, old Skate, is generally coarse and rank.

Flounders, Plaice, &c. should be stiff and firm, with bright, full eyes. If flabby, these and all other kinds of fish are certainly stale. The Thames Flounders are reckoned best, in London, because they may be had alive, or nearly so, and they are always best when dressed as soon as caught.

Herrings, Pilchards, Whitings, Sprats, &c.—These may be classed together. The largest are the best. Their gills should be of a fine red, their fins stiff, their eyes bright, and their flesh, when best, is bright and firm. As the Herrings emigrate, in immense shoals, from the northern regions, they are in the greatest perfection on their first arrival on the coasts of Scotland, the North of Ireland, and the Isle of Man. On the coast of the German Ocean also, even so far south as Yarmouth,[86] they are taken in great quantities, remarkably fat and fine, and full of spawn; but before they reach the southern coast of England, they become poor and thin, and are then known by the denomination of Shotten-Herrings.

Mackerel look beautifully bright when first caught. These and Whitings should be dressed as soon as possible.


Pike and Jack are taken in rivers; they are very dry eating, and require much seasoning and sauce.

Carp, Tench, and Perch, are best eaten as soon as caught; the latter is not so much esteemed as the two former.

Smelts, when fresh, have a fine bright appearance, firm flesh, and a fragrant smell, like a cucumber.

Gudgeons, Roach, and Dace, and most other river fish, must be chosen by the rules already given.


Butter should be chosen by the taste and smell.—The best fresh butter is the Epping, and next the Cambridge; sometimes the potted weekly Dorset is very good. Of tub butter, the Welch is best, the Dutch next, and the Irish worst. In examining tub-butter, and particularly the Irish, look at and smell to the outside next the cask, which is often white in appearance like tallow, and quite rank in smell.

Cheese. Of the common kinds, Cheshire, North Wiltshire and double Gloucester, are the best. Cheese of the first making, in May, is usually brought to Market in August. Factors have a pernicious practice of sticking brass pins into cheese, which gives it the appearance of blue mould and old age. That cheese which has a smooth, moist coat,[87] is generally good. Spanish arnatto is often used to give the rind a beautiful red colour.

Eggs.—If fresh, will feel warm when the tongue is applied to the biggest end; but if stale, it will be cold. An egg, when quite fresh, will sink at once when put into cold water; but if rotten, it will swim.


N.B. Vegetables are cheapest soon after they come into full season.

Names. When best. Names. When best.
Artichokes July to October. Endive June & all Winter.
Asparagus May to July. Leeks Sept. & all Winter.
Beans, Windsor, &c. Midsummer to September. Lettuces April & all Summer.
——– French Midsumr. & onwd. Onions June to November.
——– Scarlet July to October. Parsley All the year.
Beet-root All the year. Parsnips Aug. & all Winter.
Borcole, or November and all Peas (green) June to September.
 Scotch Kale  the Winter. Potatoes May & all the year.
Brocoli October and ditto. Radishes March to July.
Cabbage May & all Summer. Small Salad All the year.
———– red July to September. Salsafy and  
———– Plants All the year.  Scarzonera July and August.
Carrots May till Winter. Sea Kale April and May.
Cauliflowers June to August. Spinach (sprg.) March to July.
Celery June till March. Do. (Winter) Winter and Spring.
Corn Sallad May to July. Turnips May to September.
Cucumbers June to September. Turnip Tops. February to May.

All vegetables are best if dressed as soon as gathered; and are in their greatest perfection just before they begin to flower.

Most Articles for Pickling will be in their prime in July and August; but walnuts not later than the middle of July; and mushrooms and white cabbage in September and October.

Herbs, of all kinds, should be gathered in a dry day; and when the roots are cut off, and the herbs are perfectly well cleaned from dust, &c. they should be divided into small bunches[88] and dried very quick by the heat of a stove, or in a Dutch oven before a common fire, rather than by the heat of the sun, taking care that they be not burnt. When dry put them into bags, and hang them up in a dry place; or pound them and sift them through a hair sieve, and keep the powder in bottles closely stopped.

Sweet and Savory Herbs are best in season from May to August, according to their kinds.

The flavour and fragrance of fresh herbs are much finer than of those that are dried.



Here follow a great variety of the most useful and approved receipts in domestic economy, which are chiefly appropriate to the Housekeeper’s department; consisting of directions for making pastry, confectionary, preserves, pickles, perfumery, cosmetics, british wines, various articles of distillation, family medicine, and many miscellaneous receipts of general utility.


An adept in making pastry, never leaves any part of it adhering to the board used in making it. It is best when rolled on marble or slate. In hot weather the butter should be put in cold water to make it firm; and if the pastry be made early in the morning, and preserved from the air till baked, it will be the better. Salt butter, if good and well washed, makes a fine flaky crust.

Preserved fruit for pastry need not be baked; but the crust should be baked in a tin shape, or on a tin and cut out according to taste.


Currants should be nicely washed, dried in a cloth, and then set before the fire. If not quite dry they will make the cake heavy.[90] The cake will be the lighter if a dust of flour be thrown on the currants and then shaken.

Eggs should be beaten very long, the whites and the yolks apart, after which, they must be strained.—Sugar should be rubbed to a powder, on a clean board, and sifted through a fine hair or lawn sieve. Lemon-peel should be pared quite thin, and beaten, with a little sugar, in a marble mortar, to a paste; and then mixed with a little wine or cream, so as to mix easily with the other ingredients. After all the articles are put together in the pan, they should be thoroughly beaten for a long while, as the lightness of the cake greatly depends on their being well incorporated. Yeast, in either black or white plum cakes, makes them require less butter and eggs, and yet be equally light and rich. The dough when made should be set to rise by the fire. If the oven be not quick the batter will not rise, and the cake will be heavy: if you think it too quick, put some paper over the cake to prevent its being burnt.


Take one pound of fresh butter, one pound of sugar, one pound and a half of flour, two pounds of currants, a glass of brandy, one pound of sweatments, two ounces of sweet almonds, ten eggs, a quarter of an ounce of allspice, and a quarter of an ounce of cinnamon.

Melt the butter to a cream, and put in the sugar. Stir it till quite light, adding the allspice, and pounded cinnamon; in a quarter of an hour take the yolks of the eggs, and work them in, two or three at a time; and the whites of the same must by this time be beaten into a strong snow quite ready to work in; as the paste must not stand to chill the butter, or it will be heavy, work in the whites gradually; then add the orange-peel, lemon, and citron, cut in fine stripes, and the currants, which must be mixed in well, with the sweet almonds. Then add the sifted flour and glass of brandy. Bake this cake in a tin hoop in a hot oven[91] for three hours, and put twelve sheets of paper under it to keep it from burning.


The following is a receipt for making a good plain cake, to be given to children, at breakfast, instead of buttered bread.

Take as much dough as will make a quartern-loaf (either made at home, or procured at the baker’s), work into this a quarter of a pound of butter, a quarter of a pound of moist sugar, and a handful of caraway seeds. When well worked together, pull into pieces the size of a golden pippin, and work it together again. This must be done three times or it will be in lumps, and heavy when baked.


Put one pound of fine-sifted, treble refined sugar into a basin, and the whites of three new-laid eggs; beat the sugar and eggs up well with a silver spoon until it becomes very white and thick; dust the cake over with flour, and then brush it off, by way of taking the grease from the outside, which prevents the iceing from running; put it on smooth with a palette knife, and garnish according to fancy: any ornaments should be put on immediately; for if the iceing gets dry, it will not stick on. Set it in a cool oven to harden.


Take a pound and a quarter of flour well dried, a pound of butter, a pound of loaf sugar, beat and sifted, eight eggs and two ounces of caraway seeds, one grated nutmeg, and its weight in cinnamon. Beat the butter into a cream, put in the sugar, beat the whites of the eggs and the yolks separately, then mix them with the butter and sugar. Beat in the flour, spices, and seed, a little before sending it away. Bake it two hours in a quick oven.


Beat one pound of butter in an earthen pan until it is like a fine thick cream, then beat in nine whole eggs till quite light. Put in a glass of brandy, a little lemon peel, shred fine, then work in a pound and a quarter of flour; put it into the hoop or pan and bake it for an hour. A pound plum cake is made the same with putting one pound and a half of clean washed currants and half a pound of candied lemon peel.


Beat half a pound each of sweet and bitter almonds in fine orange, rose, or ratafia water, mix half a pound of fine pounded and sifted sugar with the same, add the whites of four eggs well beaten to it, set it over a moderate fire in a[92] preserving-pan. Stir it one way until it is pretty hot, and when a little cool form it into small rolls, and cut into thin cakes. Shake some flour lightly on them, give each a light tap, and put them on sugar papers, sift a little sugar on them, and put them into a thorough slack oven.


Put half a pint of warm milk to three quarters of a pound of fine flour: mix in it two or three spoonsful of light yeast. Cover it up, and set it before the fire an hour, in order to make it rise. Work into it four ounces each of sugar and butter, make it into cakes, or wiggs, with as little flour as possible, and a few caraway seeds, and bake them quick.


Mix well together, half a pound of butter, one pound of flour, five eggs, and a cupful of yeast. Set the whole before the fire to rise, which effected, add a quarter of a pound of fine powered sugar, an ounce of caraways well mixed in, and roll the paste out into little cakes. Bake them on tins.


Mix half a pound of butter well beat like cream, and the same weight of flour, one egg, six ounces of beaten and sifted loaf sugar, and half an ounce of caraway seeds. Form these into a paste, roll them thin, and lay them in sheets of tin; then bake them in a slow oven.


Mix into a pound of fine flour, a pound of loaf sugar, beat and sifted, and rub it into a pound of butter, till it is thick, like grated white bread; then put to it two spoonsful of rose-water, two of sack, and ten eggs: work them well with a whisk, and put in eight ounces of currants. Butter the tin pans, fill them half full, and bake them. If made without currants they will keep a year.


Take one pound of sugar, a quarter of a pound of ginger, a pint of water, two pounds of flour, and eight caps of orange peel. Pound and sift the ginger, and add a pint of water; boil it five minutes, then let it stand till cold. Pound the preserved orange-peel, and pass it through a hair sieve; put the flour on a pasteboard, make a wall, and put in the orange peel and ginger with the boiled water; mix this up to a paste and roll it out; prick the cakes before baking them.


To one pound of fine sifted sugar, put the yolks of ten eggs, (have the whites in a separate pan,) and set it, if in summer, in cold water: if there is any ice set the pan on it[93] as it will cause the eggs to be beat finer. Then beat the yolks and sugar well with a wooden spoon for 20 minutes, and put in the rind of a lemon grated; beat up the whites with a whisk, until they become quite stiff and white as snow. Stir them into the batter by degrees, then add three quarters of a pound of well-dried flour; finally put it in a mould in a slack oven to bake.


Take a quartern of fine flour, a pound and a half of butter, three ounces of caraway-seeds, six eggs, well beaten, a quarter of an ounce of well-beaten cloves and mace, a little pounded cinnamon, one pound of sugar, a little rose-water and saffron, a pint and a half of yeast, and a quart of milk. Mix them thus: first boil the milk and butter, then skim off the butter, and mix it with the flour and a little of the milk. Stir the yeast into the rest and strain it; mix it with the flour, put in the eggs and spice, rose-water, tincture of saffron, sugar, and eggs. Beat it all well up, and bake it in a hoop or pan well buttered. Send it to a quick oven, and an hour and a half will do it.


Take a pound of sugar, beat and sift it, a pound of well-dried flour, a pound of butter, eight eggs, and half a pound of currants washed and picked; grate a nutmeg and an equal quantity of mace and cinnamon, work the butter to a cream, put in the sugar, beat the whites of the eggs 20 minutes, and mix them with the butter and sugar. Then beat the yolks for half an hour and put them to the butter. Beat the whole together, and when it is ready for the oven, put in the flour, spices, and currants; sift a little sugar over them, and bake them in tins.


Beat the yolks of 15 eggs for nearly half an hour, with a whisk, mix well with them 10 ounces of fine sifted loaf sugar, put in half a pound of ground rice, a little orange water or brandy, and the rinds of two lemons grated, then add the whites of seven eggs well beaten, and stir the whole together for a quarter of an hour. Put them into a hoop and set them in a quick oven for half an hour, when they will be properly done.


Take one pound of sugar, three quarters of a pound of flour, 14 eggs, two table spoonsful of rose-water, the raspings and juice of four lemons; when the yolks are well beat up and separated, add the powder sugar, the lemon raspings, the juice, and the rose-water; beat them well together in a pan with a round bottom, till it becomes quite light, for[94] half an hour. Put the paste to the whites previously well whisked about, and mix it very light. When well mixed sift in the flour and knead it in with the paste, as light as possible; form the biscuits and bake them in small oval tins, with six sheets of paper under them, in a moderate heat. Butter the tins well or it will prove difficult to take out the biscuits, which will be exceedingly nice if well made. Ice them previously to baking, but very lightly and even.


Take a pound of dough made for white bread, roll it out, and put bits of butter upon the same as for puff paste, till a pound of the same has been worked in; roll it out very thin, then cut it into bits of an oval size, according as the cakes are wanted. Mix some good moist sugar with a little brandy, sufficient to wet it, then mix some clean washed currants with the former, put a little upon each bit of paste, close them up, and put the side that is closed next the tin they are to be baked upon. Lay them separate, and bake them moderately, and afterwards, when taken out, sift sugar over them. Some candied peel may be added, or a few drops of the essence of lemon.


Take six ounces of sweet almonds, half a pound of powdered sugar, seven eggs, six ounces of flour, and the raspings of four lemons. Pound the almonds very fine, with whole eggs, add the sugar and lemon raspings, and mix them well together in the mortar. Take it out, put it in a basin and stir it with the yolks of eggs, till it is as white as a sponge paste; beat up the whites of the eggs to a strong snow, mix them very light with the paste, then take the flour and mix it as light as possible; on this the goodness of the paste principally depends, as it is impossible to make a good cake with a heavy paste; butter the mould and bake in a slack oven for an hour, with ten sheets of paper under it and one on the top.


Mix three pounds of flour with four ounces of moist sugar, half an ounce of powdered ginger, and one pound and a quarter of warm treacle; melt half a pound of fresh butter in it; put it to the flour and make it a paste; then form it into nuts or cakes, or bake it in one cake.

20. Another Method.

Mix six pounds of flour with two ounces of caraway seeds, two ounces of ground ginger, two ounces of candied orange peel, the same of candied lemon peel cut in pieces, a little salt, six ounces of moist sugar; melt one pound of fresh butter in about half a pint of milk, pour it by degrees into[95] four pounds of treacle, stir it well together, and add it, a little at a time, to the flour; mix it thoroughly, and make it into a paste; roll it out rather thin, and cut into cakes with the top of a dredger or wine glass; put them on floured tins, and bake them in rather a brisk oven.


Beat the whites of nine eggs to a stiff froth, stir it gently with a spoon lest the froth should fall, and to every white of an egg grate the rinds of two lemons; shake in gently a spoonful of double refined sugar sifted fine, lay a wet sheet of paper on a tin, and with a spoon drop the froth in little lumps on it near each other. Sift a good quantity of sugar over them, set them in the oven after the bread is out, and close up the mouth of it, which will occasion the froth to rise. As soon as they are coloured they will be sufficiently baked; lay them by two bottoms together on a sieve, and dry them in a cool oven.


Set two pounds of flour with a little salt before the fire till quite warm; then mix it with warm milk and water till it is as stiff as it can be stirred; let the milk be as warm as it can be borne with the finger, put a cupful of this with three eggs well beaten, and mixed with three spoonsful of very thick yeast; then put this to the batter and beat them all well together in a large pan or bowl, add as much milk and water as will make it into a thick batter; cover it close and put it before the fire to rise: put a bit of butter in a piece of thin muslin, tie it up, and rub it lightly over the iron hearth or frying pan; then pour on a sufficient quantity of batter at a time to make one crumpet; let it do slowly, and it will be very light. Bake them all the same way. They should not be brown, but of a fine yellow.


Mix a pint and a half of warm milk and water, with a quarter of a pint of good yeast, and a little salt; stir them together for a quarter of an hour, then strain the liquor into a quarter of a peck of fine flour; mix the dough well and set it to rise for an hour, then roll it up and pull it into small pieces, make them up in the hand like balls, and lay a flannel over them while rolling to keep them warm. The dough should be closely covered up the whole time; when the whole is rolled into balls, the first that are made will be ready for baking. When they are spread out in the right form for muffins, lay them on tins and bake them, and as the bottoms begin to change colour turn them on the other side.



Rub four ounces of butter into two pounds of flour, a little salt, four ounces of sugar, a dessert spoonful of caraways, and a tea spoonful of ginger; put some warm milk or cream to four table spoonsful of yeast; mix all together into a paste, but not too stiff; cover it over and set it before the fire an hour to rise, then make it into buns, put them on a tin, set them before the fire for a quarter of an hour, cover over with flannel, then brush them with very warm milk, and bake them of a nice brown in a moderate oven.


Put two pounds and a half of fine flour into a wooden bowl, and set it before the fire to warm; then add half a pound of sifted sugar, some coriander seed, cinnamon and mace powdered fine; melt half a pound of butter in half a pint of milk: when it is as warm as it can bear the finger, mix with it three table spoonsful of very thick yeast, and a little salt; put it to the flour, mix it to a paste, and make the buns as directed in the last receipt. Put a cross on the top, not very deep.

26. RUSKS.

Beat up seven eggs, mix them with half a pint of warm new milk, in which a quarter of a pound of butter has been melted, add a quarter of a pint of yeast, and three ounces of sugar; put them gradually into as much flour as will make a light paste nearly as thin as batter; let it rise before the fire half an hour, add more flour to make it a little stiffer, work it well and divide it into small loaves, or cakes, about five or six inches wide, and flatten them. When baked and cold put them in the oven to brown a little. These cakes, when first baked, are very good buttered for tea; if they are made with caraway seeds they eat very nice cold.


Boil very tender the rind of half a Seville orange, and beat it in a mortar until it is very fine; put to it a spoonful of the best brandy, the juice of a Seville orange, four ounces of loaf sugar, and the yolk of four eggs. Beat them all together for ten minutes, and then pour in by degrees a pint of boiling cream; beat them until cold, then put them in custard cups, in a dish of hot water; let them stand till they are set, then take them out and stick preserved orange peel on the top; this forms a fine flavoured dish, and may be served up hot or cold.



Boil a pint of cream with some mace and cinnamon, and when it is cold, take four yolks of eggs, a little rose water, sack, nutmeg, and sugar, to taste; mix them well and bake them.


Put a blade of mace, and a quartered nutmeg into a quart of cream; boil and strain it, and add to it some boiled rice and a little brandy. Sweaten it to taste, stir it till it thickens, and serve it up in cups, or in a dish; it may be used either hot or cold.


Blanch a quarter of a pound of almonds, beat them very fine, and then put them into a pint of cream, with two spoonsful of rose-water; sweeten it, and put in the yolks of four eggs; stir them well together till it becomes thick, and then pour it into cups.


Take half a pound of double refined sugar, the juice of two lemons, the rind of one pared very thin, the inner rind of one boiled tender and rubbed through a sieve, and a pint of white wine; boil them for some time, then take out the peel and a little of the liquor; strain them into the dish, stir them well together and set them to cool.


Blanch and beat fine some almonds, with a little white wine and some sugar, (a pound of sugar to a pound of almonds,) grated bread, nutmeg, cream, and the juice of spinach, to colour the almonds. Bake it in a gentle oven, and when done, thicken with candied orange peel or citron.


Pull the almonds from the tree before they shell, scrape off the down, and put them into a pan with cold spring water; then put them into a skillet with more spring water; set it on a slow fire, and let it remain till it simmers. Change the water twice, and let them remain in the last till tender, then take them out and dry them well in a cloth. Make a syrup with double refined sugar, put them into it and let them simmer: do the same the next day, put them into a stone jar, and cover them very close, for if the least air comes to them they will turn black; the yellower they are before they are taken out of the water, the greener they will be after they are done. Put them into the crust, cover them with syrup, lay on the lid, and bake them in a moderate oven.



Rub six oranges or lemons with salt, and put them into water, with a handful of salt, for two days. Put every day fresh water without salt, for a fortnight. Boil them tender, cut them into half quarters, cornerways, quite thin: boil six pippins, pared, cored, and quartered, in a pint of water till they break, then put the liquor to the oranges or lemons, with half the pulp of the pippins well broken, and a pound of sugar; boil them a quarter of an hour, then put them into a pot and squeeze in two spoonsful of the juice of either orange or lemon, according to the kind of tart; put puff paste, very thin, into shallow patty-pans. Take a brush, and rub them over with melted butter, sift double refined sugar over them, which will form a pretty iceing, and bake them.


Grate a little of the outside of a Seville orange, squeeze the juice into a dish, put the peel into water, and change it often for four days, then put into a saucepan of boiling water on the fire; change the water twice to take out the bitterness, and when tender, wipe and beat them fine in a mortar; boil their weight in double refined sugar into a syrup, and skim it, then put in the pulp and boil all together till clear; when cold put it into the tarts, and squeeze in the juice, and bake them in a quick oven. Conserve of orange makes good tarts.


Pare off the rinds from Seville oranges, then rub them with salt, let them lie twenty-four hours in water, boil them in four changes of water, make the first salt, drain and beat them to a pulp; bruise in the pieces of all that are pared, make it very sweet with loaf sugar, and boil it till thick; let it stand till cold, and then put it into the paste.


One pound of sweet almonds, 1 pound and a quarter of sugar, 6 whites of eggs, and the raspings of two lemons. Pound the almonds very fine with 6 whites of eggs, feel the almonds, and if they are free from lumps, they will do; then add the powdered sugar, and mix it well with the lemon raspings. Dress them in wafer paper of the required shape; bake them in a moderate heat, then let them stand till cold, cut the wafer paper round them, but leave it on the bottoms.


Take 1 pound of almonds, 1 pound of sugar, and some orange flower water. Pound the almonds very fine, and sprinkle them with orange flower water; when they are perfectly smooth to the touch, put them in a small pan, with flour sifted through a silk sieve; put the pan on a slow fire, and dry the paste till it does not stick to the fingers; move it well from the bottom to prevent its burning; then take[99] it off, and roll it into small round fillets, to make knots, rings, &c., and cut it into various shapes; make an iceing of different colours, dip one side of them in it, and set them on wire gratings to drain. They may be varied by strewing over them coloured pistachios, or coloured almonds, according to fancy.


Beat the yolks of 12 eggs for half an hour; then put in a pound and a half of beaten sifted sugar, and whisk it till it rises in bubbles; beat the whites to strong froth, and whisk them well with the sugar and yolks, work in 14 ounces of flour, with the rinds of 2 lemons grated. Bake them in tin moulds buttered, in a quick oven, for an hour; before they are baked, sift a little fine sugar over them.


Put a pint of warm cream into a saucepan over the fire, and when it is warm, add to it 5 quarts of new milk. Then put in some rennet, stir it, and when it is turned, put the curd into a linen cloth or bag. Let the whey drain from it, but do not squeeze it too much. Put it into a mortar, and pound it as fine as butter. Add ½ a pound of sweet almonds blanched, ½ a pound of macaroons, or Naples biscuit. Then add nine well beaten yolks of eggs, a grated nutmeg, a little rose or orange water, and ½ a pound of fine sugar. Mix all well together.


Put 4 ounces of blanched sweet almonds into cold water, and beat them in a marble mortar or a wooden bowl, with some rose water. Put to it 4 ounces of sugar, and the yolks of four eggs beat fine. Work it till it becomes white and frothy, and then make a rich puff paste as follows: Take ½ a pound of flour, and a ¼ of a pound of butter; rub a little of the butter into the flour, mix it stiff with a little cold water, and then roll out the paste. Strew on a little flour and lay over it in thin bits 1-3d of the butter, throw a little more flour over the bottom, and do the like three different times. Put the paste into the tins, grate sugar over them, and bake them gently.


Slice a penny loaf as thin as possible, pour on it a pint of boiling cream, and let it stand two hours. Beat together 8 eggs, ½ a pound of butter, and a grated nutmeg: mix them into the cream and bread with ½ a pound of currants well washed and dried, and a spoonful of white wine or brandy. Bake them in patty pans, on a raised crust.



Boil 4 ounces of rice till it is tender, and then put it into a sieve to drain; mix with it 4 eggs well beaten up, ½ a pound of butter, ½ a pint of cream, 6 ounces of sugar, a nutmeg grated, a glass of brandy, or ratafia water. Beat them all well together, then put them into raised crusts, and bake them in a moderate oven.


Take half a quartern of dough, roll it out thin; spread equally over it 5 ounces each of coffee and sugar, a little nutmeg or allspice, and 2 ounces of butter; then fold and roll it again two or three times, to mix well the ingredients. Afterwards roll it out thin, and spread over it 4 rather large apples, pared, cored, and chopped small; fold it up, and roll until mixed. Let it stand to rise after. Half a pound of butter may be added.


Put into 1 quart of water an ounce of isinglass, and let it boil till it is reduced to a pint; then put in the whites of 4 eggs with 2 spoonsful of rice water, and sweeten it to taste. Run it through a jelly bag, and then put to it 2 ounces of sweet, and 1 ounce of bitter almonds. Scald them in the jelly, and then run them through a hair sieve. Put it into a china bowl, and the next day turn it out. Garnish with flowers or green leaves, and stick all over the top blanched almonds cut lengthways.


Skim off the fat, and strain a quart of strong calf’s foot jelly, add to the same the whites of 4 eggs well beaten, set it over the fire and stir it till it boils. Then pour it into a jelly bag, and run it through several times till it is clear. Beat an ounce each of sweet and bitter almonds to a paste with a spoonful of rose water strained through a cloth. Then mix it with the jelly, and add to it 3 spoonsful of very good cream. Set it again over the fire and stir it till it almost boils. Pour it into a bowl; then stir it often till almost cold; and then fill the moulds.




The first process is clarifying, which is done thus. Break the white of an egg into a preserving pan; put to it 4 quarts of water, and beat it with a whisk to a froth. Then put in 12 pounds of sugar, mix all together, and set it over the fire. When it boils put in a little cold water, and proceed as often as necessary, till the scum rises thick on the top. Then remove it from the fire, and when it is settled, take off the scum, and pass it through a straining bag. If the sugar should not appear very fine, boil it again before straining it.


After having completed the above first process, put what quantity is wanted over the fire, and boil it till it is smooth enough. This is known by dipping the skimmer into the sugar, and touching it between the forefinger and thumb; and immediately on opening them a small thread will be observed drawn between, which will crystallize and break, and remain in a drop on the thumb, which will be a sign of its gaining some degree of smoothness. Boil it again, and it will draw into a larger string; it is now called bloom sugar, and must be boiled longer than in the former process. To try its forwardness, dip again the skimmer shaking off the sugar into the pan; then blow with the mouth strongly through the holes, and if certain bladders go through, it has acquired the second degree: to prove if the liquid has arrived at the state called feathered sugar, re-dip the skimmer, and shake it over the pan, then give it a sudden flirt behind, and the sugar will fly off like feathers.

It now arrives to the state called crackled sugar, to obtain which the mass must be boiled longer than in the preceding degree; then dip a stick in it, and put it directly into a pan of cold water, draw off the sugar which hangs to the stick in the water, and if it turns hard and snaps, it has acquired the proper degree of crystallization, if otherwise, boil it again until it acquires that brittleness.

The last stage of refining this article is called caramel sugar, to obtain which it must be boiled longer than in any of the[102] preceding methods; prove it by dipping a stick first in the sugar, and then into cold water, and the moment it touches the latter, it will, if matured, snap like glass. Be careful that the fire is not too fierce, as by flaming up the sides of the pan, it will burn, discolour, and spoil the sugar.

49. French Method.

Put into a pan syrup enough of clarified sugar to fill the moulds; boil it until it comes to the state called small feather, skim it well, take the pan from the fire, and pour it into a small quantity of spirit of wine, sufficient to make it sparkle; let it rest till the skin, which is the candy, rises on the surface; take it off with a skimmer, and pour it directly into a mould; which keep in the stove at 90 degrees heat for eight days; then strain the candy by a hole, slanting the mould on a bason or pan, to receive the drainings; let it drain till it is perfectly dry, then loosen the paper by moistening it with warm water: warm it all round near the fire, and turn the candy by striking it hard on the table. Put it on a sieve in the stove, to finish drying it; but do not touch it while there, and keep up an equal heat, otherwise there will be only a mash instead of a candy. Spirit of wine will take off grease, and not affect the candy, as it soon evaporates.


When finished in the syrup, put a layer into a new sieve, and dip it suddenly into hot water to take off the syrup that hangs about it: put it into a napkin before the fire to drain, and then do more in the sieve. Have ready sifted double refined sugar, which shake over the fruit till covered quite white. Set it on the shallow end of the sieve in a warm oven, and turn it two or three times. It must not be cold till dry. Watch it carefully.


Take a quantity of clarified sugar in that state that on dipping the finger into the pan the sugar which adheres to it will break with a slight noise; this is called crack. When the sugar is near this, put in two or three drops of lemon juice, or a little vinegar to prevent its graining. When it has come to the crack, take it off instantly, and dip the pan into cold water, to prevent its burning; let it stand a little, and then pour it on a marble which must be previously rubbed with oil. Cut the sugar into small pieces, when it will be ready for use. One drop of citron will flavour a considerable quantity.


Provide leaden moulds, which must be of various shapes, and be oiled with oil of sweet almonds. Take a quantity of brown sugar syrup in the proportion to their size, in that[103] state called a blow, which may be known by dipping the skimmer into the sugar, shaking it, and blowing through the holes, when parts of light may be seen: add a drop of any esteemed essence. If the bon-bons are preferred white, when the sugar has cooled a little, stir it round the pan till it grains, and shines on the surface; then pour it into a funnel and fill the little moulds, when it will take a proper form and harden: as soon as it is cold take it from the moulds; dry it two or three days, and put it upon paper. If the bon-bons are required to be coloured, add the colour just as the sugar is ready to be taken off the fire.


Put 1 ounce of race ginger grated fine, a pound of loaf sugar beat fine, into a preserving pan, with as much water as will dissolve the sugar. Stir them well together over a slow fire till the sugar begins to boil. Then stir in another pound of sugar, beat fine, and keep stirring it till it grows thick. Then take it off the fire, and drop it in cakes upon earthen dishes. Set them in a warm place to dry, when they will become hard and brittle, and look white.


Boil it in water until the juice is extracted: then boil a sufficient quantity of sugar to a great height, and add the juice to it. Stir it with a spoon against the sides of the sugar pan, till it begins to grow thick, then pour it out into a paper case that is dusted with fine sugar, and cut it into squares; dry the horehound, and put it into the sugar finely powdered and sifted.


Sugar crystallized by the saturated syrup being left in a very warm place, from 90 to 100 degrees Fahrenheit, and the shooting promoted by placing sticks, or a net of threads at some distances from each other in the liquor: it is also deposited from compound syrup, and does not retain any of the foreign substances with which it is loaded.


Break the same into a copper pan, which will hold 1-3d more, put half a pint of water to each pound of sugar, mix one white of egg to every 6 pounds; when it rises in boiling, throw in a little cold water, which must be kept ready in case it should boil over; skim it the fourth time of rising; continue to throw in a little cold water each time till the scum ceases to rise, and strain it through a sieve, cloth, or flannel bag. Save the scum, which, when a certain quantity is taken off, may be clarified. The latter skimming will do to add to fermented wines.



Put 50 pounds of coarse brown sugar into a pan, which will contain 1-3d more, pour in 20 pints of water, well mixed with 5 whites of eggs; pound 5 pounds of small charcoal, mix it in the pan while on the fire, and boil it till it looks as black as ink. If it rises too fast, add cold water, strain it through a bag, and though at first it will be black, continue to strain it until it becomes quite clear; which may be seen by putting the syrup in a glass. Put it back until it comes out as fine as clarified loaf sugar.


To 5 pounds of coarse brown sugar, add 1 pound of flour, and there will be obtained 6 pounds of sugar worth 10 per cent. more in colour and quality.


Soak the peels in cold water, which change frequently till they lose their bitterness; then put them into syrup till they become soft and transparent. Then they are to be taken out and drained.


This is made by boiling lemon peel with sugar, and then exposing to the air until the sugar crystallizes.


Red.—Boil an ounce of cochineal in half a pint of water for 5 minutes, add an ounce of cream of tartar, half an ounce of pounded alum, and boil them on a slow fire 10 minutes; if it shows the colour clear on white paper, it is sufficient. Add two ounces of sugar, and bottle it for use.

Blue.—Put a little warm water in a plate, and rub an indigo-stone in it till the colour has come to the tint required.

Yellow.—Rub with some water a little gamboge on a plate, or infuse the heart of a yellow lily flower, with milk-warm water.

Green.—Boil the leaves of spinach about a minute in a little water, and, when strained, bottle the liquor for use. In colouring refined sugars, taste and fancy must guide.


Steep gum-tragacanth in rose-water, and with double refined sugar make it into a paste, and colour and mould it to fancy.


Rub a lump of loaf sugar on the outside of a lemon, and put it into a pint of thick cream, and sweeten it to taste. Squeeze in the juice of a lemon, and add a glass of Madeira wine, or French brandy. Mill it to a froth with a chocolate mill, take off the froth as it rises, and lay it in a hair sieve.[105] Fill one half of the glass with red wine, then lay the froth as high as possible, but take care that it is well drained in the sieve, otherwise it will mix with the wine, and the syllabub be spoiled.


To a quart of rich cream put a quart of white wine, the juice of two lemons, with the rind of one grated, and sweeten it to taste. Whip it up well and take off the froth as it rises. Put it upon a hair sieve, and let it stand in a cool place till the next day. Then half fill the glasses with the scum, and heap up the froth as high as possible. The bottom will look clear, and it will keep several days.


Pare and take out the cores of five large baking apples, and fill the holes with orange or quince marmalade. Then take some good hot paste, roll the apples in it, and make the crust of an equal thickness; put them in a tin dripping pan, bake them in a moderate oven, and when taken out, make iceing for them; let the same be a quarter of an inch thick, and set them a good distance from the fire until they become hardened, but be cautious that they are not browned.


Mix six eggs well beat up, with fourteen pounds of loaf sugar, and three pounds of coarse sugar. Put them into three quarts of water, boil it twice, skim it well, and add a quarter of a pint of orange-flower water: strain it through a jelly-bag, and put it into bottles for use. A spoonful or two of this syrup put into a draught of either cold or warm water, makes it drink exceedingly pleasant.


Take double refined sugar, pound and sift it through a hair sieve, not too fine; then sift it through a silk sieve, to take out all the fine dust, which would destroy the beauty of the drop. Put the sugar into a clean pan, and moisten it with any aromatic; if rose-water, pour it in slowly, stirring it with a paddle, which the sugar will fall from, as soon as it is moist enough, without sticking. Colour it with a small quantity of liquid carmine, or any other colour, ground fine. Take a small pan with a lip, fill it three parts with paste, place it on a small stove, the half hole being of the size of the pan, and stir the sugar with a little ivory or bone handle, until it becomes liquid. When it almost boils, take it from the fire and continue to stir it: if it be too moist, take a little of the powdered sugar, and add a spoonful to the paste, and stir it till it is of such a consistence as to run without too much extension. Have a tin plate, very clean[106] and smooth; take the little pan in the left hand, and hold in the right a bit of iron, copper, or silver wire, four inches long, to take off the drop from the lip of the pan, and let it fall regularly on the tin plate; two hours afterwards, take off the drops with the blade of a knife.


Scrape the chocolate to powder, and put an ounce to each pound of sugar; moisten the paste with clear water, work it as above, only take care to use all the paste prepared, as, if it be put on the fire a second time, it greases, and the drop is not of the proper thickness.


These are made as the sugar drops, only using orange-flower water, or, instead of it, use the essence of naroli, which is the essential oil of that flower.


An ounce of coffee to a pound of sugar will form a strong decoction: when cleared, use it to moisten the sugar, and then make the drops as above.


The only requisites to make these are, extreme cleanliness, the finest sugar, and a few drops of the essence of peppermint.


These are made as the cinnamon drops, the cloves being pounded, or the essence used. Good cloves should be black, heavy, of a pungent smell, hot to the taste, and full of oil.


Pound and sift through a silk sieve the required quantity of ginger, according to the strength wanted, and add it to the sugar with clear water. China ginger is the best, being aromatic as well as hot and sharp tasted.


Take of extract of liquorice,
double refined sugar, each 10 oz.
tragacanth, powdered, 3 oz.

Powder them thoroughly, and make them into lozenges with rose-water.

These are agreeable pectorals, and may be used at pleasure in tickling coughs. The above receipt is the easiest and best mode of making these lozenges. Refined extract of liquorice should be used: and it is easily powdered in the cold, after it has been laid for some days in a dry and rather warm place.



The liquorice root is to be boiled in eight times its weight of water, to one half; the liquor is then to be expressed, and, after the fæces have subsided, to be filtered; it is then to be evaporated, with a heat between 200° and 212°, until it becomes thickish; and, lastly, it is to be evaporated with a heat less than 200°, and frequently stirred, until it acquire a consistence proper for forming pills. This is made into little pastilles, or flat cakes, often bearing the impression of the places where they are made; and a bit now and then put into the mouth, takes off the tickling of a cough. It should be sucked to make it pleasant, as much of the juice taken at a time is unpleasant.


Take up the roots in July; clean them perfectly as soon as out of the earth, then hang them up in the air, till nearly dry; after this cut them into thin slices, and boil them in water till the decoction is extremely strong; then press it hard out to obtain all the juice from the roots. This decoction is left to settle a little, and when it has deposited its coarser parts, pour it off into vessels, evaporate it over a fire, strong first, but mild afterwards, till it becomes of a thick consistence; then let the fire go out, and when the extract is cool, take out large parcels of it at a time, and work them well with the hands, forming them into cylindric masses, which cut into such lengths as required, roll them over half-dried bay-leaves, which adhere to the surfaces, and leave them exposed to the sun, till perfectly dried. Great nicety is to be observed at the end of the evaporation, to get the extract to a proper consistence without letting it burn.


That description of article which is vended in thin, rounded, and glazed pieces, about the thickness of a crow’s quill, is entirely prepared in this country. The whole process consists in evaporating the liquorice-ball anew, and purifying it by rest, with the help of isinglass, &c.


Cut the clearest Seville oranges into two, take out all the juice and pulp into a basin, and pick all the skins and seeds out of it. Boil the rinds in hard water till they become tender, and change the water two or three times while they are boiling. Then pound them in a marble mortar, and add to it the juice and pulp; put them next into a preserving pan with double their weight in loaf sugar, and set it over a[108] slow fire. Boil it rather more than half an hour, put it into pots: cover it with brandy paper, and tie it close down.


Cut very pale Seville oranges into quarters; take out the pulp, put it into a basin, and pick out the skins and seeds. Put the peels into a little salt and water, and let them stand all night, then boil them in a good quantity of spring water until they are tender: cut them in very thin slices, and put them into the pulp. To every pound of marmalade put one pound and a half of double refined beaten sugar; boil them together gently for 20 minutes; if they are not transparent, boil them a few minutes longer. Stir it gently all the time, and take care not to break the slices. When it is cold, put it into jelly and sweetmeat glasses tied down tight.


Mash the barberries in a little water, on a warm stove; pass them through a hair sieve with a paddle; weigh the pulp and put it back on the fire; reduce it to one half, clarify a pound of sugar and boil it well; put in the pulp and boil it together for a few minutes.


Take quinces that are quite ripe, pare and cut them in quarters, take out the cores, put them in a stew-pan with spring water, nearly enough to cover them, keep them closely covered, and let them stew gently till they are quite soft and red, then mash and rub them through a hair sieve. Put them in a pan over a gentle fire, with as much thick clarified sugar as the weight of the quinces; boil them an hour and stir the whole time with a wooden spoon to prevent its sticking; put it into pots, and when cold tie them down.


Take of the juice of Seville oranges, 2 pints,
yellow honey, 2 lbs.

Boil to a proper consistence.


Boil half a pound of hartshorn in three quarts of water, over a gentle fire, till it becomes a jelly; when a little hangs on a spoon it is done enough. Strain it hot, put it into a well-tinned saucepan, and add to it half a pint of Rhenish wine, and a quarter of a pound of loaf sugar. Beat the whites of four eggs or more to a froth, stir it sufficiently for the whites to mix well with the jelly, and pour it in as if cooling it. Boil it two or three minutes, then put in the juice of four lemons, and let it boil two minutes longer. When it is finely curdled and of a pure white, pour it into a swan-skin[109] jelly bag over a China basin, and pour it back again until it becomes as clear as rock water; set a very clean China basin under, fill the glasses, put some thin lemon rind into the basin, and when the jelly is all run out of the bag, with a clean spoon fill the rest of the glasses, and they will look of a fine amber colour. Put in lemon and sugar agreeable to the palate.


Mix the whites of eight eggs, a quart of thick cream, and half a pint of sack, sweeten them to taste with double refined sugar. It may be perfumed with a little musk or ambergris tied in a rag and steeped in a little cream. Whip it up with a whisk, and some lemon-peel tied in the middle of the whisk. Then lay the froth with a spoon on the glasses, or basins.


Beat half a pound of pistachio nut kernels in a mortar with a spoonful of brandy. Put them into a pan with a pint of good cream and the yolks of two eggs beaten fine. Stir it gently over the fire till it grows thick, and then put it into a China soup plate. When it is cold stick it over with small pieces of the nuts, and send it to table.


To a pound of any preserved fruit add a quart of good cream, squeeze the juice of two lemons into it and some sugar to taste. Let the whole be rubbed through a fine hair sieve, and if raspberry, strawberry, or any red fruit, add a little cochineal to heighten the colour: have the freezing pot nice and clean; put the cream into it and cover it; then put it into the tub with ice beat small, and some salt; turn the freezing pot quick, and as the cream sticks to the sides, scrape it down with an ice-spoon, and so on till it is frozen. The more the cream is worked to the side with the spoon, the smoother and better flavoured it will be. After it is well frozen, take it out and put it into ice shapes with salt and ice: then carefully wash the shapes for fear of any salt adhering to them; dip them in lukewarm water and send them to table.

87. Another Method.

Bruise two pottles of strawberries in a basin with half a pint of good cream, a little currant jelly, and some cold clarified sugar; rub this well through the tammy, and put it in an ice pot well covered; then set it in a tub of broken ice with plenty of salt; when it grows thick about the sides, stir it with a spoon, and cover it close again till it is perfectly frozen through; cover it well with ice and salt both under and over, and when it is frozen change it into a mould and[110] cover well with ice. Sweeten a little plain cream with sugar and orange flower water, and treat it the same; likewise any other fruit, without cream, may be mixed as above. This is called water ice.


Take the juice of red currants, 1 lb.
sugar, 6 oz.

Boil down.

89. Another Method.

Take the juice of red currants, and
white sugar, equal quantities.

Stir it gently and smoothly for three hours, put it into glasses, and in three days it will concrete into a firm jelly.


Put to ten quarts of ripe dry black currants, one quart of water; put them in a large stew-pot, tie paper close over them, and set them for two hours in a cool oven. Squeeze them through a fine cloth, and add to every quart of juice a pound and a half of loaf sugar broken into small pieces. Stir it till the sugar is melted; when it boils skim it quite clean. Boil it pretty quick over a clear fire, till it jellies, which is known by dipping a skimmer into the jelly and holding it in the air; when it hangs to the spoon in a drop, it is done. If the jelly is boiled too long it will lose its flavour and shrink very much. Pour it into pots, cover them with brandy papers, and keep them in a dry place. Red and white jellies are made in the same way.


Take of apple juice strained, 4 lbs.
sugar, one pound.

Boil to a jelly.


Take of the juice of strawberries, 4 lbs.
sugar, 2 lbs.

Boil down.


Dissolve sugar in about half its weight of water, and boil; it will be nearly solid when cold; to this syrup add an equal weight of gooseberry juice, and give it a boil, but not long, for otherwise it will not fix.


Rub a quart of raspberries through a hair sieve, and take out the seeds and mix it well with cream; sweeten it with sugar to your taste, then put it into a stone jug, and raise a[111] froth with a chocolate mill. As the froth rises, take it off with a spoon, and lay it upon a hair sieve. When there is as much froth as wanted, put what cream remains in a deep China dish, and pour the frothed cream upon it, as high as it will lie on.


Mash a quantity of fine ripe dry raspberries, strew on them their own weight of loaf sugar, and half their weight of white currant juice. Boil them half an hour over a clear slow fire, skim them well, and put them into pots or glasses; tie them down with brandy papers, and keep them dry. Strew on the sugar as quick as possible after the berries are gathered, and in order to preserve their flavour, they must not stand long before boiling them.


Bruise very fine some scarlet strawberries, gathered when quite ripe, and put to them a little juice of red currants. Beat and sift their weight in sugar, strew it over them, and put them into a preserving pan. Set them over a clear slow fire, skim them, then boil them 20 minutes, and put them into glasses.


Mash a quart of raspberries, strain one half and put the juice to the other half; boil them a quarter of an hour, put to them a pint of red currant juice, and let them boil all together, till the raspberries are done enough. Then put a pound and a half of double refined sugar into a clean pan, with as much water as will dissolve it; boil it to a sugar again; then put in the raspberries and juice, scald and pour them into glasses. Put them into a stove to dry, and turn them when necessary.


Boil the fruit in a sufficient quantity of water to cover it; strain the pulp through a very coarse hair sieve; to each pound add four ounces of sugar. Boil till it begins to candy on the sides, then pour it into tin moulds. Other kinds of plums may be treated in the same way, as also cherries, and several kinds of fruit.


Put two ounces of the powder of chestnuts into a skillet, then add two yolks of new laid eggs, and dilute the whole with a little cream, or even a little water; when this is done, and the ingredients well mixed, leaving no lumps, add a bit of the best fresh butter, about the size of an egg, and an equal quantity of powdered sugar; then put the skillet on the fire, and keep stirring the contents; when the cream is[112] fixed and thick enough to adhere to the spoon, let it bubble up once or twice, and take it from the fire; then add a third white of an egg to those you have already set aside, and whip them to the consistency of snow: then amalgamate the whipped whites of eggs and the cream, stirring them with a light and equal hand, pour the contents into a deep dish, sift over with double refined sugar, and place the dish on a stove, with a fire over it as well as under, and in a quarter of an hour the cream will rise like an omelette souffle; as soon as it rises about four inches it is fit to serve up.


Blanch and pound three quarters of a pound of sweet, and a quarter of a pound of bitter almonds; pound them in a mortar, and wet them sufficiently with orange flower water, that they may not oil. When they are pounded fine, add three quarters of a pound of fine powdered sugar to them, and mix the whole in a stiff paste, which put into pots for use. It will keep six months; when wanted to be used, take a piece about the size of an egg, and mix it with half a pint of water, and squeeze it through a napkin.


Take of decoction of marshmallow roots, 4 oz.
water, 1 gallon.

Boil 4 pints and strain: then add gum arabic, half a pound, refined sugar, 2 lbs. Evaporate to an extract, then take it from the fire, stir it quickly with the whites of twelve eggs, previously beaten to a froth: then add, while stirring, half an oz. of orange-flower water.

102. Another.

Take of very white gum arabic, and white sugar, each 2¼ lbs. with a sufficient quantity of boiling water. Dissolve, strain, and evaporate without boiling, to the consistence of honey: beat up the whites of six eggs with four drachms of orange-flower water, which mix gradually with the paste, and evaporate over a slow fire, stirring it continually till it will not stick to the fingers, it should be very light, spongy, and extremely white.


Take of raisins stoned, 1 lb.
currants picked,
jujubes, opened, each 4 oz.
water, a sufficient quantity.

Boil; strain with expression, add sugar, 2½ lbs. gum arabic, 2½ lbs. previously made into a mucilage with some water, and strain; evaporate gently, pour into moulds, finish by drying in a stove and then divide it.



Some rules are necessary to be observed in this branch of confectionary.

In the first place, observe, in making syrups, that the Sugar is well dissolved before it is placed on the fire, otherwise the scum will not rise well, nor the fruit obtain its best colour.

When stone fruits are preserved, cover them with mutton suet rendered, to exclude the air; as air is sure to ruin them.

All wet sweet-meats must be kept dry and cool to preserve them from mouldiness and damp.

Dip a piece of writing paper in brandy, lay it close upon the sweetmeats, cover them tight with paper, and they will keep well for any length of time; but they will inevitably spoil without these precautions.


Put damsons, before they are too ripe, into wide-mouthed bottles, and cork them down tight; then put them into a moderately heated oven, and about three hours will do them; observe that the oven is not too hot, otherwise it will make the fruit fly. All kinds of fruits that are bottled may be done in the same way, and they will keep two years; after they are done, they must be put away with the mouth downward, in a cool place, to keep them from fermenting.


Set an equal quantity of barberries and sugar in a kettle of boiling water, till the sugar is melted and the barberries quite soft; let them remain all night. Put them next day into a preserving pan, and boil them fifteen minutes, then put them into jars, tie them close, and set them by for use.


106. GRAPES.

Take close bunches, whether white or red, not too ripe, and lay them in a jar. Put to them a quarter of a pound of sugar candy, and fill the jar with common brandy. Tie them up close with a bladder, and set them in a dry place.


Having stoned the desired quantity of morello cherries, put a pound and a quarter of fine sugar to every pound; beat and sift it over the cherries, and let them stand all night. Take them out of their sugar, and to every pound of sugar, put two spoonsful of water. Boil and skim it well, and then put in the cherries; boil the sugar over them, and next morning strain them, and to every pound of syrup put half a pound more sugar; boil it till it is a little thicker, then put in the cherries and let them boil gently. The next day strain them, put them in a stove and turn them every day till they are dry.


The best kind is clarified by merely melting it in a water bath, and taking off the scum; the middling kind by dissolving it in water, adding the white of an egg to each pint of the solution; and boiling it down to its original consistence, skimming it from time to time. The inferior kind requires solution in water, boiling the solution with one pound of charcoal, to 25 pounds of honey, adding, when an excess of acid is apprehended, a small quantity of chalk or oyster-shell powder; next by straining it several times through flannel, and reducing the solution to its original consistence by evaporation.


Free them from their cups, stamina, and pistils, put four ounces into one pound of sugar boiled to a candy height, and poured on a slab, so as to be formed into cakes.


Gather plums, apricots, cherries, peaches, and other juicy fruits, before they are perfectly ripe, and soak them for some hours in hard, or alum water, to make them firm; as the moisture of the fruit weakens the spirit, it ought to be strong, therefore, add five ounces of sugar to each quart of spirit.


Cut a hole at the stem end of the oranges, the size of sixpence, take out all the pulp, put the oranges into cold water for two days, changing it twice a day; boil them rather more than an hour, but do not cover them, as it will spoil the colour; have ready a good syrup, into which put the oranges,[115] and boil them till they look clear; then take out the seeds, skins, &c. from the pulp first taken out of the oranges, and add to it one of the whole oranges, previously boiled, with an equal weight of sugar to it and the pulp; boil this together till it looks clear, over a slow fire, and when cold fill the oranges with this marmalade, and put on the tops; cover them with syrup, and put brandy paper on the top of the jar. It is better to take out the inside at first, to preserve the fine flavour of the juice and pulp, which would be injured by boiling in the water.


Take large cucumbers, green, and free from seed, put them in a jar of strong salt and water, with vine leaves on the top, set them by the fire side till they are yellow; then wash and set them over a slow fire in alum and water, covered with vine leaves; let them boil till they become green; take them off, and let them stand in the liquor till cold: then quarter them, and take out the seed and pulp; put them in cold spring water, changing it twice a day for three days. Have ready a syrup made thus: to one pound of loaf sugar, half an ounce of ginger bruised, with as much water as will wet it; when it is quite free from scum, put in, when boiling, the rind of a lemon and juice; when quite cold, pour the syrup on the melons. If the syrup is too thin, after standing two or three days, boil it again, and add a little more sugar. A spoonful of rum, gives it the West-Indian flavour. Girkins may be done the same way. One ounce of alum, when pounded, is sufficient for a dozen melons of a middling size.


Take an equal weight of fruit and double refined sugar, lay the former in a large dish, and sprinkle half the sugar in fine powder; give a gentle shake to the dish, that the sugar may touch the under side of the fruit. Next day make a thin syrup with the remainder of the sugar; and allow one pint of red currant juice, to every three pounds of strawberries; in this simmer them until sufficiently jellied. Choose the largest scarlets, not dead ripe.


Infuse young apricots before their stones become hard, into a pan of cold spring water, with plenty of vine leaves; set them over a slow fire until they are quite yellow, then take them out and rub them with a flannel and salt to take off the lint; put them into the pan to the same water and leaves, cover them close at a distance from the fire, until they are a fine light green, then pick out all the bad ones. Boil the best gently two or three times in a thin syrup,[116] and let them be quite cold each time before you boil them. When they look plump and clear, make a syrup of double refined sugar, but not too thick; give your apricots a gentle boil in it, and then put them into the pots or glasses, dip a paper in brandy, lay it over them, tie them close, and keep them in a dry place.


The stalks are to be boiled for a quarter of an hour in water, to take away their bitterness, and some of the strong scent; they are then to be put into syrup, boiled to a full candied height, and kept on the fire, until they appear quite dry, and then taken out and drained.


Is prepared nearly in the same manner as candied angelica, but the roots are only slit, and washed three or four times in cold water, before they are put into the syrup.


Put an ounce of roche alum beat very fine, into a large pan of boiling hard water; place a few gooseberries at the bottom of a hair sieve, and hold them in the water till they turn white. Then take out the sieve, and spread the gooseberries between two cloths; put more into the sieve, and repeat it till they are all done: Put the water into a glazed pot until the next day, then put the gooseberries into wide-mouthed bottles; pick out all the cracked and broken ones, pour the water clear out of the pot, and fill the bottles with it, cork them loosely, and let them stand a fortnight. If they rise to the corks, draw them out and let them stand two or three days uncorked, then cork them close again.



This branch of domestic economy comprises a great variety of articles which are essentially necessary to the convenience of families.

It is too prevalent a practice to make use of brass utensils to give pickles a fine colour. This pernicious custom is easily avoided by heating the liquor and keeping it in a proper degree of warmth before it is poured upon the pickle. Stone or glass jars are the best adapted for sound keeping.

Pickles should never be handled with the fingers, but taken out by a spoon, with holes in it, kept for the purpose.

The strongest vinegar must be used for pickling. It must not be boiled, as thereby the strength of the vinegar and spices will be evaporated. By parboiling the pickles in brine, they will be ready in half the time they would otherwise be. When taken out of the hot brine, let them get cold and quite dry before you put them into the pickle.

The articles to be pickled should be perforated with a larding pin, in several places, by which means they will the more readily imbibe the flavour of the pickle.

The spices, &c. generally used, are those mentioned in the following receipt for walnuts.


Make a brine of salt and water, with a quarter of a pound of salt to a quart of water. Soak the walnuts in this[118] for a week, and if you wish to have them ready the sooner, run a larding pin through them, in half a dozen places, which will make them much softer and better flavoured. Put them into a stew-pan with the brine, and give them a gentle simmer. Lay them on a sieve to drain, then put them on a fish plate in the open air, a couple of days, or till they turn black. Put them into unglazed or stone jars, about three parts full, and fill up the jars with the following pickle;[13] and when they have been done about a week, open them and fill them up again, and so on continually, or else they will be spoiled.

119. ONIONS.

Put a sufficient quantity into salt and water for nine days, observing to change the water every day; next put them into jars and pour fresh boiling salt and water over them, cover them close up till they are cold, then make a second decoction of salt and water, and pour it on boiling. When it is cold drain the onions on a hair sieve, and put them into wide-mouthed bottles; fill them up with distilled vinegar; put into every bottle a slice or two of ginger, a blade of mace, and a tea-spoonful of sweet oil, which will keep the onions white. Cork them well up, and keep them in a dry place.


Take a large strong wooden vessel, or cask, resembling a salt-beef cask, and capable of containing as much as is sufficient for the winter’s consumption of a family. Gradually break down or chop the cabbages (deprived of outside green leaves,) into very small pieces; begin with one or two cabbages at the bottom of the cask, and add others at intervals, pressing them by means of a wooden spade, against the side of the cask, until it is full. Then place a heavy weight upon the top of it, and allow it to stand near to a warm place, for four or five days. By this time it will have undergone fermentation, and be ready for use. Whilst the cabbages are passing through the process of fermentation, a very disagreeable fetid, acid smell is exhaled from them;[119] now remove the cask to a cool situation, and keep it always covered up. Strew aniseeds among the layers of the cabbage during its preparation, which communicates a peculiar flavour to the Saur Kraut at an after period.

In boiling it for the table, two hours is the period for it to be on the fire. It forms an excellent nutritious and antiscorbutic food for winter use.


This consists of all kinds of pickles mixed and put into one large jar—girkins, sliced cucumbers, button onions, cauliflowers, broken in pieces. Salt them, or put them in a large hair sieve in the sun to dry for three days, then scald them in vinegar for a few minutes; when cold put them together. Cut a large white cabbage in quarters, with the outside leaves taken off and cut fine, salt it, and put it in the sun to dry for three or four days; then scald it in vinegar, the same as cauliflower, carrots, three parts boiled in vinegar and a little bay salt; French beans, rock-samphire, reddish pods, and nastertiums, all go through the same process as girkins, capsicums, &c. To one gallon of vinegar put four ounces of ginger bruised, two ounces of whole white pepper, two ounces of allspice, half an ounce of chillies bruised, four ounces of turmeric, one pound of the best mustard, half a pound of shalots, one ounce of garlic and half a pound of bay salt. The vinegar, spice, and other ingredients, except the mustard, must boil half an hour; then strain it into a pan, put the mustard into a large basin, with a little vinegar; mix it quite fine and free from lumps, then add more; when well mixed put it to the vinegar just strained off, and when quite cold put the pickles into a large pan, and the liquor over them; stir them repeatedly so as to mix them all; finally, put them into a jar, and tie them over first with a bladder, and afterwards with leather. The capsicums want no preparation.


Put what quantity is wanted into a clean pan, throw over it two or three handsful of salt, and cover it with spring water for twenty-four hours; next put it into a clean saucepan, throw in a handful of salt, and cover it with good vinegar. Close the pan tight, set it over a slow fire, and let it stand till the samphire is green and crisp; then take it off instantly, for should it remain till it is soft, it will be totally spoiled. Put it into the pickling pot and cover it close; when it is quite cold tie it down with a bladder and leather, and set it by for use. Samphire may be preserved all the year by keeping it in a very strong brine of salt and water, and just before using it, put it for a few minutes into some of the best vinegar.



Put the smallest that can be got into spring water, and rub them with a piece of new flannel dipped in salt. Throw them into cold water as they are cleaned, which will make them keep their colour; next put them into a saucepan with a handful of salt upon them. Cover them close and set them over the fire four or five minutes, or till the heat draws the liquor from them; next lay them betwixt two dry cloths till they are cold; put them into glass bottles and fill them up with distilled vinegar, with a blade of mace, and a teaspoonful of sweet oil in every bottle; cork them up close and set them in a dry cool place; as a substitute for distilled vinegar, use white wine vinegar, or ale. Allegon will do, but it must be boiled with a little mace, salt, and a few slices of ginger, and it must be quite cold before it is poured upon the mushrooms.

124. Another Method.

Bruise a quantity of well-grown flaps of mushrooms with the hands, and then strew a fair proportion of salt over them; let them stand all night, and the next day put them into stew-pans; set them in a quick oven for twelve hours, and strain them through a hair sieve. To every gallon of liquor put of cloves, Jamaica black pepper, and ginger, one ounce each, and half a pound of common salt; set it on a slow fire, and let it boil till half the liquor is wasted; then put it into a clean pot, and when cold bottle it for use.


Let them be as free from spots as possible; take the smallest that can be got, put them into strong salt and water for nine days, till they become yellow; stir them at least twice a day; should they become perfectly yellow, pour the water off and cover them with plenty of vine leaves. Set the water over the fire, and when it boils, pour it over them, and set them upon the earth to keep warm. When the water is almost cold make it boil again, and pour it upon them; proceed thus till they are of a fine green, which they will be in four or five times; keep them well covered with vine leaves, with a cloth and dish over the top to keep in the steam, which will help to green them.

When they are greened put them in a hair sieve to drain, and then to every two quarts of white wine vinegar put half an ounce of mace, ten or twelve cloves, an ounce of ginger cut into slices, an ounce of black pepper, and a handful of salt. Boil them all together for five minutes; pour it hot on the pickles, and tie them down for use. They may also be pickled with ale, ale vinegar, or distilled[121] vinegar, and adding three or four cloves of garlic and shalots.


To a peck of sprats put two pounds of salt, three ounces of bay-salt, one pound of salt-petre, two ounces of prunella, and a few grains of cochineal; pound all in a mortar, put into a stone pan first a layer of sprats, and then one of the compound, and so on alternately to the top. Press them down hard; cover them close for six months, and they will be fit for use, and will really produce a most excellent flavoured sauce.

127. SALMON.

Boil the fish gently till done, and then take it up, strain the liquor, add bay leaves, pepper corns, and salt; give these a boil, and when cold add the best vinegar to them; then put the whole sufficiently over the fish to cover it, and let it remain a month at least.


Fish may be preserved in a dry state, and perfectly fresh, by means of sugar alone, and even with a very small quantity of it.

Fresh fish may be kept in that state for some days, so as to be as good when boiled as if just caught. If dried, and kept free from mouldiness, there seems no limit to their preservation; and they are much better in this way than when salted. The sugar gives no disagreeable taste.

This process is particularly valuable in making what is called kippered salmon; and the fish preserved in this manner are far superior in quality and flavour to those which are salted or smoked. If desired, as much salt may be used as to give the taste that may be required; but this substance does not conduce to their preservation.

In the preparation, it is barely necessary to open the fish, and to apply the sugar to the muscular parts, placing it in a horizontal position for two or three days, that this substance may penetrate. After this it may be dried; and it is only further necessary to wipe and ventilate it occasionally, to prevent mouldiness.

A table spoonful of brown sugar is sufficient in this manner for a salmon of five or six pounds weight; and if salt is desired, a tea spoonful or more may be added. Saltpetre may be used instead, in the same proportion, if it is desired to make the kipper hard.


For three hams pound and mix together half a peck of salt, half an ounce of salt prunella, three ounces of salt-petre,[122] and four pounds of coarse salt; rub the hams well with this, and lay what is to spare over them, let them lie three days, then hang them up. Take the pickle in which the hams were, put water enough to cover the hams, with more common salt, till it will bear an egg, then boil and skim it well, put it in the salting tub, and the next morning put it in the hams; keep them down the same as pickled pork; in a fortnight take them out of the liquor, rub them well with brine, and hang them up to dry.


Lay the meat on a table or in a tub with a double bottom, that the brine may drain off as fast as it forms, rub the salt well in, and be careful to apply it to every niche; afterwards put it into either of the above utensils; when it must be frequently turned, after the brine has ceased running, it must be quite buried in salt, and kept closely packed. Meat which has had the bones taken out is the best for salting. In some places the salted meat is pressed by heavy weights, or a screw, to extract the moisture sooner.


A good brine is made of bay salt and water, thoroughly saturated, so that some of the salt remains undissolved; into this brine the substances to be preserved are plunged, and kept covered with it. Among vegetables, French beans, artichokes, olives, and the different sorts of samphire, may be thus preserved, and among animals, herrings.

132. To Salt by another Method.

Mix brown sugar, bay salt, common salt, each two pounds, saltpetre eight ounces, water two gallons; this pickle gives meats a fine red colour, while the sugar renders them mild and of excellent flavour.—Large quantities are to be managed by the above proportions.



The different processes in wine making, range themselves under the following heads:

Gathering the fruit,—picking the fruit,—bruising the fruit,—and vatting the fruit.

Vinous fermentation, flavouring the wine,—drawing the must,—pressing the husks,—casking the must.

Spirituous fermentation, racking the wine,—fuming the wine,—bottling and corking the wine.


To make wine well, and with facility, persons should have all the requisite apparatus, namely, the vats, vat-staff, fruit-bruiser, strainer, hair-bags, canvas-bags, wine-press, thermometer, and bottling-machine.


Fruit of every description, says Mr. Carnell, in his excellent treatise on wine making, should be gathered in fine weather; those of the berry kind often appear ripe to the eye before they really are so, therefore it is requisite to taste them several times in order to ascertain that they are arrived at the crisis of maturity. If the fruit be not ripe, the wine will be harsh and hard, and unpleasant to the palate, and more so to the stomach; it will also take more spirit and saccharine, and take a longer time to be fit for the table. If the fruit be too ripe, the wine from it will be faint, low, and vapid; it will not be strong and generous; it will also require more trouble, additional spirit, and expense.


Detach the unripe and bad berries: the result when the wine is drank, will be greatly superior in richness. Pick the stalks from grapes, currants, and gooseberries, previously to their being placed in the vat.


The quantity of fruit for making a vintage of domestic wine, is not so large but it may be bruised in a tub, and from[124] thence removed into the vat, or if the quantity be very small, it may be bruised in the vat. While the fruit is picking by one person, another may bruise it, and as it is bruised remove it into the vat. When Malaga or Smyrna raisins are used, they are to be put into the vat with the water, to soak, and the following day taken out and bruised, then returned into the vat again.


The first thing to be done is to place the guard against the tap-hole, to prevent the husks escaping at the time the must or extract is drawn off. When all the fruit is in the vat the water should be added, and the contents stirred with the vat-staff, and left to macerate until the next day, when sugar, tartar, &c. diluted with some of the liquor, is to be put into the vat, and the whole again stirred up. The place where the vat is situated should have a free circulation of air, and a temperature of not less than 58 degrees. If the vinous fermentation do not take place, in a reasonable time, the contents must be often stirred, and the place made warmer.


The time of a vinous fermentation commencing is always uncertain; it depends much on the quality and quantity of the contents of the vat, on its local situation, on the season or weather, and most particularly on the greenness or ripeness of the fruit. To produce a medium vinous fermentation, the vats and contents ought to be placed in a temperature from 60 to 70 degrees. And if this is found not to produce fermentation in a short time, the temperature of the place must be made warmer, and the vat often stirred with the vat-staff.

The commencement of the vinous fermentation may be known by plunging the thermometer into the middle of the vat, for a minute, and when taken out, if a fermentation has commenced, the temperature of the contents will be higher than at the place where the vats are situated. When the vinous fermentation begins, it is very conspicuous, and may be known by its taste, smell, appearance, and effects. The contents will first gently rise, and swell with a slight movement and a little hissing. A considerable motion will take place, and the contents will increase in heat and bulk, while a quantity of air escapes.

It is impossible to lay down an exact time for a vinous fermentation; but for eighteen gallons, two or three days are generally sufficient for white wines; and red wines require a day or two more.


When the vinous fermentation is about half over, the flavouring ingredients are to be put into the vat and well[125] stirred into the contents. If almonds form a component part, they are first to be beaten to a paste and mixed with a pint or two of the must. Nutmegs, cinnamon, ginger, seeds, &c. should, before they are put into the vat, be reduced to powder, and mixed with some of the must.


When the must in the vat gives, by tasting, a strong vinous pungency, that is the period to stop the remaining slight fermentation, by drawing off the must, in order to have strong and generous wine.

A cock, or spicket and faucet, is to be put into the tap-hole of the vat, and the must drawn off and put into open vessels, there to remain till the pressing is finished.


As soon as all the must is drawn off from the vat, the husks are to be put into hair-bags, and the mouth of each bag is to be well fastened, then put into the press, and the whole pressed without delay. The must that is pressed out is to be mixed with the must that was drawn off from the vat. Many ways may be contrived for pressing a small vintage, for those persons who cannot afford to purchase a proper wine-press; but several wines do not require pressing; and may be strained through a sweet, clean, canvas bag, made with a pointed end downwards.


Each cask is to be filled, within about an inch of the bung-hole, which should be covered over lightly with a flat piece of wood. The must now is perfectly cool and calm, and will remain in this state until the spirituous fermentation commences.


The spirituous fermentation is essentially necessary to the clarification, goodness, and perfection of the wine. If the vinous fermentation has been well conducted, and the wine cellar be not too cold, a spirituous fermentation will commence in a few days, and abate in six or twelve days, the time depending on circumstances, and on the quality and quantity of the wine. The brandy or spirit assigned should at this time be put to the wine by pouring it in gently without disturbing the wine. The cask now, if not full, must be filled up and bunged with a wooden bung covered with a piece of new canvass larger than the bung. In about a month after the spirit has been added, the cask will again want filling up; this should be done with the overplus of the vintage, if not with some other good wine, and the cask re-bunged very tight. The cask should be pegged once a month or oftener to see if the wine be clear and not thick, and as soon as it is fine and bright, it must be racked off its lees.



This is an operation highly requisite to the keeping wine good; to its purification, strength, colour, brilliancy, richness, and flavour, and is performed by drawing off the wine and leaving the lees in the cask. A siphon should be used but if not, the cask should be tapped two or three days previously. It may be racked off into another cask, or into a vat or tub, and returned into the same cask again, after it has been well cleaned; and, if requisite, the cask may be slightly fumigated, immediately before the wine is returned into it. If the wine, on being tasted, is found weak, a little spirit is to be given to it, the cask filled up and bunged tight.

The racking off ought to be performed in temperate weather, and as soon as the wines appear clear, a second racking will make them perfectly brilliant, and if so they will want no fining.

144. FINING.

Many wines require fining before they are racked, and the operation of fining is not always necessary. Most wines, well made, do not want fining; this may be ascertained by drawing a little into a glass, from a peg-hole.

One of the best finings is as follows:—Take one pound of fresh marsh-mallow roots, washed clean, and cut into small pieces; macerate them in two quarts of soft water, for twenty-four hours, then gently boil the liquor down to three half pints, strain it, and when cold, mix with it half an ounce of pipe-clay or chalk, in powder, then pour the mucilage into the cask, and stir up the wine so as not to disturb the lees, and leave the vent-peg out for some days after.

Or, take boiled rice, two table-spoonsful, the white of one new egg, and half an ounce of burnt alum, in powder. Mix with a pint or more of the wine, then pour the mucilage into the cask, and stir the wine with a stout stick, but not to agitate the lees.

Or, dissolve, in a gentle heat, half an ounce of isinglass in a pint or more of the wine, then mix with it half an ounce of chalk, in powder; when the two are well incorporated, pour it into the cask, and stir the wine so as not to disturb the lees.

As soon as wines are clear and bright, after being fined down, they ought to be racked into a sweet and clean cask, the cask filled up and bunged tight.


Fine clear weather is best for bottling all sorts of wines, and much cleanliness is required. The first consideration, in bottling wines, is to examine and see if the wines are in[127] a proper state. The wines should be fine and brilliant, or they will never brighten after.

The bottles must be all sound, clean, and dry, with plenty of good sound corks.

The cork is to be put in with the hand, and then driven well in with a flat wooden mallet, the weight of which ought to be a pound and a quarter, but however, not to exceed a pound and a half, for if the mallet be too light or too heavy it will not drive the cork in properly, and may break the bottle. The corks must so completely fill up the neck of each bottle as to render them air tight, but leave a space of an inch between the wine and the cork.

When all the wine is bottled, it is to be stored in a cool cellar, and on no account on the bottles’ bottoms, but on their sides and in saw-dust.


Take cold soft water, 10 gallons,
red gooseberries, 11 gallons, and ferment.

Now mix raw sugar, 16 lbs.
beet-root, sliced, 2 lbs. and
red tartar, in fine powder, 3 ounces.

Afterwards put in sassafras chips, 1 lb. and
brandy, 1 gallon, or less.

This will make 18 gallons.

147. Another.

When the weather is dry, gather gooseberries about the time they are half ripe; pick them clean, put the quantity of a peck into a convenient vessel, and bruise them with a piece of wood, taking as much care as possible to keep the seeds whole. Now, having put the pulp into a canvass-bag, press out all the juice; and to every gallon of the gooseberries add about three pounds of fine loaf-sugar: mix the whole together by stirring it with a stick, and as soon as the sugar is quite dissolved, pour it into a convenient cask, which will hold it exactly. If the quantity be about eight or nine gallons, let it stand a fortnight; if twenty gallons, forty days, and so on in proportion; taking care the place you set it in be cool. After standing the proper time, draw it off from the lees, and put it into another clean vessel of equal size, or into the same, after pouring the lees out, and making it clean; let a cask of ten or twelve gallons stand for about three months, and twenty gallons for five months, after which it will be fit for bottling off.


Take cold soft water, 3 gallons,
red gooseberries, 1½ gallons,
white gooseberries, 2 gallons.


Now mix raw sugar, 5 lbs.
honey, 1½ lbs.
tartar, in fine powder, 1 oz.

Afterwards put in bitter almonds, two ounces,
sweet-briar, one small handful, and
brandy one gallon, or less.

This will make six gallons.


Take cold soft water, 4½ gallons,
white gooseberries, 5 gallons.


Now mix refined sugar, 6 pounds,
honey, 4 pounds,
white tartar, in fine powder, 1 oz.

Put in orange and lemon peel, one ounce dry, or two ounces fresh; and add
white brandy ½ a gallon.

This will make nine gallons.


To each Scotch pint of full ripe gooseberries, mashed, add one Scotch pint of water, milk-warm, in which has been dissolved 1 lb. of single refined sugar: stir the whole well, and cover up the tub with a blanket, to preserve the heat generated by the fermentation of the ingredients: let them remain in this vessel three days, stirring them twice or three times a day: strain off the liquor through a sieve, afterwards through a coarse linen cloth; put it into the casks it will ferment without yeast. Let the cask be kept full with some of the liquor reserved for the purpose. It will ferment for ten days, sometimes for three weeks: when ceased, and only a hissing noise remains, draw off two or three bottles, according to the strength you wish it to have, from every 20 pint cask, and fill up the cask with brandy or whiskey; but brandy is preferable. To make it very good, and that it may keep well, add as much sherry, together with a ¼ oz. of isinglass dissolved in water to make it quite liquid; stir the whole well. Bung the cask up, and surround the bung with clay; the closer it is bunged the better; a fortnight after, if it be clear at the top, taste it; if not sweet enough, add more sugar; 22 lbs. is the just quantity in all for 20 pints of wine; leave the wine six months in the cask; but after being quite fine, the sooner it is bottled, the more it will sparkle and resemble champaigne. The process should be carried on in a place where the heat is between 48° and 56° Fahrenheit.—N. B. Currant wine may be made in the same manner.



Take gooseberries before they are ripe, crush them with a mallet in a wooden bowl, and to every gallon of fruit put a gallon of water; let it stand two days, stirring it well; squeeze the mixture with the hands through a hop-sieve; then measure the liquor, and to every gallon put 3½ lbs. of loaf sugar; mix it well in the tub, and let it stand one day; put a bottle of the best brandy into the cask; which leave open five or six weeks, taking off the scum as it rises; then make it up, and let it stand one year in the barrel before it is bottled.

The proportion of brandy to be used for this liquor, is one pint to 7 gallons.


Take cold soft water, 6 gallons,
gooseberries, 4 do.
currants, 4 do.


Mix, raw sugar, 12 lbs.
honey, 3 lbs. and
tartar, in fine powder, 1½ oz.
bitter almonds, 1½ oz.

Put in brandy 6 pints, or more.

This will make 12 gallons.

153. Another.

Take cold soft water, 5½ gallons,
gooseberries and currants, 4 gallons.


Then add
raw sugar, 12½ lbs.
tartar, in fine powder, 1 oz.
ginger, in powder, 3 ounces,
sweet marjoram, ½ a handful,
British spirits, 1 quart.

This will make 9 gallons.


Take cold soft water, 11 gallons,
red currants, 8 gallons,
raspberries, 1 quart.


Mix, raw sugar, 20 lbs.
beet-root, sliced, 2 lbs. and
red tartar, in fine powder, 3 ounces.

Put in 1 nutmeg, in fine powder; add
brandy, 1 gallon.

This will make 18 gallons.

155. Another.

Boil four gallons of spring water, and stir into it 1 lb. of honey; when thoroughly dissolved, take it off the fire; then[130] stir it well in order to raise the scum, which take clean off, and cool the liquor.

When thus prepared, press out the same quantity of the juice of red currants moderately ripe, which being well strained, mix well with the water and honey, then put them into a cask, or a large earthen vessel, and let them stand to ferment for 24 hours; then to every gallon add 2 lbs. of fine sugar, stir them well to raise the scum, and when well settled, take it off, and add ½ oz. of cream of tartar, with the whites of two or three eggs, to refine it. When the wine is well settled and clear, draw it off into a small vessel, or bottle it up, keeping it in a cool place.

Of white currants, a wine after the same manner may be made, that will equal in strength and pleasantness many sorts of white wine; but as for the black, or Dutch currants, they are seldom used, except for the preparation of medicinal wines.

156. Another.

Gather the currants in dry weather, put them into a pan and bruise them with a wooden pestle; let them stand about 20 hours, after which strain through a sieve; add 3 lbs. of fine powdered sugar to each four quarts of the liquor, and after shaking it well, fill the vessel and put a quart of good brandy to every 7 gallons. In 4 weeks, if it does not prove quite clear, draw it off into another vessel, and let it stand, previously to bottling it off, about ten days.


Take cold soft water, 12 gallons,
white currants, 4 do.
red currants, 3 do.


Mix, raw sugar, 25 lbs.
white tartar, in fine powder, 3 oz.

Put in sweet-briar leaves, 1 handful,
lavender leaves, 1 do.
then add spirits, 2 quarts or more.

This will make 18 gallons.


Take of cold soft water, 9 gallons,
red currants, 10 do.


Mix, raw sugar, 1O lbs.
beet-root, sliced, 2 lbs.
red tartar, in fine powder, 2 oz.

Put in bitter almonds, 1 oz.
ginger, in powder, 2 oz.
then add brandy, 1 quart.

This will make 18 gallons.



Take of cold soft water, 11 gallons,
red currants, 8 do.


Mix, raw sugar, 12 lbs.
red tartar, in fine powder, 2 oz.

Put in coriander seed, bruised, 2 oz.
then add British spirit, 2 quarts.

This will make 18 gallons.


Take of cold soft water, 11 gallons,
fruit 8 do.


Mix, treacle, 14 or 16 lbs.
tartar, in powder, 1 oz.

Put in ginger, in powder, 4 oz.
sweet herbs, 2 handsful:
then add spirits, 1 or 2 quarts.

This will make 18 gallons.


An excellent family wine may be made of equal parts of red, white, and black currants, ripe cherries, and raspberries, well bruised, and mixed with soft water, in the proportion of 4 lbs. of fruit to 1 gallon of water. When strained and pressed, 3 lbs. of moist sugar are to be added to each gallon of liquid. After standing open for three days, during which it is to be stirred frequently, it is to be put into a barrel, and left for a fortnight to work, when a ninth part of the brandy is to be added, and the whole bunged down. In a few months it will be a most excellent wine.


Take of cold soft water, 2 gallons.
fruit, 18 do.


Mix, honey, 6 lbs.
tartar, in fine powder, 2 oz.

Put in peach-leaves, 6 handsful;
then add brandy, 1 gallon.

This will make 18 gallons.


Take of cold soft water, 9 gallons,
white currants, 9 gallons,
white gooseberries, 1 do.


Mix, refined sugar, 25 lbs.
white tartar, in powder, 1 oz.
clary seed, bruised, 2 oz. or[132]
clary flowers, or sorrel flowers, 4 handsful;
then add, white brandy, 1 gallon.

This will make 18 gallons.

164. Another.

Take of cold soft water, 10 gallons,
white currants, 10 do.


Mix, refined sugar, 25 lbs.
white tartar, in fine powder, 1 oz.
then add, bitter almonds, 2 oz. and
white brandy, 1 gallon.

This will make 18 gallons.


Take of cold soft water, 10 gallons,
black currants, 6 do.
strawberries, 3 do.


Mix, raw sugar, 25 lbs.
red tartar, in fine powder, 6 oz.
orange thyme, 2 handsful;
then add brandy, 2 or 3 quarts.

This will make 18 gallons.

166. Another.

Take of cold soft water, 12 gallons,
black currants, 5 do.
white or red currants, or both, 3 do.


Mix, raw sugar, 30 lbs. or less,
red tartar, in fine powder, 5 oz.
ginger, in powder, 5 oz.
then add brandy, 1 gallon, or less.

This will make 18 gallons.


Take of cold soft water, 7 gallons,
cider, 6 do.
strawberries, 6 do.


Mix, raw sugar, 16 lbs.
red tartar, in fine powder, 3 oz.
the peel and juice of two lemons;
then add brandy, 2 or 3 quarts.

This will make 18 gallons.

168. Another.

Take of cold soft water, 10 gallons,
strawberries, 9 do.


Mix, raw sugar, 25 lbs.
red tartar, in fine powder, 3 oz.[133]
2 lemons and 2 oranges, peel and juice;
then add brandy, 1 gallon.

This will make 18 gallons.


Take of cold soft water, 6 gallons,
cider, 4 do.
raspberries, 6 do.
any other fruit, 3 do.


Mix, raw sugar, 18 or 20 lbs.
red tartar, in fine powder, 3 oz.
orange and lemon peel, 2 oz. dry, or 4 oz. fresh;
then add brandy, 3 quarts.

This will make 18 gallons.

170. Another.

Gather the raspberries when ripe, husk them and bruise them; then strain them through a bag into jars or other vessels. Boil the juice, and to every gallon put a pound and a half of lump-sugar. Now add whites of eggs, and let the whole boil for fifteen minutes, skimming it, as the froth rises. When cool and settled, decant the liquor into a cask, adding yeast to make it ferment. When this has taken place, add a pint of white wine, or half a pint of proof spirit to each gallon contained in the cask, and hang a bag in it containing an ounce of bruised mace. In three months, if kept in a cool place, it will be very excellent and delicious wine.


On a dry day, gather mulberries, when they are just changed from redness to a shining black; spread them thinly on a fine cloth, or on a floor or table, for twenty-four hours; and then press them. Boil a gallon of water with each gallon of juice; putting to every gallon of water, an ounce of cinnamon bark, and six ounces of sugar candy finely powdered. Skim and strain the water when it is taken off and settled, and put to it the mulberry juice. Now add to every gallon of the mixture, a pint of white or Rhenish wine. Let the whole stand in a cask to ferment, for five or six days. When settled, draw it off into bottles, and keep it cool.


Take of cold soft water, 16 gallons,
Malaga raisins, 50 lbs.
Elder-berries, 4 gallons,
red tartar, in fine powder, 4 ounces.

Mix ginger, in powder, 5 ounces,
cinnamon, cloves, and mace, of each 2 ounces,[134]
3 oranges or lemons, peel and juice.
Then add 1 gallon of brandy.

This will make 18 gallons.

173. Another.

In making elder juice, let the berries be fully ripe, and all the stalks be clean picked from them; then, have a press ready for drawing off all the juice, and four hair cloths, somewhat broader than the press; lay one layer above another, having a hair cloth betwixt every layer, which must be laid very thin and pressed a little at first, and then more till the press be drawn as close as possible. Now take out the berries, and press all the rest in the like manner: then take the pressed berries, break out all the lumps, put them into an open-headed vessel, and add as much liquor as will just cover them. Let them infuse so for seven or eight days; then put the best juice into a cask proper for it to be kept in, and add one gallon of malt spirits, not rectified, to every twenty gallons, of elder juice, which will effectually preserve it from becoming sour for two years at least.

174. Another.

Pick the berries when quite ripe, put them into a stone jar, and set them in an oven, or in a kettle of boiling water, till the jar is hot through, then take them out, and strain them through a coarse sieve; squeeze the berries, and put the juice into a clean kettle. To every quart of juice put a pound of fine Lisbon sugar; let it boil, and skim it well. When clear and fine, pour it into a cask. To every ten gallons of wine add an ounce of isinglass dissolved in cider, and six whole eggs. Close it up, let it stand six months, and then bottle it.


To ten gallons of water, put ten quarts of the juice of white elder-berries, pressed gently from the berries by the hand, and passed through a sieve, without bruising the seeds: add to every gallon of liquor three pounds of Lisbon sugar, and to the whole quantity two ounces of ginger sliced, and one ounce of cloves. Boil this nearly an hour, taking off the scum as it rises, and pour the whole to cool, in an open tub, and work it with ale yeast, spread upon a toast of bread, for three days. Then turn it into a vessel that will just hold it, adding about a pound and a half of bruised raisins, to lay in the liquor till drawn off, which should not be done till the wine is fine.

This wine is so much like the fine rich wine brought from the island of Cyprus, in colour, taste, and flavour, that it has deceived the best judges.



Boil eighteen pounds of white powdered sugar in six gallons of water, and two whites of eggs well beaten; skim it, and put in a quarter of a peck of elder-flowers; do not keep them on the fire. When cool, stir it, and put in six spoonsful of lemon juice, four or five of yeast, and beat well into the liquor: stir it well every day; put six pounds of the best raisins, stoned, into the cask, and tun the wine. Stop it close, and bottle it in six months. When well kept, this wine will pass very well for Frontiniac.

177. Another.

To six gallons of spring water put six pounds of sun raisins cut small, and a dozen pounds of fine sugar; boil the whole together for about an hour and a half. When the liquor is cold, put half a peck of ripe elder flowers in, with about a gill of lemon-juice, and half the quantity of ale yeast. Cover it up, and, after standing three days, strain it off. Now pour it into a cask that is quite clean, and that will hold it with ease. When this is done, put a quart of Rhenish wine to every gallon; let the bung be slightly put in for twelve or fourteen days; then stop it down fast, and put it in a cool place for four or five months, till it be quite settled and fine; then bottle it off.


Take 6 gallons of good cider,
1½ gallons of port wine,
1½ gallons of the juice of elder-berries,
3 quarts of brandy,
1½ ounces of cochineal.

This will produce nine gallons and a half.

Bruise the cochineal very fine, and put it with the brandy into a stone bottle; let it remain at least a fortnight, shaking it well once or twice a day; at the end of that time to procure the cider, and put five gallons into a nine gallon cask, add to it the elder juice and port wine, then the brandy and cochineal. Take the remaining gallon of cider to rinse out the bottle that contained the brandy; and lastly, pour it into the cask, and bung it down very close, and in six weeks it will be fit for bottling.

It is, however, sometimes not quite so fine as could be wished; in that case add two ounces of isinglass, and let it remain a fortnight or three weeks longer, when it will be perfectly bright; it would not be amiss, perhaps, if the quantity of isinglass mentioned, was added to the wine before it was bunged down, it will tend, very considerably, to improve the body of the wine. If it should not appear[136] sufficiently rough flavoured, add an ounce, or an ounce and a half of roche-alum, which will, in most cases, impart a sufficient astringency.

After it is bottled it must be packed in as cool a place as possible. It will be fit for using in a few months; but if kept longer, it will be greatly improved.


Take of cold soft water, 6 gallons,
cider, 6 gallons,
berries, 8 gallons;


Mix raw sugar 20 pounds,
tartar, in fine powder, 4 ounces.

Add ginger, in powder, 4 ounces,
lavender and rosemary leaves, 2 handsful,
rum, or British spirits, 1 gallon.

This will make 18 gallons.


The season for obtaining the liquor from birch-trees, is in the latter end of February, or the beginning of March, before the leaves shoot out, and as the sap begins to rise. If the time is delayed, the juice will grow too thick to be drawn out. It should be as thin and clear as possible. The method of procuring the juice, is by boring holes in the trunk of the tree, and fixing faucets of elder; but care should be taken not to tap it in too many places at once, for fear of injuring the tree. If the tree is large, it may be bored in five or six places at once, and bottles are to be placed under the apertures for the sap to flow into. When four or five gallons have been extracted from different trees, cork the bottles very close and wax them till the wine is to be made, which should be as soon as possible after the sap has been obtained. Boil the sap, and put four pounds of loaf sugar to every gallon, also the peel of a lemon cut thin; then boil it again for nearly an hour, skimming it all the time. Now pour it into a tub, and as soon as it is cold, work it with a toast spread with yeast, and let it stand five or six days, stirring it twice or three times each day. Into a cask that will contain it, put a lighted brimstone match, stop it up till the match is burnt out, and then pour the wine into it, putting the bung lightly in, till it has done working. Bung it very close for about three months, and then bottle it. It will be good in a week after it is put into the bottles.

181. Another.


Birch wine may be made with raisins in the following manner: To a hogshead of birch-water, take four hundred of Malaga raisins: pick them clean from the stalks, and cut them small. Then boil the birch liquor for one hour at least, skim it well, and let it stand till it be no warmer than milk. Then put in the raisins, and let it stand close covered, stirring it well four or five times every day. Boil all the stalks in a gallon or two of birch liquor, which, when added to the other, when almost cold, will give it an agreeable roughness. Let it stand ten days, then put it in a cool cellar, and when it has done hissing in the vessel, stop it up close. It must stand at least nine months before it is bottled.


Having procured berries that are fully ripe, put them into a large vessel of wood or stone, with a cock in it, and pour upon them as much boiling water as will cover them. As soon as the heat will permit the hand to be put into the vessel, bruise them well till all the berries are broken. Then let them stand covered till the berries begin to rise towards the top, which they usually do in three or four days. Then draw off the clear into another vessel, and add to every ten quarts of this liquor, a pound of sugar. Stir it well and let it stand to work a week or ten days, in another vessel like the first. Then draw it off at the cock through a jelly-bag into a large vessel. Take four ounces of isinglass, and lay it to steep twelve hours in a pint of white wine. The next morning, boil it upon a slow fire till it is all dissolved. Then take a gallon of blackberry-juice, put in the dissolved isinglass, give them a boil together, and pour all into the vessel. Let it stand a few days to purge and settle, then draw it off, and keep it in a cool place.


For this, which is only a superior sort of white spruce beer, proceed as follows: To every gallon of water take 1½ lbs. of honey, and ½ a pound of fine starch. The starch, however, previously to its being blended with the honey, liquor, or syrup, must be reduced to a fine transparent jelly, by boiling it with part of the water purposely preserved. A quarter of a pound of essence of spruce may be used to 6 gallons of water; and the same method may be pursued in working, fining, and bottling, as directed for white spruce beer.

Spruce is a wholesome and pleasant drink to those who are used to it, and persons soon become habituated. It contains a vast quantity of fixed air, which is extremely bracing; and the use of this liquor is particularly to be recommended to such as are troubled with scorbutic humours, or have the gravel. It is chiefly used in summer.



Take of cold soft water, 18 gallons,
Malaga or Smyrna raisins, 35 lbs.
juniper berries, 9 quarts,
red tartar, 4 ounces,
wormwood and sweet marjoram, each 2 handsful.
British spirit, two quarts, or more.

Ferment for ten or twelve days.—This will make eighteen gallons.


Take of cold soft water, 11 gallons,
damsons, 8 gallons;


Mix raw sugar, 30 lbs.
red tartar, in fine powder, 6 oz.

Add brandy, 1 gallon.

This will make 18 gallons.

“When the must,” says Mr. Carnell, “has fermented 2 days, (during which time it should be stirred up two or three times,) take out of the vat about two or three quarts of the stones, and break them and the kernels, and then return them into the vat again.”

186. Another Method.

Take a considerable quantity of damsons and common plums inclining to ripeness: slit them in halves, so that the stones may be taken out, then mash them gently, and add a little water and honey. Add to every gallon of the pulp a gallon of spring water, with a few bay-leaves and cloves; boil the mixture, and add as much sugar as will well sweeten it; skim off the froth and let it cool. Now press the fruit, squeezing out the liquid part; strain all through a fine strainer, and put the water and juice together in a cask. Having allowed the whole to stand and ferment for three or four days, fine it with white sugar, flour, and whites of eggs; draw it off into bottles, then cork it well. In twelve days it will be ripe, and will taste like weak Port, having the flavour of Canary.

187. Another.

Gather the damsons on a dry day, weigh them, and bruise them. Put them into a stein that has a cock in it, and to every 8 pounds of fruit add a gallon of water. Boil the water, skim it, and put it scalding hot to the fruit. Let it stand two days, then draw it off and put it into a vessel, and to every gallon of liquor put 2½ lbs. of fine sugar. Fill up the vessel, and stop it close, and the longer it stands the better. Keep it for twelve months in the vessel, and[139] then bottle, putting a lump of sugar into every bottle. The small damson is the best for this purpose.


Take of cold soft water, 10 gallons,
cherries, 10 gallons.


Mix raw sugar, 30 lbs.
red tartar in fine powder, 3 oz.

Add brandy, 2 or 3 quarts.

This will make 18 gallons.

Two days after the cherries have been in the vat, Mr. Carnell says, we should take out about three quarts of the cherry stones, break them and the kernels, and return them into the vat again.

189. Another.

Take cherries, nearly ripe, of any red sort, clear them of the stalks and stones, then put them into a glazed earthen vessel, and squeeze them to a pulp. Let them remain in this state for twelve hours to ferment; then put them into a linen cloth not too fine, and press out the juice with a pressing board, or any other convenient instrument. Now let the liquor stand till the scum rises, and with a ladle or skimmer take it clean off; then pour the clearer part, by inclination, into a cask, where, to each gallon put a pound of the best loaf sugar, and let it ferment for seven or eight days. Draw it off, when clear, into lesser casks, or bottles; keep it cool as other wines, and in ten or twelve days it will be ripe.


Cleanse from the stalks, sixty pounds of Morella cherries, and bruise them so that the stones shall be broken. Now press out the juice and mix it with 6 gallons of sherry wine, and four gallons of warm water. Having grossly powdered separate ounces of nutmeg, cinnamon, and mace, hang them separately, in small bags, in the cask containing the mixture. Bung it down, and in a few weeks it will become a deliciously flavoured wine.


Take of cold soft water, 18 gallons,
refined sugar, 25 lbs.
honey, 6 lbs.
white tartar, in fine powder, 2 ounces,
Peaches, sixty or eighty in number.


Then add 2 gallons of brandy.

This will make 18 gallons.

The first division is to be put into the vat, and the day after, before the peaches are put in take the stones from[140] them, break them and the kernels, then put them and the pulp into the vat, and proceed with the general process.


Take peaches, nectarines, &c. pare them, and take the stones out; then slice them thin, and pour over them from a gallon to two gallons of water, and a quart of white wine. Place the whole on a fire to simmer gently for a considerable time, till the sliced fruit becomes soft; pour off the liquid part into another vessel containing more peaches that have been sliced but not heated; let them stand for twelve hours, then pour out the liquid part, and press what remains through a fine hair bag. Let the whole be now put into a cask to ferment; add of loaf-sugar, a pound and a half to each gallon. Boil well, an ounce of beaten cloves in a quart of white wine, and add to it the above.

Apricot wine may be made by only bruising the fruit and pouring the hot liquor over it. This wine does not require so much sweetening. To give it a curious flavour, boil an ounce of mace, and half an ounce of nutmegs, in a quart of white wine; and when the wine is fermenting, pour the liquid in hot. In about twenty days, or a month, these wines will be fit for bottling.


Boil together three pounds of sugar, and three quarts of water; and skim it well. Put in six pounds of apricots pared and stoned, and let them boil till they become tender. Then take them up, and when the liquor is cold, bottle it. After taking out the apricots, let the liquor be boiled with a sprig of flowered clary. The apricots will make marmalade, and be very good for present use.


Pare off the rinds of six large lemons, cut them, and squeeze out the juice. Steep the rinds in the juice, and put to it a quart of brandy. Let it stand three days in an earthen pot close stopped; then squeeze six more, and mix with it two quarts of spring water, and as much sugar as will sweeten the whole. Boil the water, lemons, and sugar together, and let it stand till it be cool. Then add a quart of white wine, and the other lemons and brandy: mix them together, and run it through a flannel bag into some vessel. Let it stand three months and then bottle it off.

Cork the bottle well; keep it cool, and it will be fit to drink in a month or six weeks.

195. Another.

Pare five dozen of lemons very thin, put the peels into five quarts of French brandy, and let them stand fourteen days. Then make the juice into a syrup with 3 lbs. of[141] single refined sugar, and when the peels are ready, boil 51 gallons of water, with 40 lbs. of single refined sugar for half an hour. Then put it into a tub, and when cool, add to it one spoonful of yeast, and let it work two days. Then tun it, and put in the brandy, peels, and syrup. Stir them altogether, and close up the cask. Let it stand three months, then bottle it, and it will be as pale and as fine as any citron water.


Take of cold soft water, 2 gallons,
apples, well bruised, 3 bushels,
honey, 10 lbs.
white tartar, 2 ounces,
1 nutmeg, in powder,
rum, 2 quarts.

This will make 18 gallons.


To every gallon of apple juice, immediately it comes from the press, add 2 lbs. of common loaf sugar; boil it as long as any scum rises, then strain it through a sieve, and let it cool; add some good yeast, and stir it well; let it work in the tub for two or three weeks, or till the head begins to flatten, then skim off the head, draw it clear off, and tun it. When made a year, rack it off, and fine it with isinglass; then add ½ a pint of the best rectified spirit of wine, or a pint of French brandy, to every 8 gallons.


Take of cold, soft water, 2 gallons,
apples, well bruised, 3 bushels.


Mix, raw sugar, 15 lbs.
beet-root sliced, 4 lbs.
red tartar, in fine powder, 3 oz.
then add ginger, in powder, 3 oz.
rosemary and lavender leaves, of each 2 handsful,
British spirits, 2 quarts.

This will make 18 gallons.


Gather the quinces when pretty ripe, in a dry day, rub off the down with a linen cloth, then lay them in hay or straw for ten days, to perspire. Now cut them in quarters, take out the cores, and bruise them well in a mashing tub with a wooden pestle. Squeeze out the liquid part, by pressing them in a hair bag, by degrees, in a cider press; strain this liquor through a fine sieve, then warm it gently over a fire, and skim it, but do not suffer it to boil. Now[142] sprinkle into it some loaf-sugar reduced to powder; then, in a gallon of water and a quart of white wine, boil 12 or 14 large quinces thinly sliced: add 2 lbs. of fine sugar, and then strain off the liquid part, and mingle it with the natural juice of the quinces; put this into a cask (not to fill it) and mix them well together; then let it stand to settle; put in two or three whites of eggs, then draw it off. If it be not sweet enough, add more sugar, and a quart of the best Malmsey. To make it still better, boil a ¼ lb. of stoned raisins and ½ an oz. of cinnamon bark in a quart of the liquor, to the consumption of a third part, and straining it, put it into the cask when the wine is fermenting.

200. Another Method.

Take 20 large quinces, gathered when they are dry and full ripe, wipe them clean with a coarse cloth, and grate them with a large grater or rasp as near the cores as possible; but do not touch the cores. Boil a gallon of spring water, throw in the quinces, and let them boil softly about a quarter of an hour. Then strain them well into an earthen pan, on 2 lbs. of double refined sugar. Pare the peel off two large lemons, throw them in, and squeeze the juice through a sieve. Stir it about till it be very cool, and then toast a thin bit of bread very brown, rub a little yeast on it, and let the whole stand close covered twenty-four hours. Then take out the toast and lemon, put the wine in a cask, keep it three months, and then bottle it. If a twenty gallon cask is wanted, let it stand six months, before bottling it; and remember, when straining the quinces, to wring them hard in a coarse cloth.


Put 12 lbs. of powdered sugar, with the whites of 8 or 10 eggs well beaten into 6 gallons of spring water; boil them ¾ of an hour; when cold, put into it two spoonsful of yeast and the juice of 12 lemons, which being pared must stand with 2 lbs. of white sugar in a tankard, and in the morning skim off the top, and then put it into the water; add the juice and rinds of fifty oranges, but not the white or pithy part of the rinds; let it work all together two days and two nights; then add two quarts of Rhenish or white wine, and put it into the vessel.

202. Another.

To 6 gallons of water put 15 lbs. of soft sugar; before it boils, add the whites of six eggs well beaten, and take off the scum as it rises; boil it ½ an hour: when cool, add the juice of fifty oranges, and two-thirds of the peels cut very thin; and immerse a toast covered with yeast. In a month after it has been in the cask, add a pint of brandy and 2 quarts of Rhenish wine: it will be fit to bottle in three or[143] four months, but it should remain in bottle for twelve months before it is drank.


Orange wine of a superior quality may be made with 2 lbs. of clayed sugar, and 1 lb. of Malaga raisins to each gallon of water, to which add the juice and peel of an orange, and to every 100 gallons of fluid, 4 lbs. of Rhenish tartar.

Two lbs. of honey, and 1 lb. of Malaga raisins, with the juice and peel of a large orange, to every gallon of water, and 4 lbs. of Rhenish tartar to every 100 gallons of fluid, will make an orange wine still superior to the former. Steep and press the fruit, and expend the tartar in setting, raising, and cutting the backs: the orange peel and juice are not to be added until the last stage of fermentation, that is on cutting: they will possess infinitely more vinosity than the ordinary orange wines, indeed, nearly as much as the juice of the vine.

Lemon wine, equally delicious, may be made in a similar manner: both these wines, as they advance in age, lose much of the grosser part of the orange and lemon flavour; one approaches the bergamot, and the other a fine citron, and become fragrant as they advance in years: they will be more improved if treacle be used, divested of its colour and burnt flavour.


To 12 lbs. of parsnips, cut in slices, add 4 gallons of water; boil them till they become quite soft. Squeeze the liquor well out of them, run it through a sieve, and add to every gallon 3 pounds of loaf sugar. Boil the whole three quarters of an hour, and when it is nearly cold, add a little yeast. Let it stand for ten days in a tub, stirring it every day from the bottom, then put it into a cask for twelve months: as it works over, fill it up every day.


Take of cold soft water, 17 gallons,
white currants, 6 quarts.


Mix honey, 30 pounds,
white tartar, in fine powder, 3 oz.

Add balm and sweetbriar, each 2 handsful,
white brandy, 1 gallon.

This will make 18 gallons.


Take of cold soft water, 17 gallons,
red currants, 6 quarts,
black currants, 2 quarts.


Mix honey, 25 pounds,
beet-root, sliced, 1 pound,
red tartar, in fine powder, 4 oz.

Add cinnamon in powder, 2 oz.
brandy, 1 gallon.

This will make 18 gallons.

207. Another.

Fermented mead is made in the proportion of 1 pound of honey to 3 pints of water; or by boiling over a moderate fire, to two-thirds of the quantity, three parts water and one part honey. The liquor is then skimmed and casked, care being taken to keep the cask full while fermenting. During the fermenting process, the cask is left unstopped and exposed to the sun, or in a warm room, until the working cease. The cask is then bunged, and a few months in the cellar renders it fit for use. Mead is rendered more vinous and pleasant by the addition of cut raisins, or other fruits, boiled after the rate of half a pound of raisins to six pounds of honey, with a toasted crust of bread, an ounce of salt of tartar in a glass of brandy, being added to the liquor when casked; to which some add five or six drops of the essence of cinnamon; others, pieces of lemon peel with various syrups.


To every gallon of water, put three pounds and a half of honey, and boil them together three quarters of an hour. Then to every gallon of liquor put about two dozen of walnut leaves, pour the boiling liquor upon them, and let them stand all night. Then take out the leaves, put in a spoonful of yeast, and let it work for two or three days.

Then make it up, and after it has stood for three months, bottle it.


Put a quantity of the comb, from which honey has been drained in a tub, and add a barrel of cider, immediately from the press; this mixture stir, and leave for one night. It is then strained before fermentation; and honey added, until the specific gravity of the liquor is sufficient to bear an egg. It is then put into a barrel; and after the fermentation is commenced, the cask is filled every day, for three or four days, that the froth may work out of the bung-hole. When the fermentation moderates, put the bung in loosely, lest stopping it tight might cause the cask to burst. At the end of five or six weeks, the liquor is to be drawn off into a tub, and the whites of eight eggs, well beaten up, with a pint of clean sand, is to be put into it: then add a gallon of cider spirit; and after mixing the whole together, return it into the cask, which is to be well cleaned, bunged tight,[145] and placed in a proper situation for racking off, when fine. In the month of April following, draw it off into kegs, for use; and it will be equal to almost any foreign wine.


Take of cold soft water, 18 gallons,
Smyrna raisins, 40 lbs.


Mix beet-root, sliced, 3 lbs.
red tartar, in fine powder, 2 oz.

Add cowslip-flowers, 14 lbs.
cloves and mace, in powder, 1 oz.
brandy, one gallon.

This will make 18 gallons.


Take of cold soft water, 18 gallons,
Malaga raisins, 35 lbs.
white tartar, in fine powder, 2 oz.


Mix cowslip-flowers, 16 lbs.

Add white brandy, 1 gallon.

This will make 18 gallons.


Is made in this manner: to 15 gallons of water put 30 pounds of honey, and boil it till one gallon be wasted. Skim it, take it off the fire, and have ready 16 lemons cut in halves. Take a gallon of the liquor, and put it to the lemons. Put the rest of the liquor into a tub with seven pecks of cowslips, and let them stand all night. Then put in the liquor with the lemons, 8 spoonsful of new yeast, and a handful of sweetbriar. Stir them all well together, and let it work three or four days; then strain it, put it into the cask, and after it has stood six months, bottle it off.


Take of cold soft water, 2 quarts,
cider, 9 gallons,
honey, 8 pounds,
white tartar, in fine powder, 2 oz.


Mix cinnamon, cloves, and mace, 2 oz.

Add rum, half a gallon.

This will make 9 gallons.


Take of cold soft water, 3 gallons,
cider, 16 gallons,
honey, 10 pounds.


Add raw sugar, 4 pounds,
beet-root, sliced, 4 pounds,
red tartar, in fine powder, 6 oz.

Mix sweet marjorum and sweetbriar, 3 handsful,
rum, 1 gallon.

This will make 18 gallons.


Take of cold soft water, 4 gallons,
cider, 15 gallons,
honey, 12 pounds,
tartar, in fine powder, 2 oz.


Mix ginger, in powder, 6 oz.
sage and mint, 2 handsful.

Add British spirits, 1 gallon.

This will make 18 gallons.


Take of cold soft water, 5 gallons,
black, or red grapes, 40 pounds.


Mix cider, 9 gallons,
raw sugar, 20 pounds,
barberry leaves, 3 handsful,
beet-root, sliced, 2 pounds,
red tartar, in powder, 4 ounces.

Add white elder-flowers, 6 handsful, or sassafras chips, 4 pounds.
Brandy, 1 gallon.

This will make 18 gallons.

217. Another.

Take of cold soft water, 6 gallons,
grapes, of any colour, 30 pounds.


Mix treacle, 10 pounds,
beet-root, sliced, 1½ pounds,
red tartar, in powder, 2 ounces.
Add rosemary leaves, 2 handsful,
brandy, ½ a gallon.

This will make 9 gallons.

218. Another.

Take of cold soft water, 8 gallons,
grapes, of any sort, 100 pounds.


Mix raw sugar, 20 pounds,
beet-root, sliced, 4 pounds,
barberry-leaves, 4 handsful,
red tartar, in powder, 6 ounces.[147]

Add coriander seed, bruised, 2 ounces,
brandy, 6 quarts.

This will make 18 gallons.


Take of cold soft water, 13 gallons,
white grapes, 50 pounds.


Mix refined sugar, 25 pounds,
white tartar, in powder, 3 ounces.

Add clary seed, bruised, 3 ounces, or
clary flowers, 6 handsful,
Rum, 1 gallon.

This will make 18 gallons.

220. Another Grape Wine.

To every gallon of ripe grapes put a gallon of soft water, bruise the grapes, let them stand a week without stirring, and draw the liquor off fine; to every gallon of wine put three pounds of lump sugar; put the whole into a vessel, but do not stop it till it has done hissing, then stop it close, and in six months it will be fit for bottling.

A better wine, though smaller in quantity, will be made by leaving out the water, and diminishing the quantity of sugar. Water is necessary, only where the juice is so scanty, or so thick, as in cowslip, balm, or black currant wine, that it could not be used without it.


Let the raisins be well washed and picked from the stalks; to every pound thus prepared and chopped, add one quart of water, which has been boiled and has stood till it is cold. Let the whole stand in the vessel for a month, being frequently stirred. Now let the raisins be taken from the cask and let the liquor be closely stopped in the vessel.

In the course of a month let it be racked into another vessel, leaving all the sediment behind, which must be repeated till it becomes fine, when add to every ten gallons, six pounds of fine sugar, and one dozen of Seville oranges, the rinds being pared very thin, and infused in two quarts of brandy, which should be added to the liquor at its last racking. Let the whole stand three months in the cask, when it will be fit for bottling; it should remain in the bottle for a twelvemonth.

To give it the flavour of Madeira, when it is in the cask, put in a couple of green citrons, and let them remain till the wine is bottled.

222. Another Raisin Wine.


Put two hundred weight of raisins, with the stalks, into a hogshead, and fill it almost with spring water; let them steep for about twelve days, frequently stirring, and after pouring off the juice, dress the raisins and mash them. The whole should then be put together into a very clean vessel that will exactly contain it. It will hiss for some time, during which it should not be stirred; but when the noise ceases, it must be stopped close, and stand for about six or seven months: and then, if it proves fine and clear, rack it off into another vessel of the same size. Stop it up, and let it remain for twelve or fourteen weeks longer, then bottle it off. If it should not prove clear, fine it down with three ounces of isinglass, and a quarter of a pound of sugar-candy, dissolved in some of the wine.


Take of cold soft water, 19 gallons,
Malaga raisins, 50 lbs.
white tartar, in powder, 4 oz.


Mix ginger, in powder, or bruised, 20 oz.
18 lemons, peel and juice.

Add brandy, 2 quarts, or more.

This will make 18 gallons.

224. Another.

Take 20 quarts of water,
5 lbs. of sugar,
3 oz. of white ginger,
1 oz. of stick liquorice.

Boil them well together; when it is cold put a little new yeast upon it, but not too much; then put it into the barrel for ten days, and after that bottle it, putting a lump of white sugar into every bottle.

225. Another.

To seven gallons of water put nineteen pounds of clayed sugar, and boil it for half an hour, taking off the scum as it rises; then take a small quantity of the liquor, and add to it nine ounces of the best ginger bruised. Now put it all together, and when nearly cold, chop nine pounds of raisins, very small, and put them into a nine gallon cask (beer measure,) with one ounce of isinglass. Slice four lemons into the cask, taking out all the seeds, and pour the liquor over them, with half a pint of fresh yeast. Leave it unstopped for three weeks, and in three months it will be fit for bottling.

There will be one gallon of the sugar and water more than the cask will hold at first: this must be kept to fill up, as the liquor works off, as it is necessary that the cask should be kept full, till it has done working. The raisins should[149] be two-thirds Malaga, and one third Muscadel. Spring and autumn are the best seasons for making this wine.


Take of sliced rhubarb, 2½ oz.
lesser cardamom seeds, bruised and husked, ½ oz.
saffron, 2 drachms,
Spanish white wine, 2 pints,
proof spirit, ½ pint.

Digest for ten days, and strain.

This is a warm, cordial, laxative medicine. If is used chiefly in weakness of the stomach and bowels, and some kind of loosenesses, for evacuating the offending matter, and strengthening the tone of the viscera. It may be given in doses of from half a spoonful to three or four spoonsful or more, according to the circumstances of the disorder, and the strength of the patient.


Boil twenty-six quarts of spring water a quarter of an hour, and when it is blood warm, put twenty-five pounds of Malaga raisins, picked, rubbed, and shred, into it, with almost half a bushel of red sage shred, and a porringer of ale yeast, stir it all well together, and let it stand in a tub, covered warm, six or seven days, stirring it once a day: then strain it off, and put it in a runlet. Let it work three or four days, and then stop it up; when it has stood six or seven days, put in a quart or two of Malaga sack; and when it is fine, bottle it.


To three gallons of water put six pounds of the best powder sugar, boil the sugar and water together for the space of half an hour, keep skimming it as the scum rises; let it stand to cool, beat up three ounces of syrup of betony with a large spoonful of ale yeast, put it into the liquor, and brew it well together; then having a peck of gilliflowers, cut from the stalks, put them into the liquor, let them infuse and work together three days, covered with a cloth; strain it, and put it into a cask, and let it settle for three weeks; then bottle it.


Pare and slice a number of turnips, put them into a cider press, and press out all the juice. To every gallon of the juice, add three pounds of lump sugar; have a vessel ready large enough to hold the juice, and put half a pint of brandy to every gallon. Pour in the juice and lay something over the bung for a week, to see if it works; if it does, do not bung it down till it has done working; then stop[150] it close for three months, and draw it off into another vessel, when it is fine bottle it off.

This is an excellent wine for gouty habits, and is much recommended in such cases in lieu of any other wine.


Take a well-glazed earthen vessel, and put into it three gallons of rose-water drawn with a cold still. Put into that a sufficient quantity of rose leaves, cover it close, and set it for an hour in a kettle or copper of hot water, to take out the whole strength and tincture of the roses; and when it is cold, press the rose leaves hard into the liquor, and steep fresh ones in it, repeating it till the liquor has got the full strength of the roses. To every gallon of liquor put three pounds of loaf sugar, and stir it well, that it may melt and disperse in every part. Then put it into a cask, or other convenient vessel, to ferment, and put into it a piece of bread toasted hard, and covered with yeast. Let it stand about thirty days, when it will be ripe, and have a fine flavour, having the whole strength and scent of the roses in it; and it may be greatly improved by adding to it wine and spices. By this method of infusion, wine of carnations, clove, gilliflowers, violets, primroses, or any other flower having a curious scent, may be made.


Boil half a pound of fresh barley in three waters, and save three pints of the last water. Mix it with a quart of white wine, half a pint of borage water, as much of clary water, a little red rose-water, the juice of five or six lemons, three quarters of a pound of fine sugar, and the thin yellow rind of a lemon. Mix all these well together, run it through a strainer, and bottle it. It is pleasant in hot weather, and very good in fevers.


Take the large blue figs, when pretty ripe, and steep them in white wine, having made some slits in them, that they may swell and gather in the substance of the wine. Then slice some other figs, and let them simmer over a fire in water until they are reduced to a kind of pulp. Then strain out the water, pressing the pulp hard, and pour it as hot as possible on the figs that are imbrewed in the wine. Let the quantities be nearly equal, but the water somewhat more than the wine and figs. Let them stand twenty-four hours, mash them well together, and draw off what will run without squeezing. Then press the rest, and if not sweet enough, add a sufficient quantity of sugar, to make it so. Let it ferment, and add to it a little honey and sugar-candy; then fine it with whites of eggs, and a little isinglass, and draw it off for use.



Boil two gallons of the sap half an hour, and then add to it four pounds of fine powdered sugar. Beat the whites of three eggs to froth, and mix them with the liquor; but take care that it is not too hot, as that will poach the eggs. Skim it well, and boil it half an hour. Then strain it through a hair sieve, and let it stand till next day. Then pour it clean from the sediment, put half a pint of yeast to every twelve gallons, and cover it close up with blankets. Then put it into the barrel, and leave the bung-hole open till it has done working. Then close it up well, and when it has stood two months, bottle it. The fifth part of the sugar must be loaf; and if raisins are liked, they will be a great addition to the wine.


Take forty pounds of sugar and nine gallons of water; boil it gently for two hours, skim it well, and put it into a tub to cool. Take two pounds and a half of the tops of balm, bruise them, and put them into a barrel, with a little new yeast; and when the liquor is cold, pour it on the balm. Stir it well together and let it stand twenty-four hours, stirring it often. Then close it up, and let it stand six weeks. Then rack it off and put a lump of sugar into every bottle. Cork it well, and it will be better the second year than the first.


Scurvy-grass, or spoonwort, is a very sovereign medicinal herb, appropriated chiefly to the health of invalids.

Take the best large scurvy-grass tops and leaves, in May, June, or July, bruise them well in a stone mortar, then put them in a well-glazed earthen vessel, and sprinkle them over with some powder of crystal of tartar, then smear them with virgin honey, and being covered close, let it stand twenty-four hours; then set water over a gentle fire, putting to every gallon three pints of honey, and when the scum rises, take it off, and let it cool; then put the stamped scurvy grass into a barrel, and pour the liquor to it, setting the vessel conveniently end-ways, with a tap at the bottom. When it has been infused twenty-four hours, draw off the liquor, strongly press the juice and moisture out of the herb into the barrel or vessel, and put the liquor up again; then put a little new yeast to it, and suffer it to ferment three days, covering the place of the bung or vent with a piece of bread spread over with mustard seed, downward, in a cool place, and let it continue till it is fine and drinks brisk; then draw off the finest part, leaving only the dregs behind: afterwards add more herbs, and ferment it[152] with whites of eggs, flour, and fixed nitre, verjuice, or the juice of green grapes, if they are to be had; to which add six pounds of the syrup of mustard, all mixed and well beaten together, to refine it down, and it will drink brisk, but is not very pleasant; being here inserted among artificial wines rather for the sake of health than for the delightfulness of its taste.


Take a quart of fine draft Devonshire cider, and an equal quantity of good port. Mix them, and shake them. Bottle them, and let them stand for a month. The best judge will not be able to distinguish them from good Bordeaux.

237. DRY WINE.

Those who like a dry wine, should put into the vat, at the commencement of the vinous fermentation, an ounce or two of calcined gypsum, in fine powder.


238. To guard against unripe Fruit.

If the season proves bad, so that some fruits are not sufficiently ripe, immediately after the vinous fermentation, and the must of such fruit is put into the cask, it is to be rolled two or three times a day, for a week or two. A spirituous fermentation will soon commence, the bung of the cask must then be taken out, and the hole covered with a bit of light wood or canvas, and as any scum arises, it should be taken away. When the scum disappears, fill up the cask, and bung it up. But a vent-hole must be left open for a week.

239. To keep and manage Wines.

Wines will diminish, therefore the cask must be kept filled up with some of the same wine, or some other that is as good or better.

They must at all times be kept in a cool cellar, if not, they will ferment. If wines are kept in a warm cellar, an acetous fermentation will soon commence, and the result consequently will be vinegar. The more a wine frets and ferments, the more it parts with its strength and goodness: when wines are found to work improperly in the cellar, the vent-peg must be taken out for a week or two.

If any wine ferments, after being perfected, draw off a quart and boil it, and pour it hot into the cask, add a pint or a quart of brandy, and bung up a day or two after.

Or, draw off the wine, and fumigate the cask, with one ounce of flour of brimstone, and half an ounce of cinnamon, in powder. Mix the two together, and tie them up in a rag. Turn the bung-hole of the cask downwards, place the rag under the bung-hole, and set fire to it, so that the gas[153] ascends into the cask. As soon as it is burnt out, fill up the cask with wine, and bung it up tight.

240. To sweeten a foul Cask.

Set fire to a pound or more of broken charcoal, put it into the cask and immediately fill up the cask with boiling water. After this, roll the cask once or twice a day for a week; then pour out the charcoal and water, wash out the cask with clean cold water, and expose it to the external air for some days.

241. To improve Poor Wines.

Poor wines may be improved by being racked off, and returned into the cask again; and then putting into the wine about a pound of jar or box raisins, bruised, and a quart of brandy.

Or, put to the wine two pounds of honey, and a pint or two of brandy. The honey and brandy to be first mixed together.

Or, draw off three or four quarts of such wine, and fill the cask up with strong wine.

242. To improve Wine when lowering or decaying.

Take one ounce of roche-alum, make it into powder; then draw out four gallons of wine, mix the powder with it, and beat it well for half an hour; then fill up the cask, and when fine (which will be in a week’s time or little more) bottle it off. This will make it drink fine and brisk.

243. To restore Flat Wines.

Flat wines may be restored by one pound of jar raisins, one pound of honey, and half a pint of spirit of wine, beaten up in a mortar with some of the wine, and then put into the cask.

244. To remove a musty or disagreeable taste in Wines.

Put into the cask three or four sticks of charcoal, and bung up the cask tight. In a month after take them out.—Or, cut two ripe medlars, put them in a gauze bag, and suspend them from the bung-hole into the wine, and bung up the cask air-tight. A month after take them out, and bung up the cask again.—Or, mix half a pound of bruised mustard-seed, with a pint or more of brandy, and stir it up in the wine; and two days after bung up the cask.

245. Another Method.

At the finish of the process, when the brandy or spirit is put to the wine, it is particularly recommended that a quarter of an ounce of crystal camphor, in the lump, be dropped into the bung-hole of each eighteen gallons of wine.

246. Another Method.

Oil poured upon wine, or any other liquor, will prevent it from growing musty, or becoming corrupt.


247. To take away the ill scent of Wines.

Bake a long roller of dough, stuck well with cloves, and hang it in the cask.

248. To pass White Wine off for Champaign.

Rack it often from the lees; and when very brilliant, bottle it off:—this must be done between vintage time and the month of May.

It has (says Mr. Carnell) been a most absurd practice with many families to use green gooseberries, in order to imitate Champaign wine; but green fruit is by no means fit or proper for the making of any wine. Nor, indeed, is it at all necessary in the making an imitation of Champaign.

249. To make Wine sparkle like Champaign.

Take great care to rack off the wine well, and in March bottle it as quick as possible. The bottles must be very clean and dry, and the corks of the best sort, made of velvet or white cork. In two months after the wine will be in fine condition to drink.

250. To clear foul or ropy Wines.

Take 1 ounce of chalk, in powder,
½ an ounce of burnt alum,
the white of an egg, and
one pint of spring water.

Beat the whole up in a mortar, and pour it into the wine; after which, roll the cask ten minutes; and then place it on the stand, leaving the bung out for a few days. As soon as the wine is fine, rack it off.

Or, take 1 oz. of ground rice,
½ oz. of burnt alum, and
½ oz. of bay-salt.

Beat the whole up in a mortar, with a pint or more of the wine, pour it into the cask, and roll it ten minutes. The cask must not be bunged up for a few days. As soon as such wine becomes fine, rack it off.

Or, bring the cask of wine out of the cellar, and place it in a shady situation to receive the circulation of the air; and take out the bung. In three weeks or a month, rack it off into a sweet cask, which fill up, and put into the wine an ounce of cinnamon, in the stick; and bung it up tight.

251. Another Method.

Tap the cask, and put a piece of coarse cloth upon that end of the cock which goes to the inside of the cask; then rack it into a dry cask to thirty gallons of wine, and put in five ounces of powdered alum. Roll and shake them well together, and it will fine down, and prove a very clear and pleasant wine.


252. To correct green or harsh Wines.

Take 1 oz. of salt,
½ an oz. of calcined gypsum, in powder, and
1 pint of skimmed milk.

Mix those up with a little of the wine, and then pour the mixture into the cask; put in a few lavender leaves, stir the wine with a stick, so as not to disturb the lees, and bung it up.

253. To correct sharp, tart, acid Wines.

Mix one ounce of calcined gypsum, in powder, and two pounds of honey, in one quart of brandy; pour the mixture into the wine, and stir it so as not to disturb the lees; fill up the cask, and the following day bung it up:—rack this wine as soon as fine.

Or, mix half an ounce of the salt of tartar, half an ounce of calcined gypsum, in powder, with a pint of the wine; pour it into the cask, and put an ounce of cinnamon in the stick; stir the wine without disturbing the lees, fill up the cask, and the day following bung it up.

Or, boil 3 ounces of rice; when cold put it into a gauze-bag, and immerge it into the wine; put into the wine also a few sticks of cinnamon, and bung up the cask. In about a month after, take the rice out.

254. To restore sour Wines.

Take calcined gypsum, in powder, 1 oz.
cream of tartar, in powder, 2 oz.

Mix them in a pint or more of brandy; pour it into the cask; put in, also, a few sticks of cinnamon, and then stir the wine without disturbing the lees. Bung up the cask the next day.

255. Another Method.

Boil a gallon of wine, with some beaten oyster-shells and crabs’ claws burnt into powder, an ounce of each to every ten gallons of wine; then strain out the liquor through a sieve, and when cold, put it into wine of the same sort, and it will give it a pleasant lively taste. A lump of unslacked lime put into the cask will also keep wine from turning sour.

256. To fine or clarify Wines.

Boil a pint of skimmed milk; when cold mix with it an ounce of chalk, in fine powder, pour it into the cask, and roll it ten minutes. The following day bung up the wine, and rack it off as soon as fine.

257. Another Method.

Or, take 1½ oz. of gum-arabic, in fine powder, and
1 oz. of chalk, in powder.

Mix those up with a pint more of wine, pour the mixture into the cask, roll it ten minutes, and then fill it up. Bung it up the next day, and rack off the wine as soon as fine.


Or, take the yolk and white of an egg,
½ oz. of chalk, in powder, and
½ oz. of burnt alum, in powder.

Beat those up in a mortar with a pint of spring water, and pour the mixture into the wine, roll the cask; then fill it up, and bung it up the next day.—Rack off the wine as soon as fine.

258. To sweeten Wines.

In 30 gallons of wine infuse a handful of the flowers of clary; then add a pound of mustard seed, dry ground, put it into a bag, and sink it to the bottom of the cask.

259. To stop the Fermentation of Wine.

It is in the first place necessary to consider whether the existing state of fermentation be the original or secondary stage of that process which comes on after the former has ceased for several days, and is indeed the commencement of acetous fermentation. That of the former kind rarely proceeds beyond what is necessary for the perfect decomposition of the saccharine and other parts of the vegetable substances necessary for the production of spirit, unless the liquor be kept too warm, or is too weak, and left exposed to the air after the vinous fermentation is completed. The means to correct these circumstances are sufficiently obvious. The heat for spirituous fermentation should not be above 60 degrees Fahrenheit; when it is much above that point, the liquor passes rapidly through the stage of vinous fermentation, and the acetous immediately commences. When too long-continued fermentation arises from the liquor having been kept in a warm situation, it will be soon checked by bunging, after being removed into a cold place; the addition of a small proportion of spirits of wine or brandy, previously to closing it up, is also proper. A degree of cold, approaching to the freezing point, will check fermentation of whatever kind. Fermentation of this kind cannot be stopped by any chemical agent, except such as would destroy the qualities of the liquor intended to be produced.

The secondary stage of fermentation, or the commencement of the acetous, may be stopped by removing the liquor to a cool situation; correcting the acid already formed; and if the liquor contain but little spirit, the addition of a proper proportion of brandy is requisite.

The operation of racking is also necessary to preserve liquor in a vinous state, and to render it clear. This process should be performed in a cool place.

260. To restore pricked British Wines.

Rack the wines down to the lees into another cask, where the lees of good wines are fresh, then put a pint of strong[157] aqua vitæ, and scrape half a pound of yellow bees-wax into it, which by heating the spirit over a gentle fire, will melt: after which dip a piece of cloth into it, and when a little dry, set on fire with a brimstone match, put it into the bung-hole, and stop it up close.

261. Another Method.

First prepare a fresh empty cask, that has had the same kind of wine in it which is about to be racked, then match it, and rack off the wine, putting to every ten gallons two ounces of oyster powder, and half an ounce of bay-salt, then get the staff and stir it well about, letting it stand till it is fine, which will be in a few days; after which rack it off into another cask, (previously matched) and if the lees of some wine of the same kind can be got, it will improve it much.—Put likewise a quart of brandy to every ten gallons, and if the cask has been emptied a long time, it will match better on that account; but if even a new cask, the matching must not be omitted. A fresh empty cask is to be preferred.

N. B. This method will answer for all made wines.


Boiling the fruit is a practice of decided advantage. From this treatment many tasteless fruits acquire a flavour, as is well known, and many bad flavours are converted into agreeable ones. In no case perhaps is this more remarkable than in the black currant, which, harsh and comparatively insipid in its natural state, acquires by boiling a powerful, and, to most persons, a highly agreeable flavour. In making wine from this variety of currant, the effects of this process are very remarkable; the produce of the raw fruit being scarcely distinguished by any particular property from the herd of made wines, while that of the boiled fruit may with careful management be brought to resemble some of the best of the sweet Cape wines. In the white and red currant the same precaution has been attended with results equally successful, though not marked by a contrast so decided. If sweet wine is intended, the quantity of fruit for 10 gallons should not exceed 40 pounds; if dry wine is desired, it may extend to 60. The proportion of sugar will be 30 pounds as before. If a much stronger wine of either quality is desired, it must extend to 40 pounds. Unsound or bruised fruit should be rejected; and the remains of the blossom and fruit stalk carefully removed.




The common strawberry is a natural dentifrice, and its juice, without any preparation, dissolves the tartareous incrustations on the teeth, and makes the breath sweet and agreeable.


Take of spirit of balm, 8 pints,
lemon peel, 4 do.
nutmegs, and
coriander seeds, each, 2 do.
rosemary, marjoram,
thyme, hissop,
cinnamon, sage,
aniseed, cloves,
angelica roots, each 1 pint.

Mix. Distil and keep it for a year in an ice-house.

This is the original receipt of the barefooted Carmelites, now in possession of the company of apothecaries of Paris, who sell a vast quantity of this celebrated water.


Take of essence de bergamotte, 3 oz.
Neroli, 1½ drachms.
cedrat, 2 do.
lemon, 3 do.
oil of rosemary, 1 do.
spirit of wine, 12 lbs.
——— rosemary, 3¼ do.
eau de melissee de Carmes, 2¼ do.

Mix. Distil in balneum mariæ, and keep it in a cold cellar or ice-house for some time. It is used as a cosmetic, and made, with sugar, into a ratafia.


Take of sweet-scented honey water, 1 oz.
eau sans pareille, 1½ do.
essence de jasmin, 5 drachms,
syrup of cloves, and
spirit of violets, each, 4 drachms,[159]
calamus aromaticus,
long-rooted cyperus,
lavender, each, 2 do.
essence of neroli, 1 scruple.

Mix. Some add a few grains of musk and ambergris: it is sweet scented, and may be made into a ratafia with sugar.


The flowers are stratified with wool or cotton, impregnated with oil of behn, or nut oil, in an earthen vessel, closely covered, and kept for some time in a warm bath; this is repeated with fresh flowers, until the oil is well scented: the wool, &c. is then put into a sufficient quantity of spirit of wine, and distilled in balneum mariæ.


Take of coriander seeds, a pound, cassia, four oz. cloves and gum benzoin, each, 2 oz. oil of rhodium, essence of lemon, essence of bergamot, and oil of lavender, each, 1 drachm, rectified spirit of wine, 20 pints, rose water, 2 quarts, nutmeg water, 1 quart, musk and ambergris, each, twelve grains. Distil in a water bath to dryness.

269. Another Method.

Put 2 drachms each, of tincture of ambergris, and tincture of musk, in a quart of rectified spirit of wine, and half a pint of water; filter and put it up in small bottles.


The Royal Society of Edinburgh received from Dr. Monro the following account of the manner in which this costly perfume is prepared in the east. Steep a large quantity of the petals of the rose, freed from every extraneous matter, in pure water, in an earthen or wooden vessel, which is exposed daily to the sun, and housed at night, till a scum rises to the surface. This is the ottar, which carefully absorb by a very small piece of cotton tied to the end of a stick. The oil collected, squeeze out of the cotton into a very diminutive vial, stop it for use. The collection of it should be continued, whilst any scum is produced.


Take 2 lbs. of Jordan almonds,
5 quarts of rose water,
1 do. of rectified spirit of wine,
½ an oz. of oil of lavender,
2 oz. of Spanish oil-soap, and
4 oz. of cream of roses.

Blanch the almonds in boiling water, dry them well in a cloth, then pound them in a mortar until they become a[160] paste. Pound in the soap and mix it well with the almond paste. Then add the cream of roses. When these are mixed, add the rose-water and spirits, which stir in with a spatula or knife. Strain the whole through a clean white cloth, then add the oil of lavender to the expressed liquid, drop by drop, and stir the whole well. When the mixture has stood for a day, cover it over with a cloth from the dust, then bottle it for use.


Mix together 4 oz. of oil of almonds,
½ an oz. of English oil of lavender,
2 quarts of spirit of wine, and
10 do. of rose-water.

Next, blanch 3 lbs. of Jordan almonds, and pound them in a mortar, with a quarter of a lb. of Spanish oil-soap, half an oz. of spermaceti, and half an oz. of white wax. Put these ingredients into a large jar, with two ounces of pearl-ash, dissolved in an ounce of warm water. Shake the whole well, and then pour it into small bottles for sale.


Take 1 lb. of oil of sweet almonds,
1 oz. of spermaceti,
1 oz. of white wax,
1 pint of rose-water, and
2 drachms of Malta rose, or nerolet essence.

Put the oil, spermaceti, and wax, into a well-glazed pipkin, over a clear fire, and, when melted, pour in the rose-water by degrees, and keep beating, till the compound becomes like pomatum. Now add the essence, and then put the cream into small pots or jars, which must be well covered up with pieces of bladder, and soft skin leather.


Take an ounce of oil of sweet almonds, and half a drachm each, of white wax and spermaceti, with a little balm. Melt these ingredients in a glazed pipkin over hot ashes, and pour the solution into a marble mortar; stir it with the pestle until it becomes smooth and cold, then add gradually an ounce of rose or orange-flower water; stir all the mixture till incorporated to resemble cream. This pomatum renders the skin at once supple and smooth. To prevent marks from the small pox, add a little powder of saffron. The gallipot in which it is kept, should have a piece of bladder tied over it.

275. Another Method.

Take 4 ounces of clear trotter oil, one ounce of oil of jesamine, 2 ounces of spermaceti, and one ounce of white[161] wax, scraped fine. Melt them together very gently, then pour it into a pan, which must be kept by the fire. Now beat it without intermission, till it becomes one consistent very white body: then put to it 3 ounces of rose or orange-flower water, with about a drachm of spirit of ambergris, or other sweet essence.

Beat the mixture well again, until the water and spirit be properly absorbed. This beating will add greatly to the whiteness as well as the flavour, of the cream, which will now be as white as snow; particularly if care is taken that the utensils and ingredients are quite clean.

In winter, all the utensils, &c. must be kept warm, and the process performed in a warm room. Even the rose water must be warmed, previous to mixture, otherwise the cream will congeal into knobs, so as to cause the whole to be melted again.

In summer every thing must be kept cool after the melting and mixing. More wax must likewise be used in summer than in winter.

When put into pots, the cold cream is to be kept very cool: each having honey water poured on the top, in order to improve the flavour.


Put a pound and a half of clear beef marrow into an earthen pan of fresh water, and change the same for ten days, then steep it in rose water for 24 hours, and drain it in a cloth till dry. Take an ounce of storax, gum benjamin, odoriferous Cypress powder, or of Florence, half an ounce of cinnamon, two drachms of cloves, and two drachms of nutmeg, all finely powdered; mix them with the marrow, then put the ingredients into a three-pint pewter pot, make a paste of the white of egg and flour, and lay it upon a piece of rag, over that, put another piece of linen to cover the top close. Put the pot into a large copper pot with water, and keep it steady that it may not reach to the covering of the pot that holds the marrow. As the water shrinks, add more, for it must boil four hours without ceasing; strain the ointment through a linen cloth into small pots, and when cold cover them up close with bladder and paper. Don’t touch it with anything but silver.


Put half a pound of best Spanish oil soap, scraped very fine, into a gallon of boiling water. Stir it well for some time, and let it stand till cold. Add a quart of rectified spirit of wine, and half an ounce of oil of rosemary; stir them again.

This compound liquid, when put up in proper phials, in[162] Italy, is called tincture of pearls. It is an excellent cosmetic for removing freckles from the face, and for improving the complexion.


Take of Brazil dust, 1 oz.
water, 3 pints,
isinglass, 6 drachms,
cochineal, 2 do.
alum, 1 oz.
borax, 3 drachms.


Take of blanched sweet almonds, 1 lb.
 ———– bitter do. ½ lb.
 sugar, 1 lb.

Beat up with orange flower water.


To make this paste, take six pounds of fresh almonds, which blanch and beat in a stone mortar, with a sufficient quantity of rose-water. Now add a pound of finely drained honey, and mix the whole well together. This paste, which is exceedingly good for the hands, is to be put into small pots for sale.

If this paste gets dry, rub it up on a marble slab, with rose-water. To prevent this dryness, put about half a tea-spoonful of this water on the top of each pot, before tying up.


Take 5 pounds of hog’s-lard,
1 pound of mutton suet,
3 ounces of Portugal water,
½ an ounce of essence of bergamot,
4 ounces of yellow wax, and
½ a pound of palm oil.



Take 25 pounds of hog’s-lard,
8 pounds of mutton suet,
6 ounces of oil of bergamot,
4 ounces of essence of lemons,
½ an ounce of oil of lavender, and
¼ of an ounce of oil of rosemary.

These ingredients are to be combined in the same manner as those for the hard pomatum. This pomatum is to be put up in pots, in the usual way.



Take 4 pounds of fresh and white mutton suet skinned and shredded very fine; which melt in about two quarts of spring water; and whilst hot, put the whole into a well-glazed earthen pan, small at bottom, and wide at the top. Let it stand until the fat is quite cold, and all the impurities fall to the bottom, which carefully scrape off.

Now break the fat into small pieces, which put into a pan, with 2 gallons of spring water, for a whole day; stir and wash often. Next day change the water, and when poured off a second time, at the end of twenty-four hours, dry the fat by rubbing in a clean linen cloth.

Now put the suet with 1½ pound of fresh hog’s-lard, into a large pan, and melt the whole over a gentle fire. When properly combined, put the whole into an earthen pan, and beat it with a wooden spatula, until cold.

Whilst beating, add 6 drachms of essence of lemon, and 30 drops of oil of cloves, previously mixed together. Now continue beating, until the mixture be perfectly white, and afterwards put it up into small pots.

Leave the pots open until the pomatum is quite cold; when cover them by pieces of bladder, &c. In summer, use more suet, and mix in a cool place:—in winter use more hog’s-lard, and make the pomatum in a warm room.


Take 30 pounds of suet,
1½ pounds of white wax,
6 ounces of essence of bergamot,
4 ounces of lemon,
1 oz. of lavender,
4 drachms of oil of rosemary, and
2 drachms of essence of ambergris.

Shred and pick the suet clean, and melt in an earthen pan or pipkin. Then stir it well and strain; and when nearly cold, add the perfumes, stirring well as before; when properly mixed, pour it into tin moulds.

285. Another Method.

Take 6 ounces of common pomatum, and add to it 3 ounces of white virgin wax, scraped fine. Melt them in an earthen pan, immersed in a larger one, containing boiling water; both being placed over a clear and steady fire. When properly incorporated, keep stirring, until it is nearly cold; then put it into small pots, or make it up into small rolls. Perfume it according to taste.


Strip a large double handful of rosemary; boil it in a tin or copper vessel, with half a pound of common soft[164] pomatum, till it comes to about 3 or 4 ounces; strain it off, and keep it in the usual way.


There are several sorts: the finest is made from real pearls, and is the least hurtful to the skin. It gives the most beautiful appearance, but is too dear for common use; still the perfumer ought never to be without it, for the use of the curious and the rich.


The next best pearl powder is made as follows:—

Take 4 ounces of the best magistery of bismuth,
2 ounces of fine starch powder.

Mix them well together, and put them into a subsiding glass, wide at top and narrow at bottom; pour over them a pint and a half of proof spirit, and shake them well; let them remain a day or two. When the powder falls to the bottom, pour off the spirit, leaving it dry; then place the glass in the sun, to evaporate the moisture.

Next turn out the white mass, the dirty parts of which form the top, whilst the pure ingredients remain at the bottom. If there be any dirty particles, scrape them off, and again pulverize the remaining part of the cake, and pour more proof spirit over it. Proceed as before; and, if there be any moisture remaining, place the cone on a large piece of smooth chalk, to absorb its moisture.

Cover the whole with a bell-glass, to preserve it from dust, and set it in the sun to dry and whiten it. Next grind the mass with a muller on a marble stone, and keep the powder in a glass bottle, secured, by a ground stopper, from air.


Blanch 5 or 6 pounds of bitter almonds, by boiling in water, and then beat them very fine in a marble mortar, with 2 pounds of orange flowers. If the paste be too oily, add to it some bean flour, finely sifted, but let no water enter the composition.

This paste is made abroad, but comes here very damaged, the sea-air destroying its properties.


Take 4 ounces of coral, reduced to an impalpable powder,
8 ounces of very light Armenian bole,
1 ounce of Portugal snuff,
1 ounce of Havannah snuff,
1 ounce of good burnt tobacco ashes, and
1 ounce of gum myrrh, well pulverized.

Mix them together, and sift them twice.



To make a good tooth-powder, leave out the coral, and in its place put in pieces of brown stone-ware, reduced to a very fine powder. This is the common way of making it.


Take of fresh conserve of roses, 2 ounces, the juice of half a sour lemon, a little very rough claret, and 6 ounces of coral tooth-powder. Make them into a paste, which put into small pots; and, if it dry by standing, moisten with lemon juice and wine, as before.


Take of good soft water, 1 quart,
juice of lemon, 2 ounces,
burnt alum, 6 grains,
common salt, 6 grains.


Boil them a minute in a cup, then strain and bottle for use: rub the teeth with a small bit of sponge tied to a stick, once a week.


A mixture of honey with the purest charcoal will prove an admirable cleanser.


Well boil and skim 1 pound of honey; add to it a quarter of a pound of bole ammoniac, 1 oz. of dragon’s blood, 1 of oil of sweet almonds, ½ an ounce of oil of cloves, 8 drops of essence of bergamot, a gill of honey water, all mixed well together, and put into pots for use.


Take marine marsh-mallow roots, cut them into lengths of 5 or 6 inches, and of the thickness of a middling rattan cane. Dry them in the shade, but not so as to make them shrivel.

Next finely pulverize two ounces of good dragon’s blood, put it into a flat-bottomed glazed pan, with four ounces of highly rectified spirit, and half an ounce of fresh conserve of roses. Set it over a gentle charcoal fire, and stir it until the dragon’s blood is dissolved; then put in about thirty of the marsh-mallow sticks; stir them about, and carefully turn them, that all parts may absorb the dye alike. Continue this until the bottom of the pan be quite dry, and shake and stir it over the fire, until the sticks are perfectly dry and hard.

Both ends of each root or stick should, previous to immersion in the pan, be bruised gently by a hammer, for half an inch downwards, so as to open its fibres, and thereby form a brush.


They are generally used by dipping one of the ends in the powder or opiate, and then, by rubbing them against the teeth, which they cleanse and whiten admirably.

297. Other Vegetable Tooth Brushes.

There are several cheap sorts of these tooth-brushes which are made in the same manner, except that, as a basis, rattan cane, or even common deal, cut round, is used instead of the marsh-mallow roots.


Put 8 ounces of the best olive oil into a wide-mouthed bottle, add two ounces of the small parts of alkanet-root.

Stop up the bottle, and set it in the sun; shake it often, until it be of a beautiful crimson. Now strain the oil off very clear from the roots, and add to it, in a glazed pipkin, three ounces of very fine white wax, and the same quantity of fresh clean mutton suet. Deer-suet is too brittle, and also apt to turn yellow.

Melt this by a slow fire, and perfume it when taken off, with forty drops of oil of rhodium, or of lavender. When cold, put it into small gallipots, or rather whilst in a liquid state.

The common way is to make this salve up into small cakes; in that form the colour is very apt to be impaired.

This salve never fails to cure chopped or sore lips, if applied pretty freely at bed-time, in the course of a day or two at farthest.

299. Another Method.

Beat the alkanet-root in a mortar, until its fibres are properly bruised; then tie it up in a piece of clean linen rag, and put this in a clear pipkin with the oil. When the oil has begun to boil, it will be found of a deep red. The bag is now to be taken out, pressed and thrown away, and then the other ingredients are to be added as above.


This may be made as above, except in the use of alkanet root, which is to be left out. Though called lip-salve, this composition is seldom applied to the lips; its principal use consisting in curing sore nipples, for which it is an excellent remedy.


Take two ounces of Terra Japonica, half an ounce of sugar candy, both in powder. Grind one drachm of the best ambergris with ten grains of pure musk; and dissolve a quarter of an ounce of clean gum tragacanth in two ounces of orange-flower water. Mix all together, so as to form a[167] paste, which roll into pieces of the thickness of a straw. Cut these into pieces, and lay them in clean paper. This is an excellent perfume for those whose breath is disagreeable.


Take of oven-dried best cloves, cedar and rhubarb wood, each one ounce, beat them to a powder, and sprinkle them in a box or chest, where they will create a most beautiful scent, and preserve the apparel against moths.


Cut, slice, and mix well together, in the state of very gross powder, the following ingredients:
2 oz. of yellow saunders,
2 oz. of coriander seeds,
2 oz. of orris root,
2 oz. of calamus aromaticus,
2 oz. of cloves,
2 oz. of cinnamon bark,
2 oz. of dried rose leaves,
2 oz. of lavender flowers, and
1 lb. of oak shavings.

When properly mixed, stuff the above into small linen bags, which place in drawers, wardrobes, &c., which are musty, or liable to become so.


Take of ambergris one drachm, civet the like quantity; add flour-butter a quarter of an ounce; and with these well mixed, rub the gloves over gently with fine cotton wool, and press the perfume into them.

305. Another.

Take of damask or rose scent, half an ounce, the spirit of cloves and mace, each a drachm; frankincense, a quarter of an ounce. Mix them together, and lay them in papers, and when hard, press the gloves; they will take the scent in 24 hours, and hardly ever lose it.


This excellent spirit requires 6 drachms of China musk, 20 grains of civet, and 2 drachms of red rose buds. Reduce these ingredients to powder with loaf-sugar, and pour over them three pints of spirit of wine.


Take of benjamin, storax, and galbanum, each half an ounce, temper them, being bruised into powder, with the oil of myrrh, and burn them in a chafing-dish, or else take rosemary, balm, and bay leaves; heat them in wine and sugar, and let the moisture be consumed; likewise burn them by the heat of the pan, and they will produce a very fine scent.



Powder separately the following ingredients, and then mix, on a marble slab,

1 lb. of gum benzoin,
8 oz. of gum storax,
1 lb. of frankincense, and
2 lbs. of fine charcoal.

Add to this composition the following liquids:
6 oz. of tincture of benzoin,
2 oz. of essence of ambergris,
1 oz. of essence of musk,
2 oz. of almond oil, and
4 oz. of clear syrup.

Mix the whole into a stiff paste, and form into pastils, of a conical shape, which dry in the heat of the sun. If more liquid should be required for the paste, add warm water.


Beat and sift fine a pound of the four gums left after the making of honey-water, one pound also of the ingredients left from the spirit of Benjamin, one pound of the best sealing-wax, and one pound of genuine gum benzoin.

Dissolve some clear common gum arabic in a quantity of rose-water, of a pretty thick consistency, and add to it sixty drops of spirit of musk.

Mix the whole together, so as to make a pretty stiff paste, which make up into small cones or balls. Dry them thoroughly before they are put away, otherwise they will become mouldy.

These pastils are particularly useful for burning in rooms, where the sick or the dead have lain. They are used in very considerable quantities in the two Houses of Lords and Commons; also in various halls, assembly-rooms, &c.


Take half a pound of pulvil powder, made from apple-tree moss, half an ounce of grey ambergris, thirty grains of musk, and twenty grains of civet.

Grind the musk and civet with loaf sugar, to a very fine powder; melt the ambergris, with 6 drops of the oil of behn nuts, over a gentle fire, in a clean vessel, not brass or copper; add, as it melts, a few drops of the juice of green lemon, and about 4 drops each of oil of rhodium and lavender.

When the ambergris is melted, put the above powder into it, stir and mix it well. Add, by degrees, the powder of apple-moss; and when the whole is combined, pulverize and sift it through a very fine hair sieve; what will not pass through, return into the mortar, again pound it with loaf-sugar, until the whole is reduced to fine powder.



Melt 2 penny-weights of fine ambergris, in a brass mortar, very gently, stir in quickly, 8 drops of green lemon juice, and the same of behn-nut oil.

Add, ready powdered with fine loaf-sugar, 12 grains of musk, 12 grains of civet, and 24 grains of residuum from the making of spirit of ambergris.

Add 1 ounce of spirit of ambergris—mix and incorporate them well, and add 16 pounds of fine dry hair-powder. Pass the whole, twice, through a fine hair sieve; then lay it open for three days, in a dry room, stir it often, that the spirit may entirely evaporate, otherwise it may turn sour, which, however, will go off by keeping. Bottle and stop it close.


Take 2 penny-weights of pure musk, 12 grains of civet, and 1 penny-weight of the residuum of spirit of ambergris. Make this into a paste, with 2 ounces of spirit of musk, made by infusion. Powder it with loaf-sugar and mix in 16 pounds of fine hair powder.


Take best dried and scraped orris roots, free from mould. Bruise or grind them: the latter is best, as, being very tough, they require great labour to pound. Sift the powder through a fine hair sieve, and put the remainder in a baker’s oven, to dry the mixture. A violent heat will turn the roots yellow.

When dry, grind again, and sift; and repeat the same until the whole has passed through the sieve; mix nothing with it, as it would mould and spoil it.


Drop twelve drops of genuine oil of rhodium on a lump of loaf-sugar; grind this well in a glass mortar, and mix it thoroughly with three pounds of orris powder. This will, in its perfume, have a resemblance to a well-flavoured violet. If you add more rhodium oil, a rose perfume, instead of a violet one, will be produced; the orris powder is a most agreeable perfume, and only requiring to be raised by the addition of the above quantity of the oil.

Keep this perfume in the same manner as the others. What is sold at the druggist’s shops is generally adulterated.


Take two pecks of fresh, dry damask rose-leaves; strip them from their leaves and stalks; have ready 16 pounds of fine hair-powder. Strew a layer of rose-leaves, on sheets[170] of paper, at the bottom of a box, cover them over with a layer of hair-powder; then strew alternately a layer of roses and powder, until the whole of each has been used.

When they have lain 24 hours, sift the powder out, and expose it to the air 24 hours more. Stir it often. Add fresh rose-leaves, twice, as before, and proceed in the same way; after this dry the powder well by a gentle heat, and pass it through a fine sieve. Lastly, pour ten drops of oil of rhodium, or three drops of otto of roses, on loaf-sugar, which triturate in a glass mortar, and stir well into the powder, which put into a box, or glass, for use. This hair-powder perfume will be excellent, and will keep well.


Take sixteen pounds of hair powder, and forty drops of Roman oil of bergamot, and proceed in all respects as before, but do not leave the compound exposed to the air; for in this case the bergamot is so volatile that it will quickly fly off.


Take twelve pounds of fine starch-powder, add three pounds of the ambergris perfume: mix them well together, and run it twice through a fine hair sieve. Put it into a well closed box, or glass, for use.

This is the first and best sort of ambergris powder: but for a second, or inferior sort, put only a pound and a half of the perfume, to the above quantity of starch-powder.


Mix twelve pounds of starch-powder, and three pounds of musk perfume, as before. A second sort of this hair-powder may be made by using half the quantity of perfume.


Mix twelve pounds of hair-powder with three pounds of the violet perfume, and lay it by for use.


Mix well twelve pounds of starch powder, with three pounds of the rose perfume. Sift; put it up in a cedar box, or glass bottle.

321. Another.

A second sort of this powder may be made by using half the quantity of the perfume, to twelve pounds of powder, and adding two drops of otto of roses, previously dropped on sugar, and well triturated in a glass mortar.



Take of fresh lime-stone, 1 oz.
pure potass, 1 drachm,
sulphuret of potass, 1 drachm.

Reduce them to a fine powder in a Wedgewood mortar. If the hair be first washed, or soaked in warm water, (130 Fahr.) for ten minutes, this article, formed into a thin paste with warm water, and applied whilst warm, will so effectually destroy the hair in five or six minutes, that it may be removed by washing the skin with flannel. It is a powerful caustic, and should therefore be removed as soon as it begins to inflame the skin, by washing it off with vinegar. It softens the skin, and greatly improves its appearance.


Take good new scarlet wool cuttings, and spirit of wine, or lemon-juice, boil them in a well-glazed earthen pot, well stopped, till the liquid has charged itself with all the colour of the scarlet, strain the dye through a cloth, and all the colour therefrom; boil it afterwards in a little arabic water, till the colour becomes very deep. The proportion of materials is, to half a pound of scarlet cuttings, a quarter of a pint of spirit of wine, and a sufficient quantity of water to assist the soaking. Then, in the colour extracted, put a piece of gum arabic, of the size of a filbert: next steep some cotton in the colour, and wet some sheets of paper with the dye, which repeat several times, as often as they are dry, and you will find them sufficiently charged with rouge for use.


Pour into the alkaline liquor which holds in solution the colouring part of bastard saffron, such a quantity of lemon juice as may be necessary to saturate the whole alkaline salts. At the time of the precipitation, the latter appears under the form of a fecula full of threads, which soon falls to the bottom of the vessel. Mix this part with white talc, reduced to fine powder, and moistened with a little lemon-juice and water. Then form the whole into a paste, and having put it in small pots, expose it to dry. This colour is reserved for the use of the toilette; but it has not the durability of that prepared from cochineal.


Fine carmine, properly pulverized and prepared for the purpose, is the best that can be employed with safety and effect: it gives the most natural tone to the complexion, and imparts a brilliancy to the eyes, without detracting from the softness of the skin. To use it economically, take some of the finest pomatum, without scent, in which there is a[172] proportion of white wax, about the size of a pea, just flatten it upon a piece of white paper, then take on a pointed penknife, carmine equal to a pin’s head, mix it gently with the pomatum, with your finger, and when you have produced the desired tint, rub it in a little compressed cotton, pass it over the cheeks till colour is clearly diffused, void of grease. Ladies will find, upon trial, that this economical rouge will neither injure the health nor the skin; and it imitates perfectly the natural colour of the complexion.

326. Another.

Take of French chalk, powdered, 4 oz.
oil of almonds, 2 drachms,
carmine, 1 do.


Infuse an ounce and a half of gum benzoin, 2 ounces of red saunders, in powder, and 2 drachms of dragon’s blood, in 12 ounces of rectified spirit of wine, and 4 ounces of river or rain water. When the ingredients have been mixed, stop the bottle close, and shake frequently during seven days; then filter through blotting paper.


To each pound of ox-gall, add,
roche alum, 1 drachm,
rock salt, ½ oz.
sugar candy, 1 oz.
borax, 2 drachms,
camphor, 1 drachm.

Mix and shake well for 15 minutes, then often, daily, for 15 days, or till the gall is transparent; filter through cap paper; use when exposed to the sun;—always washing off before sleep.


The varied flavour of snuffs of different kinds arises less from the state of the original leaf, than the factitious additions of manufacturers. The snuff of Martinico, celebrated under the term “Macouba,” is made from the best leaves, which being moistened with juice from their excellent sugar-canes, undergoes fermentation, and having thrown off the offensive fetor in scum and residuum, is evaporated and ground in the usual manner.


Its basis is powdered asarum, (vulgo Asarabacca), reduced by admixture with a small portion of powdered dock-leaf, or any other innoxious vegetable. The finely levigated snuff, known as “Scotch,” may be added agreeable to the taste of the[173] consumer; and finally a solution of spirit of wine and camphor, in the proportion of one drachm of the latter, in fifteen of spirit, is to be dropped upon the camphor, from five to ten drops to an ounce. Bottle your snuff immediately.

331. Another.

May be made of a very pleasant flavour, with the powder produced from sage, rosemary, lilies of the valley, and tops of sweet marjorum—of each one ounce, with a drachm of Asarabacca root, lavender flowers, and nutmeg; it should be very fine, and it will relieve the head vastly.


Take good unsifted Havannah snuff, and grind it down to a fine powder. If the tobacco be too strong, mix it with the fine powder of Spanish nut-shells, which is by far the best mixture which can be used. Over this sprinkle some weak treacle water, and when, after mixing with the hands, it has lain in a heap for some days, to sweat and incorporate, pack it up; but take care that it be not too moist.

This snuff, in the course of twelve months, will be of one uniform and agreeable flavour; and will keep good and mending, for many years. When old, this sort will hardly be inferior to any of the plain snuffs made in Spain.


The fine powder, which is the best part of the snuff as it comes from abroad, is sifted from the bale snuff; and the course and stalky part left, is ground down, previously mixed with strong cheap tobacco powder, or dust, along with savine, brick-dust, yellow sand, the sweepings of tobacco, old rotten wood, and with many other filthy vegetable substances, both dry and green, to pass as the real flavour of tobacco. All or most of these ingredients being mixed into one body. This is nothing more than colouring the filthy compound with red ochre, or umber, or other noxious red or brown colour, mixed with water and molasses!

The whole, when properly incorporated, is now passed through a hair sieve, to mix it more intimately; and is then left for some time to sweat, or become equally moist. This moistness is intended to imitate the oiliness which is peculiar to the real genuine rancia from Havannah.

This snuff is packed in barrels, tin canisters, and stone jars, so that it may come out in lumps, like the Spanish snuffs. This is done to deceive the purchaser, on whom this bad compound is imposed for real Spanish snuff. Such is the composition of a very great part of what is made and sold in this town for common Spanish snuff.



Suet is the basis of all the soaps of the toilette, known by the name of Windsor soap, because olive-oil forms a paste too difficult to melt again, and contains an odour too strong to be mixed with essences. The suet soap dissolved hot in alcohol retakes its solid state by cooling. To this fact is due the discovery of transparent soap, which, if well prepared, has the appearance of candied sugar; it may also be coloured, and the vegetable hues for this purpose, are preferable to mineral; any person may make this soap, by putting in a thin glass phial, the half of a cake of Windsor soap-shavings; fill it with one half of alcohol, and put it near the fire until the soap is dissolved; this mixture, placed into a mould to cool, produces the transparent soap.


Melt hard curd soap, and scent it with oil of karni, and essence of bergamot, bought at the druggists; or the essence of bergamot may be omitted.


Upon 1 lb. of quick-lime, pour 3 quarts of boiling distilled water; add 1 lb. of salt of tartar, dissolved in 1 quart of water; cover the vessel, and when cold, filter through a cotton cloth: a pint should weigh exactly 16 ounces troy; if more, add distilled water, and if less evaporate. Then add one third of oil of almonds, simmer them together for some hours, or until the oil forms a jelly; when cool, which may be tried on a small quantity, add common salt, and then continue boiling till the soap is solid; when cold, skim off the water, and then pour into moulds.

337. Another Method.

Take 2 lbs. of soap ley, made of barilla or kelp, so strong that a bottle, holding half a pint of water, will hold 11 ounces of the ley, and 4 lbs of oil of almonds; rub them together in a mortar, and put the mixture into tin moulds, where let it be for some weeks, till the combination is perfect.


Take ten pounds of white oil soap, and ten pounds of Joppa soap. Cut them into small square pieces, which set to dry for three days: the oil-soap, particularly, must be thus dried.

Scrape, very finely, five pounds of oil-soap, which dry for one day, in the open air, mix it well in the shaving-box with five pounds of powder, add an ounce and a half of the best vermilion.

In mixing, place pieces of soap, and coloured powder, in layers in the box, making, in all, four alternate layers of each. When a layer of each has been placed in the box, sprinkle a pint of rose-water over the cut soap; for if it be[175] much combined with the powder, it will become lumpy and hard, and consequently spoil the wash-balls. The same quantity of rose-water is to be used for moistening each of the other soap layers. Next mix a pint of thin starch, which has been well boiled in half a pint of rain water, with half a pint of rose-water, and distribute it equally well mixed among the mass, by turning it over repeatedly, and then press it down close with the hands. If a piece be now cut out from the mass, the operator will perceive whether the marbling is sufficiently good; and if so, he may proceed immediately to form his wash-balls.


Take of fresh ley, strong enough to bear an egg, eight pounds, and put to it of deer’s, goat’s, or lamb’s suet, (which has previously been well cleansed from all skins, &c. by rose-water,) two pounds, and one pound of olive-oil, or rather behn-nut oil. Let all these simmer over the fire in a well-glazed pot, until it be pretty nearly of the consistence of crown or Naples soap; then turn it out into a large flat pan, which set on the leads or roof of the house, exposed to the heat of the sun for fifty days. The pan must be covered over with a bell glass, such as the gardeners use, and the mixture must be stirred once a day, during the whole of this time.

In about six weeks or two months, the operator will have a most excellent ground-work for Naples soap, which only requires perfuming in the following manner, to render it even preferable to the foreign sorts.

Take of oil of rhodium, one ounce, of spirit of ambergris, two ounces and a half, spirit of musk, half an ounce; mix these well together, and then put the compound into the pan of soap. Stir the whole well, and incorporate the perfumes with the soap, on a marble stone by means of a muller. Put up into small jars, or preserve in a mass in a large jar, according to sale or convenience. If kept for twelve months, this soap will be found, by comparison, to be far preferable to the best soap that ever came from Naples.




Rub three pounds of rose-leaves for three minutes with a pound of common salt. The flowers being bruised by the friction of the grains of salt, form a paste, which is to be put into an earthen jar, or into a water-tight barrel. The same process is to be repeated until the vessel is filled, so that all the roses may be equally salted. The vessel is then to be shut up and kept in a cool place until wanted.

For distillation, this aromatic paste is, at any season, to be put into the body of the still with twice its weight of water; and when heat is applied, the oil, or essential water, is to be obtained in the common way. Both the oil and water are in this way produced in greater quantity than by using the leaves without the salt: besides, the preserved paste will keep its flavour and strength unimpaired for several years.

Other flowers, capable of affording essential oils may also be treated in the above-mentioned way, with economy and advantage; as there is thereby no occasion to carry on a hurried process in the heat of summer, when these are in perfection.



1. Plants and their parts ought to be fresh gathered. When they are directed fresh, such only must be employed; but some are allowed to be used dry, as being easily procurable in this state at all times of the year, though rather more elegant waters might be obtained from them whilst green.

2. Having bruised the subjects a little, pour thereon thrice their quantity of spring water.

This quantity is to be diminished or increased, according as the plants are more or less juicy than ordinary.

When fresh and juicy herbs are to be distilled, thrice their weight of water will be fully sufficient, but dry ones require a much larger quantity.

In general, there should be so much water, that after all intended to be distilled has come over, there may be liquor enough to prevent the matter from burning to the still.

3. Formerly, some vegetables were slightly fermented with the addition of yeast, previous to their distillation.

4. If any drops of oil swim on the surface of the water, they are to be carefully taken off.

5. That the waters may be kept the better, about one-twentieth part of their weight of proof spirit may be added to each after they are distilled.


The instruments chiefly used in the distillation of simple waters are of two kinds, commonly called the hot still, or alembic, and the[178] cold still. The waters drawn by the cold still from plants are much more fragrant, and more fully impregnated with their virtues, than those drawn by the hot still or alembic.

The method is this:—A pewter body is suspended in the body of the alembic, and the head of the still fitted to the pewter body; into this body the ingredients to be distilled are put, the alembic filled with water, the still-head luted to the pewter body, and the nose luted to the worm of the refrigeratory or worm. The same intention will be answered by putting the ingredients into a glass alembic, and placing it in a bath-heat, or balneum mariæ.

The cold still is much the best adapted to draw off the virtues of simples, which are valued for their fine flavour when green, which is subject to be lost in drying; for when we want to extract a spirit from plants so light and volatile, as not to subsist in open air any longer than while the plant continues in its growth, it is certainly the best method to remove the plant from its native soil, into some proper instrument, where, as it dies, these votile parts may be collected and preserved. And such an instrument is what we call the cold still, where the drying of the plant, or flower, is only forwarded by a moderate warmth, and all that rises is collected and preserved.


Tie a piece of muslin or gauze over a glazed earthern pot, whose mouth is just large enough to receive the bottom of a warming-pan; on this cloth lay the herb, clipped; then place upon them the warming-pan, with live coals in it, to cause heat just enough to prevent burning, by which means as the steam issuing out of the herb cannot mount upwards, by reason of the bottom of the pan just fitting the brim of the vessel below it, it must necessarily descend, and collect[179] into water at the bottom of the receiver, and that strongly impregnated with the essential oil, and the salt of the vegetable thus distilled; which, if wanted to make spirituous or compound water, is easily done, by simply adding some good spirits, or French brandy to it, which will keep good for a long time, and be much better than if the spirits had passed through a still, which must, of necessity, waste some of their strength. Care should be taken not to let the fire be too strong, lest it scorch the plants; and to be made of charcoal, for continuance and better regulation, which must be managed by lifting up and laying down the lid, as wanted to increase or decrease the degrees of heat. The deeper the earthen pan, the cooler the season, and the less fire at first (afterwards to be gradually raised), in the greater perfection will the distilled water be obtained.

As the more moveable, or volatile parts of vegetables, are the aqueous, the oily, the gummy, the resinous, and the saline, these are to be expected in the waters of this process; the heat here employed being so great as to burst the vessels of the plants, some of which contain so large a quantity of oil, that it may be seen swimming on the surface of the water.

Although a small quantity only of distilled waters can be obtained at a time by this confined operation, yet it compensates in strength what is deficient in quantity. Such liquors, if well corked up from the air, will keep good a long time, especially if about a twentieth part of any spirits be added, in order to preserve the same more effectually.


As the method of performing the operation by the cold still is the very same, whatever plant or flower is used, the following instance of procuring a water from rosemary, will be abundantly sufficient to instruct the young practitioner in the manner of conducting the process in all cases whatever.

Take rosemary, fresh gathered in its perfection, with the morning dew upon it, and lay it lightly and unbruised upon the plate or bottom of the still; cover the plate with its conical head, and apply a glass receiver to the nose of it. Make a small fire of charcoal under the plate, continuing it as long as any liquor comes over into the receiver.

When nothing more comes over, take off the still head, and remove the plant, putting fresh in its stead, and proceed as before; continue to repeat the operation successively, till a sufficient quantity of water is procured. Let this distilled water be kept at rest in clean bottles, close stopped, for some days in a cool place; by this means it will become limpid, and powerfully impregnated with the taste and smell of the plant.



Take of spearmint leaves, fresh, 1½ lbs. sea wormwood tops, fresh, angelica leaves, fresh, each 1 pound; water, as much as is sufficient to prevent burning. Draw off by distillation 3 gallons.

Or, take of elder flowers, moderately dried, 2 pounds; angelica leaves, fresh gathered, 1 pound; water, a sufficient quantity. Distil off three gallons.


Take of pennyroyal leaves, dry, a pound and a half; water, as much as will prevent burning. Draw off by distillation 1 gallon.


Take of spearmint leaves, fresh, any quantity; water, three times as much. Distil as long as the liquor which comes over has a considerable taste or smell of the mint.

Or, take spearmint leaves, dried, 1½ lbs., water as much as is sufficient to prevent burning. Draw off by distillation 1 gallon.


Take of bruised cinnamon, 1 lb.
water, 2 gallons.

Simmer in a still for half an hour, put what comes over into the still again; when cold, strain through flannel.


Take two gallons of fine old honey-water, put it into a still capable of holding four gallons, and add the thinly pared rinds of six or eight fresh citrons, neither green nor mellow ripe. Then add sixty or seventy drops of fine Roman bergamot; and, having luted the apparatus well, let the whole digest in a moderate heat for twenty-four hours. Draw off, by a water-bath heat, about one gallon.


Take six pounds of the white sweet almond cakes, from which jessamine oil has been made abroad; beat and sift them to a fine powder, and put to it as much fresh oil of jessamine as will be required to make it into a stiff paste. Let this paste be dissolved in about six quarts of spring water, which has been previously well boiled, and left until it has become about half cold. Stir and mix the whole well together; and when the oil and water has been well combined, let the whole stand until the powder has fallen to the bottom of the vessel. Now pour the liquid off gently, and filter it through cotton, in a large tin funnel, into the glass bottle in which it is to be kept for use.

The powder or sediment which has been left at the bottom[181] of the vessel, when dried by the heat of the sun, answers very well for making almond paste for the hands.


Jamaica pepper is the fruit of a tall tree growing in the mountainous parts of Jamaica, where it is much cultivated, because of the great profit arising from the cured fruit, sent in large quantities annually into Europe.

Take of Jamaica pepper, half a pound; water, two gallons and a half; draw off 1 gallon with a pretty brisk fire. The oil of this fruit is very ponderous, and therefore, this water is made in an alembic.


Infuse eight or ten pounds of the cuttings of green myrtle, in nearly twenty gallons of rain or river water, and add thereto a pint of fresh yeast, after it has stood for twenty-four hours. At the end of another day and night, put the whole into a still, with a pound of bay salt. Draw off the whole of the water; and, next day, infuse more myrtle leaves, as before, and distil again. Repeat the same a third time.


Take two pounds of orange flowers, and twenty-four quarts of water, and draw over three pints.

Or, take twelve pounds of orange flowers, and sixteen quarts of water, and draw over fifteen quarts.


Take of the outward yellow rind of Seville oranges, four ounces; water, three gallons and a half; draw off one gallon by the alembic, with a brisk fire.


Take of the herb of peppermint, dried, 1½ lbs.
water, as much as is sufficient to prevent burning.

Distil off a gallon. This has been known to allay sickness when nothing else would succeed, and is used in flatulent colics. A wine-glassful may be taken, and often repeated.

356. Another.

Take of oil of peppermint, 1 pound,
water, a sufficient quantity.

Draw off 30 gallons. This is stimulant and carminative; and covers disagreeable flavours.


Take a pint of orange-flower water, a pint of rose-water, and half a pint of myrtle-water; to these put a quarter of an ounce of distilled spirit of musk, and an ounce of[182] spirit of ambergris. Shake the whole well together, and the process will be finished.


Take of the leaves of fresh damask roses, with
the heels cut off, 6 lbs.
water, as much as to prevent burning.

Distil off a gallon.

The distilled waters should be drawn from dried herbs, because the fresh cannot be got at all times in the year. Whenever the fresh are used the weights must be increased; but whether the fresh or dry are made use of, it is left to the judgment of the operator to vary the weight, according as the plants are in greater or less perfection, owing to the season in which they grew or were collected.


Take of the bruised fruit, 20 lbs.
water a sufficient quantity.

Draw off two gallons and a half: this water is very fragrant.


Take of water, 10 gallons.

Distil. Throw away the first ⅓ gallon, and draw off four gallons, which keep in glass or stone ware.

Distilled water is used as a diet drink in cancerous diseases, and should be used in making medicines when the salts contained in common water would decompose them.




1. The plants and their parts ought to be moderately and newly dried, except such as are ordered to be fresh gathered.

2. After the ingredients have been steeped in the spirit for the time prescribed, add as much water as is sufficient to prevent a burnt flavour, or rather more.

3. The liquor which comes over first in distillation is by some kept by itself, under the title of spirit; and the other runnings, which prove milky, are fined down by art. But it is preferable to mix all the runnings together, without fining them, that the waters may possess the virtues of the plant entire.

4. In the distillation of these waters, the genuine brandy obtained from wine is directed.

Where this is not to be procured, take, instead of that proof spirit, half its quantity of a well rectified spirit, prepared from any other fermented liquors. In this steep the ingredients, and then add spring water enough, both to make up the quantity ordered to be drawn off, and to prevent burning.


Take of fine old French brandy, 2 gallons, or 1 gallon of highly rectified spirit of wine, and 1 gallon of spring water.[184] Put to the brandy, or diluted spirits, ½ an ounce, or more, of true Roman oil of bergamot, whose parts have been previously well divided by trituration with lump sugar, in a glass mortar.

Now distil by a water heat, and draw off six quarts only. By this operation, a most excellent bergamot water will be produced, which will remain good for twenty years.


The original receipt for preparing this invaluable lotion, is written in letters of gold in the hand-writing of Elizabeth, queen of Hungary.

Take of aque vitæ, four times distilled, 3 parts,
the tops and flowers of rosemary, 2 parts.

To be put together in a close-stopped vessel, and allowed to stand in a warm place, during fifty hours, then to be distilled in an alembic, and of this, once every week, 1 drachm to be taken in the morning, either in the food or drink, and every morning the face and the deceased limb to be washed with it.

364. Best Hungary Water.

Take thirty gallons of spirit of wine; put to it, in a large still, six large bunches of fine green rosemary, when the flowers are white, and in full bloom; one pound of lavender-flowers, and four ounces of true English oil of rosemary. The rosemary-leaves and flowers must be stripped from all their wood and green twigs.

When the whole has been in a state of digestion for twenty-four hours, distil as before, drawing off about twenty-five or twenty-six gallons, but no more. When distilled, stop it closely in a copper vessel, and keep it undisturbed for about a month.


Take 14 pounds of lavender flowers, 10½ gallons of rectified spirit of wine, and one gallon of water; draw off 10 gallons by a gentle fire; or, which is much better, by a sand bath heat.


Take 30 gallons of the best wine spirit; pour it into a copper still, placed in a hot-water bath, over a clear but steady fire; put to it 6 pounds of the largest and freshest lavender flowers, after having separated them from all stalks and green leaves, which give the lavender-water a woody and faint smell. Put no water into the still, close all the junctures well, and let the spirits and flowers stand in a state of digestion for 24 hours; and then, with a gentle fire, draw off 25, or, at most, 26 gallons only, which, as soon as distilled, are to be poured into a copper vessel, for keeping. Wooden vessels and cans are to be avoided, as the best[185] parts of the oil, and of the spirits, will be absorbed by them and consequently lost.

When the distillation is over, draw out, or quench the fire, and let the remaining spirits and flowers continue in the still until the next day.

When the above quantity of 25 or 26 gallons has stood for 4 or 5 days, put it to ten ounces of true English oil of lavender. Mix the whole well in the jar, by drawing out one or two gallons, and then returning them. Repeat this ten or twelve times, then stop the vessel up close, and do not disturb it for a month, at least.

367. Lavender Water, of the second order.

To the four or five gallons of the spirits, and the lavender flowers left in the still, after the distillation mentioned in the last article, add 15 gallons of common proof spirit, 9 or 10 gallons of spring water, 3 pounds of lavender flowers, and 4 ounces of oil of lavender, intimately mixed with loaf-sugar, by powdering it in a glass mortar.

Digest the whole, and draw off 25 gallons, proceeding in every respect as before, except that in this case, no oil is to be added; for, as there is so much water present, the addition of oil would be apt to turn the whole quantity muddy, or of a bluish or opaque colour, which it cannot be easily freed from, without a second distillation.

368. Lavender Water, for immediate use.

Mix with one gallon of proof spirit, 1¼ ounce of true English oil of lavender, which is all that will properly combine with the spirit, without injuring the colour, by rendering it muddy. When the spirit and the oil are properly mixed, they are to be put into glass bottles, which are to be well stopped, and ought to be shaken before used.

369. Perfumed Lavender Water.

Distil by a gentle heat in a sand or water-bath; or, mix and shake frequently during fourteen days, the following ingredients:

1 ounce of foreign oil of lavender,
½ ditto of English ditto,
½ ditto of essence of ambergris, and
1 gallon of rectified spirit of wine.


The peel of the lemon, the part used in making this water, is a very grateful bitter aromatic, and, on that account, very serviceable in repairing and strengthening the stomach.

Take of dried lemon-peel, 4 lbs.
proof spirit, 10½ gallons, and
1 gallon of water.

Draw off ten gallons by a gentle fire.



Take of the herb of peppermint, dried, 1½ lbs.
proof spirit, 1 gallon,
water, sufficient to prevent burning.

Distil off a gallon.


Take of gentian-root, sliced, 3 lbs.; leaves and flowers of the lesser centaury, each 8 ounces; infuse the whole in 6 quarts of proof spirit, and 1 quart of water; and draw off the water till the feints begin to rise.


Take of scurvy-grass, fresh gathered and bruised, 15 pounds; horse-radish root, 6 pounds; rectified spirit of wine, 1 gallon; and water three pints. Digest the whole in a close vessel two days, and draw off a gallon with a gentle fire.


Take of the leaves of water-cresses, garden and sea scurvy-grass, and brook-lime, each 20 handsful; of pine-tops, germander, horehound, and the lesser centaury, each 16 handsful; of the roots of bryony and sharp pointed dock, each 6 pounds; of mustard-seed, 1½ pounds. Digest the whole in 10 gallons of proof spirit, and 2 gallons of water, and draw off by a gentle fire.



Vinegar is used chiefly as a sauce, and to preserve vegetable substances; but it is employed externally when an over dose of strong wine, spirit, opium, or other narcotic poison has been taken. A false strength is given to it by adding oil of vitriol, or some acrid vegetable, as pellitory of Spain, capsicum, &c. It is rendered colourless by adding fresh burned bone black, 6 ounces to a gallon, and letting it stand for two or three days to clear.


Mix cider and honey, in the proportion of 1 lb. of honey to a gallon of cider, and let it stand in a vessel for some[187] months, and vinegar will be produced so powerful, that water must be mixed with it for common use.

377. Another Method.

Scheele, a celebrated chymist, has recommended the following recipe: Take 6 spoonsful of good alcohol; to this, add 3 pints of milk, and put the mixture into vessels to be corked close. Vent must be given from time to time to the gas of fermentation. In the course of a month, this will produce very good vinegar.

378. Another.

Put into a barrel, of sufficient dimensions, a mixture composed of 41 wine pints of water, about 8 pints of whiskey, (l’eau de vin de grain) about 2 wine pints of yeast, and 2 pounds of charcoal, and place it in a proper situation for fermentation. At the end of four months a very good vinegar will be formed, as clear and as white as water.


This is made from weak malt liquor, brewed for the purpose; its various strength is, in England, denoted by numbers, from 18 to 24.

380. Another.

To every gallon of water put 1 lb. of coarse Lisbon sugar; let the mixture be boiled, and skimmed as long as any scum arises. Then let it be poured into proper vessels; and when it is as cool as beer, when worked, let a toast, rubbed over with yeast, be put to it. Let it work about 24 hours, and then put it into an iron-hooped cask, fixed either near a constant fire, or where the summer sun shines the greater part of the day; in this situation it should not be closely stopped up; but a tile, or something similar, should be laid on the bung-hole, to keep out the dust and insects. At the end of about three months (sometimes less) it will be clear and fit for use, and may be bottled off. The longer it is kept, after it is bottled, the better it will be. If the vessel containing the liquor is to be exposed to the sun’s heat, the best time to begin making it is in the month of April.


Take any sort of wine that has gone through fermentation, and put it into a cask that has had vinegar in it; then take some of the fruit or stalks of which the wine has been made, and put them wet into an open-headed cask in the sun, with a coarse cloth over the top of it, for six days—after which put them in the vinegar, and stir it well about—then put it in a warm place, if in winter, or if in summer, put it in a yard in the sun, with a slate over the bung. When the vinegar is sour enough and fine, rack it off into a clean sour cask, and bung it up; then put it in the cellar for[188] use. Those wines that contain the most mucilage are fittest for the purpose.

The lees of pricked wine are also a very proper ingredient in vinegar.


To each gallon of water add 2 lbs. of brown sugar, and a little yeast; leave it exposed to the sun for six months, in a vessel slightly stopped.


Bruise the gooseberries, when ripe, and to every quart put three quarts of water; stir them well together, and let the whole stand for 24 hours, then strain it through a canvas bag.

To every gallon of liquor add 1 lb. of brown sugar, and stir them well together before they are put into the cask. Proceed in all other respects as before. This vinegar possesses a pleasant taste and smell; but raspberry vinegar, which may be made on the same plan, is far superior in these respects. The raspberries are not required to be of the best sort, still, they should be ripe and well flavoured.


This is made in the same way as that from gooseberries, only pick off the currants from the stalks.


To 15 quarts of water put 6 lbs. of brown sugar; let it boil ten minutes, and take off the scum: pour on it half a peck of primroses; before it is quite cold, put in a little fresh yeast, and let it work in a warm place all night; put it in a barrel in the kitchen, and when done working, close the barrel, still keeping it in a warm place.


After making raisin wine, lay the pressed raisins in a heap to heat, then to each cwt. put 15 gallons of water, and a little yeast.


The poorest sort of cider will serve for vinegar, in managing which proceed thus:—

First draw off the cider into a cask that has had vinegar in it before; then put some of the apples that have been pressed into it, set the whole in the sun, and in a week or nine days it may be drawn off into another cask.—This is a good table vinegar.


Take the skins of raisins after they have been used in making wine, and pour three times their own quantity of boiling[189] water on them; stir them well about, and then set the cask in a warm place, close covered, and the liquor, in a week, when drawn off from its sediment, put into another cask, and well bunged down, will be a good vinegar for the table.


When honey is extracted from the combs, by means of pressure, take the whole mass, break and separate it, and into each tub or vessel, put one part of combs and two of water; place them in the sun, or in a warm place, and cover them with cloths. Fermentation takes place in a few days, and continues from 8 to 12 days, according to the higher or lower temperature of the situation in which the operation is carried on. During the fermentation, stir the matter from time to time, and press it down with the hands, that it may be perfectly soaked. When the fermentation is over, put the matter to drain upon sieves or strainers. At the bottom of the vessels will be found a yellow liquor, which must be thrown away, because it would soon contract a disagreeable smell, which it would communicate to the vinegar. Then wash the tubs, put into them the water separated from the other matter; it immediately begins to turn sour; when the tubs must be again covered with cloths, and kept moderately warm. A pellicle, or skin, is formed on their surface, beneath which the vinegar acquires strength; in a month’s time it begins to be sharp; it must be left standing a little longer, and then put into a cask, of which the bung-hole is left open. It may then be used like any other vinegar.


Suffer it to be repeatedly frozen, and separate the upper cake of ice, or water, from it.

All vinegars owe their principal strength to the acetic acid they contain; but the vinegar of wine contains also tartar, a small portion of the malic acid, alcohol, and colouring matter; that of eider contains merely the malic acid, little or no alcohol, and a yellowish colouring matter.


Dry an ounce of either of the above flowers, (except the orange flowers, which will not bear drying,) for two days in the sun; then put them into a bottle, pour on them a pint of vinegar, closely stop the bottle, and infuse 15 days in moderate heat of the sun. Vinegars of any other flowers, as tarragon, &c. may be made in a similar manner.



This is obtained from vinegar by distillation, rejecting the 4th or 8th part that comes over first, and avoiding its acquiring a burnt flavour.

Distilled vinegar is weaker than the common, but is used sometimes in pickles, where its want of colour is an advantage.


Obtained from wood distilled in large iron cylinders for the manufacture of charcoal for gunpowder; when rectified it is used for all the purposes of distilled vinegar.


Take of vitriol, calcined to whiteness, 1 lb.
sugar of lead, 10 drachms,

Rub together and distil.

395. Another.

Take of sugar of lead, 7 lbs.
oil of vitriol 4½ lbs.

Distil 2½ lbs. This is used to make aromatic vinegar.


Take of honey, 4 lbs.
very dry sand, 2 lbs.

Mix and put into a vessel that will hold five times as much; distil with a gentle heat a yellowish acid water: this acid greatly encourages the growth of hair.


Take of common salt, 3 lbs.
manganese, 1 lb.
oil of vitriol, 2 lbs.
water, 1 lb.

Distil, placing a sufficient quantity of water in the receiver.

This spirit is of a pale greenish yellow, and scarcely heavier than water. It bleaches linen, straw, and takes out fruit spots, iron moulds, or ink marks.




Take of good Jamaica ginger, 2½ oz.
Moist sugar, 3 lbs.
cream of tartar, 1 oz.
the juice and peel of 2 middling sized lemons,
brandy ½ pint,
good solid ale yeast, ¼ pint,
water, 3½ gallons.

This will produce 4½ dozen of excellent ginger beer, which will keep twelve months. Bruise the ginger and sugar, and boil them for 20 or 25 minutes in the water, slice the lemon and put it and the cream of tartar into a large pan; pour the boiling liquor upon them, stir it well round, and when milk-warm, add the yeast; cover it over, let it remain two or three days to work, skimming it frequently; then strain it through a jelly-bag into a cask, add the brandy, bung down very close, and at the end of a fortnight or three weeks, draw it off and bottle, and cork very tight; tie the cork down with twine or wire. If it does not work well at first, add a little more yeast, but be careful of adding too much, least it taste of it.


Take, if white is intended, 6 lbs. of sugar; if brown, as much treacle, and a pot of spruce, and ten gallons of water.

This is also managed in the same way as ginger beer, except that it should be bottled as soon as it has done working.


Pour 8 gallons of cold water into a barrel, and then boiling 8 gallons more, put that in also, add 12 lbs. of molasses, with about ½ lb. of the essence of spruce; and on its getting a little cooler, ½ a pint of good ale yeast. The whole being well stirred or rolled in the barrel, must be left with the bung out for two or three days; after which the liquor may be immediately bottled, well corked up, and packed in saw-dust or sand, when it will be ripe, and fit to drink in a fortnight.

Remember, that it should be drawn off into quart stone bottles, and wired.



For a cask of six gallons, mix well together ¼ lb. of the purest essence of spruce, 7 lbs. of loaf-sugar made into a clarified syrup, and about 1½ gallons of hot water; and when sufficiently stirred and incorporated; put it into the cask, and fill up with cold water. Then add about a ¼ of a pint of good ale yeast, shake the cask well, and let it work for three or four days: after which, bung it up. In a few days it may be bottled off after the usual manner, and in a week or ten days it will be fit for use. If, on bunging it close, about ¼ of an oz. of isinglass, first dissolved in a little of the warmed liquor, or in cider, be stirred in, by way of fining, it will acquire a superior degree of clearness. In proportion to the coldness of the weather, the quantity of yeast should be increased. Some, instead of yeast, use ale or beer-grounds the first time of making, and afterwards the grounds of their former spruce beer. In warm weather, very little ferment is requisite.


Take of water any quantity. Impregnate it with about ten times its volume of carbonic acid gas, by means of a forcing pump.


Take of water 1 gallon,
carbonate of magnesia, 3 drachms, and
impregnate it as above.


Take one ounce of subcarbonate of potass, and impregnate as above.


Take 2 ounces of subcarbonate of soda, and impregnate as above.


Take of tartaric acid, ½ oz.
loaf sugar, 3 oz.
essence of lemon, ½ drachm.

Powder the tartaric acid and the sugar very fine, in a marble or wedgewood mortar, (observe never to use a metal one) mix them together, and pour the essence of lemon upon them, by a few drops at a time, stirring the mixture after each addition, till the whole is added, then mix them thoroughly, and divide it into twelve equal parts, wrapping each up separately in a piece of white paper. When wanted for use, it is only necessary to dissolve it in a tumbler of cold water, and fine lemonade will be obtained, containing the flavour of the juice and peel of the lemon, and ready sweetened.



To make good chocolate, put the milk and water on to boil; then scrape the chocolate fine, from one to two squares to a pint, to suit the stomach: when the milk and water boils, take it off the fire; throw in the chocolate; mill it well, and serve it up with the froth; which process will not take 5 minutes. The sugar may either be put in with the scraped chocolate or added afterwards.

It should never be made before it is wanted; because heating again injures the flavour, destroys the froth, and separates the body of the chocolate; the oil of the nut being observed, after a few minutes’ boiling, or even standing long by the fire, to rise to the top, which is the only cause this chocolate can offend the most delicate stomach.


To have coffee in perfection, it should be made from the best production, carefully roasted, and after cooling for a few minutes, reduced to powder, and immediately infused; the tincture will then be of a superior description. But for common use, the coffee of our own plantations is, in general, of very good quality.

In England, too little powder of the berry is commonly given. It requires about one small cup of coffee-powder to make four cups of tincture for the table. This is at the rate of an ounce of good powder to four common coffee-cups. When the powder is put in the bag, as many cups of boiling water is poured over it as may be wanted.

Pour a pint of boiling water on an ounce of coffee; let it boil five or six minutes, then pour out a cupful two or three times, and return it again; put two or three isinglass slips into it; or a lump or two of fine sugar; boil it five minutes longer, set the pot by the fire to keep hot for ten minutes, and the coffee will be beautifully clear. A hot cream should always be served with coffee. For foreigners, or those who like it extremely strong, make only eight dishes from three ounces. If not fresh roasted, lay it before a fire till hot and dry; or put the smallest bit of fresh butter into a preserving-pan, when hot throw the coffee into it, and toss it about till it be freshened.



On her first going into a family the Cook will do well to inform herself of the rules and regulations of the house,—the customs of the kitchen,—the peculiarities of her master and mistress,—and above all, she must study, most sedulously, to acquire a perfect knowledge of their taste; which, when attained, will most probably lead to her permanent establishment in the sovereignty of the kitchen.

She will enter into all the economical plans of her employers, and endeavour to make the most of every thing, as well for the sake of her own character as for their interest. Not forgetting, that “wilful waste makes woful want.”

She will consider the encomiums of her master and mistress as her highest praise, and will accept even their admonitions as pleasing proofs of their desire to make her useful to themselves, and to enhance her own confidence and consequence.

The presidency of the kitchen being a situation of great trust and responsibility, she will best evince her sense of the confidence reposed in her by her anxiety to please, and a sedulous regard to the health and comforts of the family, which are, necessarily, in her keeping; governing her whole conduct by that most excellent moral maxim “Do unto others as you would they should do unto you.”


To be well qualified for every situation, the Cook must not only understand the business of the kitchen, but must be a good judge of provisions, as in many families, where there is no housekeeper, she will be required to go to market. She must also be able to keep an account of the current expenses of the family; and to examine, check, and pay the tradesmen’s bills, which she will have to settle with her mistress weekly, or when required.

The Cook should give directions to her assistants to rise early, particularly when a great dinner is to be dressed, that so every thing may be got quite ready in the kitchen to begin business as early in the morning as possible; else, nine times out of ten, the dinner will be too late: and it must always be recollected that “things done in a hurry are never well done,” and that, “an hour lost in the morning may be run after the whole day, but never overtaken.” Besides, to have every thing properly dressed, and to be punctual, as to time, with the dinner, will afford great satisfaction to her employers, and do credit both to them and to herself. Having learnt the precise time of dinner, she must not fail to be punctual.

Cleanliness, in every branch of domestic concerns cannot be too forcibly inculcated, and in the business of a Cook, particularly, it becomes a cardinal virtue. Cleanliness and neatness of person and dress are not less important in her than the arrangement of the kitchen and larder, and all her operations.


The boilers, saucepans, and other vessels,[196] to be used for culinary purposes, must be kept perfectly clean and well tinned. Block tin saucepans, &c. are safest, and perhaps best for these purposes.—When washed they should be dried by the fire, before they are put away; and they should always be wiped out again, with a clean dry cloth, immediately before they are used. This is to be done chiefly to prevent rust, and its baleful effects.

Poultry, and every kind of meat, both fresh and salted, should be washed and wiped dry, and then dredged well with flour, before it be put into the boiler, or pot; this will prevent its being soiled in the water, and will, also, prevent its looking greasy, when taken up.

Meat must always be put into cold water, with just enough water to cover it; say, about a quart of water to a pound of meat,—and it must be kept so covered, during the whole process of dressing, by adding boiling water occasionally.—By this method the inside will always be heated thoroughly, and be properly swollen, before the outside becomes hard; and the whole will be regularly done. This will, also, occasion the meat to look plump; and veal and poultry, in particular, will be the whiter and the better for it.

Beef loses about one-fourth, and mutton about one-fifth, in boiling.

A moderate fire must be kept up under the pot, increasing the heat gradually, till it boils, when it must be drawn back, kept close covered, and constantly simmering, quite gently, but by no means boiling fast. A tea-spoonful of salt thrown into the water, before it boils, will cause the scum to rise the better, which must be very carefully skimmed clean[197] off, immediately; and if, afterwards, a little cold water be thrown in, more scum will be cast up, which must frequently be taken off, as it rises, as on this alone depends the good appearance of all boiled articles.

Remember—that water cannot possibly be made hotter than it is when it first boils; it is, therefore, a waste of firing, and very detrimental to the meat to make it boil fast, as it is thereby rendered hard, and its juices and finest flavour are evaporated in steam.

Generally, beef, mutton, and lamb, unless the joints are very thin, or small, require boiling from a quarter of an hour to eighteen minutes to a pound; lamb, veal, and pork, and thick joints also, of whatever kind, require somewhat longer, especially in cold weather, or when fresh killed. A large leg of pork, for instance, will take a little more time;—always reckoning from the time of its first coming to boil, and taking into the account that the pot must always be kept gently simmering;—the slower the better, so that it be kept boiling. If you suffer boiled meats to remain in the pot after they are done, they become soddened and lose their flavour.

Examples in Boiling.

A Round of Beef.—After it has been carefully salted, and has lain in the pickle eight or ten days, wash it and wipe it dry; then cut out the bone, and skewer and tie it up tight and quite round. As soon as the pot boils skim it clean, and keep it boiling very gently, till done. The time will be according to its weight. Garnish with slices of carrot and turnip.


If large, after it has been in salt eight or ten days, let it lie in cold water half an hour to make it white—weigh it,[198] let it boil gently, allowing twenty minutes for every pound—skim it as soon as it boils, and often afterwards.—A small Leg of Pork is most delicate.—The liquor will make excellent peas-soup. Serve it up with peas-pudding and turnips.


Put it in warm water for ten minutes, and wash it clean, then put it into the pot and cover it with water—let it simmer very gently and skim it carefully. A leg of ten pounds will take two and a half or three hours. Mutton, to be tender, should hang as long as it will keep.


Take a hen bird, pick nicely, singe, wash, draw the sinews of the thighs, and truss it. Make a stuffing of bread, herbs, salt, pepper, nutmeg, lemon-peel, a few oysters, or an anchovy, a bit of butter, some suet, and an egg, put this into the crop, fasten up the skin, and skim the pot most carefully to make it white. Serve with oyster sauce made rich with butter, a little cream, and a spoonful of soy or parsley and butter. Tongue, ham, or pickled pork, are the usual accompaniments.


The legs, for boiling, should not be black.—Pick nicely, wash, singe, truss, and flour it—put it into boiling water, and simmer gently. A middling fowl will take forty minutes. Serve with parsley and butter, oyster, lemon, liver, or celery sauce.

Neither parsley and butter, liver and parsley, celery, onion, caper, curry, nor other sauce should be poured over boiled meats, but sent up separately in a boat.


All vegetables are best when fresh from the garden,—when dead they are useless. They are also in the greatest perfection when in the greatest plenty;—unripe vegetables are unwholesome.

Greens must be carefully picked, neatly trimmed, washed quite clean from vermin, and laid on a cullender to drain. Then, having ready a well-tinned saucepan, with plenty of clean, soft, boiling water, into which some salt has been thrown, and the scum taken off, plunge them into it, boil them quickly, watch them, and keep continually pressing them under the[199] water with a fork as they rise; and when they begin to sink of themselves, they are done, and must be taken up instantly, and drained dry; for if over done, they will lose not only their crispness and beautiful appearance, but their flavour also. Cabbages, savoys, and turnip-tops, require that the water should be changed when half done, the second water should be boiling, and if managed as above directed, they will eat much the milder and sweeter for it. This is the whole art of dressing vegetables to look green and eat well. We therefore deprecate the use of those factitious and filthy expedients recommended by some, and practised by many, to give, as they pretend, a good colour, to boiled vegetables. This is the best way;—and all artificial means ought to be avoided, as unnecessary and pernicious.

Esculent roots of all kinds may be set on to boil in cold water.


Fish, particularly if large, must be put into cold water, with plenty of salt; when ready, it will part from the bone; or it may be tried with a fork, and must be taken out of the water the moment it is done.

If not immediately wanted, let it stay on the fish-plate, over the hot water, and throw over it a clean cloth, dipped in boiling water, to preserve its colour.

A sliced cod should be stewed fifteen minutes.

In all cases, dinner should be served up as soon as possible after it is ready, because keeping the boiled articles, particularly fish, in hot[200] water, renders them vapid and heavy; and hot closets, covers, and other means used to keep them hot, dry the juices and make them eat strong and rancid.

Neither fish, nor vegetables of any kind, (except ripe potatoes,) should be boiled by steam.

Elements of Roasting.

Cleanliness must ever be the maxim for the kitchen.

Before the spit is drawn from the meat, let it be wiped clean, and when done with, let it be rubbed with a little sand and water.

A good brisk fire, due time, proper distance, and frequent basting, are the chief points to be attended to in roasting.

Much depends on the fire;—it should always be brisk and glowing, clear at the bottom, and suited to the article to be roasted.

Beef and mutton lose about one-third in roasting.

The ashes should be taken up, and the hearth made quite clean, before you begin to roast. If the fire require to be stirred during the operation, the dripping-pan must be drawn back, so that then, and at all times, it may be kept clean from cinders and dust.—Hot cinders, or live coals, dropping into the pan, make the dripping rank, and spoil it for basting.

Beef requires a strong, steady fire, which should be made up a little time previous to its being wanted. If the meat has been hung up some time, the dry outside parts must be pared off, and it must be basted, first, with a little salt and water, then well dredged with[201] flour, and afterwards basted, continually, with the dripping; but, if the meat be frozen, it must be brought into the kitchen several hours before it is dressed.—Large joints should be kept at a good distance from the fire at first, and gradually brought nearer and nearer;—the average distance for a large joint, at a good fire, may be about ten or twelve inches, an inch or two more or less, according to circumstances: when kitchen paper, dipped in the dripping, must be tied, not skewered, over the fat parts, to prevent their being scorched. When nearly ready, the smoke will draw from the meat towards the fire; at which time the paper must be taken off, and the meat must be put nearer to the fire to brown it; it must also be sprinkled with a little salt, and well dredged again, with flour, to froth it.

It is as necessary to roast slowly as to boil slowly;—and the General Rule is to allow full a quarter of an hour to a pound for roasting with a proper fire, under ordinary circumstances, and with frequent basting. But neither beef nor mutton require to be so well done as pork, lamb, and veal.—Pork, in particular, requires to be thoroughly done. It must be basted with salt and water; and the skin or rind of the leg, loin, and spare-rib, must be scored, with a sharp knife, after it has been some time at the fire, to make it eat the better. Geese, pigs, and young pork, require a brisk fire, and should be turned quickly.

Great care should be taken in spitting the meat, that the prime part of the joint be not injured:—to balance it on the spit, cook-holds and loaded skewers are very handy.

A bottle jack is an excellent substitute[202] for a spit, in small families, and for want of that, ten or a dozen yards of worsted, folded to a proper length, will answer the purpose very well. Meat if hung to be roasted, should have its ends changed when about half done. A good meat skreen, lined with tin, should always be set before the fire when roasting; it keeps off the cold air, renders the heat more equable, and saves coals.

After all, the above General Rule is liable to many exceptions. If the meat be fresh killed, or the weather be cold, a good joint will require half an hour longer than if the meat be tender and the weather temperate or warm.

We give the following particulars as a more certain guide to the Cook, in most cases on this important point.

Beef.A Sirloin of about sixteen pounds, will take three hours and a half or four hours.

Ribs of Beef, of nearly the same weight, being thinner, will require half an hour less.

Mutton.A Leg of eight or nine pounds, will take about two hours.

A Loin or Neck, from an hour and a half to an hour and three quarters.

A Breast, an hour and a quarter.

Veal requires to be managed as beef.

A Fillet, of fourteen or sixteen pounds, will take five hours.

(It must be placed at a distance from a strong fire at first, in order to be thoroughly soaked)

A good Loin, will take full three hours.

A Breast, from an hour and a half to two hours.

A Hind-quarter, of eight pounds, about two hours.

A Fore-quarter, of ten pounds, about two hours.

A Leg or Loin, about an hour and a quarter.

A Breast, three quarters of an hour.

Pork, as it must be well soaked and well done, requires longer time, in proportion, than any other meat.

A Hare will require an hour, at the least, and care must be taken that both ends be done enough. It should be well basted; first, with a pint of milk, or salt and water, then floured and basted with butter; when half done, it should[203] be cut between the shoulders and the neck, to let out the blood.

A large Turkey, will require two hours roasting.

A smaller one,—one hour and a half.

A small one,—one hour and a quarter.

A Goose,—one hour.

A large Fowl,—about three quarters of an hour.

A middle sized Fowl,—thirty or forty minutes.

A Capon,—thirty or thirty-five minutes.

A Duck,—twenty or thirty minutes.

A small Fowl or Chicken,—twenty minutes.

A Partridge,—twenty or twenty-five minutes.

A Turkey Poult,—twenty minutes.

A Pheasant,—fifteen minutes.

Wild Ducks, or Grouse,—fifteen minutes.

Pigeons,—fifteen minutes.

Quails, and small Birds,—ten minutes.

Tame Fowls require more roasting than wild ones.

Poultry should not be dressed in less than four days.

All fowls must be well washed, and singed when put down to the fire, and they must be kept well basted with butter.

Examples in Roasting.


Wipe it clean and dry, and tie paper over the fat parts to preserve them. Baste it immediately with dripping, and frequently afterwards. Within the last half hour, sprinkle it with a little salt, baste it with butter, and dredge it with flour, and as soon as the froth has risen, dish it up. Garnish with horse-radish, scraped fine. If it weigh 15 lbs. or 16 lbs. it will require nearly four hours.


Must be roasted in the same way. If fifteen or twenty lbs. they will take three hours and a half, more or less according to circumstances.


Let it be well basted and frothed in the same manner as directed for the Sirloin of Beef. The time and dressing will be according to its weight.


Will take about three hours roasting. Paper the kidney, fat, and back, to preserve them.—Some will have it sent up with a toast to be eaten with the delicate fat of the kidney; brown it, and pour good melted butter over it. Garnish with slices of lemon and force-meat balls.



The Hind-quarter.—The leg and loin are best dressed together; baste and froth it as directed for beef. Serve it up with green mint-sauce and a salad.

The Leg, Shoulder, Ribs, Loin, Neck, and Breast are all to be dressed, and served up, in the same way.


Turkeys and Fowls are to be roasted by a clear brisk fire, in the same way as each other, only allowing time according to their size. In drawing Poultry care must be taken not to break the gall-bag. The sinews of the thighs of Turkeys and large Fowls should be pulled out, and they should be trussed with the legs outward.—Wash well, dry, singe, extract the plugs, and dredge before roasting.


Stuff the Goose with onion, sage, pepper, and salt, fasten it tight at the neck and rump, and then set it down to the fire, at first, at some distance, bringing it nearer by degrees.—Paste a slip of paper over the breast-bone, and when the breast is rising, take it off. Send a good gravy up in the dish; but first take a table-spoonful of made mustard, half a tea-spoonful of cayenne pepper, and three spoonsful of port wine; mix and pour it hot into the body of the goose, by a slit in the apron: this will wonderfully improve the stuffing, and is, as Dr. Hunter says, a secret worth knowing.

All poultry must be nicely drawn, picked, the plugs removed, and the hair carefully singed off with white paper, and then well washed and dried.


We do not much approve of baking butcher’s-meat, as a substitute for roasting it, though it cannot be denied that some articles may be baked to answer nearly as well as if roasted; and when a great dinner is to be prepared it may be convenient to send a dish or two to the oven, but over these the cook can have no controul, and must, therefore, depend entirely on the baker. The following are articles that may with most advantage be baked, provided the meat be good and fat, and the baker be very attentive:—A sucking-pig, goose, some joints of beef, leg and shoulder of mutton, leg and loin of pork, fillet of veal, ham, hare, sprats, and other small kinds of[205] fish in pans, or jugs. To poor families, however, the oven affords great convenience as well as a considerable saving of expense and trouble.

Beef loses about one third of its weight by baking.


Let it be prepared as for roasting; fasten buttered paper on its tail and ears to prevent their being scorched; and send with it a little butter, tied up in a bit of cloth, to baste its back with, occasionally, which the baker must be requested to do.


For this operation let the fire be brisk and clear. The bars of the gridiron must be bright at top and clean betwixt; wipe the gridiron quite clean with a cloth, make its bars hot, and rub them with nice mutton suet, before you lay on the meat. Set the gridiron slanting over the fire, to prevent the fat dropping into it so as to occasion a smoke, which must be prevented. We shall give as an example in this branch of cookery,


The steak should be cut from the middle of the rump, must be about half an inch thick, and have been kept till tender. Broil it quick, and turn it often, with steak-tongs, to keep in the gravy and make it a nice brown; it will be done in fifteen or twenty minutes. Having ready, before the fire, a warm dish, with a table-spoonful of catsup, and a little minced shallot or onion, lay the steak on it, rub it over with a little butter, and garnish the dish with pickles and horse-radish scraped fine.


Frying is, in fact, boiling in fat. Before you begin to fry, rub the inside of the Frying-pan with a little fat, warm it and wipe it out with a cloth, quite clean.—To fry fish, half fill the pan with fat, olive oil, nice fresh lard, clarified drippings, or beef or mutton suet;—but[206] whatever fat be used let it be perfectly sweet, free from salt, and nice and clean. Keep a brisk fire, and make the fat very hot, which may be known by its having done hissing. When ready, carefully drain it quite dry before the fire.

We give the following as an example of the best method of Frying soles, and most other kinds of fish:

Let them be quite fresh, and some time before you dress them, wash them thoroughly, and wipe them with a clean cloth, quite dry.—If to be fried with bread-crumbs, beat up an egg, the white and yolk together, quite well, dip the fish in the egg, and cover them completely with grated crumbs, and if you wish the fish to look still better, do them twice over with egg. The fish, if large, may be cut into pieces, the proper size for the table, otherwise they may be fried whole; when cut they must be dished up as if whole. Let the fat in the pan be sufficient to cover the fish, and when it quite boils, and begins to smoke, put in the fish; it will be nicely browned in about five minutes, when it should be turned, and fried just as long on the other side. When done lay them on a soft cloth, before the fire, and turn them every two or three minutes, till they are perfectly dry on both sides.

The fat in which any thing is fried will serve to fry the same kind of thing several times.

Broths, Soups, Stock, &c.

Cleanliness in this, as in every department of kitchen business, must ever be held as the leading principle, and will contribute most to the satisfaction of all parties.


An economical Cook, when she boils animal food, will make a rule to convert the liquor, or broth, into some sort of soup or stock, which may be done at her leisure, and by which means she will always have a rich kitchen, as it is technically called, and will be able to make an extra dish, or an additional tureen of soup, at a short notice, and at a trifling expense. The fragments of meat left after dinner, with the trimmings of undressed meat and game, the heads, necks, gizzards, and feet of fowls, &c. when picked and washed clean, will help to enrich soups, or make stock, and save much expense in gravy meat. The broths, if saved in separate pans, will assist in making white or brown soups, and the gravies left in the dishes after dinner, will be good in hashes, or, with some trifling ingredients added, will make sauce for fish, goose, &c.

The liquor of a knuckle of veal may be converted into glaze, if boiled with a knuckle of ham, till reduced to a fourth or a third part, with the necessary herbs and spices added.

To prepare Soups, &c.—the first care of the Cook will be to see that the stew-pan to be used is well tinned, scalded, and wiped out perfectly clean and dry. She will put some butter or marrow into the bottom of the pan, then lay in a leg or shin of beef with the bones well broken, and the meat cut to pieces; or the skirts of beef, the kidney or melt, or the shank bones of mutton, well cleaned, with the fragments and trimmings of meat and other articles, as above mentioned;—these she will cover close and keep over a slow fire an hour, stirring it up, occasionally, from the bottom, and taking great care that it does not burn.—When[208] all the virtues of the meats are extracted, and the juices are again absorbed by them, she will add water enough to cover them, which will be in the proportion of about a quart of water to a pound of meat, for soup, and to two pounds, for gravies; the scum must then be carefully taken off, quite clean, as it rises, after it has boiled; for the more soups and broths are skimmed, the better, and more transparent they will be: and this transparency, combined with their uniformity of taste, constitutes their chief excellence. It is important that the soup be kept gently simmering five or six or more hours, and that then be added a scraped carrot, a head of celery, a couple of onions, two turnips, and a few sweet herbs;—when ready, let it be strained carefully through a clean tamis, previously dipped in cold water, into stone or unglazed earthen pans, and let the fat remain upon it, to preserve it, till wanted.

Soups and broths when done, ought not to be covered, nor put away with vegetables in them.

Use soft water to boil white peas, and let the peas be whole; but pump water will make green peas-soup of a better colour.

A good tureen of peas-soup may be made from the liquor of pork, mutton, or beef.

The lean of hams or gammon of bacon should be used when Stock is made; but if the former, first give it a boil in water, before you put it in, else it will turn the soup red.

The sediment of gravies, &c. that have stood to be cold, should never be used.

A clear jelly of cow-heels makes a great improvement to gravies and soups.


A lump of clarified butter, thoroughly mixed with flour and boiled with the soup will give it a richness and a greater consistency, if required.—A little tarragon added, just before it is served up, will give it an agreeable flavour.

All soups should be sent to table quite hot.

Cullis, or brown gravy, is made with lean veal and ham or gammon, and sweet herbs, &c.

Bechamel, or white sauce, is made in the same way, but is not browned; it must be improved by the addition of equal quantities of good broth and thick cream simmered with it half an hour, before it is strained off.

The articles used in thickening, seasoning, and flavouring broths and soups, are chiefly bread, flour, oatmeal, peas, rice, Scotch and pearl-barley, isinglass, maccaroni, turnips, beet, carrots, mushrooms, garlick, onions, shallots, cress, parsley, thyme, sage, mint, and other sweet and savoury herbs; also allspice, cinnamon, cloves, mace, nutmeg, ginger, pepper, lemon-juice, essence of anchovies, &c. these combined with wine and mushroom catsup, form an endless variety for flavouring and seasoning broths and soups.

Basil, savoury, and knotted-marjorum, are very pungent, and should be used cautiously.

No Cook can support the credit of her kitchen without having plenty of gravy, cullis, and stock always at hand, as these are the bases of all soups and high-seasoned dishes.

Sauces and Gravies.

These are simple, and easily made.


Almost every joint will afford trimmings enough to make plain gravy for itself, which may be heightened with a little browning.


Or, half an hour before the meat is done, mix a little salt and boiling water, and drop it on the brown parts of the meat, which catch in something under, and set it by to cool; when the meat is ready, remove the fat, warm the gravy, and pour it into the dish.

Or, the brown bits of roasted or broiled meat, infused a night in boiling water, and the next day just boiled up, and drained off, will make a good gravy.


Make it of the trimmings and paring of the meat.

Or pour as much of the liquor as may be necessary into the dish, and pierce the meat, on the under part, with a skewer.


Cut two ounces of butter into small pieces, and put it into a pint saucepan, with a large tea-spoonful of flour, and two table-spoonsful of milk; when thoroughly mixed, add six table-spoonsful of water, shake it continually, over the fire, always the same way, till it simmers, then set it on, and let it just boil up, when it will be about the thickness of cream: if too thick to eat with vegetables, add a little more milk.

This is the foundation of almost all the sauces.

Two table-spoonsful of mushroom catsup added to this instead of the milk, will make an excellent sauce for fish, flesh, or fowl, and particularly for chops and steaks.

If butter be oiled in melting, put in a spoonful of cold water and stir it with a spoon; or pour it forward and backward from the saucepan to the boat, till it is come again.


Pare a lemon, cut it into thick slices, and divide these into small squares or dice, which mix with a quarter of a pint of melted butter.


Wash and pick the parsley, very carefully, boil it ten minutes with a tea-spoonful of salt, in a little water, drain it, and bruise it to a pulp, then mix it by degrees with about half a pint of melted butter.

N. B. Sauces of fennel, chervil, basil, tarragon, burnet, cress, &c. may be made in the same way.


Pound three anchovies in a mortar with a bit of butter, rub it through a hair-sieve, with the back of a wooden spoon, and stir it into half a pint of melted butter.


To a quarter of a pint of melted butter put a table-spoonful of capers, and nearly as much vinegar.



Pound two cloves of garlic and proceed as with the anchovy sauce.


Is made with three or four shalots pounded, and done in the same way.


Is nothing more than pounded white sugar, melted over a slow fire, with a little butter and water, till it begins to smoke and turn brown, then diluted with more water, till about the consistence of soy, and afterwards boiled, skimmed, strained, and preserved in well corked bottles.

All plain sauces, should taste only of the articles from which they take their names.

In compound sauces the several ingredients should be so nicely proportioned that no particular flavour should predominate.

Soy, walnut-peels, burnt treacle, or sugar, cayenne pepper, or capsicums, chilies, vinegar, pickled herrings, anchovies, sardinias, or sprats, are the bases of almost all the sauces to be found in the shops.

Never season too highly your sauces, gravies, or soups.

Cloves and allspice,—mace and nutmeg,—marjorum, thyme, and savory,—leeks, onions, shalots, and garlic,—need not be mixed together in the same preparation, when either of them will supply the place of the others.

In short, Cooks now know, by experience, that a much less number of ingredients are sufficient to give a finer flavour to sauces, &c. than was formerly used; because, in this age of refined taste, we have learnt to combine the simply elegant with the purely nutritious.


These may be eaten at all seasons of the[212] year; but they are most wholesome in the spring, when green herbs, of all kinds, are in the greatest perfection. They are, then, most efficacious, in cleansing, sweetening, and purifying the blood. But, though Salads in the winter act not so powerful as in the spring, yet, such as are to be had, retain all the properties or qualities of their nature, and the warmer kinds, in particular, being gentle, salutary, and most excellent stimulants, are well calculated to warm the stomach, and exhilarate the spirits.

The following are the principal herbs, or vegetables, used in English salads; viz.

Beet Root, Mint, Small Salading
Celery, Onions,  which are
Chervil, Parsley, Turnip,
Chives, Radish, Common, Rape,
Corn Salad,  ——–, Turnip, Salad Radish,
Cucumber, Shalots, Mustard,
Garlic, Sorrel, Garden Cress.
Lettuce, Water Cresses, and   

Balm, Dandelion, Nettle Tops, Sage, Spinage Tops, and Tarragon, are sometimes used.

Besides these, the French use many other articles as Salads, most of which being warm, exhilarating, and antiscorbutic, contribute greatly to their health and cheerfulness; viz.

Balm, Pennyroyal Tops,  Dandelion,
Sage, Tarragon, Spinage Tops,
Nettle Tops.     

Salad herbs should be used fresh from the gardens; but if grown stale, they must be refreshed in cold water. They must be carefully picked, and washed clean, and then shaken in a clean cloth to dry.

The ingredients generally used in mixing Salads are eggs boiled hard, and rubbed fine, oil, vinegar, mustard, pepper, and salt.


The adulteration of articles of provision is now so common, that the Cook will do well to be guarded against such impositions, by dealing with respectable tradesmen only.—The articles most frequently adulterated are bread, tea, brown sugars, coffee, mustard, pepper, and all other things that are to pass through the mill.

The Cook should take care to be amply provided with proper instruments, and kitchen utensils of all kinds, without which she can do nothing as it ought to be done. It will be necessary to have graduated glass measures, such as the apothecaries use, divided into tea-spoonsful and table-spoonsful,[14] and also graduated on their sides, according to the following figures, in order to measure quantities of fluids with accuracy.

No. 1. represents a glass, calculated to measure any quantity from two drachms to eight ounces.
No. 2. From one drachm to two ounces.
No. 3. From half a drachm to one ounce.
Note.—Sixty drops or minims make one drachm.


Scales and weights should also be kept at hand, not only for weighing heavy articles, such as butcher’s-meat, grocery, &c. but also such as will weigh small quantities with accuracy. (See the Appendix.)

Before breakfast, or as soon as possible after, the Cook having seen that her assistants in the kitchen are getting forward all things preparatory to the principal dinner, and having also given the kitchen-maid directions for the servants’ dinner, her attention will next be directed to

The Larder.

The situation of the Larder should be dry, airy, and shady; it should be well ventilated, and kept perfectly clean, cool, and free from smells of all kinds.

The freezing point, or about 32° of Farenheit’s Thermometer, is the most perfect temperature of the atmosphere for preserving animal food.

Moist and close weather is very bad for keeping meat, poultry, &c. A southerly wind is also unfavourable;—and lightning will quickly destroy it.


A large Safe, pierced with holes on every side, to be hung up in an airy situation, would be a very valuable appendage to every Larder.

Management of Butcher’s Meat, &c. before it is dressed.


Management.—When the meat first comes in, trim it neatly and carefully, by cutting out all[215] the bloody parts and the fly-blowings, if any; cut out also the kernels in the thick end of the sirloin, in the fat of the rump, in the pope’s-eye, the thick fat of the buttock, and wherever else they are to be found. Cut off the skirt under the ribs, and as much of the suet from the sirloin and rump as will leave them handsome for dressing. Cut off also the spare suet in the loins of veal and mutton; and the spare fat of necks, or loins of mutton, makes much lighter puddings than suet. Be careful also to take out the pipe which runs along the chine-bone, and the pith which is in the back-bone in the sirloin, rump, &c.; the whole should then be wiped dry, all the holes filled up with salt, and the roasting pieces should be sprinkled with salt and hung up till wanted. In winter, the boiling meat, that is frozen, should be soaked in cold water, two or three hours before it is dressed; but the best way to thaw a roasting joint is to let it be in the warm kitchen several hours before it is put to the fire.


The boiling pieces, if the weather permit, will be the better for hanging a day or two before they are salted. In warm weather, it is best to let them lie an hour, rubbing well every part that is likely to be fly-blown, and then wiping them dry with a cloth, and having salt ready, rub it into every part, taking care to fill the holes where the kernels and skewers have been. Turn them and rub them well with the pickle every day, and in three or four days they will be fit to dress, if wanted. Wash all the boiling pieces before dressing; and its colour will be the better for soaking; but never[216] wash roasting joints before they are dressed, as it robs them of their best juices and finest flavour; it is, therefore, much better to wipe them well with a dry cloth, and pare off the dry parts on the outside.


Management.—Examine and trim the several joints when they come in; take out the skewers and wipe all the parts dry, particularly round the kidney and udder; cut out the pipe that runs along the chine-bone in the loin and neck; take out the spine in the back-bone, and the kernels in the leg and the chump end of the loin, and cut off the skirt within the breast.


Management.—In warm weather, trim the meat as soon as it comes in, as directed for beef: cut out the kernels in the leg, the chine, and near the tail in the loin; cut out also the pipe that runs along the chine-bone, and take out the pith in the chine; cut off the skirt of the breast; wipe all dry with a clean cloth, and hang it up till wanted.


Management.—Lamb, whether in quarters or joints, should be managed like mutton and beef, as directed.


Management.—Examine and trim it, when brought in, as you do all other kinds of meat. Sprinkle the joints intended for roasting with a little salt, to improve their relish. Cut the joints intended for boiling into suitable pieces, and rub them well with salt as you put them into the salting-pan.


Management.—To prevent venison from tainting, take the kernel out of the haunch, wash the whole with vinegar and water, then wipe it quite dry, and dust it with ground ginger or pepper, to keep off the flies.—Thus managed, it may be kept a fortnight.

General Business of the Larder.

Joints of meat, game, &c. should be hung where there is a current of dry air, till they are tender. If they be not kept long enough, they will be hard and tough;—if too long, they lose their flavour. Much loss is sustained by the[217] spoiling of meat in warm weather; to prevent which, as far as possible, it must be turned daily, end for end, and wiped every morning and night, with a clean, dry cloth, to free it and keep it from damp and moisture. If it be feared that any of the ripe meat will not keep till wanted, it should be parboiled, or part-roasted, by which means it may be kept a day or two the longer. Pieces of charcoal should also be put over meat, and a plug of charcoal put into the vents of fowls, &c. a string being tied round their necks. Before dressing meat it must be well washed and wiped dry; except roasting-beef, the dry outsides of which must be pared off. When meat indicates the least degree of putridity it should be dressed with out delay, else it becomes unwholesome. In the latter case, however, even fish, as well as meat, may be reclaimed, by putting pieces of charcoal into the water with it, when boiled or parboiled.—Tainted meat may also be restored by washing it in cold water, and afterwards in strong chamomile tea, and rubbing it dry with a clean cloth; after which it may be sprinkled with salt, and suffered to remain till the next day, if necessary.

In frosty weather all meat should be brought into the kitchen over night, or at least several hours before it is to be dressed.

Early in the morning remove the cold meat into clean dishes; change also, all the broths, soups, gravies, stock, cullis, &c. that require it, into clean scalded stone-pans; and never leave any eatables in copper or brass vessels, for if touched with salt or vinegar, or any acid, and left wet, they will corrode and gather poison.

Turn and rub the meat that is in salt; after[218] which let the Larder be well scoured and cleaned out.

Dried meats, hams, tongues, bacon, &c. must be hung up in a cool, dry place, otherwise they will become rusty.

Bread should be kept in an earthen pan, with a cover, to exclude the air;—it should not be cut till it is a day old.

The vigilant Cook, having attended to the minutiæ of the larder, and directed that the shelves and floor be well scoured and washed, and every part made perfectly free from smells, will next, if it be in her department, prepare to go to market, and consult her mistress or the housekeeper accordingly.[15]

Having seen that all the marketing is properly disposed of,—the parlour lunch, nursery and servants’ dinners getting forward, or got out of the way, then commences the principal preparations for the day.

In families where great dinners are seldom given, it will be better, when it can be conveniently done, to make an arrangement, as to the principal dishes, a day or two, or more, before hand. The Cook should never quit her post, on such an occasion, as it requires not only great skill but the utmost attention and exertion to send up the whole of a great dinner, with all its accompaniments, in perfect order.

When there is an opportunity of getting[219] forward the soups, sauces, and made dishes, on the preceding day, it should, by all means, be done; but if not, the soups, &c. should be forwarded early in the morning, and while these are preparing, the joints of meat, cutlets, and other articles should be trimmed, the poultry and game, &c. trussed and made ready for dressing; the vegetables picked quite clean, trimmed, and well washed, and laid separate, in dishes or cullenders. The shalots, onions, sweet-herbs, spices, &c. should also be prepared, and laid quite at hand.

The Bill of Fare being made out, and the hour of active operation approaching, the clock must be consulted, and the different articles prepared and laid to the fire, in succession, according to the times they will take, that all may be ready in due time.—A scene of activity now commences, in which you must necessarily be cool, collected, and attentive.—Have an eye to the roast meat, and an ear to the boils,—and let your thoughts continually recur to the rudiments of your art, which at this moment must be called into practical requisition. You will endeavour that every kind of vegetable, and of sauce, be made to keep pace with the dishes to which they respectively belong—so that all may go up stairs smoking hot together, and in due order.

Let a clean cloth be laid on the kitchen-table, and with the bill of fare for your guide, if neither housekeeper nor the butler be present, let the dishes, intended to be used, be placed on this table, exactly as they are meant to stand on the table in the dining-room, and let every article be taken off the table in the kitchen, by the footman, and proper assistants, in regular order,[220] by which means the butler cannot fail to set them in their proper places above stairs.

In some families, the soups are sent up first; and next, after a few minutes, the fish, then the removes, vegetables, sauces, and the whole of the first course:—mean time the entremets, or second course, will be dished and sent up, precisely in the same way. This would be done in all families, at all times, were it not deemed necessary frequently to sacrifice convenience, comfort, and every other consideration, at the shrine of fashion and elegance of appearance.

When the dinner things are brought down, the meat must be removed into clean common dishes; and as many things, such as fricandeaus, stews, &c. may remain untouched, or can be made to do again, when tossed up afresh, in different ways; they must be taken out of the gravies, the garnish, &c. picked clean off them, and the meat put by in clean dishes, and covered with thin slices of bacon. These gravies, and those from the roast meats of different kinds, must all be saved in separate stone pans, as all things of this kind serve to make a rich kitchen, and may be converted or applied to various useful purposes. The soups that are left should be strained through sieves to take out the bread and other vegetable matters, which, if left in, would turn them sour.

What sweets are left, such as Blancmange, Jellies, &c. may be melted and run into smaller moulds or shapes, and made to do again. Such management as this is highly commendable in all families, as thereby you are at all times provided for extra visiters.

Potted Meats, Collared articles, Anchovies,[221] Oysters and other shell-fish, mock Brawn, cold Hams, Tongue, Stewed Peas, Black Caps, Sweets of various kinds, and some sorts of Tarts, should also be kept ready for suppers and extra occasions.[16]

The kitchen fire being reduced, and made up for ordinary occasions,—The dishes and every other article that has been used in the course of the day, and particularly the pots, kettles, sauce-pans, and other culinary utensils, being all scoured, and made perfectly clean, dried, wiped out, and put in their proper places;—the dressers and tables scoured down, and the whole kitchen made quite clean and put into perfect order, the principal business of the day may be considered at an end, as little more, of consequence, will seldom be required on the part of the Cook, except what further attention the larder, in hot weather, may demand, before she retires.

Useful Hints.

With the utmost attention of the Cook, she can gain no credit, if she send up more than one dish, with all its accompaniments, at a time, and that as quickly as possible.

Old meats do not require so much dressing as young, because they may be eaten with the gravy in them.

Pickled pork requires longer dressing, in proportion, than any other meat.

Hashes and minces should be only simmered, if boiled, they become hard.

Meat hastily boiled or roasted is, thereby,[222] made the more indigestible, and its juices are wastefully extracted.

The warmer the weather, and the staler the meat, the less time it will take in dressing.

When meat is overdone it is spoiled, and the fault can never be corrected;—when neither overdone nor underdone it is most digestible and most nutritious;—and when thoroughly done, it eats short and tender.

In dressing Meats, be as correct as possible as to quantities, qualities, and time.

Meat that is not to be cut up till cold must be well done, particularly in the summer time.

The greatest skill of the best cook will avail nothing, unless the provisions are good.

The present taste is simply to boil both carp and tench; and serve up with plain or savoury sauce, or rather, with Dutch sour sauce, which does not destroy the flavour of the fish.

All fish should be sent up as hot as possible, and particularly the sauces. In fact, all sauces ought to be set on the table quite hot.

Essence of anchovies is a very good fish-sauce, alone—or otherwise.

To prepare meat in a hot-bath is a most excellent mode of cookery; as it makes it tender without the loss of its juices.

A conjuror or Papin’s digester is a very economical Utensil. It will dress a steak deliciously, with the addition of a little catsup, or with oysters, &c.—It boils water in a few minutes.

To keep meat hot, when done, take it up, set the dish over a pan of boiling water, put a deep cover over it, and throw a clean cloth over that.

Broiled beef steaks, mutton-chops, &c. should always be sent to the table hot and hot.


Whole peas are better than split peas for soup, in winter. It is a good practice to steep them an hour or more in cold water, before they are boiled.

Wines and spices should not be put into soups, stews, &c. too early, as the heat evaporates both the spirit and the flavour.

Vermicelli, when used in soups, &c. should not be suffered to remain in it more than fifteen minutes, as it will become a paste.

Dripping will do as well as butter to baste any thing.

A small quantity of cream is better than flour and water, in melting butter.

Much butter is not to be recommended on all occasions.

When the palate is become dull by frequent tasting, wash the mouth with milk;—or eat an apple.

A bit of bread stuck upon the point of the knife with which you peel or cut onions, will prevent their disagreeable effect on the eyes.

A kettle of water kept boiling, over a charcoal fire, will effectually prevent its deleterious effects in the room.

Coals. Judicious Cooks will perform their culinary operations with much less coal than those who erroneously conceive that the greater the fire, the greater the dispatch. Time, rather than a fierce fire, answers best both for roasting and boiling meats.—Round coals are best for use, and small coal should never be thrown on a weak fire, as it will stop the progress of the air through the fire; and perhaps extinguish it. But small coal, or culm, a little wetted, and thrown at the back of a good[224] fire, will become cinders or coke, and greatly improve it.

All the ashes of the kitchen and other grates should be sifted, and the cinders saved, to be used under the boilers in brewing and washing, or in the ironing stove.

A simple and excellent contrivance for sifting cinders may be purchased at the Ironmongers.

Omelets should be made to eat full and thick at the mouth. They should be sent up quite hot, after dinner, and are wholesome, and great favourites in most countries.

A little sugar much improves the taste of green peas.

Potted meats make excellent sandwiches.

Sandwiches should be neatly cut in mouthfuls, so as to be taken up with a fork.


Do every thing in the proper time.

Keep every thing in its proper place.

Use every thing for its proper use.

Never use any boiling or stewing utensil, pot or pan, spit, cookhold, spoon, ladle, or skewer, sieve, tammy or pudding cloth, jelly bag, net, tape, or other kitchen article, that have not been well scalded or washed with boiling water, and thoroughly dried.

The Cook’s Catechism.


A preparation of white sugar, browned over the fire, and then diluted to the consistency of soy, for the purpose of colouring soups, gravies, &c.


A simple white gravy or sauce

To Braize

To stew over a slow fire [225]


A rich soup or gravy consumed over the fire to the consistency of a jelly, to be diluted and converted, when wanted, into soup


A rich brown gravy, made in various ways, according to the purpose for which it is intended


Dishes for a first course


Dishes for a second course

Esculents or Edibles 

Animal or Vegetable food—any article that may be eaten


A sort of Scotch collops


Fowls, rabbits, or other things cut to pieces and dressed with a strong white sauce


Articles laid round a dish by way of ornament, and generally, but not always, intended to be eaten therewith


A very rich sauce or gravy boiled to a thick substance, and preserved in pots, to be laid on with a long-haired brush, over high-seasoned dishes

To Glaze

To cover the outsides of hams, tongues, and all stewed dishes, with glaze or braize, to give them a rich appearance


Veal, mutton, &c. stewed with vegetables


A pan or other vessel filled with water, and placed in a pot, which is kept boiling over the fire, for the purpose of scalding fruits, or preparing meats


Soup, or any other dish, made without meat or gravy [226]

To Pass

To dress a thing partially, by setting on, or shaking it over the fire for a short time


Or stewing or boiling meat or other articles, to preserve their juices

To Sheet

To line the inside of a dish with paste


A preparation from gravy meats, &c. always to be kept at hand, for the purpose of making soup or gravy

We have now initiated our honest candidate for culinary fame, by regular and easy gradations, into the whole arcana of the profession,—taught her to judge of the natures and qualities of provisions, and their comparative values;—the best seasons and methods of purchasing, and of managing undressed animal and vegetable food; and the general economy of the larder;—Have given her the plainest elementary principles and precepts, and a few of the most simple examples, for practice, in all the various branches of boiling, roasting, baking, broiling, frying, &c.—the best methods of making soups, gravies, sauces, and salads: and, lastly, the modern mode of preparing a good dinner, with all its most approved accompaniments. In fine, we have been anxious, not only to instruct the common cook in the rudiments, and all the ordinary operations of her art, but how to combine, both in principle and practice, the most elegant with the most useful results; so as to enable her to please both the man of taste and the[227] man of temperance;—the economist and the epicure;—the whimsical and the wise;—those who eat to live, and those who live to eat.—Under the head Housekeeper, we have also given ample instructions for making Pastry, Confectionary, Preserves, and Pickles, which frequently fall within the province of the cook. The whole comprises, as it were in a nut-shell, a complete compendium of culinary knowledge, chiefly valuable for its comprehensive brevity, and which, we trust, will be found, by the ingenious practitioner, full as useful as many, more elaborate volumes, professedly written on this subject only, and published at not less, if not more than the whole price of this little Work.

Dean Swift’s ironical directions to the Cook.

Although I am not ignorant, that it hath been a long time since the custom began among people of quality to keep men cooks, and generally of the French nation; yet because my treatise is chiefly calculated for the general run of knights, ’squires, and gentlemen both in town and country, I shall therefore apply to you, Mrs. Cook, as a woman; however, a great part of what I intend may serve for either sex: and your part naturally follows the former; because the butler and you are joined in interest; your vails are generally equal, and paid when others are disappointed; you can junket together at nights upon your own prog, when the rest of the house are a-bed; and have it in your power to make every fellow-servant your friend; you can give a good bit or a good sup to the little masters and misses, and gain their affections: a quarrel between you is very dangerous to you both, and will probably end in one of you being turned off, in which fatal case, perhaps, it will not be so easy in some time to cotton with another. And now, Mrs. Cook, I proceed to give you my instructions, which I desire you will get some fellow-servant in the family to read to you constantly one night in every week when you are going to bed; whether you serve in town or country, for my lessons shall be fitted for both.


If your lady forgets at supper, that there is any cold meat in the house, do not you be so officious as to put her in mind of it; it is plain she did not want it; and if she recollects it the next day, say she gave you no orders, and it is spent; therefore, for fear of telling a lie, dispose of it with the butler, or any other crony, before you go to bed.

Never send up a leg of a fowl at supper, while there is a cat or a dog in the house, that can be accused for running away with it: but if there happen to be neither, you must lay it upon the rats, or a strange hound.

It is ill house-wifery to foul your kitchen rubbers with wiping the bottoms of the dishes you send up, since the table-cloth will do as well, and is changed every meal.

Never clean your spits after they have been used; for the grease left upon them by meat is the best thing to preserve them from rust; and when you make use of them again, the same grease will keep the inside of the meat moist.

If you live in a rich family, roasting and boiling are below the dignity of your office, and which it becomes you to be ignorant of; therefore leave that work wholly to the kitchen-maid, for fear of disgracing the family you live in.

If you are employed in marketing, buy your meat as cheap as you can, but when you bring in your accounts, be tender of your master’s honour, and set down the highest rate; which, besides, is but justice, for nobody can afford to sell at the same rate that he buys, and I am confident that you may charge safely; swear that you gave no more than what the butcher and poulterer asked. If your lady orders you to set up a piece of meat for supper, you are not to understand that you must set it up all; therefore, you may give half to yourself and the butler.

Good cooks cannot abide what they justly call fiddling work, where abundance of time is spent and little done: such, for instance, is the dressing of small birds, requiring a world of cookery and clutter, and a second or third spit, which by the way is absolutely needless; for it will be a very ridiculous thing indeed, if a spit which is strong enough to turn a sirloin of beef, should not be able to turn a lark; however, if your lady be nice, and is afraid that a large spit will tear them, place them handsomely in the dripping-pan, where the fat of roasted mutton or beef falling on the birds, will serve to baste them, and so save both time and butter: for what cook of any spirit would lose her time in picking larks, wheat-ears, and other small birds? Therefore, if you cannot get the maids, or the young misses to assist you, e’en make short work, and either singe or flay them; there is no great loss in the skins, and the flesh is just the same.

If you are employed in marketing, do not accept a treat of a beef-steak and a pot of ale from the butcher, which I think in conscience is no better than wronging your master; but do you always take that perquisite in money if you do not go in trust, or in poundage when you pay the bills.


The kitchen bellows being usually out of order with stirring the fire with the muzzle to save the tongs and poker, borrow the bellows out of your lady’s bed-chamber, which being least used, are commonly the best in the house; and if you happen to damage or grease them, you have a chance to have them left entirely for your own use.

Let a blackguard boy be always about the house to send on your errands, and go to market for you on rainy days, which will save your clothes, and make you appear more creditable to your mistress.

If your mistress allows you the kitchen-stuff, in return for her generosity take care to boil and roast your meat sufficiently. If she keeps it for her own profit, do her justice, and, rather than let a good fire be wanting, enliven it now and then with the dripping, and the butter that happens to turn to oil.

Send up your meat well stuck with skewers, to make it look round and plump; and an iron skewer rightly employed now and then will make it look handsomer.

When you roast a long joint of meat, be careful only about the middle, and leave the two extreme parts raw, which may serve another time, and will also save firing.

When you scour your plates and dishes, bend the brim inwards, so as to make them hold the more.

Always keep a large fire in the kitchen, when there is a small dinner, or the family dines abroad, that the neighbours, seeing the smoke, may commend your master’s house-keeping: but when much company is invited, then be as sparing as possible of your coals, because a great deal of the meat, being half raw, will be saved, and serve next day.

Boil your meat constantly in pump water, because you must sometimes want river or pipe water; and then your mistress, observing your meat of a different colour, will chide you when you are not in fault.

When you have plenty of fowls in the larder, leave the door open, in pity to the poor cat, if she be a good mouser.

If you find it necessary to go to market in a wet day, take out your mistress’s cloak, to save your clothes.

Get three or four chair-women to attend you constantly in the kitchen, whom you pay at small charges, only with the broken meat, a few coals, and all the cinders.

To keep troublesome servants out of the kitchen, always leave the winder sticking on the jack, to fall on their heads.

If a lump of soot falls into the soup, and you cannot conveniently get it out, stir it well, and it will give the soup a high French taste.

If you melt your butter to oil, be under no concern, but send it up; for oil is a genteeler sauce than butter.


Scrape the bottoms of your pots and kettles with a silver spoon, for fear of giving them a taste of the copper.

When you send up butter for sauce, be so thrifty as to let it be half water; which is also much wholesomer.

If your butter, when it is melted, tastes of brass, it is your master’s fault, who will not allow you a silver saucepan; besides, the less of it will go the farther, and new tinning is very chargeable: if you have a silver saucepan, and the butter smells of smoke, lay the fault upon the coals.

Never make use of a spoon in any thing that you can do with your hands, for fear of wearing out your master’s plate.

When you find that you cannot get dinner ready at the time appointed, put the clock back, and then it may be ready to a minute.

Let a red-hot coal now and then fall into the dripping-pan; that the smoke of the dripping may ascend, and give the roast meat a high taste.

You are to look upon the kitchen as your dressing room; but you are not to wash your hands, till you have gone to the Privy, and spitted your meat, trussed your fowl, picked your salad, nor indeed till after you have sent up your second course: for your hands will be ten times fouler with the many things you are forced to handle; but when your work is over, one washing will serve for all.

There is but one part of your dressing that I would admit while the victuals are boiling, roasting, or stewing; I mean, the combing your head, which loseth no time, because you stand over your cookery, and watch it with one hand, while you are using the comb with the other.

If any of the combings happen to be sent up with the victuals, you may safely lay the fault upon any of the footmen that hath vexed you: as those gentlemen are sometimes apt to be malicious, if you refuse them a sop in the pan, or a slice from the spit, much more when you discharge a ladle-full of hot porridge on their legs, or send them up to their masters with a dish-clout pinned at their tail.

In roasting and boiling, order the kitchen-maid to bring none but the large coals, and save the small ones for the fires above stairs: the first are properest for dressing meat; and when they are out, if you happen to miscarry in any dish, you may fairly lay the fault upon the want of coals; besides, the cinder-pickers will be sure to speak ill of your master’s house-keeping, where they do not find plenty of large cinders mixt with fresh large coals: thus you may dress your meat with credit, do an act of charity, raise the honour of your master, and sometimes get share of a pot of ale for your bounty to the cinder-woman.


As soon as you have sent up the second course, you have nothing to do (in a great family) until supper: therefore scour your bands and face, put on your hood and scarf, and take your pleasure among your cronies, till nine or ten at night—but dine first.

Let there be always a strict friendship between you and the butler, for it is both your interests to be united: the butler often wants a comfortable tit-bit, and you much oftener a cool cup of good liquor. However, be cautious of him, for he is sometimes an inconstant lover; because he hath great advantage to allure the maids with a glass of sack, or white-wine and sugar.

When you roast a breast of veal, remember your sweet-heart the butler loves a sweet-bread; therefore set it aside till evening; you can say, the cat or the dog has run away with it, or you found it tainted or fly-blown; and besides, it looks as well at the table without it.

When you make the company wait long for dinner, and the meat be over-done, which is generally the case, you may lawfully lay the fault upon your lady, who hurried you to send up dinner, that you was forced to send it up too much boiled or roasted.

If your dinner miscarries in almost every dish, how could you help it? You were teazed by the footmen coming into the kitchen; and to prove it true, take occasion to be angry, and throw a ladle-full of broth on one or two of their liveries; besides Friday and Childermas-day are two cross days in the week, and it is impossible to have good luck on either of them; therefore on those two days you have a lawful excuse.

When you are in haste to take down your dishes, tip them in such a manner, that a dozen will fall together upon the dresser, just ready for your hand.

To save time and trouble, cut your apples and onions with the same knife; well-bred gentry love the taste of an onion in every thing they eat.

Lump three or four pounds of butter together with your hand; then dash it against the wall just over the dresser, so as to have it ready to pull by pieces as you have occasion for it.

If you have a silver sauce-pan for the kitchen use, let me advise you to batter it well, and keep it always black; this will be for your master’s honour; for it shews there has been constant good house-keeping: and make room for the sauce-pan by wriggling it on the coals, &c.

In the same manner, if you are allowed a large silver spoon for the kitchen, let half the bowl of it be worn out with continual scraping and stirring; and often say merrily, this spoon owes my master no service.


When you send up a mess of broth, water-gruel, or the like, to your master in a morning, do not forget, with your thumb and two fingers, to put salt on the side of the plate; for if you make use of a spoon, or the end of a knife, there may be danger that the salt would fall, and that would be a sign of ill luck. Only remember to lick your thumb and fingers clean, before you offer to touch the salt.

In this satire, much useful instruction is conveyed, and many faults exposed which could not be so well noticed in any other form. A valuable servant will, of course, not lay herself open to the Dean’s irony.

Above all things, a cook should avoid all cruelty, and no custom or usage should be an excuse for any practices, by which living and sensitive creatures are to be put to wanton and unnecessary torture.

N.B. In the previous article it has not been attempted to give a detailed system of cookery, which alone would have filled a volume; but the object has been so to condense as to give the substance of the art in a few general rules, applicable to all cases, and therefore more useful than detailed instructions, for, applied with good sense, they cannot fail to make a complete cook.



Cleanliness must be considered as the first and leading principle of the kitchen-maid, as well as of the head cook and all other persons in any way employed in the business of the kitchen.

This servant has, in many families, the hardest place in the house. It is her business, under the superintendance of the cook, to take nearly the whole management of roasting, boiling, and otherwise dressing all plain joints and dishes, and all the fish and vegetables.—She is also, if there be no scullion, to keep the kitchen, larder, scullery, all the kitchen utensils, and every thing belonging to it perfectly clean,—in the best possible condition, and always fit for use. On the due performance of this important part of her business mainly depends the credit and character, not of herself only, but of the cook also; it therefore behoves the cook to see it properly done.

The kitchen-maid must always rise betimes, light the kitchen fire, and set on water to be heated for all the purposes of the family, the first thing she does.—She next scours the dressers and shelves, and the kitchen tables, with soap and sand, and hot water; and cleans up the kitchen: she then clears out and cleans the housekeeper’s room, the hall and passages, the front door, and area steps, the larder, and the butler’s pantry; in doing which, the scullion (if there be one kept) takes the[234] dirtiest and most laborious part. She then prepares the breakfasts in the housekeeper’s room, and the servants’-hall. These things, if she be active, she will have accomplished before the cook begins to require her attention and attendance in the larder, in the furtherance of the culinary preparations; to which, however, she must have an eye, even from her earliest rising, particularly to the soups and other things, that require a long time to prepare.

After breakfast, if not before, the cook will require her assistance in the larder, and afterwards for the remainder of the day she will be occupied in the kitchen, under the direction of the cook; first, in preparing for the servants’ dinner, the dinner in the nursery, or elsewhere, and the lunch in the parlour; next in helping to get ready the family dinner; then in washing up and clearing away every thing, and cleaning up the kitchen; and lastly, in setting out and preparing the supper, either hot or cold, for the servants.

As the kitchen-maid generally fills her situation with the view of becoming a cook, at a future day, it behoves her to read with attention the foregoing Directions to the Cook, which contain the rudiments of the art, and which, if she attentively study, and practically apply, will enable her to attain such a proficiency in her business, as will render her a valuable acquisition to her future employers. [Wages from 12 to 14 guineas per year.]

Having given a full and adequate sketch of the theory and leading principles of the culinary art, and exemplified them in the practical duties of the cook and kitchen-maid, we[235] shall conclude the subject with a brief outline of the duties of their humble and laborious assistant,


It is the business of this servant to light the fires in the kitchen range, and under the copper or boilers, and stew-holes—to wash up all the plates and dishes—scour and clean all the sauce-pans, stew-pans, kettles, pots, and all other kitchen utensils; and to take care that all the latter are always kept clean, dry, and fit for use. She is to assist the kitchen-maid in picking, trimming, washing and boiling the vegetables, cleaning the kitchen and offices, the servants’-hall, housekeeper’s room, and steward’s room; and to clean the steps of the front door and the area. She makes the beds for the stable men—and generally fetches, carries, and clears away for the cook and kitchen-maid, and otherwise assists in all the laborious parts of the kitchen business, [Wages from 8 to 12 guineas a year.]


Mix a little of the finest whiting, free from sand, with the smallest drop of sweet oil; rub the outside well and wipe it clean, with clean, dry soft linen rags.—Do the same to the inside, but wet with water, not oil:—always wiping these articles dry immediately after using them, and drying them by the fire, prevents their rusting, and saves much trouble in cleaning them.



The business of the lady’s-maid is extremely simple, and but little varied. She is generally to be near the person of her lady; and to be properly qualified for her situation, her education should be superior to that of the ordinary class of females, particularly in needle-work, and the useful and ornamental branches of female acquirements. To be peculiarly neat and clean in her person and dress, is better than to be tawdry or attractive, as intrinsic merit is a much greater recommendation than extrinsic appearance. In her temper she should be cheerful and submissive, studying her lady’s disposition, and conforming to it with alacrity. A soft and courteous demeanour will best entitle her to esteem and respect. In fine, her character should be remarkable for industry and moderation,—her manners and deportment, for modesty and humility—and her dress, for neatness, simplicity, and frugality.

It will be her business to dress, re-dress, and undress her lady; and, in this, she should learn to be perfectly au fait and expeditious, ever studying, so far as it depends on herself, to manifest good taste, by suiting the ornaments and decoration of her dress to the complexion, habits, age, and general appearance of her person. Thus will she evince her own good sense, best serve her lady, and gratify all those who are most interested in[237] her welfare and happiness. She should always be punctual in her attendance, and assiduous in her attention. Her’s will be the care of her lady’s wardrobe, and she should make that her particular care; appropriating to each article of dress its proper place, where it always may be found when wanted. It will be her business carefully to examine every part of her dress, when taken off, and if they have sustained an injury, or acquired any spots or stains, immediately to clean and repair them;[17] then fold them up neatly, and put them away.

Her first business, in the morning, will be to see that the house-maid has made the fire, and properly prepared her lady’s dressing-room:—she then calls her mistress, informs her of the hour, and having laid out all her clothes, and carried her hot water, to wash, she retires to her breakfast with the house-keeper and other principal servants. When her lady’s bell rings, she attends her in her dressing-room,—combs her hair for the morning, and waits on her till dressed; after which, she folds and puts away her night-clothes, cleans her combs and brushes, and adjusts her toilet-table:—she then retires to her work-room, to be ready if wanted, and employs herself in making and altering dresses, millinery, &c. About one o’clock the family generally take their lunch, and the servants their dinner.—After this, she is again summoned to attend her lady’s toilet whilst dressing to go abroad. When gone, she again adjusts her clothes, and every thing in the[238] room, and lays out and prepares the several articles that may be required for her dinner, or evening dress, and afterwards employs herself at needle-work in her own room, or in her other avocations, till her mistress returns to dress for dinner, perhaps about five, when she attends her for that purpose; and having done this, it may happen that no further attendance on her mistress’ person will be required till she retires to bed: meanwhile she employs herself at needle-work, as in the morning[18]—or else in the various occupations of getting up the fine linen, gauzes, muslins, cambrics, laces, &c. washing silk stockings, taking the spots or stains out of silks, &c. &c. for doing which the best receipts are annexed.

It is her business to see that the house-maid, or chamber-maid, empties the slops, keeps up the fires, both in this and the bed-room, (if wanted) and keeps the rooms in perfect order.—Previous to her mistress’ retiring for the night, she will have looked out her night-clothes, and aired them well; and she will, not only now, but at all times when she goes to dress, carry up hot water, for washing, &c. and when she is gone to bed, she will carefully examine all her clothes, and do all that is necessary to be done to them, before she folds them away. If her lady be elderly, infirm, or unwell, she will sometimes be required to bring her work, and sit with her, to administer her medicines, and sometimes to read to her. To qualify herself for this latter purpose, and to acquit herself with propriety, she will,[239] at her leisure, practise reading aloud, from the best authors; as it is important to acquire a proper style and manner of reading, in all the varieties of poetry or prose, ode or epistle, comedy, or sermon; avoiding, alike, the dull monotony of the school girl, and the formal affectation of the pedant; but following nature as her guide, in all that appertains to emphasis, modulation, and delivery.

If acquainted with the superior branches of needle-work, she might afford her lady much gratification, in presenting her, occasionally, with such trifles as will be acceptable, and suitable ornaments for her person.—This will evince her disposition to be grateful and to oblige; and this, combined with a feminine sweetness of temper, and suavity of manners, cannot fail to be her sure recommendation to the esteem of her superiors and others, through all the various circumstances of life.—Wages, from 18 to 25 guineas per annum, with tea and washing.

As the duties of the lady’s-maid include the personal ornament, dress, and decoration of her mistress, we have availed ourselves of a work recently published, under the title of “The Art of Beauty,” and in the subsequent pages have introduced some important receipts and observations from that work; together with various approved receipts on other points of the lady’s-maid’s duty.


Take one ounce of bitter almonds,
one ounce of barley flour,
a sufficient quantity of honey.

Beat the whole into a smooth paste, spread it thinly on the skin at night, and wash it off in the morning.

The skin being thus prepared for the chemical remedies,[240] you may select any of the following, or try them in succession.


Take one drachm of muriatic acid,
half a pint of rain water,
half a tea spoonful of spirit of lavender.

Mix, and apply it two or three times a day to the freckles, with a bit of linen, or a camel-hair pencil.


Take one tea-spoonful of liquor of potass,
two ounces and a half of pure water,
a few drops of eau de Cologne.

Mix, and apply as before.


Take a tea-cupful of soured milk, cold,
scrape into it a quantity of horse-radish.

Let this stand from six to twelve hours, and strain, when it may be used to wash the parts affected, twice or thrice a day.


Take two drachms of borax,
one drachm of Roman alum,
one drachm of camphor,
half an ounce of sugar candy,
a pound of ox-gall.

Mix, and stir well for ten minutes, or so, and repeat this stirring three or four times a day for a fortnight, till it appears clear and transparent. Strain through blotting paper, and bottle up for use. Wash the face with it every time you go into the sunshine.


Dip a bunch of green grapes in
a basin of water, and then sprinkle it with
alum and salt, powdered and mixed.

Wrap it in paper, and bake it under hot ashes. Then express the juice, and wash the face with it, and it will remove sunburn, tan, and freckles.


Put two spoonsful of sweet cream into
half a pint of new milk, squeeze into it
the juice of a lemon, add
half a glass of good brandy, and
a little alum, and loaf sugar.

Boil the whole, skim it well, and when cool, put it aside for use.



This sort is very common and very annoying to females, from the age of fourteen and upwards, as they give the skin a dirty greasy appearance, which no washing will remove. The vulgar opinion that such pimples are caused by worms or grubs, is quite erroneous. The best means of removing the worm pimple, is by squeezing out all the thickened matter of each; for, unless you do this, it is impossible to get rid of them, as no wash nor other application will remove them, nor will they ever disappear of their own accord. Several things may be useful in preventing their return. Of these, the Roman balsam, is a safe and excellent application, and daily rubbing the parts very gently with a soft glove, or with the warm hand.


In this species, the pimples appear singly, and are not very numerous, and the intermediate skin is unaffected. They are most liable to appear upon the cheeks, nose, and forehead, though they sometimes spread over the shoulders and upper part of the breast. Gowland’s Lotion, Kalydor, Cold Cream, and all such nostrums, ought to be used with great caution, but prefer the three following.


Break one ounce of sulphur, and pour over it
one quart of boiling water.

Allow it to infuse for twelve or fourteen hours, and apply it to the face twice or thrice a day, for a few weeks. It is excellent for removing the roughness of the skin which usually succeeds pimples.


Take half a drachm of liquor of potass,
three ounces of spirit of wine.

Apply to the pimples with a camel’s-hair pencil. If this be too strong, add one half pure water to it.


Take six drachms of mercury,
six grains of flour of sulphur,
two ounces of hog’s lard.

Mix them carefully in a mortar.


The pimples, even when they do not suppurate, but especially while they continue highly red, are always sore and tender to the touch; so that washing, the friction of the clothes, &c. are somewhat painful. In its most severe form, this eruption nearly covers the face, breast, shoulders, and[242] top of the back, but does not extend lower than an ordinary tippet in dress.

Mr. Plumbe recommends the pimples to be pricked with a needle or a lancet, in order to irritate them, and spur them on to suppuration. When this has been accomplished, the matter is to be squeezed out, and if any blueness or hardness remain, sponge the part slightly, three or four times a day, with the following lotion.

Dissolve two grains and a half of oxymuriate of mercury in
four ounces of spirit of wine.

Keep it in a close-stopped phial for use.


A careful examination of the parts, in the earlier stages of the disease, will, in most cases, lead to the detection of small and deep-seated collections of matter, which, upon being let out with a needle, or the point of a lancet, will cause the swelling and redness of the skin to disappear; and, if the fomentations of warm water, and frictions with mild soap and a soft brush be persevered in, along with plain diet, and abstinence from high-seasoned dishes, pickles, cayenne, mustard, and strong liquors, a cure may, in time, be effected.


Take two ounces of the juice of onions, the same quantity of the white lily, the same of Narbonne honey, and an ounce of white wax; put the whole into a new earthen pipkin till the wax is melted; take the pipkin off the fire, and, in order to mix the whole well together, keep stirring it with a wooden spatula till it grows quite cold. You will then have an excellent ointment for removing wrinkles. It must be applied at night, on going to bed, and not wiped off till the morning.


Take the second water of barley, and strain it through a piece of fine linen; add a few drops of balm of Mecca; shake the bottle for a considerable time, till the balm is entirely incorporated with the water, when it will assume a somewhat turbid and whitish appearance.

This is an excellent wash for beautifying the face, and preserving the freshness of youth. If used only once a day, it takes away wrinkles, and gives surprising brilliancy to the skin. Before it is applied, the face ought to be washed with rain-water.


The temporary removal of disagreeable perspiration in the hands or the feet, may sometimes be useful. The hands may be dipped in cold water, and if rose-water is at hand, it will be still better. Washing the hands with the infusion,[243] or the tincture of galls, or oak bark, into which a little eau de Cologne, or any other perfume, may be put, is an excellent application of the same kind in bad cases. With respect to the feet, dusting them with very fine powder of galls, or of alum, or, what is, perhaps, still better, soaking the stockings with any perfumed soap till they are quite saturated, and then allowing them to dry thoroughly before putting them on, may be safely and effectually tried.


Females of fair complexion ought to wear the purest white; they should choose light and brilliant colours, such as rose, azure, light yellow, &c. These colours heighten the lustre of their complexion, which if accompanied with darker colours, would frequently have the appearance of alabaster, without life and without expression.

On the contrary, women of a dark complexion, who dress in such colours as we too frequently see them do, cause their skin to appear black, dull, and tanned. They ought, therefore, to avoid wearing linen or laces of too brilliant a white; they ought to avoid white robes, and rose-colour, or light-blue ribbons, which form too disagreeable a contrast with their complexions.

Fair women cannot be too careful to correct, by light colours, the paleness of their complexions; and dark women, by stronger colours, the somewhat yellow tint of their complexion.

Crimson is extremely handsome at night, when it may be substituted for rose-colour, which loses its charms by candle-light; but this crimson, seen by day, spoils the most beautiful complexion; no colour whatever strips it so completely of all its attractions. Pale yellow, on the contrary, is often very handsome by day, and is perfectly suited to people who have a fine complexion; but at night it appears dirty, and tarnishes the lustre of the complexion, to which it is designed to add brilliancy.

Green is the only colour which should be worn as a summer veil.


The vegetable substances which furnish rouge, are red sandal-wood, root of orchanet, cochineal, Brazil wood, and especially the bastard saffron, which yields a very beautiful colour, when it is mixed with a sufficient quantity of talc. Some perfumers compose vegetable rouge, for which they take vinegar as the excipient. These reds are liable to injure the beauty of the skin; it is more advisable to mix them with oily or unctuous matter, and to form salves. For this purpose, you may employ balm of Mecca, butter of cacao, spermaceti, oil of bhen, &c.


The red powders, above described, are best put on by a fine camel-hair pencil. The colours in the dishes, wools, and green papers, are commonly laid on by the tip of the little finger, previously wetted.

The Spanish wool, the papers, and the English-made Portuguese dishes, are all made from a moss-like drug, from Turkey, called safflower, well known to scarlet dyers, &c.


White paints are extracted from minerals, more or less pernicious, but always corrosive. They affect the eyes, which swell and inflame, and are rendered painful and watery. They change the texture of the skin, on which they produce pimples, and cause rheums; attack the teeth, make them ache, destroy the enamel, and loosen them.


Take a piece of the talc white, known by the name of Briançon chalk; choose it of a pearl grey colour, and rasp it gently with a piece of dog’s skin; after this, sift it through a sieve of very fine silk, and put this powder into a pint of good distilled vinegar, in which leave it for a fortnight, taking care to shake the bottle or pot several times each day, except the last, on which it must not be disturbed; pour off the vinegar, so as to leave the chalk behind in the bottle, into which pour very clean water that has been filtered; throw the whole into a clean pan, and stir the water well with a wooden spatula; let the powder settle again to the bottom; pour the water gently off, and wash the powder six or seven times, taking care always to make use of filtered water. When the powder is as soft and as white as you would wish, dry it in a place where it is not exposed to the dust; sift it through a silken sieve, which will make it still finer. It may be either left in powder, or wetted and formed into cakes, like those sold by the perfumers. One pint of vinegar is sufficient to dissolve a pound of talc.

This white may be used in the same manner as carmine, dipping your finger, or a piece of paper, or what is preferable to either, a hare’s foot, prepared for the purpose in ointment, and putting upon it about a grain of this white, which will not be removed, even by perspiration. If the ointment with which it is applied is properly made, this white does no injury to the face. The same ingredients may be used for making rouge.


Make a hole in a lemon, fill it up with sugar candy, and close it nicely with gold leaf, applied over the rind that was cut out; then roast the lemon in hot ashes. When desirous[245] of using the juice, squeeze out a little through the hole already made, and wash the face with a napkin wetted therewith. This juice is said to cleanse the skin, and brighten the complexion marvellously.


Take two tea-spoonsful of clarified honey,
and a few drops of lavender-water, or any other
agreeable perfume.

Mix, and anoint the parts frequently. If the hands are affected, anoint them all over on going to bed, wearing your gloves all night, and wash with tepid milk and water in the morning. A night or two will effect a cure.

Another excellent preparation is,


Take two ounces of fine honey,
one ounce of purified wax,
half an ounce of silver litharge,
the same quantity of myrrh.

Mix over a slow fire, and add milk of roses, Eau de Cologne, or any other perfume you may prefer, and keep for use.


Procure two or three dozen of the fresh roots of marsh-mallows, and dry them carefully in the shade, so that they may not shrivel. They must be chosen about as thick as a cane, and cut to five or six inches long, then with a mallet bruise the ends of them very gently, for about half an inch down, in order to form a brush. Then take two ounces of dragon’s blood, four ounces of highly rectified spirit, and half an ounce of fresh conserve of roses, and put them in a glazed pipkin or pan, to dissolve over a gentle fire. When dissolved, put in your prepared mallow-roots, stirring them to make them take the dye equally. Continue this till no moisture remains in the vessel, when the roots will be hard, dry, and fit for use. If you take care of them, they will last you a considerable time. When you use this toothbrush, it may be dipped in the following:


Take the juice of half a lemon,
a spoonful of very rough claret or port wine,
ten grains of sulphate of quinine,
a few drops of Eau de Cologne, or oil of bergamot.

Mix, and keep in a well-stopped phial for use.



Put two drams of camphor
into an ounce of the oil of turpentine,
and let it dissolve; when it will be fit for use.

Cajeput oil is another valuable remedy for allaying the pain, when put into the hollow of the tooth. The most effectual, however, of all the remedies for destroying the sensibility of the nerve, is the putting of a red hot wire into the hollow, which will destroy the nerve, and prevent the return of the pain.


Take one dram of the powdered leaves of pyrethrum,
and a sufficient quantity of gum arabic mucilage.

Make a mass, divide it into twelve portions, and take one into the mouth, and let it lie till dissolved, as occasion requires.

If an external application is preferred, the following may be rubbed on the outside of the jaw.


Take an ounce of spirit of camphor,
three drams of liquid ammonia,
ten drops of essential oil of bergamot.

Mix them in a phial for use.

A blister placed behind the ear, or burning the lap of the ear with a cloth dipped in boiling water, will often remove the pain entirely.


Rub well the teeth and gums with a hard tooth-brush, using the flowers of sulphur as a tooth powder, every night on going to bed; and if it is done after dinner it will be best: this is an excellent preservative to the teeth, and void of any unpleasant smell.


Use as a tooth powder the Spanish snuff called Sabella, and it will clean the teeth as well as any other powder, and totally prevent the tooth-ache; and make a regular practice of washing behind the ears with cold water every morning; the remedy is infallible.


Take from five to ten drops of muriatic acid, in
an ale glassful of barley-water, and add
a little lemon juice and lemon peel to flavour.

Mix for a draught, to be taken three times a day, for a month or six weeks at least, and, if effectual, it may be continued occasionally.

Another medicine of this kind, which has often proved[247] beneficial when the stomach has been wrong, and the bowels costive, is, the


Take one dram of sulphate of magnesia,
two drams of tincture of calumba,
an ounce and a half of infusion of roses.

Make a draught, to be taken every morning or every other morning, an hour before breakfast, for at least a month.


Take an ounce of Palma Christi oil,
a sufficient quantity of oil of bergamot or lavender to scent it.

Apply it morning and evening for three months, or as long as it may be necessary, to the parts where you want the hair to grow thick and luxuriant.


Take three quarts of common oil,
half a pint of spirit of wine,
three ounces of cinnamon powder,
two ounces of bergamot.

Put it in a large pipkin, and give it a good heat. When it is off the fire, add three or four pieces of alkanet root, and keep it closely covered for several hours. Filter it through a funnel lined with blotting paper. The commonest oil is used; and, when rancid, it is remedied by putting in two or three slices of an onion.


Boil half a pound of green southern wood, in
a pint and a half of sweet oil, and
half a pint of port wine.

When sufficiently boiled, remove it from the fire, and strain the liquor through a linen bag. Repeat this operation three times, with fresh southern wood; and the last time add to the strained materials, two ounces of bear’s grease. It is excellent for promoting the growth of the hair, and preventing baldness.


Take two handsful of the root of hemp,
same quantity of the roots of a maiden vine,
same quantity of the cores of soft cabbages.

Dry and burn them, and make a lye of the ashes. Before you wash the hair with this lye, it should be well rubbed with honey, and this method persisted in for three days at least.



Take two ounces of gum ammoniac,
two ounces of yellow wax,
six drams of verdigris.

Melt them together, and spread the composition on a bit of soft leather, or a piece of linen. Cut away as much of the corn as you can with a knife, before you apply the plaster, which must be renewed in a fortnight, if the corn is not by that time gone.

without damage to their texture or colour.

Grate raw potatoes to a fine pulp in clean water, and pass the liquid matter through a coarse sieve, into another vessel of water; let the mixture stand till the fine white particles of the potatoes are precipitated, then pour the mucilaginous liquor from the fecula, and preserve the liquor for use. The article to be cleaned should then be laid on a linen cloth, on a table, and having provided a clean sponge, dip it into the potatoe liquor, and apply it to the article to be cleaned, till the dirt is perfectly separated; then wash it in clean water several times. Two middle-sized potatoes will be enough for a pint of water. The coarse pulp, which does not pass through the sieve, is of great use in cleaning worsted curtains, tapestry, carpets, and other coarse goods. The mucilaginous liquor will clean all sorts of silk, cotton, or woollen goods, without hurting or spoiling the colour; it may be also used in cleaning oil paintings, or furniture that is soiled. Dirtied painted wainscots may be cleaned by wetting a sponge in the liquor, then dipping it in a little clean sand, and afterwards rubbing the wainscot with it.


When laying by muffs and tippets for the summer, if a tallow candle be placed on or near them, all danger of moths, &c. will be obviated.


Put cedar shavings, or clippings of Russia leather, among the drawers and shelves where the clothes are kept. Pieces of camphor, or tallow candle, wrapt up in paper, will preserve furs and woollens from moths; and lavender, roses, and flowers and perfumes of every kind, are useful as well as agreeable in keeping away moths and worms.


Take half an ounce of the best black sealing-wax, bruise it, and put it to two ounces of spirit of turpentine; melt them very gently, by placing the bottle that holds them in[249] boiling water, or near a fire. When all the wax is melted, lay it on warm with a fine hair brush near the fire or in the sun. It will not only give a beautiful gloss and stiffness to the hats, but make them resist wet.


Dip a clean piece of flannel into spirits of turpentine, and rub the spots until they disappear, which will soon be the case. Do not be sparing of the turpentine, as it will all evaporate, and leave no mark or stain behind.


Pound French chalk fine, mix with lavender-water to the thickness of mustard. Put it on the stain; rub it soft with the finger or palm of the hand. Put a sheet of blotting and brown paper on the top, and smooth it with an iron milk-warm.


Scrape French chalk, put it on the grease spot, and hold it near the fire, or over a warm iron, or water-plate, filled with boiling water. The grease will melt, and the French chalk absorb it; brush or rub it off. Repeat if necessary.


Mix together in a phial, 2 oz. of essence of lemon, 1 oz. of oil of turpentine.

Grease and other spots in silks, are to be rubbed gently with a linen rag dipped in the above composition.


Dip a pen in spirit of turpentine, and transfer it to the paint spot, in sufficient quantity to discharge the oil and gluten. Let it stand some hours, then rub it.

For large or numerous spots, apply the spirit of turpentine with a sponge, if possible, before it is become dry.


Take two pounds of rice, boil it in two gallons of water till soft; then pour the whole into a tub; let it stand till about the warmth in general used for coloured linens; then put the chintz in, and use the rice instead of soap, wash it in this, till the dirt appears to be out, then boil the same quantity as above, but strain the rice from the water, and wash it in warm clear water. Wash in this till quite clean; afterwards rinse it in the water which the rice has been boiled in, and this will answer the end of starch, and no dew will affect it. If a gown, it must be taken to pieces, and when dried, be careful to hang it as smooth as possible;—after it is dry, rub it with a smooth stone, but use no iron.



Take a gallon of furze blossoms and burn them to ashes, then boil them in six quarts of soft water; this, when fine, use in washing with the suds, as occasion requires, and the linen, &c. will not only be exceedingly white, but it is done with half the soap, and little trouble.


Lay these smooth and even upon a board, spread a little soap over the dirty places; then make a lather with Castille soap, and with a common brush, dip it in, pass it over the long way, and repeat it in this manner, till one side is sufficiently scoured; use the other in the same manner; then put it into hot water, and there let it lie, till you have prepared some cold water, wherein a small quantity of gum arabic has been dissolved. Now rinse them well, take them out and fold them, pressing out the water with the hands on the board, and keeping them under the hands till they are dry; at which time, have brimstone ready to dry them over, till they are ready for smoothing, which must be done on the right side, with a moderate hot iron.


Let the hems of the tiffanies be at first only a little soaped, then having a lather of soap, put them into it hot, and wash them very gently for fear they should be crumpled; and when they are clean, rinse them in warm water, in which a little gum arabic has been dissolved, keeping them from the air as much as possible; then add a lump of starch, wet the tiffanies with a soft linen rag, and fold them up in a clean cloth, pressing them till they are near dry; after which put them near the fire, and finish the drying over brimstone; then shape them properly by gently ironing them.


Lawns may be done in the same manner as the former, only observe to iron them on the wrong side, and use gum arabic water instead of starch, and, according to what has been directed for sarcenets, any coloured silks may be starched, abating or augmenting the gum water, as may be thought fit, according to the stiffness intended.


Fix the lace in a prepared tent, draw it straight, make a warm lather of Castille soap, and, with a fine brush dipped in, rub over the point gently; and when it is clean on one side, do the same to the other; then throw some clean water on it, in which a little alum has been dissolved, to take off the suds, and having some thin starch, go over with the same on the wrong side, and iron it on the same side when dry, then open it with a bodkin, and set it in order.


To clean point lace, if not very dirty, without washing; fix it in a tent as the former, and go over with fine bread, the crust being pared off, and when it is done, dust out the crumbs, &c.


Put the veil in a solution of white soap, and let it simmer a quarter of an hour. Squeeze it in some warm water and soap, till quite clean. Rinse it from soap, and then in clean cold water, in which is a drop of liquid blue. Then pour boiling water upon a tea-spoonful of starch, run the veil through this, and clear it well, by clapping it. Afterwards pin it out, keeping the edges straight and even.


Pass them through a warm liquor of bullock’s gall and water; rinse in cold water; then take a small piece of glue, pour boiling water on it, and pass the veil through it; clap it, and frame it to dry.


Mix sifted stale bread crumbs with powder-blue, and rub it thoroughly all over, then shake it well, and dust it with clean soft cloths. Afterwards, where there are any gold or silver flowers, take a piece of crimson in grain velvet, rub the flowers with it, which will restore them to their original lustre.

Another Method.

Pass them through a solution of fine hard soap, at a hand heat, drawing them through the hand. Rinse in lukewarm water, dry and finish by pinning out. Brush the flossy or bright side with a clean clothes brush, the way of the nap. Finish them by dipping a sponge into a size, made by boiling isinglass in water, and rub the wrong side. Rinse out a second time, and brush and dry near a fire, or in a warm room.

Silks may be treated in the same way, but not brushed. If the silks are for dyeing, instead of passing them through a solution of soap and water, they must be boiled off; but if the silks are very stout, the water must only be of heat sufficient to extract the dirt, and when rinsed in warm water they are in a state for the dye.

Another Method.

Strew French chalk over them, and brush it off with a hard brush once or twice.


Put some soft soap into boiling water, and beat it till dissolved in a strong lather. At a hand heat put in the article. If strong, it may be rubbed as in washing; rinse it quickly in warm water, and add oil of vitriol, sufficient to give another water a sourish taste, if for bright yellows, crimsons,[252] maroons, and scarlets; but for oranges, fawns, browns, or their shades, use no acid. For bright scarlet use a solution of tin. Gently squeeze, and then roll it in a coarse sheet, and wring it. Hang it in a warm room to dry, and finish it by calendering or mangling.

For pinks, rose colours, and thin shades, &c., instead of oil of vitriol, or solution of tin, prefer lemon juice, or white tartar, or vinegar.

For blues, purples, and their shades, add a small quantity of American pearl-ash; it will restore the colours. Wash the articles like a linen garment, but instead of wringing, gently squeeze and sheet them, and when dry, finish them with fine gum water, or dissolved isinglass, to which add some pearl-ash, rubbed on the wrong side, then pin them out.

Blues of all shades are dyed with archil, and afterwards dipped in a vat; twice cleaning with pearl-ash, restores the colour. For olive greens, a small quantity of verdigris dissolved in water, or a solution of copper, mixed with the water, will revive the colour again.


To bullock’s gall, add boiling water sufficient to make it warm, and with a clean sponge, rub the silk well on both sides, squeeze it well out, and proceed again in like manner. Rinse it in spring water, and change the water till perfectly clean, dry it in the air, and pin it out on a table; but first dip the sponge in glue water, and rub it on the wrong side; then dry it before a fire.


If it requires to be red dyed, boil logwood; and in half an hour, put in the silk, and let it simmer half an hour. Take it out, and dissolve a little blue vitriol and green copperas, cool the copper, let it simmer half an hour, then dry it over a stick in the air. If not red dyed, pin it out, and rinse it in spring water, in which half a tea-spoonful of oil of vitriol has been put. Work it about five minutes, rinse it in cold for ten minutes, rinsing in cold water. For a blue cast, put water, and finish it by pinning and rubbing it with gum water.


Wash with soap and water; and simmer them in the same; put one drop of liquid blue, into a pan of cold spring water, run the stockings through this a minute or two, and dry them. For a pink cast, put one or two drops of saturated pink dye into cold water, and rinse them through this. For a flesh-colour, add a little rose-pink in a thin soap liquor, rub them with clean flannel, and calender or mangle them.



Mix well with a gallon of clean water, a pound of quick lime; and, when the lime is precipitated in fine powder, pour off the clear lime-water for use, at the time it is wanted. Put the feathers to be cleaned in a tub, and add to them a sufficient quantity of the clear lime-water, so as to cover them about three inches. The feathers, when thoroughly moistened, will sink down, and should remain in the lime-water for three or four days; after which, the foul liquor should be separated from them by laying them on a sieve. Afterwards, well wash them in clean water, and dry them on nets, about the same fineness as cabbage-nets. Shake them from time to time, on the nets; as they dry, they will fall through the mashes, when collect them for use. The admission of air will be serviceable in the drying, and the whole process may be completed in about three weeks. The feathers, thus prepared, want nothing further than beating, to be used either for beds, bolsters, pillows, &c.


Put a chafing-dish with some lighted charcoal into a close room, or large box; then strew an ounce or two of powdered brimstone on the hot coals. Hang the articles in the room or box, make the door fast, and let them hang some hours. Fine coloured woollens are thus sulphured before dyed, and straw bonnets are thus bleached.


In large families, where there are young ladies who require attendance, a maid is appointed to wait on all, or perhaps each lady has a maid. The duties of these are in all respects the same as the ladies’-maid; we therefore refer them to the directions given to her, for the necessary instructions. As this situation is considered merely initiatory to a better, and is occupied, generally, by an upper house-maid, or a young woman on her outset in life, the salary is somewhat less than that of a well qualified servant; and the perquisites, including that of her mistress’ left-off clothes, are also reckoned at the same rate.



As the hopes of families, and the comfort and happiness of parents are confided to the charge of females who superintend nurseries of children, no duties are more important, and none require more incessant and unremitting care and anxiety. Every symptom of approaching disease should be watched and reported to the parents or medical attendant of the family, and in this respect, nothing should be concealed or deferred till remedies are too late. In the daily washings, the state of the skin should be examined and noticed, as well as the tongue and the appetite, and spirits; and above all things, all chances of accident or juvenile mischief should be guarded against and removed. Windows should be fenced with bars, or the lower sashes nailed down; knives and sharp instruments should be kept out of reach; scalding water and dangerous ingredients secured from access; ponds and rivers fenced in; ladders removed; and fire-places guarded by well-fastened wire fenders.

This important Servant ought to be of a lively and cheerful disposition, perfectly good tempered, and clean and neat in her habits and person. She ought also to have been accustomed to the care and management of young children, as all the junior branches of the family are intrusted to her care and superintendence, confiding in her skill, experience, and attention. She usually takes the sole[255] charge of the infant from its birth, when the parent suckles it: to assist her in the management of this and the other children in the nursery, she has under nurses assigned her, who are entirely under her controul.

The youngest nurse, or nursery-maid, usually rises about 6 o’clock to light the fire, and do the household work of the nursery before the children are up, perhaps about seven o’clock, at which time the head nurse is dressed, and ready to bathe and wash them all over with a sponge and warm water; after which they are rubbed quite dry and dressed. This process, when there are several children, usually occupies the nurses an hour, or an hour and a half, when their breakfast is got ready, and the children are placed at their meal in the most peaceable and orderly manner. After breakfast, if the weather be favourable, the children are taken out by the assistant nurse, or nursery maid, for air and exercise, an hour or perhaps two, but not so long as to fatigue either of them. On their return, their hands and feet are washed, if damp or dirty, after which they attend to their lessons till dinner time. After dinner, if it be fine weather, the children are again taken abroad for air and exercise, and on their return again, after having their hands and feet washed, if necessary, they are in due time, about eight o’clock, dressed and put to bed. The Head Nurse finds ample employment during the whole day, in paying due attention to her infant charge, in giving directions, and in seeing that the whole business of the nursery is properly executed.

The sleeping room of the Nursery should be[256] spacious, lofty, dry, airy, and not suffered to be inhabited in the day time. No servants should sleep in the same room, nor ought any thing to be done there that may contaminate the air, in which so great a portion of infantine life is to be spent. The consequences of vitiated air in bed-rooms are often fatal. Feather-beds and bed-curtains ought to be proscribed, as tending to debility; neither ought the beds to be placed too low, as the most pernicious stratum of air is that nearest the floor.

The air of the sleeping room ought to be changed immediately on the children’s leaving the room, by opening the windows and doors; the beds ought, also, to be shaken up and left to cool; the slops cleared away; and every thing made and kept perfectly clean. In damp or bad weather, a fire must be made in the room to purify the air.

The management of infant children, has a more important influence on the health and happiness of man, than is generally imagined; as, at this period of existence, the foundation is laid either for irremediable debility, or for mental and bodily vigour. An Infant, consequently requires considerable care, and indefatigable personal attention.

Its management for the first two months, cannot be too gentle, kind, or tender. Nothing should be done at first that can give it uneasiness; therefore, next to its health and well-being, regard should be had to its disposition, and the regulation of its temper; with this view also, the most rational way is to let the infant enjoy all the liberty it possibly can, without being restrained by its clothing, or starved by system. To set a child upright[257] before the end of the first month is hurtful: afterwards the nurse may begin to set it up and dance it by degrees. It must be kept as dry as possible.

The clothing should be very light, and not too long, so that the legs may be got at with ease, in order to have them often rubbed in the day, with a warm hand, or flannel, and particularly the inside of them. Rubbing the child all over takes off scurf, and promotes the circulation of the blood.

A nurse ought to keep a child as little in her arms as possible, lest the legs should be cramped, and the toes turned inwards. Let her always keep the child’s legs loose. The oftener the posture is changed, the better.

For the first fortnight or three weeks it should be always laid on a bed, except when taken up to supply its wants, which will give it habits of cleanliness at a very early age.

It may be very comfortably laid on a cushion, where it can be in no danger of falling, nor of any thing falling on it. Some one should sit by it, and divert and cheer it, if necessary, and take it up instantly, when it expresses the least dissatisfaction. A nurse should make it a strict rule, that the child should be in her own view, in whatever she may be employed.

By slow degrees, the infant may be accustomed to exercise, both within doors and in the open air: but it never should be moved about immediately after sucking or feeding, as that will be apt to sicken it. Exercise should be given it by carrying it about, and gently dandling it in the arms; tossing an[258] infant about, and exercising it in the open air, in fine weather, is of the greatest service to it, in preventing distortion. In cities, children ought not to be kept in hot rooms, but to have as much air as possible; want of exercise being the cause of rickets, large heads, weak joints, a contracted breast, and diseased lungs, besides a numerous train of evils.

Endeavour to harden the body, but without resorting to violent means. A child is constitutionally weak and irritable to a high degree; hence we should endeavour to diminish this irritability, in order to procure it the greatest happiness of life, a firm body, whence may result a sound mind.

Such management is highly advantageous, as it will enable children to support every species of fatigue and hardship, when they become adults.

The plan of hardening children may, however, be carried to excess. An extravagant attempt to strengthen youth, deprives them of all their natural susceptibility of excitement, renders them insensible, and produces many bad effects, while they only acquire temporary energy, which decreases as they advance in years, and is attended with an early loss of their primitive vigour.

All attempts to render children hardy must, therefore, be made by gradual advances: for nature admits of no sudden transition. When children have once been accustomed to a hardy system of education, such a plan must be strictly adhered to.

The child’s skin is to be kept perfectly clean by washing its limbs morning and evening,[259] and likewise its neck and ears; beginning with warm water, till, by degrees, it will not only bear, but like to be washed with cold.

After it is a month old, if it has no cough, fever, nor eruption, the bath should be colder and colder (if the season be mild) and by degrees it may be used as it comes from the spring. After carefully drying the whole body, head, and limbs, a second dry soft cloth, somewhat warmed, should be gently used, to take all the damp from the wrinkles or soft parts of the body. Then rub the limbs; but when the body is rubbed, take special care not to press upon the stomach or belly. On these parts, the hand should move in a circle, because the bowels lie in that direction. If the skin be chafed, hair-powder is to be used. The utmost tenderness is necessary in drying the head; and a small, soft, brush, lightly applied, is safer than a comb.

Clean cloths, every morning and evening, will tend greatly to a child’s health and comfort.

The dress of the child by day should be light and loose, and for the night, it may be a shirt, a blanket to tie on, and a thin gown to tie over the blanket.

The unnecessary haste in which some nurses are accustomed to dress children, cannot be too strongly reprehended. In addition to this hurried dressing, its clothes are often injuriously tight. Pins should never be used in an infant’s clothes; and every string should be so loosely tied, that two fingers may be introduced under it. Bandages round the head should be strictly forbidden, for to this error[260] many instances of idiotism, fits, and deformity, may be traced.

Never allow the infant to be held opposite to open doors and windows. The air is beneficial, when it is in motion, and the weather is moderate, but it should always have some covering besides that which it wears in the house, when taken out; and it must not be laid on the cold ground, nor allowed to step on it, when it begins to use its feet. The intense heat of a summer day should likewise be avoided; excessive heat or cold being equally injurious.

The wisest maxim in treating infants with respect to food and drink, is to follow the simple dictates of nature; yet some nurses give them wine, spirits, spices, sugar, &c. which the stomach of a grown person would reject. At all times the utmost care will be necessary to avoid hurting its gums when feeding it. Its food should be gradually cooled in a saucer, and it should be given to it in a small spoon, only half filled, which will save its clothes from being soiled, and keep its bosom dry. Let it swallow one small portion, before another is offered, and raise its head, that it may pass the gullet easily. Never entice or press it to take more, if it once refuses, for it knows best when it has had enough.

As long as it has its mother’s milk, no other sustenance will be wanting, if she be a good nurse. If there should be the least doubt of her having milk enough, the child may have cow’s milk, mixed with two-thirds soft boiled water, presented to its lips very[261] frequently; but it never should be urged to accept it.

Rising early in the morning is good for all children, provided they awake of themselves, which they generally do; but they ought never to be waked out of their sleep. As soon as possible, however, they should be brought to regular sleep in the day.

Children, till they are two or three years’ old, must never be suffered to walk so long at a time as to be weary.

In laying a child to sleep, it should be placed on the right side oftener than on the left. Laying it on its back when it is awake, is enough of that posture, in which alone it can move its legs and arms with freedom.

Infants cannot sleep too long; and it is a favourable symptom when they enjoy calm and continued rest, of which they should by no means be deprived, as this is the greatest support granted to them by nature. Sleep promotes a more calm and uniform circulation of the blood, and it facilitates assimilation of the nutriment received. The horizontal posture, likewise, is the most favourable to the growth and bodily developement of the infant.

Sleep ought to be in proportion to the age of the infant, and this salutary refreshment should fill up the greater part of a child’s existence. After the age of six months, the periods of sleep, as well as all other animal functions, may, in some degree, be regulated; yet, even then, a child should be suffered to sleep the whole night, and several hours both in the morning and afternoon. Nurses should endeavour to accustom infants, from the time of their birth, to sleep in the night in[262] preference to the day, and for this purpose they will remove all external impressions which may disturb their rest, but especially they ought to avoid obeying every call for taking them up, and giving food at improper times.

To awaken children from their sleep with a noise, or in an impetuous manner, is certainly injudicious and hurtful; nor is it proper to carry them from a dark room immediately into a glaring light, against a dazzling wall; for the sudden impression of light debilitates the organs of vision, and causes weak eyes from early infancy.

Infants are sometimes very restless at night, which is generally owing either to their eating a heavy supper, to their tight night-clothes, or their being over-heated by too many blankets.

Wages 18l. to 25l. Perquisites at christenings.

Diseases of Children, &c.


The yellow gum is known by a yellow tinge of the skin, with languor and a tendency to sleep. It is to be relieved by giving a tea-spoonful or more of castor oil, to clear the intestines. When the disease does not give way to this treatment, three drops of antimonial wine are to be given in a tea-spoonful of water, so as to prove emetic. In about eight or ten hours, this is to be followed by ½ a grain of calomel, or four grains of rhubarb.


When the food is vomited in an unaltered state, it is generally a sign of over feeding: but when the vomiting is bilious, or when the food is partly digested, the diet ought to be changed, and the bowels opened by one grain of calomel, given in sugar. This is to be followed by a tea-spoonful of castor oil on the following morning. If the vomiting[263] should still continue, give a gentle emetic, and the calomel powder (containing one or two grains, according to the age)

soon afterwards. If there be much irritation, apply a blister to the stomach; and, if possible, give a tea-spoonful of the saline medicine, in a state of effervescence, and containing two drops of laudanum.


These generally arise from acidity in the stomach, and may be remedied by the administration of eight grains of prepared chalk, with two grains of powdered rhubarb, given in a little syrup, or gruel. If very severe, the stomach is to be rubbed with soap liniment, or opodeldoc, to which a little laudanum has been added.


These are known by continual crying, restlessness, and drawing up of the legs. When attended by diarrhœa and green stools, they are to be relieved, in general, by the administration of a few grains of rhubarb and magnesia. If sour belchings, &c. still continue, a tea-spoonful of very weak solution of tartar emetic should be given every quarter of an hour, until the child vomits. After this, particularly if there be any purging, it may be proper to give a little rhubarb and magnesia again, and now and then a little chalk mixture.

Absorbent Mixture.

If the pains are very great, so as to make the child scream violently, two tea-spoonfuls of the following mixture, with five or six drops of laudanum, may be given directly:—

Mix together, prepared chalk, 1 scruple, tincture of caraway seeds, 3 drams, compound spirit of lavender, 1 do. and of peppermint water, 2 oz.

As soon as there is diminution of pain, a purgative should be given, particularly if the bowels happen to be in a costive state. The best will be castor oil. The above mixture may afterwards be occasionally continued, but without the laudanum.

Anodyne Plaster.

The late Dr. Clarke, of Burlington Street, frequently ordered the following plaster to be applied over the bowels of infants, in case of griping and inflammatory excitement of the intestines:—

Take of compound plaster of laudanum, 1½ oz.
diachylon plaster, 2 drams,
purified opium, 1 do.[264]
oil of peppermint, 1 do.
camphor, 1 do.

Mix for a plaster, and spread on soft leather.


This may, in general, if the stools are green, be relieved by a brisk purgative, of from one to two grains of calomel, with four or five of rhubarb, according to the age of the child.


Children are apt to be chafed between the thighs, behind the ears, and in the wrinkles of the neck, for want of proper attention to cleanliness. In such cases it will be necessary to bathe the parts twice a day, (or every time that the child’s clothes are changed,) with a little water gruel, and to apply a puff with a little hair powder immediately afterwards, so as to keep the parts dry.—When discharges take place behind the ears, they must not be dried up too suddenly, as such a circumstance might produce a divertion to the brain. In this case it will always be best to give frequent doses of castor oil, or calomel, every night, in the proportion of one grain to three grains of rhubarb.


No real danger attends these eruptions, which are generally known by the names of red-gum, nettle-rash, &c. All that is required to be done, is to keep the bowels open by such means as are prescribed in the foregoing articles; and to guard against cold, which might drive the eruption inwardly, and thus produce internal inflammations of a critical nature. If the milk or food be considered the cause, the nurse, or diet, ought to be changed: and if sickness and vomiting should prevail, it will be proper to give the absorbent mixture mentioned under the head griping and flatulency.


This disease makes its appearance by little ulcerations in the mouth, tongue, &c. of a white colour, and sometimes of a yellow appearance. They are generally owing to acidities in the stomach, &c.

In this disorder nothing avails more than an emetic at first, and then a little magnesia and rhubarb, (if there is diarrhœa,) with thin chicken-water as drink. Testaceous powders, or the absorbent mixture (see griping and flatulency,) will also be proper. If there is no looseness, it will be proper to give a grain or two of calomel, with three or four grains of rhubarb. The mouth and throat should at the same time be cleansed by gargles.


Syrup of Black Currants.

Take of the juice of black currants, strained, 1 pint,
double refined sugar, 24 oz.
Dissolve the sugar, and boil to make a syrup.

A tea-spoonful of this to be given to children in the thrush.


This happens frequently to children who cry much, or who have had a diarrhœa, or from straining on going to stool. If it proceed from costiveness, give lenitive clysters. In case the gut be swelled or inflamed, foment with warm milk, or decoction of oak bark, or wash frequently with cold water. The protruded parts are now to be replaced by the finger, and supported by a truss or bandage. The internal use of tonics will be proper.


When children are about cutting their teeth, they slaver much, are feverish, hot, and uneasy; their gums swell, and are very painful; they are sometimes loose in the bowels, and at other times costive; and occasionally convulsions come on.

Leeches are often serviceable when applied behind the ears; as are also blisters.

Scarifying the Gums.

Instead of giving narcotics to children cutting their teeth, it is strenuously recommended to have their tumid gums divided by a lancet down to the tooth; an operation at once safe and unattended with pain. If done in time, by removing the cause of the complaint, all the symptoms will disappear of themselves. Instead of giving preparations of opium, it will be found, in the majority of cases, far better to administer calomel, in minute doses, as this medicine is well known to possess peculiar efficacy in promoting absorption in these parts. The body, if costive, should be kept regularly open, and if there should be looseness of the bowels, it should by no means be discouraged. Instead of coral, or any other hard body, let the child nibble at a piece of wax candle.


Children are particularly liable to convulsions at the period of teething, small pox, measles, and other eruptive diseases; sometimes, also, from external causes, such as strait clothes, bandages, &c. When they proceed from any[266] of these, bathing the feet, or the whole body, in warm water, of 92 or 94 degrees, and administering a mild clyster, will almost immediately relieve them. To shorten the duration of the fit, cold water should be poured over the face and neck, whilst the rest of the body is in the bath.

The return of convulsions is to be prevented only by the removal of the cause of the existing irritation; but, in general, when the body is kept carefully open, there will be little reason to fear a return.


In these fits the infant appears as if asleep, the eyelids however are not quite closed, but frequently twinkle and shew the whites turned upwards. The muscles of the face are sometimes slightly distorted, the mouth having the appearance of a laugh or smile. The breath is sometimes very quick, and at others stops for a time; whilst the eyelids and lips are alternately pale and dark. The infant startles on the least noise, and sighs deeply, or breaks wind. This relieves him for a little, but he soon relapses into a doze. Whenever the above-mentioned symptoms are observed, it will be right to awaken the infant, by stirring or otherwise, and to rub its back and belly well before the fire, until wind escapes. At the same time it will be proper to give half a tea-spoonful of drink or pap, containing two drops of oil of anise or caraways. As soon after as possible, a purgative of castor oil, or a grain or two of calomel (according to the age,) with two or three grains of rhubarb, is to be given, to empty the bowels of whatever crude matter may occasion the disorder.


This disorder affects the bones of children, and causes a considerable protuberance, incurvation, or distortion of them. It may arise from various causes, but more particularly when proper care has not been taken with children: when they have been too tightly swathed in some parts, and too loose in others; keeping them too long in one and the same position; and not keeping them clean and dry. Sometimes it may proceed from a lax habit, and at others from costiveness.

It usually appears about the eighth or ninth month, and continues till the sixth or seventh year of the child’s age. The head becomes large, and the fontanelle keeps long open; the countenance is full and florid; the joints knotty and distorted, especially about the wrists; less near the ancles. The ribs protuberate, and grow crooked; the belly swells; a cough and disorder of the lungs succeed; and the child moves but weakly, and waddles in walking.


Regimen, &c.

The regimen should be light and properly seasoned; the air dry and clear. Exercise and motion should be encouraged, and bandages, as well as instruments, contrived to keep the limbs in a proper situation; but care should be taken that they be so formed as not to put the child to pain, or restrain it too much.

Cold sea-bathing is of infinite use; after which friction should be used, and the child placed between two blankets, so as to encourage perspiration. The back should be well rubbed with opodeldoc, or good old rum, every night.

A few grains of ipecacuanha or calomel may occasionally be proper, and chalybeates are also very serviceable.

A decoction of Peruvian bark is also good with red wine: and should be used with moderation in the forenoon and after dinner.


Examine the child’s back-bone frequently and closely, and on the slightest trace of any distortion wash the same with brandy every morning and night, and pay the strictest attention to the child’s keeping a straight posture; both sleeping and waking; and if it can be bathed from time to time, it will be advisable.


It is well known that these disorders, which are in many respects similar, are contagious; therefore, no comb or hair-brush used by a child affected by them is to be used by another child, either in a school or in the same family. Nor should the hat or cap of such a child be worn by any other.


Let the hair be removed carefully with a razor, dipped frequently in olive oil; and afterwards apply the following lotion by means of fine linen, and cover the whole or part of the head with it.

Take of liquor of acetated lead, 2 drams,
distilled vinegar, 6 drams,
sulphuric æther, 2 drams,
rain water, 1 pint.


This lotion should be kept occasionally applied in the night as well as in the day, and an oil-silk cap should be fitted close to the head, and worn continually.

Ointment for the same.

Take of spermaceti ointment, 1 oz.
tar ointment, 1 oz.
powdered angustura bark, 3 drams.


Rub the whole well in a marble mortar, and apply to the parts affected.

Alterative Medicines.

In six cases out of ten, this disease is aggravated by a scrofulous taint of the system; and, when this is the case, the following alterative medicine accelerates the cure.

Take of oxide of zinc,
precipitated sulphur of antimony, each 9 grains,
resin of guaiacum,
extract of bark,
extract of hemlock, each 2 scruples.

Mix, and form into 20 pills.

To Children from six to ten years of age, give one pill night and morning; under six years, half a pill night and morning, mixed in raspberry jam.

Instead of the above, one grain of calomel may be given going to rest, and repeated every night; also the use of salt water externally and internally, as an alterative, has been found very useful.

In all cases the bowels ought to be kept open, and the diet should consist of wholesome and nutritive food; avoiding fish and salt meats. Cleanliness, and an occasional use of the warm bath, will likewise be of service.


In this complaint, next to occasional vomiting, the daily use of the warm bath is most useful. Bleeding may sometimes be useful, to prevent inflammation of the internal membranes, or cupping between the neck and shoulders. Gentle antimonial emetics should be given repeatedly, because the symptoms are always relieved when the child vomits.

Parisian Remedy.

Take of sulphuret of potass,
tincture of fox-glove, each, 1 dram,
extract of liquorice root, 2 drams,
almond emulsion, 6 oz.
gum arabic powder, 3 drams.


A dessert-spoonful to be given to a child from three to six years of age; a table-spoonful from six to ten; two dessert-spoonsful from ten to fifteen; and two table-spoonsful from fifteen to twenty; three times a day.

Embrocation for Hooping Cough.

Take of emetic tartar, 2 drams,
boiling water, 2 oz.
tincture of cantharides, 1 dram,
oil of wild thyme, 3 drams.


A dessert-spoonful to be rubbed upon the chest every night and morning.

Regimen, &c.

A frequent change of air is exceedingly useful in hooping cough, particularly short voyages at sea; at the same time flannel is to be worn next the skin. Young children should lie with their heads and shoulders raised; and when the cough occurs, they ought to be placed on their feet and bent a little forward, to guard against suffocation. The diet should be light, and the drink warm and mucilaginous.


The croup is a disease peculiar to children, and generally fatal, if care is not taken in the commencement. It commonly approaches with the usual signs of a catarrh, but sometimes the peculiar symptoms occur at the first onset; namely, a hoarseness, with a shrill ringing sound both in speaking and coughing, as if the noise came from a brazen tube. At the same time there is a sense of pain about the larynx, and some difficulty of respiration, with a whizzing sound in inspiration, as if the passage of air was diminished; which is actually the case. The cough is generally dry, but if any thing is spit up, it is a purulent matter, sometimes resembling small portions of a membrane. There are also a frequent pulse, restlessness, and an uneasy sense of heat. The inside of the mouth is sometimes without inflammation, but frequently a redness, and even a swelling exist. Sometimes there is an appearance of matter on them like that rejected by coughing.


As soon as possible a brisk emetic should be administered for the purpose of freeing the patient from the coagulable lymph which is already secreted. Topical bleeding, by means of leeches, should immediately succeed, and the discharge be encouraged. As soon as it diminishes, a blister, sufficiently large to cover the whole throat, should be applied, and suffered to lie on for thirty hours or longer. The steam of warm water should be inhaled, and the bowels should be evacuated by calomel.

As soon as the emetic has operated sufficiently, opium may be administered, by which means the breathing will in general be soon relieved; but should it become more difficult in the course of a few hours, the emetic is to be again repeated, and after its operation the opium again employed. This practice is to be alternately used till the patient is out of danger, which will, in general, be in the course of three or four days. The child should be kept nearly upright in bed.

Children, until the age of six years, are liable to be attacked by bilious fever, which is gradually developed,[270] by irregularity in the bowels, which are either too costive, or too much relaxed.

On its first appearance, the child becomes peevish and fretful, his lips are dry, his hands hot, accompanied by shortness of breath, pains in the head, and quickness of pulse, which beats from 110 to 112 in a minute; he shows an unwillingness to stir or speak, starts in his sleep, and has a loathing for food. The stools have often a mucous and slimy appearance; some children are affected with delirium, others dull and stupid, and many are for a time speechless. Several slight accessions of fever take place in the course of the day, during which the child is usually drowsy; in the intervals of these paroxysms he appears tolerably well, though, at times, unusually peevish.

These symptoms are more or less prevalent for eight or ten days, when suddenly a more violent paroxysm of fever will ensue, preceded by a shivering fit, and sometimes an incessant vomiting of bile. The pulse rises to 140; the cheeks are flushed, the child’s drowsiness increases, and when awake, he resorts to picking at the skin of the nose, lips, and eyes, to a most painful degree.

This species of fever is mild at the commencement, slow in its progress, and very uncertain in its event. The desire for food is destroyed, and the child will take neither aliment nor medicine. The stools are changed from their natural appearances, being sometimes black, and smelling like putrid mud; and at other times they are curdled, with shreds of coagulable lymph floating in a dark green fluid.


The first thing, is to cleanse the stomach by a few grains of ipecacuanha, and soon afterwards to administer some active purgative. For restoring the healthy secretions of the bowels, nothing is so efficacious as small and often repeated doses of calomel and scammony, (¾ of a grain of the former to 1¼ of the latter,) followed up after some hours by a solution of Epsom salts in an infusion of senna, or by a dose of castor oil. When the stomach is very irritable, small quantities of chalk mixture, with a few drops of laudanum, are to be given alternately with the above-mentioned purgatives.

If the head is much affected, leeches should be applied to the temples, and if the stomach will not retain the medicine, from three to six leeches should be applied to the upper part of the belly, or right side; and after this a blister, if necessary. The warm bath will prove useful after the stomach and bowels are properly cleansed.

Tonic Powder.

To obviate debility, when the fever has abated, the following tonic powder is recommended.


Mix together 2 drams of powder of cascarilla,
24 grains of rhubarb, and
1 scruple sub-carbonate of iron.

Divide this into 24 papers, one to be taken morning and evening.

Regimen and Diet.

The child should likewise be sent into the country as soon as possible, and be allowed every reasonable amusement, to dissipate the peevishness which is an invariable consequence of a severe attack of this disease. The diet, for a time, should be light and nourishing; as jellies, isinglass and milk, veal broth, and beef tea. The drink may be whey, and toast and water.


Is chiefly engaged in attending to the senior children, and is entirely under the controul of the head nurse. She assists in getting them up in the morning, washing and dressing them; attends them at their meals and takes them out for air and exercise, and performs or assists in the performance of all the duties of the nursery, while the head nurse is chiefly engaged with the infant child.—Wages 10 to 12 guineas.


The Nursery Maid is generally a girl who does the household work of the nursery, and attends the children when they go out for the air, &c. carrying such of them as may be required.—Wages 6 to 10 guineas.



As many mothers have an aversion to public education for their daughters, the system of private instruction, by a respectable and well-educated female, is very generally adopted, in many families of moderate fortune, and in all of rank and opulence. Hence there is a constant demand for females of genteel manners, and finished education, at salaries which vary according to qualifications, and number and age of pupils, between 25l. and 120l. per annum, and often improved, on certain great length of service, by some provision for life.

Teachers in seminaries, half-boarders, educated for the purpose, and the unsettled daughters of respectable families of moderate fortune, who have received a finished education, are usually selected for this important duty; and the engagement is made either through an advertisement in the newspapers, or by agents who arrange between the parties for a moderate fee. But, in general, families apply to the governesses of public seminaries, who have young women in training for these employments.

The qualifications, of course, are various, and may vary with the age of the pupils. Good temper, and good manners, with a genteel exterior, are indispensable: for more is learnt by example than precept. Besides, the governess who desires to be on a footing with the family, ought to be able to conduct herself in such manner, as never to render an apology necessary for her presence at family parties.

In addition to a thorough knowledge of the English language, and to the power of being[273] able to write a letter in a graceful and accurate style, the governess ought to be moderately acquainted with the French language; and it would be an advantage if she knew something of Italian, as the language of music. She ought also to be able to play on the piano forte, so as to give the first lessons, and to superintend the practice directed in the lessons of a master; and in cases where great perfection is not desired, to render a master unnecessary. If she can perform on the harp or guitar, these instruments will qualify her to accommodate her instructions to various tastes. It will be also expected that she shall be able to teach the elements of dancing, at least, the steps and ordinary figures of fashionable practice. Nor ought she to be ignorant of the useful art of arithmetic, the constant exercise of which, will so much improve the reasoning powers of her pupils. Needle-work of various descriptions, from the plain to the ornamental, will, as matter of course, be expected; and there can be no reason why she should omit to introduce to her pupils the geographical copy books, and other elementary books of geography, by Goldsmith; and the familiar keys to the popular sciences, published by Blair and Barrow, such as the Universal Preceptor, the Class Book, the Grammar of Natural Philosophy, the Key to General Knowledge, by Barrow, and other superior works of the same kind, the selection of which, will distinguish her good sense: while the answering the questions, and filling up the copy books on the admirable Interrogative System, will be the means of incalculable advantage to her pupils, and a source of[274] infinite gratification to their parents. The branches of elegant literature are also within her reach, in such books as Aikin’s Poetry for Children, and Pratt’s Selection of Classical Poetry; and if she chooses to expand their intelligence, she can provide them with Blair’s Belles Lettres, Shaw’s Nature Displayed, (a book which ought to be found in every family,) and with a pair of globes, a microscope, and a telescope. Drawing is also so essential an accomplishment, that its constant exercise should be kept up by means of Hamilton’s Elementary Examples, or those of Chalons and Calvert.

No young persons who are born to the enjoyment of fortune, and destined to fill any stations in society with credit and advantage, ought to have these accomplishments and sources of knowledge withheld from them; and the governess who contents herself with mere personal attainments, without at the same time addressing instruction to the mind of her pupils, and who lays before them old-fashioned books, and obsolete systems of knowledge, compromises her own character, and sacrifices through their lives, the interests, welfare, and reputation, of her pupils.

In the sub-division of time, prolonged application is wearisome, and too frequent renewals are irksome. The best time for learning is in the morning before breakfast, and one hour and a half, or two hours, between seven and nine, will always be worth the three hours, which should be industriously passed, between eleven and two. The rest of the day should be devoted, in fine weather, to exercise and amusements in the open air; and in bad weather to such amusements as induce[275] exercise, of which, dancing, the skipping-rope, and dumb-bells, should form a part, and certain games which are practised in genteel society, as chess and cards, may be advantageously introduced in winter evenings.

Religion, morals, and temper, should be specially studied, and the essays of Mrs. Chapone, and Mrs. Hannah More, Barrow’s Questions, his School Bible, and School Sermons, with Blair’s or Enfield’s Sermons, are suitable auxiliaries. Bad habits should be watched and corrected, and graceful ones, cleanliness and neatness of person, be stimulated. Blair’s Governess’s Register of Study and Conduct, will prove an excellent auxiliary. Superstitions, and vulgar faith in dreams, signs, omens, fortune-telling, and other weaknesses of mind, should be constantly exposed.

A governess, influenced by these practices and principles, will entitle herself to live on a footing with a family, when there are no special parties; and she must possess good sense enough not to intrude on that domestic privacy, and personal independence, which, without offence, is often desirable. Her own apartment, or that of her pupils, ought to be at once the scene of her pleasure and amusement, and if she mingles with the parties of the families, she must, of course, not make herself too familiar with the domestic servants.

Thus conducting herself with propriety, and identifying herself with the growing minds and affections of her pupils, she may secure their personal friendship to the end of their mutual lives, and if their moral feelings are not blunted, she may calculate on their gratitude in her old age, or if she survive them, in their last will.



In large families, where there is much work, two or more house maids are kept, but as the Upper House Maid has generally the superintendence and responsibility of all, we shall include their principal labours under one general head.

The Upper House Maid should be fully competent to undertake the management of all the household business of a gentleman’s family; and to be perfectly qualified for her situation, she ought to have been previously initiated in the capacity of Under House Maid.

In most families she has the care of all the household linen, bed and table linen, napkins, towels, &c. which she also makes and keeps in repair, and besides cleaning the house and furniture, and making the beds, she washes her own clothes, and has sometimes to assist the laundry-maid in getting up the fine linen, washing silk stockings, &c. instead of the lady’s maid; but these latter are considered as rather extra labours, and are not, in all families, deemed a necessary part of the house maid’s business. She also cleans all the coal skuttles in use above stairs, and all the kettles used for warming water in the dressing-rooms, &c. When there are dinner parties the house-maid washes up the plate and china.

The house-maid, in a regular family, will find it necessary to rise about five o’clock, and her first business will be to open the shutters[277] of the usual family sitting-rooms; as the breakfast-room and library, whence she clears away all the superfluous articles that may have been left there, and prepares for cleaning the stoves, fire-places, and hearths, by rolling up the hearth rugs, carefully carrying them out to be shaken, and then laying down a piece of canvas, or coarse cloth, to keep the place clean, while she rakes out the ashes, takes them up, and brushes up the fire-place. She then rubs the bright bars of the stoves, and the fire-irons, first with oil, and afterwards with emery-paper, No. 3, or with brick-dust, till clean and bright—and, finally, with scouring-paper; and this should be done in the summer time, particularly when the stoves may have acquired spots for want of constant use.

The backs and sides of the fire-places are next to be brushed over with black-lead, and then rubbed dry and bright with a hard brush kept for the purpose.

The fires are next lighted, and the marble hearths washed with flannel, dipped in a strong hot lather of soap and water, which must be cleaned off and wiped dry with a linen cloth;—the marble chimney pieces need not be thus cleaned above once or twice a week.

Common free-stone hearths may be scoured with soap and sand and cold water, and afterwards rubbed dry with a clean house cloth.

By this time the footman will have done all his work in the pantry, and have rubbed all the tables, chairs, cellerets, and other mahogany furniture, and cleaned the brass and other ornaments, the mirrors, looking-glasses,[278] &c. in these rooms, when the carpets are to be swept, on ordinary occasions, with a carpet mop to take off the flue, lint, and dust; or more thoroughly, once a week with a long hair-brush or carpet-broom, first having strewed them over with damp tea-leaves, (see receipt for scouring and cleaning carpets.) The sides of the carpet are then turned up all round the room, and the dust on the floor swept away, or, occasionally, the floor scoured with soap and water. The carpet is then turned back again; the chairs and other furniture dusted singly, and removed from the middle of the room, where they were cleaned to their proper places.

The window curtains and hangings may not require to be shaken and dusted every day, but the dust on the windows should be removed with a long hair-broom, and the cobwebs or any dirt on the ceiling, and in the corners of the room, must be sought for and removed.

Every thing being adjusted in the rooms for the reception of the family, the house-maid next opens the shutters of the dining-room, and drawing-room, where she and the footman regularly proceed with their respective business in the manner above mentioned. The house-maid with the fires and fire-place, floors, carpets, &c. scouring, washing, brushing, and dusting them; and the footman, rubbing and cleaning the mahogany furniture, looking-glasses, and other articles in his department, till all is made quite clean, and the rooms are fit for the reception of the family.

At an appointed time she repairs to the[279] dressing-rooms of the master and mistress, and others in use, empties the slops, replenishes the ewers and water-carofts with fresh spring and soft water, and fills the kettles for warm water—cleans up the fire-places, lights the fires, brushes the carpets, sweeps the rooms, dusts the furniture, and puts the rooms in order before the lady’s-maid and valet come to make their arrangements previous to the rising of their superiors.—Having done these, she sweeps down the principal stair-case and goes to her breakfast.

As soon as the best bed-rooms and dressing-rooms are at liberty, she repairs thither, puts out the fires, or not, according as the weather is,—throws open the windows, (or the doors only, in unfavourable weather) to air the rooms, and the beds; opens all the beds, throws the bed-clothes off, on the backs of chairs, placed at the foot of the bed, shakes up each bed, and then proceeds to her other business in the rooms, in order to give as much time as can be spared for airing the beds. Meanwhile, she cleans up the fire-places, again, lays the fires to be ready when wanted, and having washed her hands and put on a clean apron, she makes the beds. (In this business she is usually assisted by the under house-maid, as it requires two persons to make a bed well.) This done, she mops or brushes the carpets, to clean off the flue or feathers and dust,—sweeps out the rooms, rubs and dusts the furniture, supplies the ewers and carofts with clean water, and then retires; leaving the rooms properly arranged against the coming of the lady’s-maid and valet to prepare for their master’s[280] and mistress’s dressing, previous to their going out.

She next proceeds to the other bed-rooms—opens the windows and makes the beds—empties the slops—cleans out the rooms, rubs and dusts the furniture, and puts them in proper order.

Having finished all the bed-rooms, the stair-cases, landings, and passages, will next claim her attention, which are also to be swept, the carpets brushed or swept, and the floor-cloths rubbed over with a clean wet flannel, and wiped dry with a clean house-cloth. On the appointed general cleaning days, the floor-cloths must be scoured with warm soap suds, and afterwards wiped dry, with a clean linen cloth.

On the general cleaning days also, which are usually Tuesdays and Saturdays, every branch of the household work must be thoroughly done, in the best manner;—the rooms are then to be scoured instead of being merely wiped or swept;—the carpets are to be well brushed or taken up to be beaten or shaken;—the stoves and fire-places brightened and cleaned with particular care;—the marble hearths and chimney-pieces scoured;—the mahogany furniture and the brass or other ornaments in the best rooms, and the mirrors and looking-glasses cleaned, with more than ordinary attention;—the bed-furniture, window-curtains and hangings well shaken, whisked and brushed: in short, the best practical methods for thoroughly cleaning the whole house, must be resorted to on that day.

If the house maid rise in good time, and[281] employ herself busily, she will get every thing done above stairs in time to clean and make herself comfortable for dinner, about one o’clock; after which she will attend to her needle work, under the direction of the housekeeper. About four, in the winter, the fires in the dressing-rooms are to be lighted—the slops emptied—clean water supplied, (hot and cold) and the dressing-rooms again dusted and cleaned, preparatory to the lady and gentleman dressing for dinner. While the family is at dinner, the dressing-rooms must be again prepared; and in the evening the shutters of the bed-rooms and dressing-rooms must be fastened—the curtains let down—the beds turned down—the fires lighted, and the rooms put into proper condition for the night. Wages from 12 to 16 guineas a year.


First well beat and brush the carpet,—then to a gallon of water add eight potatoes grated, and with this liquid wash it slightly over with a sponge, which will not only clean it but restore it to its original beauty when dry. Or, after it has been well beaten and brushed, put an ox gall into a pint of water, wash the carpet over on the right side, and it will have the same effect.


Rub a piece of soap on every spot of grease or dirt; then take a hard brush dipped in boiling water, and rub the spots well. If very dirty, a solution of soap must be put into a tub, with hot water, and the carpet well beat in it, rinsing it in several clean waters, and putting in the last water a table-spoonful of oil of vitriol, to brighten the colours.


Carpets should not be swept with a whisk-brush more than once a week; at other times sprinkle tea-leaves on them, and sweep carefully with a hair-broom, after which they should be gently brushed on the knees with a clothes’-brush.



Mix half a pint of refined neat’s-foot oil, and half a gill of spirits of turpentine; wet a woollen rag therewith, dip it into a little scraped rotten-stone, and rub the metal well. Wipe it off with a soft cloth, polish with dry leather, and use more of the powder. If steel is very rusty, use a little powder of pumice with liquid, on a separate woollen rag, first.


Beat the dust out of them as clean as possible, then rub them over with a dry brush, and make a good lather with Castille soap, and rub them well over with a hard brush, then take clean water and with it wash off the froth; make a water with alum, and wash them over with it, and when dry, most of the colours will be restored in a short time; and those that are yet too faint, must be touched up with a pencil dipped in suitable colours; it may be run all over in the same manner with water colours mixed well with gum water, and it will look at a distance like new.


Cut into eight half quarters a stale quartern loaf: with one of these pieces, after having blown off all the dust from the paper, to be cleaned by means of a good pair of bellows, begin at the top of the room, holding the crust in the hand, and wiping lightly downwards with the crumb, about half a yard at each stroke, till the upper part of the hangings is completely cleaned all round; then go again round with the like sweeping stroke downwards, always commencing each successive course a little higher than the upper stroke had extended, till the bottom be finished. This operation, if carefully performed, will frequently make very old paper look almost equal to new. Great caution must be used not by any means to rub the paper hard, nor to attempt cleaning it the cross or horizontal way. The dirty part of the bread too must be each time cut away, and the pieces renewed as soon as necessary.


Put some lumps of quick-lime into a bucket of cold water, and stir it about till dissolved and mixed, after which a brush with a large head, and a long handle to reach the ceiling of the room, is used to spread it thinly on the walls, &c. When dry it is beautifully white, but its known cheapness has induced the plasterers to substitute a mixture of glue size and whiting for the houses of their opulent customers; and this, when once used, precludes the employment of lime-washing ever after; for the latter, when laid on whiting becomes yellow.

White-washing is an admirable manner of rendering the dwellings of the poor clean and wholesome.



Polished iron-work may be preserved from rust by a mixture not very expensive, consisting of copal varnish intimately mixed with as much olive oil as will give it a degree of greasiness, adding thereto nearly as much spirit of turpentine as of varnish. The cast iron-work is best preserved by rubbing it with black-lead.

But where rust has begun to make its appearance on grates or fire-irons, apply a mixture of tripoli with half its quantity of sulphur, intimately mingled on a marble slab, and laid on with a piece of soft leather: or emery and oil may be applied with excellent effect, laid on with a spongy piece of the fig-tree fully saturated with the mixture. This will not only clean but polish, and render the use of whiting unnecessary.


Take verdigris and pumice-stone, well powdered, with lime newly slacked. Mix with soap lees, to the consistence of putty. Put it in a woollen rag, and rub the stains well one way. Wash off with soap and water. Repeat, if not removed.


Sweep them and wipe them with a damp flannel, after which wet them all over with milk, and rub them till bright with a dry cloth.

N. B. Floor-cloths should be chosen that are painted on fine cloth, well covered with colour and perfectly dry. The durability of the cloth depends greatly on these points, and particularly on its having had time for the paint to get quite dry. Old carpets answer extremely well, if painted and hung up to season some time, before they are laid down for use.


Remove fly stains or any other soil from the glass with a damp cloth, then polish with a woollen cloth and powder-blue.


Drop a few drops of oil of turpentine on the spots and rub it hard with your finger; this will dissolve the grease, and make it mix with the soap (or suds) and water when the room is washed.

Another Way.

Mix together fuller’s-earth and soap lees, and rub them on the boards. Let the mixture dry, and then scour it off with strong soft soap and sand, or use lees to scour it with. It should be put on hot, by heating the lees.



Mix well together a pint of strong soap lees, some fuller’s earth, well dried, and a little pipe-clay, powdered fine; lay it on the part which is oiled, then put a hot iron upon it till dry. If all the oil come not out the first time, repeat it, and rub it well in. By doing it two or three times it will come out.


Are entirely under the direction of the Upper House Maid, and are chiefly employed in cleaning and scouring the stoves and grates, scouring the coal skuttles, kettles, and fire-irons, beating and cleaning the carpets—scouring the floors, stairs, and passages;—washing the dishes when there is company, &c. &c.; besides assisting to make the beds, and carrying up the coals and water. In the afternoon, evening, or at leisure time, they are engaged with the Upper House Maid at their needle-work, in making and mending the household, bed and table linen,—mending stockings—washing and mending their own linen, and occasionally, assisting in the laundry. When there is no still-room-maid, the Under House Maid has to wait at table in the house-keeper’s room. Wages 10l. to 12l. per year.



In small families where only one female servant is kept, the servant of all work will be required to do all the work of the house, which in large establishments is very properly divided into several departments.

This description of servant is usually taken from the industrious and labouring classes of the community, who are bred up with a view to the situation, having no other prospect or dependence; and are taught, from their earliest age, to assist in the management of the house, the care of the younger children, preparing the meals, making the beds, scouring, washing, and in every other branch of domestic business:—In short, no girl ought to undertake, or can be qualified, for such a situation, who has not been thus bred up. And if, in addition to these preparatory qualifications, she comes from a sober, well-disposed family, and is of a tractable disposition, there can be but little doubt of her acquiring the good-will of her master and mistress, of qualifying herself for a superior service, and of finally succeeding in her sphere of life.

She will receive her first instructions from her mistress, or probably from the former servant, as to the peculiarities of the house, and will very soon, with attention, become versed in all.

Industry and cleanliness, with a determination to be useful, and to please, will speedily overcome all difficulties.


To rise early is indispensably necessary. “Those who would thrive, must rise by five.” And, recollect, that “the servant who begins her work late, will have to run after it all the day, but will never overtake it.”

Every morning, the first business will be to light the kitchen fire, brush up and clean around the grate and fire-place, take up the ashes, sweep the floor and hearth, and having made all quite clean, rinse out the tea-kettle, and set it on the fire, with clean spring water, preparatory to the family breakfast; and also another kettle to heat water for household purposes. She next takes the tray, carpet-broom, hair-broom, hearth-rug, a clean dry duster, and the basket or box, containing the brushes, rags, leathers, brick-dust, scouring-paper, and other things for cleaning the grate and fire-place, and proceeds to the parlour, or sitting-room, to get that in order, before the family comes down to breakfast. She begins there by clearing away the candlesticks, dirty glasses, and such other things as may have been left there the preceding night. She then rolls up the hearth-rug, so that no dirt or dust may drop from it, as it is carried out to be shaken; she next turns back the carpet, with the drugget, baize, or other covering, if any, and lays down a piece of canvas, or coarse cloth, to keep the place clean; after which she rakes out the ashes from the grate, takes them up, and brushes up the dust and dirt; then rubs the bright bars of the grate, and the fire-irons, with emery paper, No. 3, or brick-dust; or if there be very fine steel stoves, fenders, &c. they should be first rubbed with oil, then with emery, till clear and[287] bright, and afterwards with scouring paper, which is an excellent article to use every second or third day in summer-time, when stoves are not in constant use, as it will take off all the spots they may have acquired.

After the stove and fire-irons are cleaned, and the back and sides of the hearth are washed over with black-lead mixed with water, and rubbed dry and bright with a hard brush, light the fire, and proceed to wash the marble hearth.

For this purpose, take a piece of flannel dipped in a strong, hot, lather of soap and water, and having washed off the dirt, wipe it dry with a clean linen cloth. The jambs and chimney-piece need only be cleaned thus, once or twice a week, or as the custom of the family may be. Soap and sand, with cold water, will answer for washing free-stone hearths, &c. which must be afterwards wiped dry with a clean house-cloth. The next business will be to clean the brass locks, finger-plates, and other brass furniture; for which see the receipt.—If the locks are stiff, or hang, put a very little sweet oil on the bolts with a feather; the same ought to be done occasionally to the hinges, latches, bolts, and locks of every door in the house. A few minutes thus employed, when necessary, will prevent most of the disagreeable noises of creaking hinges, rusty bolts, and useless locks.

For the finger-plates, and other brass ornaments about the room, you must have pieces of pasteboard, with holes cut in them of the size of the respective articles, to prevent soiling or rubbing the door or furniture to which they are fixed.


The carpet next requires attention; this must generally be swept with the carpet-mop, to clean off the lint and dust, but, occasionally with the carpet-broom, or long hair-broom, first strewing it over with a few damp tea-leaves, (which should always be saved for the purpose, when the tea-things are washed up.) Then remove the chairs, and other furniture, to the middle of the room, turn up the sides of the carpet, and sweep up all the dust and flue round the sides of the room before replacing the carpet.

Always rub and dust the chairs, tables, and other mahogany furniture, in the middle of the room, and return them to their places, one by one, as you finish them; this will prevent your scratching or soiling the walls or wainscot. The window-curtains and hangings may not require to be shaken and brushed every day, but the windows should be brushed with the long hair-broom, and cobwebs and other filth, on the ceiling, and upper corners of the room, should be occasionally sought for, and removed. When she has swept the room, and rubbed and dusted the furniture, she must dust the window-frames, ledges of the wainscot, and doors, chimney-pieces, glass, china, and other ornaments, and having seen that every article is in its proper place, stir the fire, and taking all her brushes, &c. leave the room perfectly clean, and fit for the reception of the family at breakfast. She next proceeds (if the parlour be up stairs) to sweep and dust the stairs, which she does one by one, sweeping the dust from each into the dust-pan, and afterwards dusting the[289] windows and balustrade as carefully as she had done the room.

She should also sweep the passage in the same way. The floor-cloth in the passage, for the daily cleaning, need only to be swept and rubbed with a damp flannel first, and afterwards with a dry one. The steps, at the front door, should be cleaned every morning, after the passage is swept out, and the street-door and the knocker, &c. must be cleaned or polished. The kitchen stairs also, and the steps at the back-door, if any, are to be cleaned. Above all, the kitchen must now be put in order.

She then washes her hands and face, and puts on a clean apron, &c. so as to be cleanly before the parlour bell rings for breakfast. Directions for setting out the breakfast table will be found in the Instructions to the Footman, as well as for dinner, lunch, tea, &c.

As soon as the family is seated at breakfast, she throws open the bed-room doors and windows, and uncovers the beds to be aired, and placing the bed-clothes across a chair at the foot of the bed, leaves them in that state till breakfast is finished, when she proceeds to make the bed.

On going down, she takes the slop-pails, night-candlesticks, and the water-ewer and carofts to be filled with fresh water, and brought up again immediately, lest they should be wanted. When she goes up after breakfast, if there have been fires, the fire-places must be swept up, the fires laid, and before she makes the beds, she should wash her hands and put on a clean apron. Every bed should be well shaken daily, and the[290] mattresses turned, at least, once a week. The head of the bed, the curtains, vallance, &c. will often require attention; when they should be brushed with a whisk-brush, and well shaken, the bed-side carpets having been first taken up. After she has made the beds, and before the carpets are laid down again, the chairs, glasses, and other articles of furniture in each room are to be properly rubbed and dusted, and the floors swept clean. The sleeping rooms being thus prepared, and the stairs swept down, she will scarcely have occasion to go up again till evening, when she turns down the beds, lets down, or draws the curtains, and puts the rooms in order for the night.

At intervals, she will, perhaps, be called to bring coals for the parlour fire, in the winter time; (see directions to the footman;) but, in addition to this, little will occur to take her from the regular routine of the morning’s work, till the preparation for dinner requires her attention. She will find ample instructions for the care of the kitchen and larder, and for dressing dinners, under the directions to the cook.

If she is required to wait at table, she will find instructions for the purpose in the directions to the footman. After the dishes, &c. and the cloth and table-cover are removed, when there is no company present, her mistress will, perhaps, require her to bring a piece of cloth, with bees’-wax on it, and a hard furniture brush, to rub the dining-table, and take out the stains of the hot dishes.

When all things are set right in the parlour, as her mistress may direct, she will get her own dinner, (which she will contrive to keep[291] as warm as circumstances will allow;) meanwhile the water must be heating to wash the dishes, and all the kitchen utensils, which being washed, and the several articles (particularly the tinned ones) wiped out clean and dry, they are to be put away, always in their proper places, in the cleanest and nicest order, and fit for immediate use.

This done, she is to make up the fire, (having due regard to the very expensive article of coals) and put on the kettle for tea. The kitchen is next to be set to rights, and every article in and about it is to be made quite clean, and disposed in perfect order. In fact, the cleanly and orderly state of the kitchen ought, at all times, to claim her utmost attention, as it is there that all the food of the family is prepared, and nothing does, nor, indeed, can, more deservedly contribute to the good character of a servant, than the well-regulated state and cleanly appearance of her kitchen.

The situation of a servant of this denomination is, as we have seen, one continued round of activity, but industry becomes habitual, and she will reap the benefit of it throughout life. To be content is the main thing, and others, seeing her good tempered, and disposed to be happy, will study to make her so; while experience and habit will greatly contribute towards it, by daily rendering the routine of the service more familiar, and consequently, more easy.

There are times, however, when the regular course of business will be interrupted. Once a week is the appointed day for a thorough scouring and cleaning, viz. Saturday. But even this day is rendered less formidable by an attentive[292] servant, and by a little charitable consideration in the mistress, (which is generally the case) who will contrive that there shall be less of the ordinary business of the family to be done on that day than on any other. The maid will, perhaps, manage to get the bed-rooms thoroughly scoured on Friday. This should be done as early in the day as possible, and in the winter, fires should be made in the rooms, in order that they may be quite dry and safe by bed-time. For cleaning calico and other bed-furniture, and for scouring rooms, see Head House-Maid. The Sitting-room, and the spare rooms, if any, instead of the usual every-day cleaning, should now be thoroughly cleaned, the floors scoured, the grates, hearths, chimney-pieces, carpets, curtains, and furniture rubbed, scrubbed, dusted, and otherwise cleaned in the best manner; the kitchen, it is presumed, is already clean—always clean; the pots, pans, kettles, and every other culinary utensil being always cleaned as soon as done with;—scoured, wiped out dry, and put away in their proper places, fit for use at a moment’s notice. However laborious the work of the Saturday may appear, it is but getting up an hour or two earlier, and setting about it with a good heart, and all the extra business of the house, in every part, is completely finished, and you sit down, in the evening, to tea, rejoicing that all is comfortable, and in order.

Another, and more laborious deviation from the regular routine of family business is—the appointed “Washing-day,” which is, indeed, a day of bustle and activity; perhaps the only one that can be called a hard day’s work, from one washing-day to another. But, here also,[293] if the intervals between the washings be long, a washer-woman will be hired, and the mistress will probably lend her aid, in sorting the clothes, getting up the small linen, ironing, &c.

In proportion to the arduous and active duties of a situation, is the satisfaction to be enjoyed from a regular and attentive discharge of those services: hence no servant has it in her power to render herself and her employers more comfortable, than the maid of all work. By a methodical division of her time, she is enabled to keep in order every apartment in the house, from the kitchen to the attic, all of which may be accomplished without any extraordinary effort on her part: and while she thus promotes the comforts of her master and mistress by her industry and regularity, they will not be backward in rewarding those meritorious qualities. Wages from 8 to 12 guineas.


There is more art, perhaps, and more economy than is considered necessary in making well, and managing a fire.

First rake out all the ashes, quite clean, leaving in the bottom of the grate a few light cinders, through which the air, from beneath, may pass freely; upon these lay shavings, or waste paper, and then the wood, the smaller pieces under, of course, and the whole crossing each other promiscuously, and in all directions; throw cinders behind, and some at the sides, to fill out the grate, and in the front, betwixt the bars, put small knobs of fresh coals, with some larger knobs at top, and a little small coal behind, but not so much at first as to prevent a draft of air through the grate at the top. The fire, thus prepared, may be lighted with a match, and will kindle well of itself, whilst the ashes are taken up, and the fire-place cleaned. When it is found necessary to blow a fire, do not thrust the nose of the bellows between the bars, but keep it at an easy distance from the fire, and rather below the centre of the fire, that so, the air may be dispersed around to a considerable distance in front of the fire. When you stir a fire, always put the poker between the second and third bars.—After you have stirred the fire, rake out the ashes at the bottom of the grate, and sweep up the hearth.



This Servant washes all the household and other linen belonging to her employers, and is assisted, generally, by the housemaids; or the house maids, kitchen maids, and scullery maids wash for themselves. All the men servants find their own washing, except the footmen’s aprons and jackets.

The foul linen is given out to her on Monday morning, and returned clean, on Friday night or Saturday morning.—Wages from 8l. to 15l. a year.

Two ounces of pearl-ash, to a pound and a half of soap, will make a considerable saving. Soda, by softening the water, saves a great deal of soap. It should be dissolved in a large jug of water, some of which should be poured into the tubs and boiler, and when the lather becomes weak, add more.

The use of soft soap, saves nearly half in washing.

Good new hard soap contains full half of oil, one-third water, and the rest soda.


In large towns, where linen cannot be exposed to the air and sun upon the grass, let it be steeped, for some time before it is washed, in a solution of oxymuriate of lime. Let it then be boiled in an alkaline ley. Linen or cotton thus treated will not become yellow by age.


Hold the iron mould on the cover of a tankard of boiling water, and rub on the spot a little juice of sorrel and salt, and when the cloth has thoroughly imbibed the juice, wash it in ley.



Cut a pound of mottled soap into thin slices; and put it into a pan with a quarter of an ounce of pot-ash. Pour a pail of boiling water on it, and let it stand till dissolved. Then pour hot and cold water into a scouring tub, with a bowl of the solution. Put in the counterpane, beat it well, turn it often, give it a second liquor as before, and then rinse it in cold water. Then put three tea-spoonsful of liquid blue into a thin liquor; stir it, and put in the counterpane: beat it about five minutes, and dry it in the air.


Cut ½ a pound of the best yellow soap into thin slices, and pour such a quantity of boiling river water on it as will dissolve the soap, and make it of the consistence of oil. Cover the articles about two inches with water, such as the hand can bear, and add a lump of American pearl-ash, and about a third of the soap solution. Beat them till no head or lather rises on the water; throw away the dirty water, and proceed as before with hotter water without pearl-ash.


Rub it well with soap: then scrape some fine chalk, and rub that also in the linen; lay it on the grass; as it dries, wet it a little, and it will come out after twice doing.


As soon as the accident happens, wet the place with juice of sorrel or lemon, or with vinegar, and the best hard white soap.


Manages the dairy, milks the cows, makes the butter, cheese, wheys, syllabubs, &c. attends the poultry, picks and prepares them for trussing, makes bread and fresh butter for the parlour every morning, and bakes all the bread of the family.

The greatest possible attention must be paid to the Dairy. Cleanliness being the primary object, all the utensils, shelves, and the floor, should be kept perfectly neat, and cold water[296] should be frequently thrown over it.—There should be shutters to the Dairy to keep out the sun and hot air.

The cows should be milked at a regular and early hour, and their udders should be perfectly emptied, else the quantity given will be diminished. When you go to the cow, take with you, cold water and a sponge, and wash each cow’s udder; bathe it well with cold water, both in winter and summer, as that braces them and repels heat. But, if any cow has sore teats, let them be soaked in warm water twice a day, and either dressed with soft ointment, or bathed with spirits and water. In either case, the milk should be given to the pigs.

When the milk is brought into the Dairy, it should be strained and emptied into clean pans, immediately, in winter, but not till cool, in summer. Suffer no one to milk the cows but yourself, as much depends on their being dripped quite clean, particularly after a calf is taken away.

The quantity of milk given by cows, will be different according to their breed, health, pasturage, the length of time from calving, and other circumstances. Change of pasturage will tend to increase the quantity.

In good pastures, the average of each cow will be about three gallons a day from Lady-day to Michaelmas; and thence to Christmas, one gallon a day.

Cows will be profitable yielders of milk, to fourteen or fifteen years of age, if of a good breed. They should be fed well two or three weeks before calving, which will increase the quantity of milk. In gentlemen’s Dairies,[297] more attention is paid to the beauty and size of cows, than to their produce.

It is absolutely necessary that the cows should be kept feeding whilst you are milking them.

It should be contrived that cows kept for a gentleman’s family, should calve at different seasons, and, particularly, that one or two should calve in August or September, to insure a supply of milk in winter.

When there is not a great demand for cream in the family, the Dairy-maid will take that opportunity to provide for the winter store. She should keep a regular weekly account of the quantity of milk given by each cow, and the quantity of butter she pots. The average of a good fair Dairy cow, during several months after calving, will be seven pounds of butter a week, and from three to five gallons of milk per day; afterwards, a weekly average of three or four pounds of butter, from barely half that quantity of milk. On an average, three gallons of good milk, will yield one pound of butter. The annual consumption of a good cow, turned to grass, is from an acre to an acre and a half in the summer, and from a ton to a ton and a half of hay, in the winter. Each cow should be allowed two pecks of carrots per day. The grass, if cut and carried to the cows green, will economize full one-third.

Alderney cows yield rich milk, upon less food, than larger cows, but are seldom large milkers, and are particularly scanty of produce in the winter.

Wages from 8l. to 12l. a year.—Perquisites, 1d. per pound for butter; 1½d. for each chicken, or fowl killed; 2d. each, for ducks, geese, and turkeys; and 3d. a score for eggs.



Provide bottles which must be perfectly clean, sweet, and dry; draw the milk from the cow into the bottles, and as they are filled, immediately cork them well up, and fasten the corks with pack-thread or wire. Then spread a little straw on the bottom of a boiler, on which place the bottles with straw between them, until the boiler contains a sufficient quantity. Fill it up with cold water; heat the water, and as soon as it begins to boil, draw the fire, and let the whole gradually cool. When quite cold take out the bottles, and pack them with straw or saw-dust in hampers, and stow them in the coolest part of the house. Milk preserved in this manner, although eighteen months in the bottles, will be as sweet as when first milked from the cow.


The chickens first hatched, are to be taken from the hen, lest she be tempted to leave her task unfinished. They may be secured in a basket of wool or soft hay, and kept in a moderate heat, if the weather be cold, near the fire. They will require no food for 24 hours, should it be necessary to keep them so long from the hen. The whole brood being hatched, place the hen under a coop abroad, upon a dry spot, and, if possible, not within reach of another hen, since the chickens will mix, and the hens are apt to destroy those which do not belong to them. Nor should they be placed near young fowls, which are likely to crush them, being always eager for their small meat.

The first food should be split grits, afterwards tail wheat, all watery food, soaked bread, or potatoes, being improper. Eggs boiled hard, or curd chopped small, is very suitable as first food. Their water should be pure and often renewed, and there are pans made in such forms, that the chickens may drink without getting into the water, which, by wetting their feet and feathers, numbs and injures them; a bason in the middle of a pan of water, will answer the end; the water running round it. There is no necessity for cooping the brood beyond two or three days, but they may be confined as occasion requires, or suffered to range, as they are much benefited by the foraging of the hen. They should not be let out too early in the morning, whilst the dew lies upon the ground, nor be suffered to range over wet grass, which is a common and fatal cause of disease in fowls. Another caution requisite is to guard them against unfavourable changes of the weather, particularly if rainy. Nearly all the diseases of fowls arise from cold moisture.

For the period of the chickens quitting the hen, there is no general rule; when she begins to roost, if sufficiently forward, they will follow her; if otherwise, they should be secured in[299] a proper place, till the time arrives when they are to associate with the other young poultry, since the larger are sure to overrun and drive from their food the younger broods.


An experiment has lately been tried of feeding geese with turnips, cut in small pieces like dice, but less in size, and put into a trough of water; with this food alone, the effect was, that six geese, each when lean weighed only 9 lbs., actually gained 20 lbs. each in about three weeks fattening.

Malt is excellent food for geese and turkeys; grains are preferred for the sake of economy, unless for immediate and rapid fattening; the grains should be boiled afresh.

Other cheap articles for fattening, are oatmeal and treacle; barley-meal and milk; boiled oats, and ground malt.

Corn before being given to fowls should always be crushed and soaked in water. The food will thus go further, and it will help digestion. Hens fed thus have been known to lay during the whole of the winter months.


The annual product of a good fair dairy cow, during several months after calving, either in summer or winter, if duly fed and kept in the latter season, will be an average of seven pounds of butter per week, and from five to three gallons of milk per day. Afterwards, a weekly average of three or four pounds of butter from barely half the quantity of milk. It depends on the constitution of the cow, how nearly she may be milked to the time of her calving, some giving good milk until within a week or two of that period, others requiring to be dried 8 or 9 weeks previously. I have heard (says Mr. Lawrence) of 20 lbs. of butter, and even 22 lbs. made from the milk of one long-horned cow in seven days; but I have never been fortunate enough to obtain one that would produce more than 12 lbs. per week, although I have had a Yorkshire cow which milked 7 gallons per day, yet never made 5 lbs. of butter in one week. On the average 3 gallons of good milk will make 1 lb. of butter.


To every pound of salt butter put a quart of new milk, and a little arnotto. Churn it an hour, then take it out and treat it as fresh butter, by washing it with water, and add the usual quantity of salt. The butter gains about three ounces in the pound.


Beat up the whole of a fresh egg, in a basin, then pour boiling tea over it gradually, to prevent its curdling. It is[300] difficult, from the taste, to distinguish the composition from rich cream.


Apply with a brush a solution of gum-arabic to the shells, or immerse the eggs therein; let them dry, and afterwards pack them in dry charcoal dust. This prevents their being affected by any alterations of temperature.

Another Way.

Immerse them for a short time in strong lime-water, and they may be kept two years, if required.


Grasp a handful briskly, and squeeze it half a minute: if genuine, it will preserve the form of the cavity of the hand, even though rudely placed on a table; if adulterated, it will almost immediately fall down.


Boil 5 lbs. of the coarsest bran in four gallons and half of water, keep stirring it, that it may not stick to the bottom, till reduced to four gallons, then pour it off into a trough, or tub full of holes, over which lay a coarse cloth or sieve. On the top of the whole put a wooden cover, with a weight sufficiently heavy to press out the liquor from the bran, which will sink to the bottom of the tub in a thick pulp. This liquor will contain the essential oil of the corn, and when kneaded in with half a hundred weight of flour, and the usual quantity of salt and yeast, it will yield one-third more bread than the same quantity of flour would, made with water in the usual way. Divide into middle sized loaves and bake two hours and a half.

When ten days old put it into the oven for twenty minutes and it will appear quite new.


Paste is made principally of wheaten flour boiled in water till it be of a glutinous or viscid consistence. It may be thus prepared simply for common purposes; but when it is required for paper hangings to rooms, it is usual to mix a fourth, fifth, or sixth of the weight of the flour of powdered resin; and where it is wanted still more tenacious, gum arabic, or any kind of size may be added.



Every experienced person, and every liberal physician and medical man, is sensible of the value of a careful, skilful, and kind-hearted nurse, and that the alleviation of sickness and the actual cure of diseases, depend as much on the anxious attention of the nurse, as on the efficacy of medicine itself. Good temper, patience, watchfulness, and sobriety, are the cardinal virtues of every good nurse, and when possessed by one who unites skill with those personal qualities, she is a treasure above all price.

Although the chamber nurse forms no part of the establishment of healthy families, yet as in every family she is a necessary auxiliary for longer or shorter periods, a brief notice of her qualifications and duties, will confer completeness on such a volume as the present.

The chamber or sick nurse should be qualified for her duty by some experience; and if her experience has been considerable, and she is a woman of good understanding, she will prove herself quite as important in the nursery of the sick, as medical practitioners, or all the drugs in an apothecary’s shop. She ought to be past the middle age, and if a married woman or widow, so much the better. She ought to be clean in her person, and neat in her dress, and free from habits of drinking or snuff-taking. She ought also to be a woman of cheerful and equable temper, and, above all things, free from superstition, or belief in charms, omens, signs, dreams, and other follies of gross ignorance.


The sick room should be clean, well aired, and free from noisome smells; and, on the contrary, the air should be purified by sprinkling vinegar or eau de cologne, and occasionally burning a little vinegar in a heated shovel.

Quietness, in every respect, is of the first consequence. Fire irons should be avoided: creaking doors and locks should be oiled; and list shoes constantly worn. Talking loud and whispering, so as to excite the suspicion of the patient, should be equally avoided; and a long feather should be pushed through the key-hole, as a signal on the outside, when the patient is asleep. The nurse should only sleep when the patient sleeps, as one means of preventing the patient being awoke by her frivolous activity.

In cases of contagion, whatever is sent out of the room, should be immersed in water, and the nurse should be careful not to receive the breath of the patient, nor to sit on the bed. She should also carry about her person a bag of camphor, and during such diseases, frequently fumigate the room with vinegar, and indulge occasionally in half a glass of brandy.

The sick chamber should be provided with a lamp and appurtenances, for heating whatever may be wanted; with a tea kettle, two or three saucepans, empty bottles for hot water, (to put to the feet,) some sal volatile and spirits, a bottle of salts, and of eau de cologne; some lambs-wool gloves to rub the patient, a bed-pan, a foot-bath, or a large tin bath; some lemonade, barley-water, and toast and water: oranges, lemons, and empty medicine bottles, which occasion smells that infect the air, should be kept in an adjoining room. There[303] should also be a supply of flannel, old linen, and napkins, for every purpose. Different medicines should be carefully kept apart; lest pernicious ones be given, or proper ones, at improper times. A thermometer in the room is the only means of keeping an equal temperature, or increasing or diminishing it, as the medical attendants may direct.

The reports of the nurse to the physician, and the observations of the physician, should always be made in an adjoining room, and the mind of the patient not be distracted by details of symptoms, and of the nurse’s business. Changes which take place after the visit of the medical attendant, should be immediately reported, and in all that regards the administration of the medicines, and the general system of treatment, the nurse should scrupulously obey the instructions of the medical advisers, not only as the most likely means of promoting the speedy recovery of the patient, but to remove from herself all responsibility and blame. At the same time, she should not withhold her opinion, in regard to the effect of the medicines administered, and in her conferences with the medical advisers, should suggest whatever appears likely to be useful.

Nurses, according to the length of a disease, are paid by the day, week, or month; and as boarders in the family, they ought not to take advantage of the sympathy which induces the relatives of the sick to afford them every indulgence, so as to involve unnecessary or wanton expenses; but consider the interest of the family, whose affliction requires their attendance, as their own. The usual payment of a nurse in London, is from 10s. 6d. to 15s.[304] per week, according to the circumstances of the parties, and of the case.

Nurses who have to compound and administer Family Medicines must be prepared with proper scales and weights; and with graduated glass measures, such as are used by Apothecaries; according to the following


Measure of Fluids.

1 gal. measure (cong.) contains 8 pints,
1 pint (O.) 16 ounces,
1 ounce (f. ℥.) 8 drams,
1 dram (f. ʒ.) 60 minims, (m.)

Weights of Dry Substances.

1 pound (lb.) contains 12 ounces,
1 ounce (℥.) 8 drams,
1 dram (ʒ.) 60 grains, (gr.)
1 scruple (℈.) 20 grains, or 1-3d of a dram.

It is customary to distinguish quantities of fluid from dry substances, by prefixing the letter f. (fluid) when an ounce or dram is mentioned in medical works, as may be seen in the first of these tables.

The following table of the gradations of doses of medicines for different ages, will in general be found pretty correct, and ought never to be deviated from, except by professional advice.

If at the age of maturity the dose be one dram, the proportion will be at

From 14 to 21 years, 2 scruples,
  7  14 half a dram,
  4   7 1 scruple,
  4   15 grains,
  3   half a scruple,
  2   8 grains,
  1   5 grains,
  6 months 3 grains,
  3   2 grains,
  1   1 grain.



Cut a slice of fine and stale loaf bread, very thin, and let it be carefully toasted on both sides, until browned all over, but not blackened or burned. Put the toast into a deep stone or china jug, and pour over it, from the tea-kettle, as much boiling water as required to make into drink. Cover the jug with a saucer or plate, and let the drink become quite cold; it will then be fit for use. Toast and water is peculiarly grateful to the stomach, and excellent for carrying off the effects of any excess in drinking. It is also a most excellent drink at meals.


Put a large spoonful of oatmeal into a pint of water, stir it well together, and let it boil three or four times, stirring it often. Then strain it through a sieve, put in some salt according to taste, and if necessary add a piece of fresh butter. Stir with a spoon until the butter is melted, when it will be fine and smooth.


Take of pearl-barley, 2 oz.
water, 4 pints.

First wash off the mealy matter which adheres to the barley with some cold water; then extract the colouring matter, by boiling it a little with about half a pint of water. Throw this decoction away; and put the barley thus purified into four pints of boiling water; then boil down to one half and strain the decoction.


Take of the decoction of barley, 2 pints,
raisins, stoned, 2 oz.
figs, sliced, 2 do.
liquorice-root, sliced and bruised, ½ oz.
distilled water, 1 pint.

During the boiling, add the raisins first, and then the figs, and, lastly, the liquorice, a short time before it is finished, when the strained decoction ought to measure two pints.

These liquors are to be used freely, as diluting drinks in fevers and other acute disorders.


Put a blade of mace, a large piece of the crumb of bread, and a quart of water, in a clean saucepan. Let it boil two minutes, then take out the bread, and bruise it very fine in a bason. Mix with it as much of the warm water as it will require, pour away the rest and sweeten it to the taste of the patient. If necessary, put in a piece of butter the size of a walnut, but add no wine. Grate in a little nutmeg, if requisite.



Take off the fat and skin from a pound of lean beef, and cut it into pieces. Then put it into a gallon of water, with the under crust of a penny loaf, and a small portion of salt. Let the whole boil till reduced to two quarts, and strain, when it will be fit for use.


Take the fat off a pound of loin of mutton, and put the lean into a quart of water. Skim it well as it boils, and put in a piece of the upper crust of bread, with a large blade of mace. Having covered it up close, let it boil closely for half an hour, and then pour the broth clear off, without stirring. Season it with a little salt. Turnips should not be boiled with the meat.


This country affords herbs much more wholesome than either tea or coffee, and if they were all imported from a distant region, and sold at a high price, they would, no doubt, be held in great estimation. The following composition is very superior to tea or coffee, inasmuch as the infusion is very agreeable, will strengthen the stomach, and invigorate, instead of debilitate, the nervous system.

Take of rosemary leaves, dried,   2 oz.
  sage do.  do.    4 oz.
  rose do.  do.    4 oz.
  peach do.  do.    3 oz.
  hyssop do.  do.    4 oz.
  balm do.  do.    5 oz.
  male speedwell, (veronica)   4 oz.

A wine-glassful of these mixed herbs is sufficient to make 3 pints of infusion, which is made in the same manner as tea, sugar and milk being added. In London, where herbs are sold at a dearer rate than in the country, it may be obtained at the rate of 2s. per pound.—Either of the above ingredients may be diminished or augmented at pleasure. If too bitter, lessen the quantity of hyssop, and add dried mint leaves.


Put an ounce of isinglass, and a few cloves, into a quart of water. Boil it down to a pint, strain it upon a pound of loaf sugar, and when cold, add a little wine, when it will be fit for use.—A very nourishing beverage may be made by merely boiling the isinglass with milk, and sweetening with lump sugar.


Put a dessert spoonful of the powder of salop, into a pint of boiling water. Keep stirring it till it becomes of the[307] consistence of jelly, and then add white wine and sugar, according to taste.


Put an ounce of hartshorn shavings into a quart of boiling barley-water; boil down to a pint, add two ounces of candid eringo root, and a pint of new milk; boil for a quarter of an hour, when strain for use.


Boil four spoonsful of oatmeal, a blade or two of mace, and a piece of lemon peel, in two quarts of water, for about a quarter of an hour; taking care that it does not boil over. Then strain, and add a quart of good ale that is not bitter. Sweeten it to the palate, and add half a pint of white wine. When no white wine is used the caudle should consist of one half of ale.


Make the gruel as above, and strain through a sieve, but put no ale to it. When to be used, sweeten according to taste, grate in some nutmeg, and add a little white wine. Juice of lemon is sometimes added.


Cut the meat from a leg of veal into small pieces, and break the bone into several bits. Put the meat into a very large jug, and the bones at top, with a bunch of common sweet herbs, a quarter of an ounce of mace, and half a pound of Jordan almonds, finely blanched and beaten. Pour on it four quarts of boiling water, and let it stand all night, covered close by the fire-side. The next day put it into a well-tinned saucepan, and let it boil slowly, till it is reduced to two quarts. Be careful, at the time it is boiling, to skim it, and take off the fat as it rises. Strain into a punch-bowl, and when settled for two hours, pour it into a clean saucepan, clear from the sediment, if any.


Pulverize 1 ounce of citric acid, and divide it into 24 parts; that is, 24 scruples, which are to be put into separate small blue papers. Pulverize, also, 1 ounce of the sub-carbonate of soda, and divide it into 24 like packages, in white paper. When the draught is to be prepared, put the carbonate into a tumbler, half filled with water: in another, dissolve the acid in an equal quantity; throw one into the other, and drink it while effervescing.

A similar preparation may be made by using tartaric acid instead of the citric.



Mix in a plate, a few ounces of pulverized black oxyde of manganese and common salt, which being placed in the house supposed to be infected, sprinkle oil of vitriol upon the mixture, and gas will arise which will render the place perfectly salubrious. The oil of vitriol should be carefully added by a few drops at a time, the face being turned from the mixture.


Dissolve 20 grains of carbonate of potass in a table-spoonful of lemon juice, and three table-spoonsful of water, to which add a small quantity of lump sugar. This draught is very serviceable in sore throats, &c.


Take of Rochelle salt, 1 dram,
carbonate of soda, 25 grains,
tartaric acid, 20 do.

Dissolve the first two in a tumbler of water, then add the latter, and drink without loss of time.


The general characters of good rhubarb are, it having a whitish or clear yellow colour, being dry, solid, and compact; moderately heavy, and brittle; when recently broken appearing marked with yellow or reddish veins, mixed with white; being easily pulverizable; forming a powder of a fine bright yellow, having the peculiar, nauseous, aromatic smell of rhubarb, and a sub-acrid, bitterish, somewhat astringent taste, and when chewed feeling gritty under the teeth, speedily colouring the saliva, and not appearing very mucilaginous.


This fruit very much resembles the nature of prunes, but is more acid, and enters as a useful ingredient into the lenitive electuary. It is found of the highest use in a sore throat, as a powerful cleanser; and, put into boiling water until moderately cold, is a delightful drink to persons parched under the heat of fever, and in the lowest state of putrid fever.


Water-cresses act as a gentle stimulant and diuretic; for these purposes the expressed juice, which contains the peculiar taste and pungency of the herb, may be taken in doses of an ounce or two, and continued for a considerable time. It should be at the same time eaten at breakfast, also at dinner, and for supper, to experience benefit from the virtues of this herb.


Mix 1 dram of powdered spermaceti with the yolks of 2 eggs; then add 1 dram of tincture of opium, and 5 oz., of water.


To be taken in the quantity of a wine-glassful when the cough is troublesome.


Mix together a dessert spoonful of syrup of poppies, and 15 drops of antimonial wine. To be taken at a draught, with or without a little warm water, either at bed-time, or in the middle of the night. Half this quantity may be given to a child under the same circumstances.


Mix together in a wine-glass,
30 drops of laudanum,
4 tea-spoonsful of vinegar, and
6 tea-spoonsful of water, sweetened with a little lump sugar.


Take of sweet almonds, blanched, 1½ oz.
double-refined sugar, ¾ oz.
distilled water, 2½ pints.

Beat the almonds with the sugar; then rubbing them together, add by degrees the water, and strain the liquor.

Almost any quantity may be taken as a frequent drink to soften coughs, and to assuage urinary disorders.


Take of gum-arabic, in powder, 4 oz.
boiling water, 8 oz.

Triturate the gum with a small portion of the water until it be dissolved.

It is necessary to pass the mucilage through linen, in order to free it from pieces of wood and other impurities, which always adhere to the gum: the linen may be placed in a funnel.

Mucilage of gum-arabic is very useful in making up medicines, &c. it also possesses the powers of a mucilaginous demulcent in a high degree; and is frequently given in diarrhœa, dysentery, chin-cough, hoarseness, strangury, &c.


Take of gum-arabic, in powder, 2 drams,
sweet almonds, blanched,
double refined sugar, each ½ dram,
decoction of barley, 1 pint.

Dissolve the gum in the warm decoction; and when it is almost cold, pour it upon the almonds, previously well beaten with the sugar, and at the same time triturate them together, so as to form an emulsion, and then filter.


The almonds are blanched by infusing them in boiling water, and peeling them. The success of the preparation depends upon beating the almonds to a smooth pulp, and triturating them with each portion of the watery fluid, so as to form an uniform mixture before another portion be added.


Take of marshmallow roots, bruised, 4 oz.
sun raisins, stoned, 2 oz.
water, 7 pints.

Boil down to five pints; strain the decoction, and after the grounds have subsided, pour off the clear liquor.

Marshmallow roots contain nothing soluble in water except mucilage, which is very abundant in them. This decoction is therefore to be considered merely as an emollient, rendered more pleasant by the acidulous sweetness of the raisins.


Take of hepatic aloes, 1 oz.
ginger powder, 1 dram,
soap, ½ oz.
essential oil of peppermint, ½ a dram.

Let the aloes and ginger be rubbed well together, then add the soap and the oil so as to form a mass.

These pills may be advantageously used for obviating the habitual costiveness of sedentary persons. The dose is from 10 to 15 grains.


Take of socotrine aloes, 6 drams,
gum mastic, 2 drams.

Reduce to powder separately; make into a mass with syrup of wormwood, and divide into one hundred pills, of which take one every night.


Take of camphor, 1 oz.
soap, 3 oz.
spirit of rosemary, 1 pint.

Digest the soap in the spirit of rosemary until it be dissolved, and add to it the camphor.


Dissolve 2 lbs. of white soap, and 1 lb. of yellow ditto, in 3 pints of water.

Now dissolve 4 oz. of camphor,
1 oz. of oil of rosemary, and
6 drams of oil of origanum, in
3 pints of spirit of wine.[311]

Mix both solutions, and then add 3 oz. of water of ammonia.

This liniment is extensively used to allay the inflammation of bruises, sprains, &c.


Take of almond soap, 2 ounces,
alcohol, 1 pint,
camphor, 1 ounce,
cajeput oil, 2 ounces.

First dissolve the soap and camphor in the alcohol, and when the solution is about to congeal, or becomes nearly cold, add the oil of cajeput: shake them well together, and put it into bottles to congeal.

This composition is a great improvement on the opodeldocs in general use, and in cases of rheumatism, paralytic numbness, chilblains, enlargement of joints, and indolent tumours; where the object is to rouse the action of absorbent vessels, and to stimulate the nerves, it is a very valuable external remedy.


Take of water of ammonia, ½ an ounce,
olive oil, 1½ ounces.

Shake them together in a phial till they are mixed.

In the inflammatory quinsey, a piece of flannel, moistened with this mixture, applied to the throat, and renewed every four or five hours, is one of the most efficacious remedies.


Take of lime water, and olive oil, each three ounces.

Mix them by shaking in a phial.

This solution is thick, of a white colour, and devoid of acrimony. It is very advantageously applied to burns and scalds. The soapy matter separates from the water when it has been made some time, and therefore it is always better to prepare it only when it is wanted.


Dissolve ten or twelve grains of white soap in four ounces of rectified spirit of wine; after which, strain the solution. A dram of rectified oil of amber is then added, and the whole filtered: with this solution should be mixed such a proportion of the strongest volatile spirit of ammonia, in a clear glass bottle, as will, when sufficiently shaken, produce a beautiful milk-white liquor. If a kind of cream should settle on the surface, it will be requisite to add a small quantity of the spirituous solution of soap. Those who may wish to have this liquor perfumed, may employ lavender or Hungary water, instead of the spirit of wine.

It is employed for curing the bites of adders, wasps, bees, gnats, ants, and other insects, and for burns.



Mix together, 4 ounces of spirit of wine,
1 dram of Friar’s balsam,
2 do. of tincture of saffron.

This balsam is used for sprains and bruises.


Fomentations are applied externally, and as warm as the patient can conveniently bear, in the following manner: Two flannel cloths are dipped into the heated liquor, of one which is wrung as dry as the necessary speed will admit then immediately applied to the part affected. The flannel lies on, until the heat begins to go off, and the other is in readiness to apply at the instant in which the first is removed:—thus these flannels are alternately applied, so as to keep the affected part constantly warm. This is continued fifteen or twenty minutes, and repeated two or three times a day, or as often as occasion may require. The degree of heat should never exceed that of producing a pleasing sensation; great heat sometimes produces effects very opposite to that intended by the use of the fomentation.


Take of the leaves of southernwood, dried,
tops of sea-wormwood, do.
camomile flowers, ditto, each 1 oz.
bay leaves, do. ½ oz.
distilled water, 6 pints.

Boil them a little, and strain.

In making these decoctions the aromatic substances should not be added until the decoction is nearly completed, for otherwise their flavour would be entirely dissipated.


Take two poppy heads, boil them in a quart of milk, and use this as a fomentation. It is excellent in inflamed eyes, also to relieve the pain of inflammation from a blister or other cause.


Take of mustard-seed, powdered, ½ lb.
crumb of bread, ½ do.
vinegar, as much as is sufficient.

Mix, and make a cataplasm.

Cataplasms of this kind are employed as stimulants: they often inflame the part, and raise blisters, but not so perfectly as cautharides. They are frequently applied to the soles of the feet, in the low state of acute diseases, for raising the pulse and relieving the head.



Take of olive oil, 5 ounces,
white wax, 2 ounces.

This is an useful emollient ointment for softening the skin.


Take of prepared hog’s lard, 2 lbs.
rose water, 3 oz.

Beat the lard with the rose-water until they be mixed; then melt the mixture with a slow fire, and set it apart that the water may subside; after which, pour off the lard from the water, constantly stirring until it be cold.

This ointment may be used for softening the skin, and healing chaps.


Take of white wax, 4 oz.
spermaceti, 3 oz.
olive oil, 1 pint.

Mix them together over a gentle fire, and then stir them very briskly, without ceasing, till they are cold.


Take of spermaceti, 6 drams,
white wax, 2 do.
olive oil, 3 oz.

Melt all together over a gentle fire, stirring briskly, without intermission, till the ointment becomes cold.

These two ointments are supposed only to supple the parts, and hinder the rag or lint from sticking to the granulating flesh, and they also keep the air from wounds, which is known to irritate them, from the oxygen in the atmosphere; but they have, otherwise, no peculiar healing virtue.


Melt together 2½ oz. of white wax,
3 oz. of spermaceti,
7 oz. of oil of almonds,
1 dram of balsam of Peru, and
1½ oz. of alkanet root, wrapped up in a linen bag.

Pour the salve into small gallipots or boxes, and cover with bladder and white leather.


Bruise a sufficient quantity of isinglass, and let it soak for twenty-four hours in a little warm water; expose it to heat over the fire, to dissipate the greater part of the water, and supply its place by colourless brandy, which will mix the gelatine of the glue. Strain the whole through a piece of open linen: on cooling, it will form a trembling jelly.

Now extend a piece of black silk on a wooden frame, and[314] fix it in that position by means of tacks, or pack-thread. Then, with a brush made of badger’s hair, apply the glue, after it has been exposed to a gentle heat, to render it liquid. When this stratum is dry, which will soon be the case, apply a second, and then a third, if necessary, to give the plaster a certain thickness; as soon as the whole is dry, cover it with two or three strata of a strong tincture of balsam of Tolu.

This is the real English court plaster: it is pliable, and never breaks, characters which distinguish it from so many other preparations sold under the same name.


This plaster is generally used to cover slight abrasions and excoriations of the skin. When used for small cuts, from sharp instruments, bring the lips of the wound together, and lay over it a piece of goldbeater’s skin; then fix this by means of a piece of court plaster. The wound will generally heal without further trouble.


Take of rhubarb, sliced, 3 oz.
lesser cardamom seeds, bruised, ½ oz.
liquorice root, bruised, ½ oz.
saffron, 2 drams,
proof spirit of wine, 2 pints.

Digest for seven days, and strain. Dose, ½ an oz. as a purge, or 2 dr. as a stomachic.


Take of rhubarb, sliced, 2 oz.
liquorice root, bruised, ½ oz.
ginger, powdered,
saffron, each 2 drams;
distilled water, 1 pint,
proof spirit of wine, 12 oz. by measure.

Digest for 14 days, and strain. Dose, ½ an oz. as an aperient, or 1 oz. in violent diarrhœa.


Take of cinnamon, bruised,
lesser cardamom seeds, each 1 oz.
long pepper, in powder, 2 drams,
diluted alcohol, 2½ lbs.

Digest for seven days, and filter through paper.

A tea-spoonful or two may be taken in wine, or any other convenient vehicle, in languors, weakness of the stomach, flatulencies, and other similar complaints; and in these cases it is often employed with advantage.


Take of senna leaves, 2 oz.
jalap root, 1 oz.
[315] coriander seeds, ½ oz.
proof spirit, 2½ pints.

Digest for seven days, and to the strained liquor add 4 oz. of sugar-candy.

This tincture is an useful carminative and cathartic, especially to those who have accustomed themselves to the use of spirituous liquors; it often relieves flatulent complaints and colics, where the common cordials have little effect: the dose is from 1 to 2 ounces.


Take of senna, 2 lbs.
rhubarb shavings, 2 lbs.
jalap root, 1 lb.
caraway seeds, 1 lb.
aniseeds, 2 lbs.
sugar, 4 lbs.
shavings of red sanders wood, ½ lb.

Digest these in 10 gallons of spirit of wine, for 14 days, and strain for use. This elixir possesses almost the same qualities as the Compound Tincture of Senna. The above quantities may be reduced to as small a scale as may be required.


Dissolve ½ an oz. of opium,
1 dram of oil of sassafras, in
2 ounces of spirit of wine.
Now mix 4 lbs. of treacle, with
1 gallon of boiling water, and when cold, mix both solutions.

This is generally used to soothe the pains of children, &c.


Take of balsam of tolu, 2 oz.
gum storax, 2 drams,
opium, 2 do.
honey, 8 oz.

Dissolve these in a quart of spirit of wine.

This balsam is useful in allaying the irritation of cough.

Dose, 1 or 2 tea-spoonsful in a little tea, or warm water.


Take of balsam of Tolu, 1 oz.
alcohol, 1 pint.

Digest until the balsam be dissolved, and then strain the tincture through paper.

This solution of the balsam of Tolu possesses all the virtues of the balsam itself. It may be taken internally, with the several intentions for which that balsam is proper, to the quantity of a tea-spoonful or two, in any convenient vehicle.

Mixed with simple syrup, it forms an agreeable balsamic syrup.



Take of Peruvian bark, 4 oz.
proof spirit, 2 pints.

Digest for 10 days, and strain.

It may be given from a tea-spoonful to ½ an ounce, or an ounce, according to the different purposes it is intended to answer.


Take of Peruvian bark, powdered, 2 oz.
the peel of Seville oranges, dried, 1½ do.
Virginian snake root, bruised, 3 drams,
saffron, 1 do.
cochineal, powdered, 2 scruples,
proof spirit, 20 oz.

Digest for 14 days, and strain.

As a corroborant and stomachic, it is given in doses of two or three drams; but when employed for the cure of intermittent fevers, it must be taken to a greater extent.


Take of guaiacum, 4 oz.
rectified spirit of wine, 2 pints.

Digest for seven days, and filter.

This solution is a powerful stimulating sudorific, and may be given in doses, of about ½ an ounce, in rheumatic and asthmatic cases.


Take of resin of guaiacum, in powder, 4 oz.
ammoniated alcohol, in powder, 1½ lb.

Digest for seven days, and filter through paper.

In rheumatic cases, a tea, or even table-spoonful, taken every morning and evening, in any convenient vehicle, particularly in milk, has proved of singular service.


Take of benzoin, 3 oz.
purified storax, 2 oz.
balsam of Tolu, 1 oz.
socotrine aloes, ½ oz.
rectified spirit of wine, 2 pints.

Digest for seven days and filter.

The dose is a tea-spoonful in some warm water four times a day, in consumptions and spitting of blood. It is useful, also, when applied on lint, to recent wounds, and serves the purposes of a scab, but must not be soon removed.


Take extract of catechu, 3 oz.
cinnamon, bruised, 2 oz.
diluted alcohol, 2 pints.


Digest for seven days, and strain through paper.

The cinnamon is a very useful addition to the catechu, not only as it warms the stomach, but likewise as it covers its roughness and astringency.

This tincture is of service in all kinds of defluxions, catarrhs, looseness, and other disorders where astringent medicines are indicated. Two or three tea-spoonsful may be taken occasionally.


Take of the root of ipecacuan, bruised, 2 oz.
Spanish white wine, 2 pints.

Digest for ten days and strain.

This wine is a very mild and safe emetic, and nearly equally serviceable in dysenteries, with the ipecacuan in substance; this root yielding nearly all its virtues to the Spanish white wine. The common dose is an ounce, more or less, according to the age and strength of the patient.


The common mode of preparing this, is to put three drams of the essential oil of lavender, and a dram of the essence of ambergris, into 1 pint of spirit of wine.


Take of the fresh tops of rosemary, 1½ lb.
proof spirit, 1 gallon.

Distil off in a water-bath, 5 pints.


Take of aniseed,
angelica-seed, each bruised, ½ lb.
proof-spirit, 1 gallon,
water, sufficient to prevent a bad taste or flavour.

Draw off 1 gallon by distillation.

This compound is often employed with advantage, in cases of flatulent colic.


Take of extract of liquorice,
gum arabic, each 4 oz.
white sugar, 8 oz.

Dissolve them in warm water, and strain; then evaporate the mixture over a gentle fire, till it be of a proper consistence for being formed into lozenges, which are to be cut out of any shape.


Take of fine sugar, 1 lb.
gum arabic, 4 oz.
starch, 1 oz.
flowers of benzoin, ¾ dram.


Having beat them all in a powder, make them into a proper mass with rose-water, so as to form lozenges.

These compositions are calculated for softening acrimonious humours, and allaying the tickling in the throat which provokes coughing.


Take of nitre, purified, 3 oz.
double-refined sugar, 9 oz.

Make them into lozenges with mucilage of gum tragacanth.

This is a very agreeable form for the exhibition of nitre, as a diuretic or febrifuge, though, when the salt is thus taken, without any liquid (if the quantity be considerable), it is apt to occasion uneasiness about the stomach, which can only be prevented by a large dilution with aqueous liquors.


Take of dried red rose-buds, 4 oz.
boiling distilled water, 3 pints,
clarified honey, 5 lbs.

Macerate the rose-leaves in the water for six hours; then mix the honey with the strained liquor, and boil the mixture to the thickness of a syrup.

This preparation is not unfrequently used as a mild, cooling detergent, particularly in gargles for ulcerations and inflammation of the mouth and tonsils.


Take of the heads of white poppies, dried, 3½ lbs.
double-refined sugar, 6 lbs.
distilled water, 8 gallons.

Slice and bruise the heads, then boil them in the water to three gallons, and press out the decoction. Reduce this, by boiling, to about 4 pints, and strain it while hot through a sieve, then through a thin woollen cloth, and set it aside for twelve hours, that the grounds may subside. Boil the liquor poured off from the grounds to three pints, and dissolve the sugar in it, that it may be made a syrup.

This syrup, impregnated with the narcotic matter of the poppy-head, is given to children in doses of two or three drams, and to adults of from half an ounce to one ounce and upwards, for easing pain, procuring rest, and answering the other intentions of mild operations.


Take of fresh flowers of the violet, 1 lb.
boiling distilled water, 3 pints.

Macerate for 25 hours, and strain the liquor through a cloth, without pressing, and add double-refined sugar, to make the syrup.

This is an agreeable laxative medicine for young children.



Take of clarified honey, 3 lbs.
vinegar of squills, 2 pints.

Boil them in a glass vessel, with a slow fire, to the thickness of a syrup.

Oxymel of squills is an useful aperient, detergent, and expectorant, and of great service in humoral asthmas, coughs, and other disorders where thick phlegm abounds. It is given in doses of two or three drachms, along with some aromatic water, as that of cinnamon, to prevent the great nausea which it would otherwise be apt to excite. In large doses it proves emetic.


Take of squills, recently dried, 1 pound,
vinegar, 6 pints,
proof spirit, ½ pint.

Macerate the squills with the vinegar, in a glass vessel, with a gentle heat, for 24 hours; then express the liquor, and set it aside until the fæces subside. To the decanted liquor add the spirit.

Vinegar of squills is a very powerful stimulant; and hence it is frequently used with great success as a diuretic and expectorant. The dose of this medicine is from a dram to half an ounce.


Take of tar, 2 pints;
water, 1 gallon.

Mix, by stirring them with a wooden rod for a quarter of an hour, and, after the tar has subsided, strain the liquor, and keep it in well corked phials.

Tar-water should have the colour of white wine, and an empyreumatic taste. It is, in fact, a solution of empyreumatic oil, effected by means of acetous acid. It acts as a stimulant raising the pulse, and increasing the discharge by the skin and kidneys. It may be drank to the extent of a pint or two in the course of a day.


Take of sarsaparilla root, cut, 6 oz.
distilled water, 8 pints.

After macerating for two hours, with a heat about 195 degrees, then take out the root, and bruise it; add it again to the liquor, and macerate it for two hours longer; then boil down the liquor to 4 pints, and strain it. The dose is from 4 oz. to half a pint, or more, daily.


Take of sarsaparilla root, cut and bruised, 6 oz.
the bark of sassafras root,
[320] the shavings of guaiacum wood,
liquorice root, each 1 oz.
the bark of mezereon root, 3 drams,
distilled water, 10 pints.

Digest with a gentle heat for six hours, then boil down the liquor to one half (or 5 pints) adding the bark of the mezereon root towards the end of boiling. Strain off the liquor. The dose is the same as the last, and for the same purposes.


Take of guaiacum raspings, 3 oz.
raisins, stoned, 2 oz.
sassafras root, sliced,
liquorice root, bruised, each 1 oz.
water, 10 lbs.

Boil the guaiacum and raisins with the water, over a gentle fire, to the consumption of one half, adding, towards the end, the sassafras and liquorice, and strain the decoction without expression.


Take of dried red roses, ½ oz.
diluted vitriolic acid, 3 drams,
boiling distilled water, 2½ pints,
double refined sugar, 1½ oz.

First pour the water on the petals, in a close vessel, then add the diluted vitriolic acid, and macerate for half an hour. Strain the liquor when cold, and add the sugar.


Take of ipecacuan wine, 7 drams,
antimonial wine, 1 do.
syrup of violets, 1 do.
rose-water, 3 do.

Make into a draught to be taken at eight in the evening; or, for an infant, give a tea-spoonful every five minutes until it operates, and half of it for a child of ten or twelve years. It has no taste.


Take senna leaves, an ounce and a half,
ginger, sliced, 1 dram,
boiling water, 1 pint.

Macerate for an hour, and strain the liquor.

Two or three tea-spoonsful of Epsom salts dissolved in a wine-glassful of warm water, with 3 table-spoonsful of the above infusion of senna, and a tea-spoonful of tincture of senna, or cardamoms, will act as a mild aperient. It should be taken early in the morning, and a plentiful supply of tea, afterwards, at breakfast.



Take of manna, 1 oz.
mucilage of gum arabic,
oil of almonds,
syrup of lemons, each 2 drams.

Of this mixture give a tea-spoonful to a child at bed-time.


Take of camphor, 1 dram,
rectified spirit of wine, ten drops,
double-refined sugar, half an ounce,
boiling distilled water, one pint.

Rub the camphor first with the spirit of wine, then with the sugar; lastly, add the water by degrees, and strain the mixture.

In the common form of camphor emulsion the union is effected, by triturating the camphor with a few almonds, the unctuous quality of which serves in a considerable degree to cover the pungency of the camphor without diminishing its activity. Camphor under the present form, as well as that of emulsion, is very useful in fevers, taken to the extent of a table-spoonful every three or four hours.


Take of prepared chalk, 1 oz.
refined sugar, ½ an oz.
mucilage of gum arabic, 2 oz.

Rub them together and then add by degrees,
water, 2 pints,
spirituous cinnamon-water, 2 ounces.

This is a very elegant form of exhibiting chalk, and is a useful remedy in diseases arising from or accompanied with acidity in the stomach, &c. It is frequently employed in diarrhœa proceeding from that cause.


The person ought to be immediately carried into the open air, and the temples should be rubbed with strong vinegar and brandy, and volatile salts or spirits held to the nose. The patient should then be laid on the back with the head low, and have a little wine or other cordial poured into the mouth. If subject to hysteric fits, castor or assafœtida should be applied to the nose, or burnt feathers, horn, or leather.


Dry lint put up the nostrils, pledgets of lint dipped in spirits, or weak solution of blue vitriol, or from ten to twenty drops of oil of turpentine taken in water, generally stop discharges of blood.



Water for a warm bath should be rather more than a blood heat, or from 90 to 100 of the thermometer, and if a portable tin bath is not at command, and a warm bath is suddenly wanted, the quickest mode of making one, is to knock in the head of a beer or wine cask, according to the size of the patient, and every neighbourhood will supply these, as well as sufficient quantities of hot water, clean or dirty.


In cases of substances being stopt between the mouth and the stomach, where they cannot be extracted by the fingers or otherwise, the person should swallow a piece of meat or tow tied to a thread, which should be immediately drawn up again. Emetics are sometimes serviceable, and injections of warm milk and water frequently remove the obstructions. When animation is suspended by noxious vapours, the usual methods in fainting should be employed, and lemonade or vinegar and water given to the patient as soon as he can swallow.

When it proceeds from extreme cold, the part affected should be immersed in cold water, or rubbed with snow till they recover their natural warmth.


Every method should be taken to lessen the circulation of blood towards the head; the patient should be kept easy and cool, the head raised high, and the feet suffered to hang down. The clothes should be loosened and fresh air admitted into the room, and medical assistance procured immediately for bleeding.

Apoplexy is preceded by giddiness, pain, and swimming of the head, loss of memory, &c. and on the symptoms appearing, bleeding, slender diet, and opening medicines are advisable, and often act as preventives.


Most head-aches arise from imperfect digestion, either from acidity, or from accumulations of bile. The first cause may be removed by half a tea-spoonful of carbonate of soda, or by a dessert spoonful of magnesia, in a small tumbler of water. But if the cause is bilious, then two or three antibilious pills, or a pill of from two to five grains of calomel, is the best remedy, and this may be assisted in its operation by half an ounce of salts in a large tumbler of water, in the morning. Washing the head with cold water, is always salutary in habitual head-aches, particularly at rising in the mornings.



One part of red lead, in fine powder, and two parts of hog’s-lard.—Spread on lint, and dress the sore twice a day.


Three drams of prepared natron (which may be obtained for three-pence) in a quart of soft cold water, and take half of it in the course of the day; continue it for a few days, and the complaint will subside. It may be taken at any hour, but it is best after a meal.


A large tea-cupful of linseed, two pennyworth of stick-liquorice, and a quarter of a pound of sun raisins, put to two quarts of soft water, and simmered over a slow fire, till reduced one-third or more; add thereto a quarter of a pound of sugar-candy pounded, a table-spoonful of old rum, and a table-spoonful of white wine vinegar, or lemon-juice. Note—the rum and vinegar should be added only to the quantity which is about to be taken immediately. Drink half a pint at going to bed, or a small quantity at any time when the cough is troublesome.


Take of almond emulsion, 7½ ounces; syrup of white poppies, oxymel of squills, of each two drams; compound powder of gum tragacanth, one dram. Two table-spoonsful to be taken frequently.


Inhale the steam of hot vinegar, through the spout of a tea-pot, or a funnel, for about half an hour just before you go to bed:—also two or three times in the course of the day, and keep at home. A piece of flannel dipped in hartshorn will be serviceable, applied when going to bed. In a relaxed sore throat, a few lumps of sugar dipped in brandy, and gradually dissolved in the mouth, will be very efficacious.


Bathe the legs and feet in warm water at night, and take, going into bed, a drink of hot whey, with 4 grains of nitre.

If a sore throat, tie round it three or four folds of flannel sprinkled with spirits.


This is an excellent remedy in all cases of colds, coughs, hoarseness, pains and head-aches; for in the above-mentioned complaints, inflammation, or undue determination of blood to the part affected, is present. After this operation the patient should instantly go to bed.



One ounce of myrrh, in fine powder, two spoonsful of the best honey, and a little sage, in fine powder, mixed together, with which rub the teeth and gums night and morning.


After having washed your mouth with water, rinse the mouth with a tea-spoonful of lavender water mixed with an equal quantity of warm or cold water, to diminish its activity.


To a table-spoonful of any spirit, and the same quantity of vinegar, add a tea-spoonful of salt. When mixed, hold the liquid in your mouth, so as to enter the cavity of the tooth.


Red spurge destroys warts and corns.


Cut an apple, and rub it for a few minutes over the wart; the juice of the apple will loosen the wart, and in a few days it will drop off. Any strong acid, either vegetable or mineral, has the same tendency.


Mr. Cooper, in his Dictionary of Surgery, gives the following recipe as infallible for the cure of corns:—Take two ounces of gum ammoniac, two ounces of yellow wax, six drams of verdigris, melt them together, and spread the composition on a piece of soft leather or linen; cut away as much of the corn as you can with a knife before you apply the plaster, which must be renewed in a fortnight, if the corn is not by that time gone.


When the blisters are open, dress them with a simple white ointment spread thinly on the smooth side of lint, the first day, and every day after sprinkle a little powder of prepared chalk, and dress it as before. To alleviate the immediate pain, apply any quick evaporating fluid, as æther, spirits of wine, or brandy; or better than all, if at hand, spirits of turpentine, or rags dipped in vinegar and water, and often renewed.


Rub the part burnt every two or three hours with spirits of turpentine, or with vinegar if the skin be not broken, or vinegar and cold water. Half a pound of alum dissolved in[325] a quart of water, likewise makes an admirable wash for a burn or scald; bathe the part with a linen rag dipped in the mixture, then bind the rag upon it with a slip of linen, and keep it moist with the alum water for two or three days, without removing the bandage.


The mischief which arises from this accident is owing to the party standing in an erect position, because flame ascends, and feeds and accumulates in intensity during its ascent. The first remedy is, therefore, to lay the child or other person on the floor, in which position the flames will not only make no progress, but will do little or no harm to the person. The fatal consequences of this accident arise from the ascent of the flame to the throat, head, and sensitive organs, an effect which cannot take place if the body is instantly placed in an horizontal position. Sir Richard Phillips, who first promulgated this treatment, proved its efficacy by taking two strips of muslin, a yard long, and one of them, which was set on fire at the end, and held perpendicularly, burnt out with an intense flame in less than half a minute; but the other piece, laid hollow and horizontally, on being set on fire at the end, burnt even with difficulty, and twenty minutes elapsed before it was entirely consumed; the flame at the same time being inconsiderable and harmless.

After the person on fire has been laid horizontally, the best method of extinguishing the fire, is an immediate covering of any kind, and when every spark has been extinguished, spirits and water, or vinegar and water, should be applied to affected parts till the pain is removed. Adult females, whose clothes take fire, should have the presence of mind instantly to throw themselves on the floor, and in that case, no serious injury can ever arise, and if this precaution were generally known, many families would have been relieved from the unavailing affliction of the loss of dear connexions, and from the heart-rending scenes which, under other circumstances, they have been fated to witness.


Take conserve of red roses and rotten apple in equal quantities, wrap them in a fold of thin cambric, or old linen, and apply it to the eye; it will relieve the bruise and remove the blackness.


Foment it with warm vinegar for five minutes every four hours, wet it afterwards with rectified spirit of wine, and rub it gently. Sit with the foot on a low stool, and occasionally rest upon the ancle, and move it gently backwards and forwards.



A heaped table-spoonful of magnesia, mixed in a middling sized tumbler of water, and drank immediately after oxalic acid has been swallowed, will save life.


Take a spoonful of common salt, add as much water as will make it damp; apply it like a poultice every six hours, and it will be sure to stop the hydrophobia.


Over the spot where the sting has entered, apply the pipe of a key, press it for a minute or two, and the pain and swelling will disappear.


A wasp or bee swallowed, may be killed before it can do harm, by taking a tea-spoonful of common salt dissolved in water. It kills the insect and cures the sting. Salt, at all times, is the best cure for external stings; sweet oil, pounded mallows, or onions, or powdered chalk made into a paste with water, are also efficacious.

If bees swarm upon the head, smoke tobacco, and hold a empty hive over the head, and they will go into it.


Olive oil is an absolute specific for the bite (or sting, as it is erroneously called,) of the adder; the oil should be well rubbed upon the part bitten: in case of violent symptoms a glass or two should be taken inwardly. If olive oil is not at hand, common sweet oil will answer the purpose.


Avoid all rough usage. Do not hold up the body by the feet, or roll it on casks, or rub it with salt, or spirits, or apply tobacco. Lose not a moment, carry the body, the head and shoulders raised, to the nearest house. Place it in a warm room. Let it be instantly stripped, dried, and wrapped in hot blankets, which are to be renewed when necessary. Keep the mouth, nostrils, and the throat free and clean. Apply warm substances to the back, spine, pit of the stomach, arm pits, and soles of the feet. Rub the body with heated flannel, or warm hands.—Attempt to restore breathing, by gently blowing with bellows into one nostril closing the mouth and the other nostril. Keep up the application of heat. Press down the breast carefully with both hands, and then let it rise again, and thus imitate natural breathing. Continue the rubbing, and increase it when life appears, and then give a tea-spoonful of warm water, or of very weak wine or spirits and warm water. Persevere for six hours. Send quickly for medical assistance.



To form a complete land steward, it is requisite that theory and practice should be combined. By consulting books we profit by the experience of other men, enlarge our own sphere of thinking, and add more, perhaps, to our stock of knowledge in a short space of time, than could be acquired by long and laborious practice. No land steward or even ordinary farmer should be without Young’s Farmer’s Calendar, the last edition of which, improved by Middleton, contains a body of valuable information; but Mr. Lawrence on this subject, with great propriety, recommends the reading of Tull and Miller, as the great originals on tillage; Ellis on sheep and other live stock; and the Surveys of the several Counties of the Kingdom, made, and published by the Board of Agriculture.

To these, for a further knowledge in the treatment of live stock, may be recommended a perusal of our best veterinary treatises. We must also recommend Sir John Sinclair’s Code of Agriculture, as a companion to Middleton’s edition of Young’s Calendar, and these, with Mackenzie’s Receipt Book, ought to be the standing literary furniture of every steward’s room.

The land steward should never undertake more business than he can faithfully and properly execute, and therefore should have no other occupation or profession to attend; the[328] mere collecting of rents and giving discharges being the least considerable part of his duty.

On his first entering into office, he should make a general survey of all the estates and property entrusted to his care:—he should also form an inventory, and open a set of books on a clear and perspicuous plan, if not already done by his predecessor, taking care to enter in them a correct list of all the books, writings, deeds, schedules, court-rolls, &c. From this survey, whether left by his predecessor, or taken by himself, regular memorandums should be made in a book, of every thing necessary to be remarked or executed, of the places where deficiencies are found, or improvements may be made; of buildings and repairs necessary; insurances, dates of leases, rates, nuisances, trespasses, live and dead stock, game, timber, fencing, draining, paths, and roads, culture, commons, rivers, and sea coasts, and of every other specific article relative to his trust, which deserves attention, and therefore ought not to be committed to loose papers, or left to memory.

He should endeavour to gain a practical knowledge of the characters and conduct of inferior servants, taking nothing upon trust; but observing with his own eyes their performances early and late. A faithful steward will lose no time in detecting the peculations, and counteracting the combinations among those servants who are under his controul, which may be prejudicial to the estate of his principal; and of replacing them with servants of fair character, to whom ample wages should be allowed; and the job work, or more profitable kinds of labour, should be impartially[329] dealt out to them, that so, all may be equally benefited, and equally satisfied.

Every farm, when surveyed, should be correctly described in a map, of which the tenant should have a copy. A Terrier should also be kept of the commonfield-lands, for the satisfaction of the tenant as well as the lord, and where the bounds of any parcel of land are dubious, they should be fixed, and properly marked out, by a jury impannelled at the manor court. The boundaries of the parish and precincts should also be ascertained, and the particular property of the lord kept entire, by the annual custom of perambulation on Holy Thursday, and its concomitant ceremonies. The steward should frequently ride round and make an eye survey of the estates, in order to obviate any disputes,—to prevent encroachments, and to afford timely advice and assistance if necessary. He should see that all repairs are duly and substantially performed according to covenant, ditches cast and scoured, water courses kept free, common rights fairly enjoyed, according to the custom of the manor, the commons not overstocked by one, in prejudice to others, observe that the underwood be cut at the stated periods, that the trees are properly lopped and topped without damage to the lord, that the wood-wards do watch and report all trespasses by cattle and otherwise, and to discourage poaching and the destruction of game, by all fair, moderate, and rational means.

The tenants should not be suffered to let their lands be over-run by moles—nor the commons and woodlands by swine unrung.

The strictest caution should be used to[330] prevent all the produce of the estates, that is fit for manure or other useful purposes, from being alienated or carried off.

An eye ought always to be kept on the surveyor of the highways of the neighbouring parishes, to see that no nuisance exists, or bridge or highway be neglected.

Trespasses from stray cattle ought to be prevented, and if necessary punished, as well as the depredations of dogs, which often do much injury to the farmer.

It behoves the steward to support, and cause to be recognized, all the ancient manorial rights and privileges that are usually respected.

Heriots accruing from copyhold estates, ought not to be taken in kind, but a moderate fine should be levied in lieu thereof.

Encouragement should be given to improvements in cultivation. The best heads of cattle should be introduced, and any successful mode of culture recommended among the tenantry. They should also be stimulated to plant fruit-trees, as means of adding to the produce without encumbering the land.

The transactions of the steward should always be pure, incorruptible, and free even from suspicion. He ought not to sell preference, either for money or for any indirect consideration, such concession to him being in effect a robbery on the tenant, or on his employer, who is entitled to all the advantages which can accrue from his estate. If a sum of money is covertly given for preference in a lease, then the lease is worth so much more, and the proprietor is defrauded of the difference. Nothing can be more pernicious to an estate than such underhand transactions.[331] Modest industry and merit are thereby subverted by the audacity of knaves, and the steward, from the moment he has thus sold himself becomes a dependent on the honour of the parties. Preference given to kin ought also to be avoided, and every nobleman and gentleman is justified in being jealous of the introduction of his steward’s kindred upon his estate, often to the great prejudice of his old and attached tenants.

Many stewards become the tyrants of their vicinity by an impertinent interference with the domestic economy of the families of the tenants, presuming to prescribe in regard to their dress, habits, and amusements, seeming thereby to consider them as vassals, instead of freemen, to whose industry their landlord is indebted for his ease and luxury. With these affairs the steward has no concern, and every farmer and his family should be left to their own discretion in such particulars, if they pay with regularity the average rent of their vicinity, and do not manifestly deteriorate the estate; they are, and ought to be, in all their domestic and personal concerns, and also in their opinions, religious and political, as independent of the steward, or of his employer, as these parties are of them. His interference has, in truth, tended to retard the civilization of the agricultural classes, and, in many districts, placed them one or two centuries behind the inhabitants of towns. The steward, therefore, who forbears to meddle with what does not properly concern him, will enjoy the love of tenantry, and that affection will always best promote the interest of his employers.


Whilst the steward is not unmindful of every possible improvement, he should keep in view every appearance of the existence of minerals or metals, that so the needful essays or experiments may be made under the superintendance of persons of experience and fidelity. Proximity to the sea coast, navigable rivers, canals, or great towns, will much enhance the value of such discoveries.

Every opportunity should be embraced of letting land on building leases, as a means of greatly improving the value of estates; the fitness by means of water and roads for the establishment of a manufactory, or a village, or, by being near the sea coast, for a fishery, are objects too important to be overlooked by a faithful and intelligent agent.

It has already been remarked, that the land steward should not be engaged in any business that would detract from that attention which is required in the faithful discharge of the duties of his office; and even in performing those engagements, he should occasionally be assisted, in cases of importance, where he may consider his own knowledge not sufficient, by an able professional adviser. He will most require this aid in the making of leases, deeds, agreements, and other legal instruments.

The balance of cash, which may often be considerable, ought not be allowed to lie idle in the house. All money is part of the vital blood of society, and should be kept in circulation. This may be effected either by lodging it at a country bank, where moderate interest will be allowed for it, or by discounting the notes of respectable tenants, who, at[333] certain turns of the season, are often in want of ready money, and their notes will, in many cases, serve as cash payments for other purposes, or they may be made to fall due at periods when cash will be wanted, while it will thus be accumulating at five per cent. No risk need be incurred in such transactions, while the accommodation would add much to the prosperity of the estate. If the steward reside in London, spare cash may, in like manner, be employed at a full rate of interest, by discounting such good bills as are always to be met with at the principal brokers in and about Lombard Street; and these bills will be received by the bankers as they arrive at maturity. By this means 3 or 4 per cent may always be added to the income of a nobleman or gentleman, or sufficient to pay the wages of all the servants.

In the business of accounts, the first objects are, arrangement, perspicuity, and security. In all accounts of property, there are certain general rules which must be attended to, the chief of which are the following: 1st. Trust as little as possible to memory, but make memorandums of payments, receipts, bargains, agreements, &c. on the instant. 2d. Pay no money without receiving a proper discharge. 3d. Give up no security, lease, agreement, or other valuable property, without taking in return a written acknowledgement. 4th. Let all contingent, undecided, or uncertain transactions be forthwith entered, with every necessary remark, voucher, and reference. 5th. Post all the various transactions under their proper heads as soon as possible. 6th. Fold, label, date, and class all papers, the most[334] valuable of which are to be deposited at the end of every year, in a secure place, with the date on the outside. Perhaps the two principal books necessary to be kept, are a day-book or journal, and a ledger, with two other books, to be called the memorandum-book, and general inventory. A portable pocket memorandum-book will also be found to be convenient. Every servant in trust under the land steward ought to be provided with an account book appropriately ruled: this book should be examined and passed monthly by the steward and an abstract of it transcribed into his journal.


Journal belonging to the Right Hon. Lord Viscount A.
X. Y. Steward. 1825.

      Dr. Cash Cr.
Fol. in
  £ s. d. £ s. d.
Jan. 6  

Agreed this day with R. P. to accept as a compensation for a Heriot, due on the death of his father, £30.


Recd. of C. L. for half year’s rent, due at Christmas last

25 0 0      

Recd. of S. R. for one year’s rent in full, to do.

75 0 0      

Paid the following persons their bills:—


T. M. saddler, as pr. bill to Xmas.

      22 5 0

W. R. Smith  do.  do.

      29 6 0
      —– —– —– —– —– —–
      100 0 0 51 11 0
      51 11 0      
      —– —– —–      
    Balance this month.  £48 9 0      

The journal, spoken of, should be kept as a book of reference for every transaction that[335] occurs, and which is to be entered daily, precisely as it occurs; and if it be afterwards found necessary, is to be entered in the ledger as a distinct and separate account—from all others. This journal will, of course, include every cash transaction, and save the trouble of keeping a separate cash-book. The cash account may be posted regularly in the ledger, under a general head, bearing that title.

In the ledger will, of course, be opened an account with every tenant, and as a consequence with Dr. and Cr.; also an account Dr. and Cr. of every article, the increase, decrease, and actual state of which, it is necessary to ascertain with precision.

The memorandum ledger being paged, and having an alphabet, is for the purpose of containing the head title of every memorandum of consequence, and pointing out the page, in the journal, where the particulars are to be found. This ought to be examined frequently, and the items that are become useless, marked out; those remaining unmarked, should, if numerous, be carried forward. The regular, or occasional deposits of leases, deeds, and other documents of importance, are invariably to be pointed out by a memorandum, as it may be of great import to successors and survivors.

From these original sources, transcripts may be made in any form required, for the use of the principal or lord. An account current of cash received and paid should be made out annually, half-yearly, or otherwise, to be examined, passed, and signed by the principal.



This is the most important officer in domestic establishments, and is seldom adopted except in the families of noblemen or gentlemen of great fortunes, by whom he is appointed as their locum tenens, not only to superintend such necessary business as, from their rank and condition, or other circumstances, they cannot undertake, but also to control and manage, generally, all the most important concerns of the household. It follows, therefore, that he ought to be a man of great experience in household affairs, steady and attentive in his conduct, and of approved principles and integrity. His character must be irreproachable and exemplary, that he may be regarded with confidence and satisfaction by his employers, and respected by those around him.

His chief business will be to hire, manage, and direct, and discharge every servant of every denomination. To appropriate to every domestic his proper and express business, and to see that it be done accordingly. He ought to make it a point never to take a servant without strict enquiry as to his moral character, orderly conduct, and abilities for his situation, nor ought he to withhold a fair character from any servant he discharges.

The House Steward, by the suavity of his manners, and equable deportment, has it in his power to sustain the reputation of his[337] master in high estimation, and to make his whole household comfortable and happy.

For further hints respecting servants we refer to the Address to the Mistresses of Families, in the dedication, p. 10, 11, and 12; and to those given to the Housekeeper, p. 52, 53, and 54.

Ability to provide for the family in the best manner, is another qualification indispensably necessary in the House Steward. He is expected to be a competent judge of the nature and qualities of provisions, their comparative values, the best seasons for purchasing the several articles, and the cheapest and most economical markets or places to attend. The best way to go to market is with ready money; or to deal with tradesmen of probity, and to settle their accounts early and at regular and stated periods, but never to disappoint them, at the expected times, which makes his custom nearly equivalent to cash, and he will consequently be served with the best articles and on the lowest terms. A conscientious and honest discharge of his duty in this respect, will tend greatly to the satisfaction of his employers, and redound to his own credit. Other hints on the subject will be found under the head Housekeeper, p. 54 and 55; and directions for marketing, which may afford some hints, even to an expert and an adroit practitioner, may be found p. 75 to 88.

The abilities of the House Steward, as an accountant, are not required to be very considerable. He is merely to keep an account of monies received by him, on one page, and of monies paid or disbursed by him, on the opposite page; and these two pages being cast[338] up, and the amount of one side being deducted from the amount of the other, will, if the account has been correctly kept, shew at once the exact balance, belonging to his employer, remaining in his hands. It will be the business of the housekeeper to examine, weigh, and compare the several articles, as they are brought in, with the tickets sent with them by the respective tradesmen, and these tickets, so examined and signed, will enable the Steward to check the tradesmen’s bills when brought in, previously to their being paid. An upright and trust-worthy Steward will discharge this part of his duty, as well as every other, with zeal, fidelity, impartiality, and integrity; bearing for ever on his mind this pleasing truth, that, “every man’s station is honourable or otherwise, as his own conduct makes it.”

Salary from 100l. to 250l. and upwards.


There is seldom a lad of this description kept, except in families where there is a house steward, or comptroller of the household, when the servant is appointed to attend on him, run on errands, carry messages, &c. He waits at table, or makes himself otherwise useful in the steward’s-room; trims the lamps that are in use below stairs, and cleans the servants’ boots and shoes. Wages from 8l. to 12l. per annum.



At first rising, it is the duty of the Butler, where no valet is kept, to manage and arrange his master’s clothes, and carry them to his dressing-room, his boots and shoes being cleaned by the footman or under butler.

It is his proper business to see that the breakfast is duly set, the under butler or footman carrying up the tea urn, and the butler the eatables; he, or the under butler waiting during breakfast.[19] On taking away, he removes the tea-tray, and the under butler or footman the urn, cloth, &c.

The breakfast things being taken away, and the plate, &c. cleaned and put away under his directions, the Butler then gets his own breakfast with the housekeeper, unless the servants all breakfast together at an earlier hour.

If no valet is kept, he then attends in his master’s dressing-room, sets it in order, carries down his clothes to be brushed by the under butler or footman, and attends to every thing connected with his master’s clothes, linen, &c. or sees that what is wanted is done by others.

He now cleans himself to attend company[340] or visitors at the door, which he is to answer, receive cards, deliver messages, &c.

At luncheon time, the cloth being laid by the under butler or footman, it is the duty of the Butler to carry in the tray, or arrange the table, and when there is company, he waits in the room assisted by the other servants.

If wine is wanted for the luncheon, it is his duty to fetch it from the cellar; and if ale, to draw or bring it up when wanted.

The keys of the wine and ale cellars are specially kept by him, and the management of the wine, the keeping the stock book, and also of ale in stock, or in brewing, are in his particular charge. This duty he generally performs in the morning before he is drest to receive company, and he then brings out such wine as is wanted for the day’s use. It is his duty to fine wine as it comes in the pipe, and to superintend the bottling, sealing it himself, and disposing it in binns so as to know its age and character. While these duties and those of brewing are in hand, he leaves the parlour and waiting duties to the under butler and footman.

Where no steward is kept, he pays all bills for wine, spirits, ale, malt, coals, and in general, all bills not in the housekeeper’s or kitchen department. Sometimes, also, he pays the other male servants.

At dinner time, the under butler or footman lays the cloth, and carries up the articles wanted, under the direction of the Butler, who gives out the necessary plate, kept by him under lock, and generally in an iron chest.

He sets and displays the dinner on the table, carrying in the first dish, waits at the[341] side-board, hands wine round or when called for; removes every course, and sets and arranges every fresh course on the table according to his bill of fare, which is placed on the side-board for reference; and does not leave the dinner room till the dessert and wine have been placed on the table by him or under his direction.[20]

It is then his business to see that the plate, glasses, &c. are carried to the pantry, cleaned, and wiped by the under butler and footman, and the whole carefully put in their proper places.

Having taken his own dinner with the other servants out of livery, generally at one o’clock, he gets his tea while the family in the parlour are taking their wine and dessert, and in the mean time, the under butler or footman prepares the tea things for the parlour.

If the bell rings during the dessert, the Butler answers, and does the same for the remainder of the evening.

The under butler is now engaged in cleaning the plate and arranging the pantry.

The tea tray is carried up by the Butler, assisted by the footman; and in waiting at tea, the Butler hands round the cups on the tray, the footman assisting with the eatables. The[342] Butler removes the tea-tray, and the footman the urn, &c. The footman carries in coals, but the Butler manages the candles.

When tea is made below, it is done by the housekeeper, but carried up and handed round by the Butler and footman.

If there is company, the refreshments, wine, ices, &c. are carried up by the Butler, assisted and followed by the footman.

When there is supper, the under Butler or Butler arranges the same, and it is managed like the dinner.

Slippers, dressing gown, night candles, &c. are carried up and disposed by the Butler.

After his master has gone to bed, he goes to his dressing-room, takes down such things as want cleaning or brushing, and gives them to the footman. He then looks over the plate, locks it up, sees that all the men servants are gone to bed, the doors locked, and windows fastened, and then retires to rest himself.

This business is strictly domestic, but he goes out to order things in his department, and he is sometimes employed abroad in any confidential business, to which the under servants are considered unequal.

The wages of regular Butlers, in large families, are from 50 to 80l. per annum; but in smaller families, from 30 to 50l. The perquisites, if he perform the duty of valet, are his master’s cast off clothes; and as Butler, he gets the pieces of wax candles, the second hand cards, compliments on paying tradesman’s bills, or Christmas boxes and wine for his own use. He finds his own clothes,[343] washing, &c. and is expected to be genteel and clean in his person.

In all things connected with the establishment, he is supposed, when no steward is kept, to represent his master; and as various accounts are under his direction, he ought to be able to write a fair hand, and to be ready in the first rules of arithmetic. From this display of his duties, it will appear that his office is no sinecure; and as the good order and economy of an establishment depends much on the vigilance of the Butler, when no steward is kept, so a Butler who knows his duties, and performs them with zeal, integrity, and ability, cannot be too highly prized by judicious heads of families.

To manage foreign Wines.

The principal object to be attended to in the management of foreign wine vaults, is to keep them of a temperate heat. Care must be taken, therefore, to close up every aperture or opening, that there may be no admission given to the external air. The floor of the vault should likewise be well covered with saw-dust, which must not be suffered to get too dry and dusty, but must receive now and then an addition of new, lest, when bottling or racking wine, some of the old dust should fly into it. At most vaults, in the winter, it is necessary to have a stove or chafing-dish, to keep up a proper degree of warmth. In the summer time it will be best to keep them as cool as possible.

To Fit up a Cellar of Wines and Spirits.


Provide a good rope and tackling, to let down the casks into the vault or cellar, and a slide, ladder, or pulley for the casks to slide or roll on;

A pair of strong slings;

A pair of can hooks and a pair of crate hooks;

A block of wood to put under the pipes when topping them over in a narrow passage, or in casing them;

A small valinch to taste wine;

A crane, and a small copper pump to rack off;

Two or three gallon cans, made of wood;

A large wooden funnel;

Two or three copper funnels from a quart to a gallon each;

Two racking cocks;

Two wine bottling cocks;

A brace and various bits;

Two small tubs;

A square basket to hold the corks;

Two small tin funnels;

A small strainer;

Two cork screws;

Two or three baskets;

A wisk to beat the finings;

Three flannel or linen bags;

A strong iron screw to raise the bungs;

A pair of pliers;

Bungs, corks, and vent pegs;

Two frets or middle sized gimblets;

Some sheet lead and tacks to put on broken staves;

Brown paper to put round cocks and under the lead, when stopping leaks;

A staff with a chain at one end to rumage the wines, &c.

Shots and lead canister, or bristle brush, and two cloths to wash bottles;

Two large tubs;

Some small racks that will hold six dozen each;

A cooper’s adze;

An iron and a wooden driver to tighten hoops;

Two dozen of wooden bungs of different sizes;

A thermometer, which is to be kept in the vault, a stove or chafing-dish, to keep the heat of the vault to a known temperature;

A few dozen of delf labels;

A cup-board to hold all the tools;

A spade, two good stiff birch brooms, and a rake to level the saw-dust.

To restore pricked British Wines.

Rack the wines down to the lees into another cask, where the lees of good wines are fresh; then put a pint of strong aqua vitæ, and scrape half a pound of yellow bees-wax into it, which by heating the spirit over a gentle fire, will melt;[345] after which dip a piece of cloth into it, and when a little dry, set it on fire with a brimstone match, put it into the bung-hole, and stop it up close.

Another Method.

First prepare a fresh empty cask, that has had the same kind of wine in it which is about to be racked, then match it, and rack off the wine, putting to every ten gallons two ounces of oyster-shell powder, and half an ounce of bay salt, then get the staff and stir it well about, letting it stand till it is fine, which will be in a few days; after which rack it off into another cask, (previously matched) and if the lees of some wine of the same kind can be got, it will improve it much.—Put likewise a quart of brandy to every ten gallons, and if the cask has been emptied a long time, it will match better on that account; but if even a new cask, the matching must not be omitted. A fresh empty cask is to be preferred.

This method will answer for all made wines.

To rack Foreign Wine.

The vault or cellar should be of a temperate heat, and the casks sweet and clean. Should they have an acid or musty smell, it may be remedied by burning brimstone matches in them; and if not clean, rinse them well out with cold water, and after draining rinse with a quart of brandy, putting the brandy afterwards into the ullage cask. Then strain the lees or bottoms through a flannel or linen bag. But put the bottoms of port into the ullage cask without going through the filtering bag. In racking wine that is not on the stillage, a wine-pump is desirable.

To manage and improve poor Red Port.

If wanting in body, colour, and flavour, draw out thirty or forty gallons, and return the same quantity of young and rich wines. To a can of which put three gills of colouring, with a bottle of wine or brandy. Then wisk it well together, and put it into the cask stirring it well. If not bright in about a week or ten days, fine it for use; previous to which put in at different times a gallon of good brandy. If the wine is short of body, put a gallon or two of brandy in each pipe, by a quart or two at a time, as it feeds the wine better than putting it in all at once. But if the wines are in a bonded cellar, procure a funnel that will go to the bottom of the cask, that the brandy may be completely incorporated with the wine.

To manage Claret.

Claret is not a wine of a strong body, though it requires to be of a good age before it is used, and, therefore, it[346] should be well managed; the best method is to feed it every two or three weeks with a pint or two of French brandy. Taste it frequently, to know what state it is in, and use the brandy accordingly, but never put much in at a time, while a little incorporates with the wine, and feeds and mellows it.

If the claret is faint, rack it into a fresh-emptied hogshead, upon the lees of good claret; and bung it up, putting the bottom downwards for two or three days, that the lees may run through it.

To colour Claret.

If the colour be not yet perfect, rack it off again into a hogshead that has been newly drawn off, with the lees; then take a pound of turnsole, and put it into a gallon or two of wine; let it lie a day or two, and then put it into the vessel; after which lay the bung downwards for a night, and the next day roll it about.

Or, take any quantity of damsons or black sloes, and strew them with some of the deepest coloured wine and as much sugar as will make it into a syrup. A pint of this will colour a hogshead of claret. It is also good for red port wines, and may be kept ready for use in glass bottles.

To restore Claret that drinks foul.

Rack it off from the dregs on some fresh lees of its own kind, and then take a dozen of new pippins, pare them, and take away the cores or hearts: then put them in the hogsheads, and if that is not sufficient, take a handful of the oak of Jerusalem, and bruise it; then put it into the wine, and stir it well.

To make Claret and Port rough.

Put in a quart of claret or port two quarts of sloes; bake them in a gentle oven, or over a fire, till a good part of their moisture is stewed out, then pour off the liquor, and squeeze out the rest. A pint of this will be sufficient for 30 or 40 gallons.


Take a bottle of red port that is pricked, add to it half an ounce of tartarised spirit of wine, shake the liquor well together, and set it by for a few days, and it will be found much altered for the better. If this operation be dexterously performed, pricked wines may be absolutely recovered by it, and remain saleable for some time; and the same method may be used to malt liquors just turned sour.

To manage Hermitage and Burgundy.

Red hermitage must be managed in the same way as claret, and the white likewise, except the colouring, which it[351] does not require. Burgundy should be managed in the same manner as red hermitage.

To manage Lisbon Wine.

If the Lisbon is dry, take out of the pipe thirty-five or forty gallons, and put in the same quantity of calcavella, stir it well about, and this will make a pipe of good mild Lisbon: or, if it be desired to convert mild into dry, take the same quantity out as above mentioned, before, and fill the pipe with Malaga sherry, stirring it about as the other. The same kind of fining used for Vidonia will answer for Lisbon wines; or it may be fined with the whites and shells of sixteen eggs, and a small handful of salt; beat it together to a froth, and mix it with a little of the wines; then pour it into the pipe, stir it about, and let it have vent for three days; after which bung it up, and in a few days it will be fine. Lisbon when bottled should be packed either in saw-dust or leather in a temperate place.

To manage Bucellas Wine.

In fining it, proceed in the same way as with the Madeira; only observe, that if not wanted very pale, keep the milk out of the finings. This tender wine should be fed with a little brandy, for if kept in a place that is either too hot or too cold, it will be in danger of turning foul.

To improve Sherry.

If the sherry be new and hot, rack it off into a sweet cask, add five gallons of mellow Lisbon, which will take off the hot taste, then give it a head, take a quart of honey, mix it with a can of wine, and put it into the cask when racking. By this method, Sherry for present use will be greatly improved, having much the same effect upon it as age.

To improve White Wines.

If the wine have an unpleasant taste, rack off one half; and to the remainder add a gallon of new milk, a handful of bay-salt, and as much rice; after which take a staff, beat them well together for half an hour, and fill up the cask, and when rolled well about, stillage it, and in a few days it will be much improved.

If the white wine is foul and has lost its colour, for a but or pipe take a gallon of new milk, put it into the cask, and stir it well about with a staff; and when it has settled, put in three ounces of isinglass made into a jelly, with a quarter of a pound of loaf sugar scraped fine, and stir it well about. On the day following, bung it up, and in a few days it will be fine and have a good colour.



Add a little chalk to the must, when it is somewhat sour; for the acidity arising from citric and tartaric acids, there is thus formed a precipitate of citrate and tartrate of lime, while the must becomes sweeter, and yields a much finer wine. Too much chalk may render the wine insipid, since it is proper to leave a little excess of acid in the must. Concentrate the must by boiling, and add the proper quantity of chalk to the liquor, while it is still hot. Even acid wine may be benefited by the addition of chalk. Oyster-shells may be used with this view; and when calcined are a cleaner carbonate of lime than common chalk.

To Renovate Sick Wine.

Wines on the fret should be racked; if their own lees indicates decay they should be racked on the sound lees of another wine of similar, but stronger quality, to protract their decline; if this be done at an early period, it may renovate the sick wine; on these occasions, giving the sick wine a cooler place, will retard its progress to acidity; if convenient, such wines should be forced and bottled. Previous to bottling, or rather at the forcing, give it one, two, or three table-spoonsful of calcined gypsum finely pulverised. This will check its tendency to acidity, without exciting much intumescence, without injuring the colour of the red wine, and without retarding its coating to the bottle, which it rather promotes. The proper forcing for red wines are, the whites of ten or twelve eggs, beat up with one or two tea-spoonsful of salt per hogshead, and well worked into the wine with a forcing-rod; the gypsum should be first boiled in a little water. This is intended to check the acetous process. To retard the vinous, the French are in the habit of burning sulphur immediately under the cask, and possibly the sulphuric acid evolved by the combustion, may check its progress and prevent the necessity of an admixture.

To Mellow Wine.

Cover the orifices of the vessels containing it with bladders closely fastened instead of the usual materials, and an aqueous exhalation will pass through the bladder, leaving some fine crystallizations on the surface of the wine, which, when skimmed off, leaves the wine in a highly improved state of flavour. Remnants of wine covered in this manner, whether in bottles or casks, will not turn mouldy, as when stopped in the usual way, but will be improved instead of being deteriorated.

German method of restoring sour Wines.

Put a small quantity of powdered charcoal in the wine: shake it, and after it has remained still for forty-eight hours, decant steadily.


To Concentrate Wines by Cold.

If any kind of wine be exposed to a sufficient degree of cold in frosty weather, or be put into any place where ice continues all the year, as in ice-houses, and there suffered to freeze, the superfluous water contained in the wine will be frozen into ice, and will leave the proper and truly essential part of the wine unfrozen, unless the degree of cold should be very intense, or the wine but weak and poor. When the frost is moderate, the experiment has no difficulty, because not above a third or fourth part of the superfluous water will be frozen in a whole night; but if the cold be very intense, the best way is, at the end of a few hours, when a tolerable quantity of ice is formed, to pour out the remaining fluid liquor, and set it in another vessel to freeze again by itself.

The frozen part, or ice, consists only of the watery part of the wine, and may be thrown away, and the liquid part retains all the strength, and is to be preserved. This will never grow sour, musty, or mouldy, and may at any time be reduced to wine of the common strength, by adding to it as much water as will make it up to the former quantity.


Take an ounce of isinglass, beat it into thin shreds with a hammer, and dissolve it, by boiling in a pint of water; this, when cold, becomes a stiff jelly. Whisk up some of this jelly into a froth with a little of the wine intended to be fined, then stir it well among the rest in the cask, and bung it down tight; by this means it will become bright in eight or ten days.


Take whites of eggs beat up to a froth, and mix in the same manner as in white wines.

Another Method.

Put the shavings of green beech into the vessel, having first taken off all the rind, and boil them for an hour in water to extract their rankness, and afterwards dry them in the sun, or in an oven. A bushel serves for a tun of wine; and being mashed, they serve again and again.

Mortimer recommends to gather the grapes when very dry, pick them from the stalks, press them, and let the juice stand twenty-four hours in a covered vat. Afterwards to draw it off from the gross lees, then put it up in a cask, and to add a pint or quart of strong red or white port to every gallon of juice, and let the whole work, bunging it up close, and letting it stand till January; then bottling it in dry weather.

Bradley chooses to have the liquor when pressed, stand[354] with the husks and stalks in the vat, to ferment for fifteen days.

To fine a hogshead of Claret.

Take the whites and shells of six fresh eggs, and proceed as with port finings. Claret requires to be kept warm in saw-dust when bottled.

To fine Sherry.

Take an ounce and a half of isinglass, beat it with a hammer till it can be pulled into small pieces, then put it into three pints of cider or perry, and let it remain twenty-four hours, till it becomes a jelly. After which mix it with a quart or two of wine, and whisk it well with the whites and shells of six fresh eggs. Take four or five gallons out to make room for the finings, and stir the wine well. Then nearly fill the can of finings with wine, whisk it well, and put it in the butt, stirring it well for about five minutes; afterwards fill it up, and put the bung in loose. In two days bung it up, and in eight or ten it will be fit for bottling.

To fine pale Sherry.

Put three pints of skim-milk with the whites of eight eggs, beat well together in a can; then put in finings, in the same manner as for common sherry. If the sherry be thin and poor, feed them with good brandy, as other wines.

To fine Madeira.

Take three ounces of isinglass, and dissolve it, but if old wine two ounces will be enough, also one quart of skim-milk, and half a pint of marble sand: whisk these in a can with some wine. If the pipe is full, take out a canful, and stir the pipe well; then put in the can of finings, and stir that with a staff for five minutes; after which, put the other can of wine into it, and let it have vent for three days. Then close it up, and in ten days or a fortnight it will be fine and fit for bottling and stowing with saw-dust in a warm place.

To improve Madeira which has been round to the Indies.

Madeira should be kept in a warmer place than port wine, and therefore requires a good body, and to be fed with brandy, but if deficient in flavour or mellowness, add to it a gallon or two of good Malmsey.

To fine Vidonia Wine.

When first imported, Vidonia has a harsh and acid taste; but if properly managed it more resembles Madeira wine than any other. To take off the harshness, fine it down, and then rack it off upon the lees of Madeira or white Port, fining it again with a light fining; and if 20 or 30 gallons of good Madeira wine be added, it will pass for Madeira.[355] For the finings, dissolve two ounces of isinglass, and the whites and shells of six fresh eggs; beat them well up together with a whisk and add a gill of marble sand.

To fine Malmsey and other Wines.

Take 20 fresh eggs, beat the whites, yolks, and shells together, and manage it the same as other finings.—Calcavella, Sweet Mountain, Paxaretta, and Malaga, should be managed and fined in the same manner as Lisbon.—Tent, Muscadine, Sack, and Bastard, should be managed the same as Malmsey, and fined with 16 or 20 fresh eggs, and a quart or three pints of skim-milk. Old Hock, and Vin de Grave, are thin, but pleasant wines, and should be fed with a little good brandy, and fined, if necessary, with the whites and shells of six or eight eggs.

To fine Port Wine.

Take the whites and shells of eight fresh eggs, beat them in a wooden can or pail, with a whisk, till it becomes a thick froth; then add a little wine to it, and whisk it again. If the pipe is full take out four or five gallons of the wine to make room for the finings. If the weather be warmish, add a pint of fresh-water sand to the finings. Stir it well about; after which put in the finings, stirring it for five minutes; put in the can of wine, leaving the bung out for a few hours, that the froth may fall: then bung it up, and in eight or ten days it will be fine and fit for bottling.

To make and apply Finings.

Put the finings into a can or pail, with a little of the liquor about to be fined, whisk them altogether till they are perfectly mixed, and then nearly fill the can with the liquor, whisking it well about again; after which, if the cask be full, take out four or five gallons to make room; then take the staff, and give it a good stirring; next whisk the finings up, and put them in; afterwards stir it with the staff for five minutes. Then drive the bung in, and bore a hole with a gimblet, that it may have vent for three or four days, after which drive in a vent peg.

To convert White Wine into Red.

Put four ounces of turnesole rags into an earthen vessel, and pour upon them a pint of boiling water; cover the vessel close, and leave it to cool; strain off the liquor, which will be of a fine deep red inclining to purple. A small portion of this colours a large quantity of wine. This tincture may either be made in brandy, or mixed with it, or else made into a syrup, with sugar, for keeping.

In those countries which do not produce the tinging grape which affords a blood-red juice, wherewith the wines of France are often stained, in defect of this, the juice of elderberries is used, and sometimes logwood is used at Oporto.


To force down the Finings of all White Wines, Arracks, and Small Spirits.

Put a few quarts of skimmed milk into the cask.

To render Red Wine White.

If a few quarts of well-skimmed milk be put to a hogshead of red wine, it will soon precipitate the greater part of the colour, and leave the whole nearly white; and this is of known use in the turning red wines, when pricked, into white; in which a small degree of acidity is not so much perceived.

Milk is, from this quality of discharging colour from wines, of use also to the wine-coopers, for the whitening of wines that have acquired a brown colour from the cask, or from having been hastily boiled before fermenting; for the addition of a little skimmed milk, in these cases, precipitates the brown colour, and leaves the wines almost limped, or of what they call a water whiteness, which is much coveted abroad in wines as well as in brandies.

To preserve new Wine against Thunder.

Thunder will turn and often change wines. Cellars that are paved, and the walls of stone, are preferable to boarded floors. Before a tempest of thunder, it will be advisable to lay a plate of iron on the wine-vessels.

To make Wine settle well.

Take a pint of wheat, and boil it in a quart of water, till it burst and become soft; then squeeze it through a linen cloth, and put a pint of the liquor into a hogshead of unsettled white wine; stir it well about, and it will become fine.

To make a Match for sweetening Casks.

Melt some brimstone, and dip into it a piece of coarse linen cloth; of which, when cold, take a piece of about an inch broad and five inches long, and set fire to it, putting it into the bung-hole, with one end fastened under the bung, which must be driven in very tight: let it remain a few hours before removing it out.

To make Oyster Powder.

Get some fresh oyster-shells, wash them and scrape off the yellow part from the outside; lay them on a clear fire till they become red hot; then lay them to cool, and take off the softest part, powder it, and sift it through a fine sieve; after which use it immediately, or keep it in bottles well corked up, and laid in a dry place.

To make a Filtering Bag.

This bag is made of a yard of either linen or flannel, not [357] too fine or close, and sloping, so as to have the bottom of it run to a point, and the top as broad as the cloth will allow. It must be well sewed up the side, and the upper part of it folded round a wooden hoop, and well fastened to it; then tie the hoop in three or four places with a cord to support it; and when used, put a can or pail under it to receive the liquor, filling the bag with the sediments; after it has ceased to run, wash out the bag in three or four clear waters, then hang it up to dry in an airy place, that it may not get musty. A wine dealer should always have two bags by him, one for red, and the other for white wines.

To bottle Wine.

When wine is made fine and pleasant, it may be bottled, taking care afterwards to pack it in a temperate place with saw-dust or leather. After which it will not be fit to drink for at least two months. Never use new deal saw-dust, as that causes the wine to fret, and often communicates a strong turpentine smell through the corks to the wine.

To Detect Adulterated Wine.

Heat equal parts of oyster-shells and sulphur together, and keep them in a white heat for fifteen minutes, and when cold, mix them with an equal quantity of cream of tartar; put this mixture into a strong bottle with common water to boil for one hour, and then decant into ounce phials, and add 20 drops of muriatic acid to each; this liquor precipitates the least quantity of lead, copper, &c. from wines in a very sensible black precipitate.

To Detect Alum in Wine.

Wine merchants add alum to red wine, to communicate to it a rough taste and deeper colour; but this mixture produces on the system the most serious effects. For the discovery of the fraud in question, adopt the following means:—The wine is to be discoloured by means of a concentrated solution of chlorine; the mixture is to be evaporated until reduced to nearly the fourth of its original volume; the liquor is to be filtered; it then possesses the following properties when it contains alum:—1st. It has a sweetish astringent taste; 2d. it furnishes a white precipitate (sulphate of barytes) with nitrate of barytes, insoluble in water and in nitric acid; 3d. caustic potass rise to a yellowish white precipitate of alumine, soluble in an excess of potass; 4th. the sub-carbonate of soda produces a yellowish white precipitate (sub-carbonate of alumine) decomposable by fire into carbonic acid gas, alumine, easily recognisable by its characters.



When the briskness of small liquors in the cask fails, and they become vapid and dead, which they generally do soon after they are tilted, let them be bottled.


Set fire to some in a spoon; if good it will burn brightly away, without leaving any moisture in the spoon.


Dip a cloth in cold water and wrap it two or three times round the bottle and place it in the sun. Repeat this once or twice.


Procure some soft straw or hay to pack them in, and if they are to be sent a long way, and are heavy, the hay or straw should be a little damp, which will prevent them slipping about. Let the largest and heaviest things be always put undermost in the box or hamper. Let there be plenty of straw, and pack the articles tight; but never attempt to pack up glass or china which is of much consequence, till you have seen it done by some used to the job. The expense will be but trifling to have a person to do it who understands it, and the loss may be great if articles of much value are packed up in an improper manner.


Cut some brown paper into very small bits, so as to go with ease into the decanters; then cut a few pieces of soap very small, and put some water, milk-warm, into the decanters, upon the soap and paper: put in also a little pearl ash; by well working this about in the decanters it will take off the crust of the wine, and give the glass a fine polish. Where the decanters have had wine left to stand in them a long time, take a small cane with a bit of sponge tied tight at one end: by putting this into the decanters any crust of the wine may be removed. When the decanters have been properly washed, let them be thoroughly dried, and turned down in a proper rack.

If the decanters have wine in them when put by, have some good corks always at hand to put in instead of stoppers; this will keep the wine much better.


Be careful not to shake or disturb the crust when moving it about, or drawing the cork, particularly Port wine. Never decant wine without a wine-strainer, with some fine cambric in it, to prevent the crust, and bits of cork going into the decanter. In decanting Port wine do not drain it too near; there are generally two-thirds of a wine glass of thick dregs in each bottle, which ought not to be put in; but in[359] white wine there is not much settling; pour it out however slowly, and raise the bottle up gradually, the wine should never be decanted in a hurry, therefore always do it before the family sit down to dinner. Do not jostle the decanters against each other when moving them about, as they easily break when full.


Always inquire before you mix a salad, how your master or mistress would like to have it done. If no particular method be pointed out to you, adopt the following, which has been much approved of. Let the salad be well washed and dried in a cloth before you cut it up; save a part of the celery with a little beet-root and endive for ornament in the middle of the dish: cut the rest small as well as the lettuce and mustard and cresses, and put to it the following mixture: take the yolk of an egg boiled hard, rub it quite smooth with a table-spoonful of oil and a little mustard; when they are well mixed together add six spoonsful of milk or cream, and when these are well mixed, put six or seven spoonsful of vinegar to the whole, and mix it all together with the salad. Never make the salad long before it is wanted, as it becomes flat with standing.


Put 40 grains of citric acid, 7 full drops of essence of lemon, 7 oz. of lump sugar, in a quart mug; pour over 1 pint of boiling water, when the sugar is melted, stir; then add ½ pint of rum, and ¼ pint of brandy.


Soda water is prepared (from powders) precisely in the same manner as ginger beer, except that, instead of the two powders there mentioned, the two following are used: for one glass, 30 grains of carbonate of soda; for the other, 25 grains of tartaric (or citric) acid.


Take an ounce of powdered ginger, half an ounce of cream of tartar, a large lemon sliced, two pounds of lump sugar, and one gallon of water; mix all together, and let it simmer over the fire for half an hour, then put a table-spoonful of yeast to it, let it ferment a little time, and then put it into stone pint bottles, and cork it down closely for use.


Take 2 drams of fine loaf sugar, 8 grains of ginger, and 26 grains of carbonate of potass, all in fine powder; mix them intimately in a Wedgwood’s-ware mortar. Take also 27 grains of citric or tartaric acid, (the first is the pleasantest[360] but the last the cheapest.) The acid is to be kept separate from the mixture. The beer is prepared from the powders thus: take two tumbler glasses, each half filled with water, stir up the compound powder in one of them, and the acid powder in the other, then mix the two liquors, when an effervescence takes place, the beer is prepared and drank off immediately.


Put into a kettle of hot water any quantity of fresh shelled green peas, and after just letting them boil up, pour them into a large thick cloth, cover them with another, make them quite dry, and set them once or twice in a cool oven to harden a little; after which put them into paper bags, and hang them up in the kitchen for use.—To prepare them when wanted, they are first to be soaked well for an hour or more, and then put into warm water, and boiled with a little butter.


The juice of garlick, pounded in a stone mortar, is said to be the strongest cement to mend broken glass.


To ensure the sweetness of fish conveyed by land carriage, the belly of the fish should be opened, and the internal parts sprinkled with powdered charcoal. The same material will restore impure or even putrescent water to a state of perfect freshness.


Nothing has been found so effectual for preserving water sweet as charring the insides of the casks well before they are filled. When the water becomes impure and offensive, from ignorance of the preservative effect produced on it by charring the casks previous to their being filled, it may be rendered perfectly sweet by putting a little fresh charcoal in powder into the cask, or by filtering it through fresh burnt and coarsely pulverized charcoal.


A mop and a pail of water are generally the most efficacious remedies, but if it has gained head, then keep out the air, and remove all ascending or perpendicular combustibles, up which the fire creeps and increases in force as it rises.


Shut the doors and windows, throw water on the fire in the grate, and then stop up the bottom of the chimney.

Another Method.

The mephitic vapour produced by throwing a handful of flour of sulphur on the burning coals, where a chimney is on fire, will immediately extinguish the flames.



The duties of this servant are not so various nor so important as those of the footman; indeed, they are very frequently, and particularly in small families, a part of the business of a footman. The particular province of the valet is to attend to the personal accommodation of his master. He waits on him when dressing and undressing, has the care of his wardrobe, brushes and keeps his clothes in good order and ready to put on when wanted. For this purpose every garment or other article of wearing apparel, should be carefully examined, cleaned or brushed on the first opportunity that offers, and then put away in its proper place.

He should chuse the earliest part of the morning to clean the boots and shoes, unless it be otherwise arranged, and brush the clothes, and to do all such work, so as to be able to get to his master’s dressing-room time enough to make the necessary arrangements there before he expects him to rise. He will see that the housemaid has lighted the fire, and cleaned out and dusted the rooms; will prepare the washing-stand, fill the ewer with clean soft water, and the caroft with fresh spring water.—The basin and towels, the hair, nail, and tooth-brushes clean, and in their proper places; hot water, and all the necessary apparatus for shaving, quite ready; his dressing-gown and slippers airing before the fire; and his clean linen perfectly well aired[362] by himself, before it be considered as fit to be put on. The coat, trowsers, &c. intended to be worn must be taken out and placed at length across the backs of chairs, the sleeves and outsides turned inward, with a clean linen or brown Holland wrapper thrown over them, to save them from dust. Having once ascertained the way in which these things are to be done, he will find it easy in future, and will be sure to please. The best way to hang up a coat is, to fold it once at full length, with the inside outward, the sleeves put straight, and the two fronts together, and then hang it on a cloak-pin by the inside of the shoulder.

If the wardrobe be sufficiently large to hold each kind of garment separately, it will be so much the better, as the coats and other articles may then be laid in smoothly and at length, as soon as they are brushed and cleaned, and a brown Holland cloth may be spread over each drawer or shelf, to preserve them from the dust.

Gentlemen who shave themselves, usually strop their own razors immediately after the operation, whilst the metal is yet warm, which is the best way: but if it be left to the valet to do, the razor must be dipped in warm water and wiped dry with a clean cloth or rag; then laying it flat on the strop, draw it diagonally, from the heel to the point, the whole length of the strop, turning the elbow in and out every time the razor is turned; half a dozen or half a score strokes backwards and forwards, as often as it is used, will keep it in good order for a considerable time. Good razors are made concave, or hollow, between the back and the edge, on both sides, for the[363] greater security in shaving, and for the purpose of giving them a better edge in setting or stropping.

Having attended his master while dressing, combed his hair, &c. the valet will take the first opportunity, after he is gone, to set the room in order, by looking over his things, folding away his night clothes, washing the brushes and combs occasionally, when necessary, with warm water and soap, wiping them clean, and drying them at an easy distance from the fire, and then putting them away in their places.—The dressing-stand must be wiped clean and dry, the basin washed and wiped, the ewer and caroft rinsed out and filled again with clean water, the towels taken away and replaced with clean ones, the fire stirred, the room dusted, and every thing put in order, as if immediately to be used again. This must always be done as soon as possible after his master is dressed or re-dressed, and every garment or other article that has been taken off, must be brushed, folded, and put away in its proper place.

In case of the master’s coming home wet from a ride, or otherwise, an immediate change of warm dry clothes must be provided, and the wet or damp things taken away and dried at a proper distance from the fire; after having wiped the coat, or other woollen garments, with a sponge, the way of the nap, or, if only spotted, with a silk handkerchief, in the same manner, which will effectually smooth the grain of the cloth, and remove all the spots.

When preparing for a journey, care should be taken to ascertain the probable time of absence, that sufficient change of linen, &c. may[364] be provided—nor must the shaving and dressing apparatus be forgotten. When arrived at an inn, or visiting place, all his master’s things must be carried into his dressing-room, and set in order for dressing, or for the night, as nearly as possible in the same order as at home. If the footman be not there, the valet will have to attend to his master’s accommodation below stairs also.

The valet is to be always in attendance, in case of his master’s coming home unexpectedly—and he is to assist in waiting at table at all meal-times.

As the valet is much about his master’s person, and has the opportunity of hearing his off-at-hand opinions on many subjects, he should endeavour to have as short a memory as possible, and, above all, keep his master’s council; and he should be very cautious of mischief-making or tale-bearing, to the prejudice of other persons, as calculated to involve his master in disputes, and ruin himself, if by chance he is incorrect.

The usual salary is from 30l. to 60l. per annum, but in some situations much more. Perquisites, his master’s cast-off clothes.


Rub it with a soft brush dipped in roche alum burnt, sifted to a very fine powder.


Boil a good handful of fig-leaves in two quarts of water till reduced to a pint. Bombazine, crape, cloth, &c. need only be rubbed with a sponge dipped in the liquor, and the effect will be instantly produced.


Mix up with the brush, in prepared lather, one tea-spoonful of finely pounded best lump whiting, without the smallest danger to the razor’s edge or the surface of the chin. Perhaps the very best edge may be given to the razor also, by[365] throwing a pinch of whiting on a moderately oiled or soaped strop.


Dip a soft brush in water, rub a little soap on it, and brush the article for a minute or two, then wash it clean, wipe it; place it near the fire till dry, and brush it with burnt bread finely powdered.


Keep them moderately moist with a drop or two of sweet oil; a little crocus martis and a few drops of sweet oil, rubbed well in with a glass bottle, will give the razor a fine edge; pass it afterwards on the inside of your hand when warm, and dip it in hot water just before using.


If a black, blue, or brown coat, dry 2 ounces of Fuller’s earth, and pour on it sufficient boiling water to dissolve it, and plaster with it the spots of grease; take a pennyworth of bullock’s gall, mix with it half a pint of stale urine; and a little boiling water; with a hard brush, dipped in this liquor, brush spotted places. Then dip the coat in a bucket of cold spring water. When nearly dry, lay the nap right, and pass a drop of oil of olives over the brush to finish it.

If grey, drab, fawns, or maroons, cut yellow soap into thin slices, and pour water upon it to moisten it. Rub the greasy and dirty spots of the coat. Let it dry a little, and then brush it with warm water, repeating, if necessary, as at first, and use water a little hotter; rinse several times, in warm water, and finish as before.


Lay the gloves upon a clean board, make a mixture of dried fulling-earth and powdered alum, and pass them over on each side with a common stiff brush: then sweep it off, and sprinkle them well with dry bran and whiting, and dust them well; this, if they be not exceedingly greasy, will render them quite clean; but if they are much soiled, take out the grease with crumbs of toasted bread, and powder of burnt bone: then pass them over with a woollen cloth, dipped in fulling-earth or alum powder; and in this manner they can be cleaned without wetting, which frequently shrinks and spoils them.


Dry, pulverize, and sift the following ingredients:
6 lbs. of fuller’s earth,
1 lb. of pipe-clay, and
4 oz. of French chalk.[366]

Make a paste of the above with the following:—
1 oz. of rectified oil of turpentine,
2 oz. of spirit of wine, and
1½ lbs. of melted oil soap.

Make up the compound into cakes, which are to be kept in water, or in small wooden boxes.


Wrap up yellow or turpentine soap in paper, or place an open bottle, containing spirits of turpentine within the wardrobe. But as the smell of the latter may be unpleasant, sprinkle bay leaves, lavender, or walnut-leaves, black pepper in grains, or Russia leather shavings.


Having cleaned it well, boil two or three ounces of logwood for half a hour. Dip it in warm water and squeeze it dry, then put it into the copper, and boil half an hour. Take it out and add a small piece of green copperas, and boil it another half hour. Hang it in the air for an hour or two, then rinse it in two or three cold waters, dry it and let it be regularly brushed over with a soft brush, over which a drop or two of oil of olives has been rubbed.


Dip a brush in warm gall, apply it to greasy places, and rinse it off in cold water; dry by the fire, then lay the coat flat, strew damp sand over it, and with a brush beat the sand into the cloth; then brush it out with a hard brush, and the sand will bring away the dirt. Rub a drop of oil of olives over a soft brush, to brighten the colours.


Mix 1 pound of Bath brick, 2 pounds of pipe-clay, 4 ounces of pumice stone powder, and six ounces of ox gall; colour them with rose pink, yellow ochre, umber, Irish slate, &c. to the desired shade.


Mix 2 pounds of pipe clay, 4 ounces of Fuller’s earth, 4 ounces of whiting, and a quarter of a pint of ox galls.


The white of an egg applied to the injured part, and dried in the sun, will effectually answer this purpose.

Another Method.

To two table spoonsful of spirit of turpentine, put half an ounce of mealy potatoes, add some of the best Durham mustard, with a little vinegar; let them dry, and when well rubbed, the spots will be entirely removed.



Take of French yellow ochre, 1 lb.
sweet oil, a dessert spoonful

Mix well together, so that the oil may not be seen: then
take of pipe-clay, 1 lb.
starch, ¼ lb.

Mix with boiling water, when cold, lay it on the leather; and rub and brush it well when dry.


Portable balls for removing spots from clothes, may be thus prepared. Fuller’s earth perfectly dried, (so that it crumbles into a powder,) is to be moistened with the clear juice of lemons, and a small quantity of pure pearl-ashes is to be added. Knead the whole carefully together, till it acquires the consistence of a thick elastic paste: form it into convenient small balls, and dry them in the sun. To be used, first moisten the spot on the clothes with water, then rub it with the ball, and let the spot dry in the sun; after having washed it with pure water, the spot will entirely disappear.


For this purpose alkaline liquors are not to be used; for while they clean the gold they corrode the silk, and change or discharge its colour. Soap also alters the shade, and even the species of certain colours. But, spirit of wine may be used without any danger of its injuring either colour or quality; and, in many cases, proves as effectual for restoring the lustre of gold, as the corrosive detergents. But, though spirit of wine is the most innocent material employed for this purpose, it is not in all cases proper. The golden covering may be in some parts worn off; or the base metal, with which it has been alloyed, may be corroded by the air, so as to leave the particles of gold disunited; while the silver underneath, tarnished to a yellow hue, may continue a tolerable colour to the whole: so it is apparent that the removal of the tarnish would be prejudicial, and make the lace or embroidery less like gold than it was before.


Take soap wort, bruise it, strain out the juice, and add to it a small quantity of black soap; wash the stains a few times with this liquor, suffering it to dry between whiles, and in a day or two they will disappear.


Boil a large handful of fig-leaves in two quarts of water until reduced to a pint. Squeeze the leaves, and put the liquor into a bottle for use. The articles need only be rubbed with a sponge in the liquor, and the stains will instantly disappear.



The man Cook, now become a requisite member in the establishment of a man of fashion, is in all respects the same as that of a female Cook. He is generally a foreigner, or if an Englishman, possesses a peculiar tact in manufacturing many fashionable foreign delicacies, or of introducing certain seasonings and flavours in his dishes, which render them more inviting to the palate of his employer, than those produced by the simply healthful modes of modern English Cooks.

The man Cook has the entire superintendance of the kitchen, while his several female assistants are employed in roasting, boiling, and all the ordinary manual operations of the kitchen. His attention is chiefly directed to the stew-pan, in the manufacture of stews, fricassees, fricandeaux, &c. At the same time, his situation is one of great labour and fatigue, which, with the superior skill requisite for excellence in his art, procures him a liberal salary, frequently twice or thrice the sum given to the most experienced female English Cook.

As the scientific preparations of the man cook would themselves fill a large volume, and are not generally useful in English families, it is not deemed necessary to give place to them in this work; but the following useful receipts having, inadvertently, been omitted under the head Cook, they are inserted in this place rather than omitted altogether.

As the art of Cookery, or gourmanderie,[369] is reduced to a regular science in France, where an egg may be cooked half a hundred ways, so those who can afford large families of servants, and give frequent entertainments, consider a man-cook as economical, because he produces an inexhaustible variety without any waste of materials, and that elegance and piquancy of flavours which are necessary to stimulate the appetites of the luxurious. In France, all culinary business is conducted by men, and there are, at least, as many men cooks as considerable kitchens; but in England, men cooks are kept only in about 3 or 400 great and wealthy families, and in about 40 or 50 London hotels. But it is usual in smaller establishments to engage a man cook for a day or two before an entertainment.[21]


Let the fowl, duck, rabbit, meat, fish, or vegetable, &c. be cut up into small pieces, sprinkling a little flour thereon, fried in butter, (with two middle-sized onions sliced fine,) or what is called drawn in a pan, then stewed in the gravy from a pound of beef (though water is as frequently used) over a brisk fire, for about twenty minutes, with two or three table-spoonsful of the mixture, as below, stirring the whole occasionally; or the powder may be rubbed well over the fowl, &c. and fried with it, adding two ounces of butter, the juice of a fine lemon, or half a wine glass of lemon juice, or lemon pickle,—two cloves of garlic, chopped very fine, and one tea-spoonful of salt. If any of the ingredients predominate too much, or an insufficiency prevail, subtract or add according to taste. For a larger quantify of meat than the weight of a large fowl, use more of the mixture in proportion. The curry will be much improved by the mixture being made into a thin paste with a few spoonsful of cream, and then rubbed over the meat, previously to its being put into the stew-pan.



Thirteen ounces coriander seed, three ounces cumin seed, two ounces black pepper, four ounces China turmeric, or curcuma root, half an ounce Cayenne pepper, one quarter of an ounce powdered cassia, one quarter of an ounce powdered white ginger, also one half of an ounce of cardamums, one quarter of an ounce of cloves, and one quarter of an ounce of allspice.

The above quantities are enough for twenty curries, but it should be kept dry in a tin canister.

The curried fowl, &c. as above, will require three quarters of a pound of rice to be a sufficiency for curry eaters. The curry and the rice should be served in separate dishes, with covers, the dishes having heaters, or in hot water dishes, such as those used for beef-steaks.

N. B.—Two or three sour apples cut into quarters, as well as a few fresh mushrooms, are great improvements to all curries; as are truffles. If the latter are used, the liquor in which they are boiled should be added to the curry.


Cut up a fowl, duck, rabbit, beef, or mutton, boil the same in two quarts of water for a quarter of an hour; then mix the under-mentioned therein, previously bruising the spices in a mortar, rejecting the husk. For a larger quantity of meat than the weight of a large fowl, use more of the mixture in proportion.

Two table spoons over-filled of the curry powder or ingredients, answers the purpose, and better, adding the butter, onions, garlic, pease-flour, acid, &c.

One quarter of an ounce China turmeric, one sixth of an ounce Cayenne pepper, one ounce and a quarter coriander seed, one third of an ounce of powdered cassia, two drams two scruples black pepper.

One table-spoon of butter; juice from a fine lemon, or equal quantity of lemon-pickle, three middle sized onions cut fine, six cloves of garlic chopped very fine, six tea-spoons of pease-flour, high-dried or baked; then pour thereon half a pint of boiling-water, strain the ingredients through a fine cloth or sieve, then put the same with fowl, &c. over the fire, adding at this time the butter and onions previously fried together, boil the same for half an hour, adding, in the last five minutes, the acid, when the Mulga-tawney will be ready for the table; which eaten as soup and bouilli, mixing rice therein, will prove not only palatable, but an excellent stomachic. The Mulga-tawney, or soup, when done, should be nearly the consistency of cream; if it should prove otherwise, when proceeding as above, more or less water should be used on the onset, but not afterwards[371] added. The soup with the meat to be served in a tureen, and sent to table quite hot; the rice in a dish having hot water below and a cover.

A prejudice may exist against Curry and Mulga-tawney, but there can be no doubt of both being perfectly wholesome; as, to wit, throughout the East Indies, it is the daily food of millions of all ages.


The following is different from that adopted generally in England, but was followed by an old Indian officer when here, and found to answer perfectly well; but the object to be accomplished is, that the rice should be well done, as white as possible, and perfectly free from water: the rice used should be Patna; the Carolina, though much whiter, is not so good either for Curry or Mulga-tawney.

Take a pound of Patna rice, have the same well washed, looking over each grain for small stones, husks, &c. then put the rice into a saucepan, and pour thereon boiling water, put on the cover, and let the saucepan remain off the fire about a quarter of an hour; in that time, if the water was full boiling, the rice will be sufficiently softened for use; pour the water off, and to dry the rice, set it over the fire for a couple of minutes, stirring it well during the time with a fork. Proceeding as above the rice will be as dry and as well cooked as that prepared by the natives in the East Indies; great care to be taken that it does not become hard by the heat.

Another way of boiling the rice is, to soak it an hour in cold water, then put it into a saucepan and cover it with hot water, adding one tea-spoonful of salt to every tea-cup full of rice. Place it over the fire, and when it has boiled about ten minutes, the water should be poured off. Then cover the saucepan close down, and let it stand by the fire for a few minutes, when the rice will become dry, and fit to serve up with your curry.



On the sobriety, steady conduct, and respectable appearance of this important servant, depend the exterior appearance of the family with which he resides. Every genuine Coachman has his characteristic costume. His flaxen curls or wig, his low cocked hat, his plush breeches, and his benjamin surtout, his clothes being also well brushed, and the lace and buttons in a state of high polish. Care in driving his horses so as to preserve his own family and not injure other passengers on horse or foot, that he may not involve his master in law-suits, and wound the feelings of those he is driving, is of the utmost consequence. It is his business to have the carriage kept in repair, and to prevent his master being imposed upon by wanton charges; and in like manner to advise and assist in the purchase of horses, and in this delicate business, protect the interest of his employer. Much depends on his zeal, as to the annual expenditure of a carriage, with reference to the coach-maker, the horse-dealer, and the farrier; and he will do well always to make special contract, and leave as little as possible to the conscience of others. When only one coachman is kept, his duties generally include the whole of the stable business, as well as the cleaning, greasing, and examining the carriage; about which latter, he should never trust to chance; and consult the smith or coach-maker as often as he apprehends a possibility of danger. The[373] following instructions apply to the coachman’s duty when assisted by an establishment, but they apply to the coachman alone when there is no stable establishment, and whether the horses are jobbed or not, his anxious attention to their welfare is equally required.

If not fatigued by late hours on the preceding night, he rises to take care of his horses, at the same hour as the other men on the establishment, and they are attended in the same manner, by himself and his assistants, as is hereafter described, under the head Groom.

The necessary morning business of the stable usually occupies the servants till breakfast time, after which they all return to the stable, shake down the litter on each side of the horses, and put the stable in good order, in expectation of their master, who probably, pays them a visit after breakfast to inspect the horses, give orders, or make enquiries.

The helpers and assistants are now busily employed in looking over and cleaning such of the harness as was last used, and remains uncleaned. This, having been washed from the wet dirt, and clean sponged over-night, after the arrival of the carriage, and being now dry, is first brushed with a dry hard brush, and the brass ornaments cleaned, for which purpose see the receipts; or the silver ornaments may be cleaned with finely-powdered charcoal, and polished off with a soft brush.

The ornaments being cleaned, the leathers are to be blacked with the liquid mixture, which is a very valuable and excellent receipt for that purpose; the brushes to be used are, 1, a hard brush for taking off the[374] dirt; 2, a soft brush for laying on the mixture; and 3, a polishing brush.

After breakfast, the coachmen, with their assistants, or each, if more than one, proceed to clean their respective coaches; first, well washing the carriage part and wheels with a mop and a water brush. The back straps and straps of the springs are to be blacked, and in short, all the parts, that are of leather, are to be blacked in the same way as the harness, the brass or other ornaments being first cleaned. The wheels and bed of the carriage are next to be greased or oiled, and the linch-pins securely put in.

The inside of the coach is then to be brushed, the glasses cleaned, and the lamps cleaned and trimmed.

The carriage, horses, harness, and the whole equipage being now ready, the coachman attends his master or mistress for orders, if not previously received.

When the time is nearly arrived at which the coach is ordered, the helper or assistants harness the horses and put them to, while the coachman is dressing himself. He then narrowly inspects the whole equipage—sees that the coach, horses, harness, and all things are in order; when taking his whip and the reins in his left hand, a man standing at the heads of the horses, he mounts the box, on the near side, and drives off to the door.

In due time, the coach and other carriages, as well as the saddle horses, return, when the coachman alights, unbuckles the reins, and giving the horses into the care of the helpers, takes his whip with him into the stable, and deposits it in its proper place. He then, if[375] there be time and day-light, washes and cleans his coach.

At eight o’clock, if not otherwise engaged, he attends the regular stable duties, and waters, feeds, rubs down, litters, and racks up his horses, in the usual manner.

The wages of the head or upper coachman, is from 25 to 36 guineas per annum, with generally two suits of livery—a box coat once in two or three years, two hats, and two pair of boots; also one or two stable dresses, consisting of overalls, jackets, waistcoats, and undress frock coat.


Take half a pint of turpentine, ¼ of a pound of rotten stone, ¼ of a pound of charcoal, finely powdered, and ½ a pint of the drippings of sweet oil. Mix them, and apply the paste with leather, and polish it off with powdered charcoal.


The colour of harness that has become rusty or brown by wear, may be restored to a fine black after the dirt has been sponged and brushed off, by using the following mixture: viz.

Boil logwood chips in three quarts of soft water, to which add three oz. of nut-galls, finely powdered, and one oz. of alum; simmer the whole together for half an hour, and it will be fit for use.


Take two oz. of mutton suet, melted, 6 oz. of purified bees wax, melted; ¼ lb. lamp black; 1 gill of turpentine; 2 oz. of Prussian blue, powdered; 1 oz. of indigo blue, ground; 6 oz. of sugar-candy, melted in a little water; and 2 oz. of soft soap. Mix, and simmer over the fire 15 minutes, when add a gill of turpentine. Lay it on the harness with a sponge, and then polish it.


Throw the saddle or harness to which it has been used over its back, and it will come out of the stable as tractably as usual.



The business of the Footman is so multifarious and incessant, that in most families, if he be industrious, attentive, and disposed to make himself useful, he will find full employment in the affairs of the house, and the more useful he can make himself, in a general way, the more acceptable will be his services to the whole house, the greater will be his reward, and the more comfortable he will be himself.

In many genteel small families, the footman is the only man servant, in which case he is expected to make himself generally useful; but his particular departments are, the cleaning of the knives, shoes, plate, and furniture; answering the door, going of errands, waiting at table, and answering the parlour bell. The footman finds himself merely in linen, stockings, shoes, and washing; but if silk stockings, or any extra articles are expected to be worn, they are found by the family. On quitting service, every livery servant is expected to leave behind him any livery had within six months; the last new livery is usually reserved for Sundays and dress occasions.

For the better dispatch of his own particular business, it is indispensably necessary that the footman should rise early, and as every moment of his time will be appropriated, he must endeavour to get that part of his business,[377] which depends upon himself, done before the family are stirring, as interruptions may then occur, and his necessary labours be unavoidably delayed, or made to interfere with other business, not less necessary.

The footman should endeavour to get the dirtiest part of his work done first; such as cleaning the shoes and boots, knives and forks, brushing and cleaning clothes, hats and gloves, and cleaning the furniture, &c. &c. For these purposes, his working dress should be generally a pair of overalls, a waistcoat and fustian jacket, and a leather apron, with a white apron to put on occasionally, when called from these duties.[22]

The business of the footman below stairs being done, he next proceeds to clean the lamps in the best rooms. The oil in them should be fine and good, and changed once a week or ten days, and the cottons should be thick and closely woven, always kept dry, and cut even at the top, and soaked a little when fresh put in, by letting down the oil to them for a short time.

For cleaning boots and shoes, he takes care to provide himself with proper brushes and good blacking. In boots he will not[378] clean the tops till he has finished the feet and legs, when it will be necessary to cover the legs whilst he is cleaning the tops.

Ladies’ shoes are to be cleaned with milk, and other liquids, according to their colour, and merely the edges of the soles are to be blacked and polished, but in cleaning these and gentlemen’s dress shoes, great care must be taken not to soil the inside linings.

Afterwards, the next business in rotation in the morning, will be to clean the mahogany and other furniture, in the parlour and best rooms. Whether the tables, side-boards, cellerets, chairs, &c. be of a light or dark colour, they must be cleaned with a preparation or oil of an appropriate colour.

In using the different compositions, have two pieces of woollen cloth for each, one to put it on with, and the other for polishing. Sometimes a hard brush will be required to lay on the paste, and a piece of soft cork to rub out the stains. Always rub the wood the way of the grain, and remember to dust the furniture before you begin to clean it.

If oil be used, let it be rubbed off as quickly as possible, and then polished with another cloth. When wax is used, let it be applied very sparingly, and polished off with another cloth.

The brass rods or other ornaments to side-boards, cellarets, &c. should be cleaned before the mahogany is touched. The dirt on these ornaments may be removed with flannel well soaped, and polished off with the plate leather. If any brass work has the lacquer worn off, it may be cleaned with brick-dust and leather.


Every article of furniture should be cleaned and rubbed in the middle of the room, when convenient, to prevent smearing and injuring the walls.

Looking Glasses being very costly, should be cleaned with great care. First, take a clean soft sponge, just squeezed out of water, and then dipped in spirits of wine; rub the glass over with this, and then polish it off with fine powder blue, or whiting tied up in muslin, quickly laid on, and then well rubbed off, with a clean cloth, and afterwards with a silk handkerchief. If the glass be very large, no more of it should be wetted with the spirit at a time, than can be cleaned off quickly.

The frames must never be touched with any thing wet or damp. Cotton-wool is the best thing to rub them with, as it will take off the stains and dirt without doing any injury;[23] or, if the frames are varnished, they may be rubbed with the spirits of wine, which will at once take out the spots and dirt, after which they may be re-varnished.

Pictures are best cleaned lightly with a wet sponge, but should never be touched with a cloth.

The attendance of the footman will now be required in the breakfast parlour, for which purpose, he must prepare by washing himself, and throwing off his working dress.

In the directions to the butler, we have given sufficiently at large, setting out the breakfast table, and waiting at breakfast,[380] which in small families becomes solely the business of the footman.

After breakfast, he sets the parlour to rights by sweeping up the crumbs, shaking the green cloth, and laying it again on the table, making up the fire and sweeping up the hearth.

The footman now carries out such messages and cards as he is charged to deliver.

When the footman is obliged to go out with the carriage, the butler or under butler usually undertakes to do such things in his absence, as he necessarily leaves undone.

In large families, the footman lays the cloth for dinner, and the knives and forks and glasses, and the butler arranges the silver articles, and sees that the whole is correctly laid out. When the hour of dinner approaches, notice is usually given, by the ringing of a bell by the footman, ten or fifteen minutes before the time; and during this time he is busy in carrying up every thing that he thinks may or can be wanted during dinner, so as to have every thing at hand, at that time. Again he rings the dinner bell, to announce to the family that dinner is going up, when the butler takes the first dish, and is followed by the under butler and footman with the remainder of the fish and soups, which the butler places on the table, and removing the covers, gives them to the footman and under butler, who convey them out of the room. The servants then take their respective stations,—the butler at the side-board, to serve the wines or beer when called for; the footman at the back of his master’s chair, and the lady’s footman, if any, behind his lady. When the soups and fish have been served round, the butler rings[381] the dining-room bell to warn the cook to be ready with the removes, which are generally, solid joints of meat, or the first course, if no removes; the butler then removes the dishes from the table, and hands them to the footman or under butler, who carries them away. If wine or beer is asked for, the footman or under butler puts the empty glasses on a waiter, and the butler fills them. When a clean plate is wanted, the butler hands it to the footman, with a clean knife and fork, and the footman puts the dirty one in the proper place to be taken away.

When the butler sees that the first course is nearly done with, he again gives notice to the cook, and proceeds to take all the dishes off the table, and the footman and under butler take them away, and fetch the second course. The butler being employed, in the mean time, in setting the table in order, laying the mats, clean spoons, glasses, &c. The footman, with the assistance of the house-maids and others, having brought up the next course, the butler places the dishes on the table, takes off the covers, hands them to the footman, to be taken away, and again takes his station at the side-board, and during the whole dinner, the same kind of etiquette as before, is observed by every servant in attendance, (of which, in some cases, there are several besides the butler, under butler, and footman; namely, the lady’s footman, valet, and on particular occasions, waiters hired for the purpose.) The third course, (consisting of pastry, viz. pies, tarts, &c. with game at the top and bottom of the table, and the cheese and salads placed on the side-board) which[382] being removed, as before, the butler with a napkin wipes off the stains and marks of the hot dishes on the tables, and places the dessert, as it is brought up by the footman and under butler. He also puts the wine on the table, and the under butler the wine-glasses, while the footman places the finger glasses before each person, and a plate, with a knife and fork and spoon on each plate, the butler putting other spoons for serving the fruits, jellies, &c. The butler takes his place behind his master’s chair, at the foot of the table, and the lady’s footman, behind his lady’s chair at the head, to hand the wines, &c. and all the other servants leave the room, taking with them all the things that have been used.

The footman, as soon as all the things are carried down, repairs to the drawing-room, makes up the fire, sweeps up the hearth, and otherwise prepares that room. The butler also taking occasion to see that the lamps and candles are lighted, and the card tables set out, with candles and two packs of cards on each, and the chairs and sofas properly arranged by the footman.

The butler and footman then retire to their several avocations in the butler’s pantry, where the footman is employed in washing and wiping the glasses, and the under butler cleaning the plate, (which the kitchen maid generally washes.) When the ladies have retired from the dining-room, and the drawing-room bell rings for coffee, the footman enters with the tray, the coffee being made below stairs, and the bread and butter, cakes, toast, &c. the under butler, or some other servant following, to take away the empty cups and saucers on a[383] waiter or tray. At tea time, the butler carries up the tea-tray, and the footman the toast, muffins, &c. (which are prepared by the kitchen maid). Tea is announced to the gentlemen by the footman, and the gentlemen having joined the ladies, the tea and coffee is handed round by the butler, bread and butter, toast, &c. by the footman, the under butler following to take away the cups and saucers.

If there be no supper, the wine, when ordered, is carried in by the butler, and the glasses, &c. on a tray, by the footman; if sandwiches are introduced, they are carried up on a tray, covered with a clean cloth, by the footman, the butler attending in the room to hand the wines, &c.

The company being gone, the bed-room candlesticks are brought by the footman, and are handed to each person respectively as he wishes to retire to bed.

The footman then shuts up all the lower part of the house, if not before done, and retires to bed himself. The butler follows last, sees all safe, and retires also.

In going out with the carriage, the footman should be dressed in his best livery, his shoes and stockings being very clean, and his hat, great coat, &c. being well brushed; nothing being so disgraceful as a slovenly exterior. He should be ready at receiving directions at the carriage door, and accurate in delivering them to the coachman, and though he may indicate the importance of his family by his style of knocking at a door, he ought to have some regard to the nerves of the family and the peace of the neighbourhood. When the carriage waits at routs or public places, he[384] should abstain from drinking with other servants, and take care to be within call when wanted. His expertness in letting down the steps and putting them up again, and his caution in shutting the door, so as not to injure any one, or the dresses of the ladies, are expected.

When he walks out behind his mistress, he should preserve a modest demeanour, and protect her, if necessary, from intrusion or insult; and on this duty he is expected to be particularly attentive to every part of his dress. In answering the door it is his duty to behave respectfully to all enquirers after his master or mistress, and never to presume on his knowledge of persons whom they ought to see or ought not to see, except in obedience to positive instructions.

The Footman’s wages are from 20 to 30 guineas, with two suits of livery, and two undress suits.


Mix in a phial, one drachm of oxy-muriate of potass, with two ounces of distilled water; and when the salt is dissolved, add two ounces of muriatic acid. Then shake well together, mix in another phial, three ounces of rectified spirit of wine with half an ounce of the essential oil of lemon, unite the contents of the two phials, and keep the liquid thus prepared, closely corked for use. This chemical liquid should be applied with a clean sponge, and dried in a gentle heat; after which, the boot-tops may be polished with a proper brush, so as to appear like new leather.

Another Method of Cleaning Boot-Tops.

Take of white vitriol, powdered, one ounce,
acid of sugar one ounce,
water, one quart.

Mix together.

Put a label on it, “Rank Poison.”

Sponge the tops with water first: then mix with the liquid, and then with water again.



Take two ounces of bees’ wax, scrape it fine, put it into a pot or jar, and pour over it enough of spirits of turpentine to cover it; let it stand a little while, and it will be ready for use. If the furniture is to be kept a dark colour, mix a very small quantity of alkanet root or rose-pink, with it.


Take a pint of cold-drawn linseed oil, and if you wish to colour it, take a little alkanet root or rose-pink, and mix with it: put a little on the furniture, and rub it well with a woollen cloth; do not let the oil stand long on the table before it is rubbed off.


Melt a quarter of a pound of yellow wax and an ounce of black resin, well beaten, in an earthen pipkin. Then pour in by degrees two ounces of spirit of turpentine. When the whole is thoroughly mixed, put it into an earthen jar, and keep it covered for use. Spread a little of it on the furniture with a woollen cloth, rub it well in, and in a few days the polish will be as hard and as bright as varnish.


Convey into it a stone bottle of boiling water, or for the feet a single glass bottle of boiled water, wrapped in flannel.


Brass ornaments, when not gilt or lackered, may be cleaned, and a fine colour may be given to them by two simple processes. The first is to beat sal ammoniac into a fine powder, then to moisten it with soft water, rubbing it on the ornaments, which must be heated over charcoal, and rubbed dry with bran and whiting. The second is to wash the brass work with roche alum boiled in strong ley, in the proportion of an ounce to a pint; when dry it must be rubbed with fine tripoli. Either of these processes will give to brass the brilliancy of gold.


Soak the wick in strong vinegar, and dry it well before you use it; it will then burn both sweet and pleasant, and give much satisfaction for the trifling trouble in preparing it.

If for want of the above mentioned preparation any should escape, a wet sponge suspended by a string or wire over the flame of a lamp, at a few inches distance, will absorb all the smoke and disagreeable effluvia. Rinse it in warm water when wanted the next day.



Scour the inside well out with water and sand, and afterwards apply a quantity of charcoal dust. Another and better method is, to rinse them with a pretty strong solution of oil of vitriol and water, which will entirely deprive them of their foulness.


Mix 6 ounces of spirit of salts, and ½ an ounce of rock salt of lemons (powdered) together. Drop a little on the stains, and rub it with a cork till it disappear. Wash off with cold water.


Spots of grease may be removed by a diluted solution of potash, but this must be cautiously applied, to prevent injury to the cloth. Stains of white wax, which sometimes fall upon clothes from wax-candles, are removed by spirits of turpentine, or sulphuric ether. The marks of white paint may also be discharged by the above-mentioned agents.


If silver or plated, care must be taken that they are not scratched in getting off the wax or grease; therefore never use a knife for that purpose, nor hold them before the fire to melt the wax or grease, as in general the hollow part of the candlesticks, towards the bottom, is filled with a composition that will melt if made too hot. Pour boiling water over them; this will take all the grease off without injury, if wiped directly with an old cloth, and save the brushes from being greased: let them in all other respects be cleaned like the rest of the plate.


Never hold them near the fire, nor scrape them with a knife; the best way is to pour water upon them just hot enough to melt the grease; then wipe them with a cloth, and if they look smeared, sprinkle a little whiting or flour upon them, and rub it clean off.

Be very particular in cleaning the patent snuffers, as they go with a spring, and are easily broken. The part which shuts up the snuffings has in general a small hole in it, where a pin can be put in to keep it open while cleaning it; be sure to have them well cleaned, that the snuff may not drop about when using them. The extinguishers likewise must be cleaned in the inside, and put ready with the snuffers, that the candlesticks may not be taken up without them.


Keep the furniture paste or oil in a proper can or jar, that there may be no danger of upsetting when using it. Have two pieces of woollen cloth, one for rubbing it on, the other for rubbing it dry and polishing; also an old linen cloth to finish[387] with, and a piece of smooth soft cork to rub out the stains: use a brush if the paste be hard. Always dust the table well before the oil or paste is put on; and if it should be stained rub it with a damp sponge, and then with a dry cloth. If the stain does not disappear, rub it well with the cork, or a brush the way of the grain, for if rubbed cross-grained, it will be sure to scratch it. Be careful to keep the cork and brush free from dust and dirt. When the dust is cleaned off and the stains have been got out, put on the oil or paste, but not too much at a time; rub it well into the wood; if oil, be as quick as possible in rubbing it over the table, and then polish it with another woollen cloth. If wax, put a little bit on the woollen cloth, with the finger, or a small stick; rub it well with this till the table has a high polish, then have another cloth to finish it with. Be very careful to have the edges of the tables well cleaned, and the oil and wax well rubbed off.


Have a wooden horse to put the clothes on, and a small cane or small hand-whip to beat the dust out of them; also a board or table long enough for them to be put their whole length when brushing them. Have two brushes, one hard and the other soft: use the hardest for the great coats, and the others when spotted with dirt. Fine cloth coats should never be brushed with too hard a brush, as this will take off the nap, and make them look bare in a little time. Be careful in the choice of your cane; do not have it too large, and be particular not to hit too hard; be careful also not to hit the buttons, for it will scratch, if not break them.

If a coat be wet, and spotted with dirt, let it be quite dry before you brush it; then rub out the spots with the hands, taking care not to rumple it. If it want beating, do it as before directed; then lay the coat at its full length on a board; let the collar be towards the left hand, and the brush in the right; brush the back of the collar first, between the two shoulders next, and then the sleeves, &c. observing to brush the cloth the same way that the nap goes, which is towards the bottom of the coat. When both sides are properly done, fold them together; then brush the inside, and last of all the collar.


Have a hot iron with some thick brown paper: lay the paper on the part where the grease is, then put the iron upon the spot; if the grease comes through the paper, put on another piece, till it does not soil the paper. If not all out, wrap a little bit of cloth or flannel round the finger, dip it into spirit of wine, and rub the grease spot; this will take it entirely out. Be careful not to have the iron too hot; but try it on a piece of white paper, and if it turn the paper brown, or[388] scorch in the least, it is too hot. If paint should get on the coats, always have spirit of wine or turpentine ready, which, with a piece of flannel or cloth, will easily take it off, if not left to get quite dry.


Do not pour boiling water over them, particularly on japanned ones, as it will make the varnish crack and peel off; but have a sponge wetted with warm water and a little soap, if the tray be very dirty, then rub it with a cloth; if it looks smeary, dust on a little flour, then rub it with a dry cloth. If the paper tray gets marked, take a piece of woollen cloth, with a little sweet oil, and rub it over the marks; if any thing will take them out this will. Let the urn be emptied, and the top wiped dry, particularly the outside, for if any wet be suffered to dry on, it will leave a mark.


Nothing more is necessary than to wash the mahogany with lime-water, which may be readily made by dropping a nodule of lime into a bason of water.


Wash them in soap and water till the dirt is got out, then stretch them on wooden hands, or pull them out in their proper shape. Never wring them as that puts them out of form and makes them shrink; put them one upon another and press the water out. Then rub the following mixture over the outside of the gloves. If wanted quite yellow, take yellow ochre; if quite white, pipe clay; if between the two, mix a little of each together. By proper mixture of these any shade may be produced. Mix the colour with beer or vinegar.

Let them dry gradually, not too near the fire nor in too hot a sun; when they are about half dried rub them well, and stretch them out to keep them from shrinking and to soften them. When they are well rubbed and dried take a small cane and beat them, then brush them; when this is done iron them rather warm, with a piece of paper over them, but do not let the iron be too hot.


When the frost begins to set in, cover the water-pipes with hay or straw bands, twisted tight round them. Let the cisterns and water butts be washed out occasionally; this will keep the water pure and fresh.

In pumping up water into the cistern for the water-closet, be very particular, in winter-time, as in general the pipes go up the outside of the house. Let all the water be let out of the pipe when you have done pumping; but if this be forgotten, and it should get frozen, take a small gimblet and[389] bore a hole in the pipe, a little distance from the place where it is let off, which will prevent its bursting. Put a peg in to the hole when the water is let off. Pump the water up into the cistern, for the closet every morning, and once a week take a pail of water, and cast it into the basin, having first opened the trap at the bottom; this will clear the soil out of the pipe.


Hats require great care, or they will soon look shabby. Brush them with a soft camel-hair brush, which will keep the fur smooth. Have a stick for each hat, to keep it in its proper shape, especially if the hat be wet: put the stick in as soon as the hat is taken off, and when dry put it into a hat-box, particularly if not in constant use, as the air and dust soon turn hats brown. If the hat is very wet, handle it as lightly as possible; wipe it dry with a cloth or silk handkerchief; then brush it with the soft brush.


Take gum sandarac, 6 oz.
shell lac, 2 oz.
colophonium, or resin,
white glass pounded,
clear turpentine, each 4 oz.
pure alcohol, 32 oz.

Dissolve the varnish according to the directions given for compound mastic varnish.

This varnish is sufficiently durable to be applied to articles destined to daily and continual use. Varnishes composed with copal ought, however, in these cases, to be preferred.


Melt over a moderate fire, in a very clean vessel, two ounces of white or yellow wax; and, when liquefied, add four ounces of oil of turpentine. Stir the whole until it is entirely cool, and the result will be a kind of pomade fit for waxing furniture, and which must be rubbed over them according to the usual method. The oil of turpentine is soon dissipated; but the wax, which by its mixture is reduced to a state of very great division, may be extended with more ease, and in a more uniform manner. The essence soon penetrates the pores of the wood, calls forth the colour of it, causes the wax to adhere better, and the lustre which thence results is equal to that of varnish, without having any of its inconveniences.



Take of gum sandarac, 4 oz.
seed lac, 2 oz.
Benjamin in tears, each 1 oz.
pounded glass, 4 oz.
Venice turpentine, 2 oz.
pure alcohol, 32 oz.

The gum sandarac and lac render this varnish durable; it may be coloured with a little saffron or dragon’s blood.


Take of ivory-black and treacle, each 12 oz.
spermaceti oil, 4 oz.
white wine vinegar, 4 pints.


This blacking, (recommended by Mr. Gray, lecturer on the materia medica,) is superior in giving leather a finer polish than any of those that are advertised, as they all contain sulphuric acid, (oil of vitriol,) which is necessary, to give it the polishing quality, but it renders leather rotten and very liable to crack.


Take of vinegar, No. 18, (the common,) 1 quart,
ivory-black, and treacle, each 6 oz.
vitriolic acid, and spermaceti, (or common oil,)
each 1½ oz.

Mix the acid and oil first, afterwards add the other ingredients; if, when it is used, it does not dry quick enough on the leather, add a little more of the vitriol, a little at a time. When there is too much of the vitriolic acid, which is various in its strength, the mixture will give it a brown colour.

Liquid Japan Blacking.

Take 3 ounces of ivory-black, 2 ounces of coarse sugar, one ounce of sulphuric acid, one ounce of muriatic acid, one table-spoonful of sweet oil and lemon acid, and one pint of vinegar. First mix the ivory-black and sweet oil together, then the lemon and sugar, with a little vinegar, to qualify the blacking; next add the sulphuric and muriatic acids, and mix them all well together.

A Cheap Method.

Ivory-black, two ounces; brown sugar, one ounce and a half; and sweet oil, half a table spoonful. Mix them well, and then gradually add half a pint of small beer.

Another Method.


A quarter of a pound of ivory-black, a quarter of a pound of moist sugar, a table spoonful of flour, a piece of tallow about the size of a walnut, and a small piece of gum arabic. Make a paste of the flour, and whilst hot, put in the tallow, then the sugar, and afterwards mix the whole well together in a quart of water.

Bailey’s Composition for Blacking Cakes.

Take gum tragacanth, one ounce; neat’s-foot oil, super-fine ivory-black, deep blue, prepared from iron and copper, each two ounces; brown sugar-candy, river water, each four ounces. Having mixed well these ingredients, evaporate the water, and form it into cakes.

Blacking Balls for Shoes.

Take mutton suet, four ounces; bees’ wax, one ounce; sweet oil, one ounce; sugar-candy and gum arabic, one dram each in fine powder; melt these well together over a gentle fire, and add thereto about a spoonful of turpentine, and lamp black sufficient to give it a good black colour. While hot enough to run, make it into a ball, by pouring the liquor into a thin mould; or let it stand till almost cold; when it may be moulded by the hand.


This is done by rubbing or brushing into the leather a mixture of drying oils, and any of the oxides or calxes of lead, copper, or iron: or by substituting any of the gummy resins, in the room of the metallic oxides.


Scrape four ounces of bees’-wax into a basin, and add as much oil of turpentine as will moisten it through. Then powder a quarter of an ounce of resin, and add as much Indian red as will bring it to a deep mahogany colour. When the composition is properly stirred up, it will prove an excellent cement or paste for blemishes in mahogany, and other furniture.

Another Method.

Scrape four ounces of bees’-wax, as before. To a pint of oil of turpentine, in a glazed pipkin, add an ounce of alkanet-root. Cover it close, and put it over a slow fire, attending it carefully that it may not boil over, or catch fire. When the liquid is of a deep red, add as much of it to the wax as will moisten it through, also a quarter of an ounce of powdered resin. Cover the whole close, and let it stand six hours, when it will be fit for use.

Furniture Oil.

Put some linseed-oil into a glazed pipkin, with as much alkanet root as it will cover. Let it boil gently, and it will[392] become of a strong red colour: when cool it will be fit for use.


Take half a tea-spoonful of black pepper, in powder, one tea-spoonful of brown sugar, and one table-spoonful of cream; mix them well together, and place them in the room, on a plate, where the flies are troublesome, and they will soon disappear.

Another Way.

Dissolve two drams of extract of quassia in half a pint of boiling water, sweeten it, and pour it into plates to be set about the room. This mixture, though fatal to the flies, is not otherwise pernicious.


Put a wet blanket over the whole front of the fire-place, which will stop the current of air, and thus extinguish the flames.


Take an ounce of oxalic acid, dissolve it in a pint of soft water, and keep it in a bottle well corked; dip a soft sponge into the mixture to clean the tops with, and if there are any spots which refuse to disappear, rub them with a little fine Bath brick dust: sponge the tops afterwards with clean water. Take particular care always to have any mixtures, or powders for boot-tops, labelled with the word poison in large letters, as fatal accidents have arisen from oxalic acid, being so like Epsom salts in appearance, as to be often taken for them in mistake.


Take a pint of skimmed milk, half an ounce of spirits of salt, half an ounce of spirits of lavender, one ounce of gum Arabic, and the juice of two lemons; mix them well together, and keep them in a bottle closely corked; rub the tops with a sponge, but use no brick dust; and when they are dry, polish them with a brush or piece of flannel.


The unpleasant smell of new paint is best removed by time, and atmospheric ventilation: but tubs of water placed in the apartment will act more rapidly; with this inconvenience, however, that the gloss of the paint will be destroyed. Unpleasant smells from water-closets, or all articles of furniture connected with them, may be modified by the application of quick-lime, to which may be added the soap-suds that have been used in washing, which neutralize the pungently offensive salts. A little quick-lime put into a night-chair will destroy all disagreeable effluvia.

Aromatic pastiles of the following composition may be[393] burned with great success: take of camphor, flowers of benzoin, powdered charcoal, powdered cascarilla bark, powdered Turkey myrrh, and powdered nitre, each equal quantities; beat them with syrup sufficient to form a mass, and divide into pastiles of conical shape. They may be mixed up with spirit of turpentine, or any thing inflammable.


Procure a smooth board, free from knots, or one covered with leather. If the latter, melt a sufficient quantity of mutton suet, and put it hot upon the leather with a piece of flannel; then take two pieces of soft Flanders brick, and rub them one against the other over the leather till it is covered with the powder, which rub in until no grease comes through, when a knife is passed over the leather, which may easily be known by the knife keeping its polish.

If only a plain board, rub the brick two or three times over it; for if too much be put on at once it will make the blades of the knives look rough and scratched. Let the board be of a proper height, and set so that you may be in a sloping position while cleaning the knives. Take a knife in each hand, holding them back to back; stand opposite the middle of the board; lay the knives flat upon it, and do not bear too hard upon them; by this method it will be easier to clean two knives at a time than one, and they will be less liable to be snapped or broken, when pressed on too heavily.

Be careful to keep a good edge on the knives. Carving knives in particular ought to be kept sharp, which may easily be done by taking one in each hand, back to back when cleaning, scarcely letting them touch the board when expanding the arms, but when drawing the hands together again, bearing a little hard on the edge of the knives; this will give them not only a good edge and a fine polish, but is much better than sharpening them with a steel.

The best way to clean steel forks is to fill a small oyster barrel with fine gravel, brick dust, or sand, mixed with a little hay or moss: make it moderately damp, press it well down, and let it always be kept damp. By running the prongs of the forks a few times into this, all the stains on them will be removed. Then have a small stick, shaped like a knife, with leather round it to polish between the prongs, &c. having first carefully brushed off the dust from them as soon as they are taken out of the tub. A knife board is often spoiled by cleaning forks, and the backs of the knives, upon it; to prevent this, fasten a piece of old hat or leather on the board where the forks and backs of knives are to be cleaned.

Always turn the back of the knives towards the palm of the hand in wiping them, which will prevent all danger from[394] cutting. In wiping the forks put the corner of the cloth between the prongs, to remove any dirt or dust that may not have been thoroughly brushed out; and if there be silver ferules on the knives and forks, or silver handles, they must be rubbed with a piece of leather and plate powder, keeping the blades covered while the handles are cleaning.

Wipe the knives and folks as soon as possible after being used, as the longer they are left with grease and stains on them the harder they will be to clean; particularly if they have been used for acids, salads, tarts, &c. Have then a jug of hot water ready to put them into as soon as done with, and wipe them as before directed.

In order to keep knives and forks in good condition when they are not in use, rub the steel part with a flannel dipped in oil; wipe the oil off after a few hours, as there is often water in it; or dust the blades and prongs with quick-lime, finely powdered, and kept in a muslin bag.


Plated articles require even more care than silver ones; they should be cleaned with soft brushes, not too often, and never with any thing but plate powder, not even whiting by itself; do not wet them more than can be helped or they will tarnish; nor brush them more than is necessary, or the silver will come off; the best thing for them is spirit of wine or oil, and take care that no plated articles remain long dirty or damp, for if they do they will rust, in case they are plated on steel, and canker if plated on copper.

Wash the brushes after the plate is cleaned with warm water and soap, and then set them to dry, with the wooden side uppermost.


Is entirely under the controul and direction of the Butler. He cleans all the plate—the parlour knives and forks—lays the cloths—sets out the side-board, and assists to wait at table. As he is supposed to be busily employed, after dinner, in the Butler’s pantry, cleaning the plate, he is not usually expected to answer the bells at that period. He trims the lamps belonging to the dining and[395] drawing-rooms, and is frequently required to assist the Butler in cleaning his master’s clothes and shoes. The Under Butler, generally looking to the situation of Butler, and as even in his present station he will have occasion for more particular directions, he will do well frequently to refer to the hints to the Butler, where he will find the immediate duties of the Butler and himself more particularly given.

A chief part of his duty consists in assisting in the rough work of the butler, such as brewing, bottling, and cellar business in general, in all which he should be as expert as the butler himself.

Wages 16 to 25 guineas.


The best material for cleaning either porcelain or glass-ware is fullers’ earth, but it must be beaten into a fine powder, and carefully cleared from all rough or hard particles, which might endanger the polish of the brilliant surface.


Wash the plate in boiling water to free it from grease, and if it has wrought edges, brush it well before you begin to clean it. The leathers ought to be soft and very thick, and the sponges well soaked in water.

Another Way.

Boil an ounce of prepared hartshorn-powder in a quart of water. While on the fire, put as much plate into it as the vessel will hold; let it boil a little time, then take it out, drain it over the saucepan, dry it before the fire, and rub it bright with leather. Then put more into the pan in the same manner until it is all boiled. Put clean linen rags into the pan to soak up the remainder, and when dry, they will give a beautiful polish to the plate merely by rubbing it with them. They are likewise admirable for cleaning brass locks, and the finger-plates of doors.—This method will only suit small articles of plate.


Take an ounce of killed quicksilver, which you may buy at the chemist’s, and half a pound of the best whiting sifted; mix them with spirits of wine when used. Hartshorn-powder[396] may be used instead of whiting; but whiting is quite as good, when dried and pounded.


Dissolve alum in strong ley, skim it carefully, mix it with soap and wash your silver utensils with it, using a linen rag.


Steep the plate in soap leys for the space of four hours; then cover it over with whiting wet with vinegar, so that it may stick thick upon it, and dry it by a fire; after which, rub off the whiting, and pass it over with dry bran, and the spots will not only disappear, but the plate will look exceedingly bright.


Take of unslaked lime and alum, a pound each, of aqua vitæ and vinegar, each a pint, and of beer grounds, two quarts; boil the plate in these, and they will set a beautiful gloss upon it.


Let the spotted part of the cloth imbibe a little water without dipping, and hold the part over a lighted common brimstone match at a proper distance. The sulphurous gas which is discharged, will soon cause the spot to disappear.

Plate Powder.

Whiting properly purified from sand, applied wet, and rubbed till dry, is one of the easiest, safest, and, certainly the cheapest, of all plate powders.


The business of the Under Coachman, is precisely the same as that of the Head Coachman, as before detailed. He attends with the assistance of the helper, to the care and dressing of his horses, washing and cleaning the harness and the coach, which is always the second best, and is driven by him at night; whereas the best coach and the best horses, are driven by the Head Coachman by day.


Wages from 20l. to 24 guineas, with two suits of livery, a box coat occasionally, hat and boots—also one or two stable dresses.

He is sometimes required to ride as postillion, or as courier, when the family travel post.


If there be other Coachmen kept, their duties are similar to those of the first and second Coachmen, but their wages are somewhat lower, and the liveries, &c. not always quite so costly.


The chief business of this servant is to wait on his lady only, for whom he performs all the offices of a footman. He carries out all her messages and cards of invitation. He prepares the breakfast, and waits behind her chair both at breakfast and dinner—must be ready at all times to go out with his lady, either behind her carriage or on foot. For his more general duties, see the Directions to the Footman.

A genteel exterior and a good figure are principal recommendations of this servant; to which he should add great cleanliness in his person, and studied neatness in his dress. He is, of course, expected to assist the other servants in waiting at the dinner table, and to receive instructions through the lady’s maid,[398] in whose out-door concerns he must officiate when required.

Wages 18l. to 25 Guineas—two liveries and a working dress.


In families where two or more footmen are kept, the under footman is expected, and indeed, engages to do that part of the business of a footman, which is deemed the most laborious; that is, he cleans knives and forks—boots and shoes—carries up the coals and attends all the fires above stairs during the day. He likewise carries out cards, messages, &c. and assists to carry up and wait at dinner, &c. &c. Wages, 16 to 20 guineas, with liveries.


The duties of this servant are confined to the entrance-hall, and the door, where he is continually stationed. He answers every knock and ring, takes in all messages, parcels, letters, cards, &c. and immediately hands them to the butler, who conveys them to his master or mistress.

He trims the great hall and passage lamps, and opens and fastens up the doors and shutters every morning and night.

The public character of a nobleman or gentleman often depends on this servant. Rude or contemptuous language, to the meanest applicant, will frequently prove injurious to the interests of his master, in ways of which he[399] cannot be a competent judge; and, therefore, his best qualities are patience and good temper, to which may be added, secrecy in regard to the affairs, connexions, and intercourse of the family. A close tongue, and an inflexible countenance, are, therefore, indispensable, and he should practise the maxim of hearing and seeing all, but saying nothing. It is recorded of the porter of a minister of state, who died in the morning, that, on being asked in the afternoon if the fact were true, he replied that really he could not tell, but if the party would give him his card, he would make enquiry, and let him know. This was a well-trained porter, and such should be the system of all porters.

Wages from 24l. to 30l. per annum.


This, and indeed, every other person in the stable department, must rise about five in the summer, and six in the winter.

When the Groom has two or more horses under his care, with a chaise, or other vehicle or vehicles, he is generally allowed a boy to assist him in the stable.

We shall here insert the general care and management of horses, because in every stable establishment, however small, or however large, a Groom is to be found; and he ought to be fully competent to this branch of stable experience. In order to avoid repetition, we shall refer every other servant in this department, to this description of the usual care and management of horses.


The first thing, on entering the stable, is to give to each horse about a gallon of clean water in a clean bucket; then to shake up the best litter, under the manger, sweep out each stall, and clean out the whole stable. Every Coachman and Groom feeds his own horses;[24] and during the time of their feeding, he proceeds to dress them: thus each horse is first curried all over, with the curry-comb, to loosen the dirt and dust on its skin; then brushed with a whalebone brush, to take the dust off; next whisped with straw, to smooth and cleanse its coat; and again brushed with the brush and curry-comb, to take off what dust may remain; after which the horse is whisped again with a damp lock of hay, and finally, rubbed down with a woollen rubber, or a clean cloth. The horse is then turned round in the stall, and his head is next brushed well and whisped clean and smooth, with a damp lock of hay. After this, his ears are drawn through the hands, for several minutes, till made warm, and then the insides of the ears are wiped out with a damp sponge, to remove such dust and filth as may have accumulated there. The sponge after being washed clean, is then applied to the eyes, to cleanse them from dust, and any exudation that may have arisen in them. The nostrils are also sponged clean, and the whole head is afterwards finished by rubbing it with a cloth, in the same manner as the body had previously been cleaned. The horse is then turned round[401] into its proper situation, the head stall put on, and the dirt and filth that may have accumulated under its tail, are then washed away with a sponge. The mane and tail are next cleaned and laid with a mane comb and water brush, used alternately with both hands; the head and body are again wiped over, and the body clothes are put on and fastened with a surcingle.

The Groom next examines the horse’s heels, picks out the dirt from the feet, and washes its heels, with a water brush and plenty of water. If any horse has bad feet, they are then to be dressed and stuffed. Lastly, a due portion of hay,[25] (about three or four pounds) is shaken into the rack, and then the horse is considered as completely dressed.


This is a summary of the whole process of cleaning and dressing horses of every description.

Horses thus attended to, and regularly managed, under the humane superintendance of a diligent and conscientious Groom or Coachman, will have healthy and beautiful appearance, and in a great measure escape from many diseases to which they would otherwise be liable.

When the master rides out before breakfast, the Groom rises so much the earlier, so as to be able to get the horses for himself and master ready, and at the time appointed. In this case, he gives the horses not more than two quarts of water each, and about half their usual feed of corn. On their return from the morning ride, the Groom sponges the eyes and nostrils of the horses, and under their tails; picks out their feet, washes their feet and heels, and then otherwise cleans and dresses them in the usual way, as already described. When thus far dressed, it is necessary to hand-rub their legs, downwards, for about ten minutes, to prevent wind-galls, and to strengthen the back sinews.

When horses have been ridden hard, or have been a long journey, bandages must be wrapped round their legs, (from the knee to the fetlock joint) to prevent their swelling.

If their feet are heated, they must be stopped with the following mixture, called stopping: viz.

Mix equal quantities of cow-dung, clay, tar, and kitchen grease with urine, to the consistency of a stiff paste. This is usually kept in a small tub, or box, with a handle, to be ready when wanted.


The horses are then watered, fed, and littered down.

All horses when they come in, if they have sweated, or are very hot, must have their feet and legs first washed, and then be walked about ten or fifteen minutes, in the open air, till they are properly cool and dry; when they are to be well rubbed, and afterwards cleaned in the usual way. They should be encouraged to stale as soon as may be, by shaking a little straw under them, and whistling to them.

The saddles and bridles, with the bits and stirrups, are to be wiped when they are taken off, and are so left till the first opportunity, when they are to be thoroughly cleaned and put away.

If a gig, chaise, or other carriage has been used in the morning, it will require to be cleaned and got ready as soon as possible.

Such horses as are at home at twelve o’clock, are, at that hour, to be watered and fed again, and just wiped over, but not thoroughly cleaned, as in the morning; their manes and tails are, however, to be combed and properly laid with the mane-comb and water brush.

When the Groom’s horses and carriages come in, in the evening, he attends to his horses first, washes their feet and legs and rubs them quite dry, before he cleans them. He afterwards cleans his gig, or whatever it may be by day-light, if there be time, or at any rate, he has to get his harness cleaned. About eight o’clock the stable man repairs to the stable, for the last time, cleans it out, waters, feeds, and rubs down the horses, litters them[404] up, bandages their legs, stops their feet, (if necessary) and racks them up for the night.

Wages 22l. to 25l. with, generally, two livery suits, and two stable dresses a year.


Instead of grinding the oats, break them in a mill; and the same quantity will prove doubly nutritious. Another method is, to boil the corn, and give the horses the liquor in which it has been boiled; the result will be, that instead of six bushels in a crude state, three bushels, so prepared, will be found to answer, and to keep the animals in superior vigour and condition.


Over the whole sore, or where the part is bruised, or where there is a tendency to suppuration, a poultice should be applied and kept on by suitable bandages. The poultice may be made of any kind of meal, fine bran, bruised linseed, or of mashed turnips, carrots, &c. The following has been found useful as a common poultice: Fine bran, 1 quart; pour on it a sufficient quantity of boiling water to make a thin paste; to this add of linseed powder enough to give it a proper consistence. The poultice may be kept on for a week or ten days, or even longer, if necessary, changing it once or twice a day; and cleaning the wound, when the poultice is removed, by washing it by means of a soft rag or linen cloth, with water not more than blood warm, (some sponge is too rough for this purpose); or, where the wound is deep, the water may be injected into it by a syringe, in order to clean it from the bottom.


In the course of a few days, when the wound, by care and proper management with the poultices, begins to put on a healthy appearance, and seems to be clean and of a reddish colour, not black or bloody; then there may be applied an ointment made of tallow, linseed oil, bees’ wax, and hog’s lard, in such proportion as to make it of a consistence somewhat firmer than butter. The ointment should be spread on some soft clean tow, and when applied to the sore, it ought never to be tied hard upon it, (which is done too frequently and very improperly,) but only fixed by a bandage of proper length and breadth, (for a mere cord is often improper,) so close and securely as to keep it from slipping off. This application may be changed once a day; or when nearly well, and discharging but little, once in two days.


Treatment according to the appearance of the part.

When the wounded part begins to discharge a whitish, thick matter, and is observed to fill up, the general treatment and dressings to the sore, now mentioned, should be continued; and in the course of the cure, the animal, when free of fever, may be allowed better provision, and may take gentle exercise. If the animal be feeble, from the loss of blood originally, or from the long continuance of a feverish state produced by the inflammation attending the wound, or from weakness arising from confinement, or connected with its constitution naturally; and if the wound appear to be in a stationary state, very pale and flabby on its edges, with a thin discharge, then better food may be given to it; and if still no change should be observed, with the better food, the wound may be treated somewhat differently from what has been already advised. The ointment may be made more stimulant, by adding to it some resin and less bees’ wax, or what would be still more stimulant, some common turpentine; for it is only in very rare cases that oil of turpentine can be requisite. The effects of an alteration in the mode of treatment should be particularly remarked, and stimulants should be laid aside, continued or increased, according as may be judged proper. Before changing the dressings applied to the wound, or before rendering them more stimulant and active by using heating applications, the effect of closer bandaging may be tried; for sometimes by keeping the parts a little more firmly together, the cure is promoted.

Food and Regimen.

In the case of severe wounds, attention should be paid to the condition of the animal in other respects. There being always when such happen, a tendency to violent inflammation and fever, that may end fatally, means should be employed to moderate both. The apartment should be cool and airy, and so quiet that the animal should not be disturbed; the drink should not be warm, but rather cold, and given freely, though not in too large quantities at a time; the food should be sparingly given and of a poorer quality than usual, and should be rather succulent and laxative, than dry or apt to produce costiveness; bleeding may be employed either generally from a vein, or, in some cases, when it can be done, by cupping from the injured part, as in the case of a bruise (though this last will be seldom requisite or found convenient,) and it may be done more than once or twice, as may seem proper; laxative medicines also ought to be given and repeated, as there may be occasion.



Bleeding is often the most useful and efficacious means of curing diseases in horses, &c. In inflammatory affections, it is generally the first remedy resorted to, and its immediate salutary effects are often surprising.

When it is necessary to lessen the whole quantity of blood in the system, open the jugular or neck vein. If the inflammation is local, bleed where it can be conveniently done, either from the part affected, or in its vicinity, as by opening the plate vein, superficial vein of the thigh, or temporal arteries.

In fevers of all kinds, and when inflammation attacks any important organ, as the brain, eyes, lungs, stomach, intestines, liver, kidneys, bladder, &c. bleeding is of the greatest use. It diminishes the quantity of blood in the body; and by this means prevents the ill effects of inflammation. The quantity of blood to be taken varies according to the age, size, condition, and constitution of the horse, and urgency of the symptoms.

From a large or strong horse, four or six quarts will be requisite, and may be repeated in smaller quantities if symptoms demand it. The blood, in these diseases, must flow from a large orifice made in the vein. A horse should never be suffered to bleed upon the ground, but into a measure, in order that the proper quantity may be taken. Young horses, also, while shedding their teeth, have sometimes much constitutional irritation, which bleeding relieves. But in these affections it is very rarely necessary to bleed to the same extent as in fevers, &c.; two or three quarts generally suffice to be taken away.

Fulness of Blood.

Moderate bleeding, from two to three or four quarts, is also used to remove fulness of habit, or plethora, attended with slight inflammatory symptoms. In this case the eyes appear heavy, dull, red or inflamed, frequently closed as if asleep; the pulse small and oppressed; the heat of the body somewhat increased; the legs swell; and the hairs rub off. Horses that are removed from grass to a warm stable, and full fed on hay and corn, and not sufficiently exercised, are very subject to one or more of these symptoms. Regulating the quantity of food given to him, proper exercise and occasional laxatives, as the following powder, will be commonly found sufficient after the first bleeding, and operation of an aloetic purge. In slight affections of this kind, a brisk purge will often alone be sufficient.

Laxative and Diaphoretic Powder.

Take of crocus of antimony, finely levigated,
nitre, cream of tartar, and flour of sulphur, of each, 4 ounces:

Powder and mix them well together for use.


One table-spoonful of this mixture may be given every night and morning, in a mash of scalded bran, or a feed of corn moistened with water, that the powders may adhere thereto.

This powder will be found excellent for such horses as are kept on dry meat, whether they be in the stable, or travel on the road; also for stallions in the spring of the year, as they not only keep the body cool and open, but cause them to cast their coat, and make the skin appear as bright as silk.


In obstinate grease and swellings of the legs, accompanied with lameness of the joints, dry coughs, worms, diseases of the skin, farcy, apoplexy or staggers, affections of the liver, &c. &c., mercurial purges are of the greatest service. They purge; destroy worms; generally increase the flow of urine; operate upon the skin, liver, and other viscera in a peculiar manner; cause a healthful action in these parts; and remove many chronic complaints incident to the horse. Great caution is necessary during their operation, lest the horse take cold. The water given him must be warm, and when exercised he should be properly clothed.

Horses that are kept on dry meat, and are full fed, with little or no exercise, require regular purging every six months, with two or three doses each time, allowing proper intervals between each.


In small families, a servant is sometimes hired in the capacities of groom and valet, or groom and footman. The duties of this servant are given under the respective heads of Groom, Valet, and Footman. The wages out of the house, about 50l. a year, with the cast off clothes.


When the family travels post, the helper in the stables, and the stable-boy, generally ride[408] as postillions: on other occasions, the boy or helper, rides and drives the chariot and other carriages; or if he be a regular servant, he has the care of a pair of horses. Wages from 16 to 20 guineas.—His clothing is nearly the same as the grooms, only that he has a cap, and generally a jacket instead of a frock coat.


Are generally selected from some of the persons employed in the stables—Often, the under coachman and groom. Their business is to ride with the family when travelling, to guard them on the road—to ride forward with orders, and to pay the turnpikes, &c. &c.

The outriders always take care of their own horses.


Assists the coachman and groom, under whose direction he is occupied in cleaning out the stables, cleaning the horses, washing and cleaning the harness and carriages, and making himself generally useful. The wages, when in the house, is from 8 to 12l. per annum, and clothing, as may be agreed.


The helpers are subordinate to the regular stable servants, and their business is to assist in[409] cleaning the horses, harness, saddles, and carriages, cleaning out the stables, and assisting the coachman and groom in all the business of the stable that may be required of them. They are generally hired by the week, at from 16 to 21 shillings, out of doors, and have no liveries. If hired as regular stable servants, they are boarded in the house, and their wages and clothing are nearly the same as the groom’s.

When the family travels, the helper is sometimes taken either as postillion or outrider.


The gardener, to understand his business well, and to be capable of undertaking the management of a gentleman’s garden and grounds, should not only be perfect in the ordinary business, and the regular routine of digging, cropping, and managing a kitchen garden, but should be also well versed in the nature of soils, manures, and composts, the best methods of propagating plants, shrubs, and trees, the management of the hot-house, green-house, conservatory, hot-beds; and the culture, not only of indigenous, but also of foreign and exotic productions.

The gardener, on first coming to his situation, will endeavour to ascertain the nature and present state of the soil. There are scarcely any of the ordinary esculent or culinary vegetables that will not require, at least, a depth of two spits of well cultivated earth; shrubs and trees much more; and this depth he should accordingly give it by proper digging, trenching,[410] and other means. The sub-strata, or under soil, must also be considered, and articles fond of moisture should be planted where the sub-stratum is of a clayey nature, and will not suffer the moisture imbibed from above to pass off; while those which require warm and dry situations, should be planted where the under soil consists of sand or gravel, and will the more readily absorb the moisture from above.

In small families, or in gardens not exceeding an acre, with a paddock of three or four acres for a horse or cow, it is usual to keep but one gardener, who, at an out-door salary of a guinea a week, performs all the necessary work in the garden, milks the cow, feeds the poultry, and, sometimes, takes care of the horse, his assistant being a jobbing labourer during a few weeks of particular duty. These gardeners generally consist of under gardeners from large establishments, or from market gardeners near large towns; and the only questions which arise between them and their employer, are the difficulties which they feel at first in accommodating the practice on a large scale to that on a small and economical one; but, when reconciled to this, no situation is more independent and comfortable than that of the solitary and accommodating gardener.

Gardeners generally prefer a sandy loam, of a nature not too binding in summer, nor too retentive in winter.

Perhaps the best practical rules that can be given are the following, from the best Treatise on Gardening.


1. Perform every operation in the proper season.

2. Perform every operation in the best manner.

This is to be acquired in part by practice, and partly also by reflection. For example, in digging over a piece of ground, it is a common practice with slovens, to throw the weeds and stones on the dug ground, or on the adjoining alley or walk, with the intention of gathering them off afterwards. A better way is to have a wheelbarrow, or a large basket, into which to put the weeds and extraneous matters, as they are picked out of the ground. Some persons in planting or weeding, whether in the open air, or in hothouses, throw down all seeds, stones, and extraneous matters on the paths or alleys, with a view to pick them up, or sweep or rake them together afterwards; it is better to carry a basket or other utensil, either common or subdivided, in which to hold in one part the plants to be planted, in another the extraneous matters, &c.

3. Complete every part of an operation as you proceed.

4. Finish one job before beginning another.

5. In leaving off working at any job, leave the work and tools in an orderly manner.

6. In leaving off work for the day, make a temporary finish, and carry the tools to the tool-house.

7. In passing to and from the work, or on any occasion, through any part of what is considered under the charge of the gardener, keep a vigilant look out for weeds, decayed leaves, or any other deformity, and remove them.

8. In gathering a crop, remove at the same time, the roots, leaves, stems, or whatever else is of no farther use, or may appear slovenly, decaying, or offensive.

9. Let no crop of fruit, or herbaceous vegetables, go to waste on the spot.

10. Cut down the flower-stalks of all plants.

11. Keep every part of what is under your care, perfect in its kind.

Attend in spring and autumn to walls and buildings, and get them repaired, jointed, glazed, and painted, where wanted. Attend at all times to machines, implements, and tools, keeping them clean, sharp, and in perfect repair. See particularly that they are placed in their proper situations in the tool-house. House every implement, utensil, or machine not in use, both in winter and summer. Allow no blanks in edgings, rows, single specimens, drills, beds, and even where practicable, in broad-cast sown pieces. Keep edgings and edges cut to the utmost nicety. Keep the shapes of the wall-trees filled with wood according to their kinds, and let their training be in the first style of perfection. Keep all walks in perfect form, (whether raised or flat,) free from weeds, dry, and well rolled. Keep all the lawns by every means, of a close texture, and dark-green velvet[412] appearance. Keep water clear and free from weeds, and let not ponds, lakes, or artificial rivers, rise to the brim in winter, nor sink very far under it in summer.


This is the first operation of rearing. Where seeds are deposited singly, as in rows of beans, or large ruts, they are said to be planted; where dropt in numbers together, to be sown. The operation of sowing is either performed in drills, patches, or broadcast. Drills are small excavations formed with the draw-hoe, generally in straight lines parallel to each other, and in depth and distance apart, varying according to the size of the seeds. In these drills, the seeds are strewed from the hand of the operator, who, taking a small quantity in the palm of his hand and fingers, regulates its emission by the thumb. Some seeds are very thinly sown, as the pea, and spinage; others thick, as the cress, and small salad.

Patches are small circular excavations made with the trowel; in these seeds are either sown or planted, thicker or thinner, and covered more or less, according to their nature. This is the mode adopted in sowing in pots, and generally in flower-borders.

In broad-cast sowing, the operator scatters the seed over a considerable breadth of surface, previously prepared by digging, or otherwise being minutely pulverized. The seed is taken up in portions in the hand, and dispersed by a horizontal movement of the arm, to the extent of a semi-circle, opening the hand at the same time, and scattering the seeds in the air, so as they may fall as equally as possible over the breadth taken in by the sower at once, and which is generally six feet; that being the diameter of the circle in which his hand moves through half the circumference. In sowing broad-cast on beds, and narrow’ strips or borders, the seeds are dispersed between the thumb and fingers, by horizontal movements of the hand in segments of smaller circles.

Dry weather is essentially requisite for sowing, and more especially for the operation of covering in the seed, which in broad-cast sowing, is done by treading or gently rolling the surface, and then raking it; and in drill-sowing, by treading in the larger seeds, as peas, and covering with the rake; smaller seeds, sown in drills, are covered with the same implement, without treading.


Planting, as applied to seeds, or seed-like roots, as potatoes, bulbs, &c. is most frequently performed in drills, or in separate holes made with the dibber; in these, the seed or bulb is dropped from the hand, and covered with or without[413] treading, according to its nature. Sometimes planting is performed in patches, as in pots or borders, in which case, the trowel is the chief instrument used.

Quincunx is a mode of planting in rows, by which the plants in one row are always opposed to the blanks in the other, so that when a plot of ground is planted in this way, the plants appear in rows in four directions.

Planting, as applied to plants already originated, consists generally in inserting them in the soil of the same depth, and in the same position as they were before removal, but with various exceptions. The principal object is to preserve the fibrous roots entire; to distribute them equally around the stem among the mould or finer soil, and to preserve the plant upright. The plant should not be planted deeper than it stood in the soil before removal, and commonly the same side should be kept towards the sun. Planting should, as much as possible, be accompanied by abundant watering, in order to consolidate the soil about the roots; and where the soil is dry, or not a stiff clay, it may be performed in the beginning of wet weather, in gardens; and in forest planting, on dry soils, in all open weather during autumn, winter, and spring.


Watering becomes requisite in gardens for various purposes, as aliment to plants in a growing state, to support newly transplanted plants, for keeping under insects, and keeping clean the leaves of vegetables. One general rule must be ever kept in mind during the employment of watering a garden; that is, never to water the top or leaves of a plant when the sun shines. All watering should be carried on in the evening or early in the morning, unless it be confined to watering the roots, in which case, transplanted plants, and others in a growing state, may be watered at any time; and if they are shaded from the sun, they may also be watered over their tops. Watering over the tops is performed with the rose, or dispenser attached to the spout of the watering-pot, or by the syringe or engine. Watering the roots is best done with the rose; but in the case of watering-pots in haste, and where the earth is hardened, it is done with the naked spout.

Many kitchen-crops are lost, or produced of very inferior quality, for want of watering. Lettuces and cabbages are often hard and stringy; turnips and radishes do not swell, onions decay, cauliflowers die off, and, in general, in dry soils. Copious waterings in the evenings, during the dry season, would produce that fulness of succulency, which are found in the vegetables produced in the low countries, and in the Marsh Gardens at Paris; and in this country at the beginning and latter end of the season.


Watering the foliage of small trees to prevent the insects, and of strawberries, and fruit shrubs, to swell the fruit, is also of importance.

The principal tools used by gardeners are, a light handy spade, a shovel, rake, with iron teeth, hoe, three-pronged fork, dibber, or setting-stick, line and reel, usually called a skillet, wheelbarrow, baskets, trowel, a pair of shears, scythe, hay-rake, hook, ladder, besom, or broom, beater, garden-roller, turfing-iron, hatchet, and hammer. The gardener usually wears a blue woollen apron, which, when he is pruning, he ties up before him, and then serves to hold his nails, shreds, scissors, hammer, and pruning-knife. He should also be provided with a light measuring rod, flat and narrow, painted and divided on one side into feet and half feet, and on the other into yards and half yards; with this he will be able to measure distances, to lay out his beds for sowing and planting, and to measure and lay down his gravel-walks, grass-plats, &c. A table, that will be very useful to him in laying out beds, or any quantity of ground, large or small, will be found in the Appendix.


Containing useful Information for every Month in the Year.

January. If the weather be open and dry, sow, upon warm compartments, small portions of peas, beans, cabbage, spinage, carrots, parsley, radish, lettuce, and onions, and preserve them from the cold by mats. Also, in hot-beds, cucumbers, melons, small salading, best early and red cabbage, kidney beans, and cauliflowers. Plant cabbages, horse-radish, beans, and mint roots. The cucumbers and melons this month require particular attention. They ought to receive air by small degrees, as often as possible.

February. Sow small salading, radishes, onions, parsley, spinage, lettuce, peas, beans, cabbage, cauliflowers, carrots, parsnips, fennel, &c. Plant cabbages, &c. as last month. The cucumber and melon plants raised last month, should[415] be transplanted about the middle of this into new hot-beds. The ground should be prepared for planting asparagus next month.

March. Sow, in this month, principal crops of carrots, early turnips, radishes, onions, cabbage, celery, cauliflowers, spinage, lettuce, asparagus, peas, and beans. Sow asparagus for the new plantations of the next year. Make new asparagus beds, and fork the old ones.

April. Sow and plant, as in the former month, for a later crop. Towards the middle of the month dung should be prepared for ridges of melons and cucumbers. Snails and slugs ought to be killed, and weeds kept down; otherwise they will increase so fast as to render their destruction difficult.

May. The principal crops sowed and planted in the spring will now require weeding, hoeing, and thinning, and some transplanting. The melon beds require an equal degree of heat; and the glasses must be covered every night through the month with mats; but in the middle of the day they must be raised to the breadth of two or three fingers. Cucumbers in frames must receive a moderate supply of water, and be planted out under hand-glasses.

June. Particular attention is now required in weeding, hoeing, thinning, and watering the principal crops, and pricking out and transplanting for autumn and winter. Sow savoys, brocoli, borecole, cabbages, turnips, carrots, spinage, coleworts, kidney beans, lettuce, endive, celery, cucumbers, radishes, peas, beans, and small salading. Plant cabbages, colewort, savoys, brocoli, borecole, leeks, beans, lettuce, endive, celery, cucumbers, radishes, peas, and beans. Melon plants must be shaded in the heat of the day, and receive a large portion of fresh air. Transplant endive for blanching, and prick out young brocoli plants, which were sown in April or May.

July. Prepare ground for the reception of succession crops, and some main crops for autumn and winter, and sow turnips, &c. as at the beginning of the year. The common radishes sown now will be fit to draw the beginning of September; and the cauliflowers sown in May must be planted out in spots where they are to remain. The beds of carrots sown now will be fit to draw early in April. Spinage for winter may now be sown, and onions taken up if the leaves wither.

August. Asparagus beds planted in March must now be cleared; celery transplanted and earthed, and the heads or suckers taken from the March artichokes. The early cabbage seed must not be sown later than the 12th of this month; but lettuce seed may be put in as late as the 24th. The cauliflower seed will not do without covering, and the spinage sown last month will require hoeing.


September. Sow spinage, lettuce, onions, radishes, cabbages, colewort, chervil, corn-salad, borage, coriander, turnips, and successions of small salading. Plant savoys, cabbages, coleworts, brocoli, borecole, lettuces, leeks, celery, endive, and perennial, aromatic, and pot-herbs. Make mushroom beds, and cut down the haulm of asparagus, clean the beds and dung them if necessary. Hoe your turnips, and weed onions. The cauliflowers of last month must be weeded out, and cabbage-plants pricked. Of the lettuces sown last month some may be put into warm borders for spring use, and others planted under frames for pulling in December and January. The different seeds must be gathered as they ripen.

October. Sow a small crop of radishes and lettuces, successions of small salading, and a few early peas to come in next summer. Plant crops of cabbage, cauliflowers, late brocoli, celery, lettuce, early beans. Keep uncovered night and day, for the greater part of this month, such cauliflowers as are planted in frames. All spare ground should be dunged and trenched.

November. Most of the processes used last month will also be appropriate for this. Such as giving air to lettuce and cauliflower plants that are under frames. Cut down the leaves of artichokes and earth up the plants.

December. Forward the digging, manuring, or trenching vacant ground, preparing hot dung, making hot-beds, and earthing and tying up plants. Sow a few early peas and radishes on warm borders, and small salading and cucumbers in hot-beds. Plant early beans, strong cabbage-plants, and coleworts; and plant in hot-beds, cucumbers, mint, tarragon, and asparagus. The small salads may be sown every ten days, under frames; and such radish seed as may be put into the ground this month, should be covered on cold nights with fern, or long litter.

Salary from 50l. to 100l. a year,—a cottage, generally, and vegetables and fuel allowed.


These men are entirely under the controul and direction of the head gardener, and are employed by him, for the most part, in digging and trenching, wheeling, dunging,[417] gravelling, hoeing, mowing, and other laborious work.

They are engaged as weekly servants, and are paid according to their abilities, from 16 to 20 or 21 shillings per week, and vegetables. Some under gardeners have a cottage assigned for themselves and families, and others have also fuel allowed them for their fires.


In large establishments, the housekeeper, the lady’s maid, and the men servants out of livery, usually take their meals by themselves, in the housekeeper’s or steward’s room; but when they take their dinner together, they preserve an order at table like the following:—The housekeeper usually takes her seat at the head, and the butler at the lower end of the table; the cook at the right of the housekeeper, and the lady’s maid on her left; the under butler on the right, and the coachman on the left of the butler; the house-maid next to the cook, and the kitchen-maid next to the lady’s-maid; and the men servants always occupying the lower end of the table. The dinner is set on the table by the cook, and the beer is drawn by the under butler.

The servants’ table is usually provided with solid dishes, and with ale and table beer; and it is the business of the superior servants to see that their accommodation is comfortable and in plenty, but without extravagance, or waste and riot. In well-regulated families, the servants’ hall is distinguished by its decorum,[418] good order, and even good manners, which the servants who wait in the parlour imbibe, and convey to the kitchen. Servants of coarse manners, vulgar habits, or profane discourse, and malicious dispositions, are shunned by others, and never make good their footing or rise in first-rate families, where all the good and bad qualities which belong to the superior ranks of society operate as much to their advantage or disadvantage as in any station of life. In truth, the servants’ hall is a little world by itself, in which the passions, tempers, vices, and virtues, are brought into play, and contribute their full share in promoting that welfare and happiness, which it is the object of this work to fix and improve.


When a youth in the City of London is bound apprentice he is presented to the Chamberlain, who puts into his hands for his guide, the following instructions, and as they proceed from such high authority, they are thought worthy of being preserved in this volume as a body of instruction to apprentices generally.



copy of an indenture document

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This Indenture witnesseth, That__R. B.__ Son of__J. B.__, Citizen of London, doth put himself (that is, by his own free and voluntary[420] choice) apprentice to __A. A.__ Citizen and ____ of London, to learn his Art, and with him after the manner of an Apprentice to serve (that is, to live with him in the capacity of a learner and servant, doing all such work as belongs to his trade, and as Apprentices by custom are obliged to do) from the date hereof, unto the full end and term of ____ years from thence next following to be fully complete and ended; that is, not at the beginning only, or for part of the time, but so long as his Indenture shall continue in force, which must be for seven years at least.

During which term the said Apprentice his said Master faithfully shall serve; that is, he shall be true and just to his Master in all his dealings, both in word and deed; he must not only keep his hands from picking and stealing, and his tongue from lying and slandering; he must not only abstain from doing him any manner of injury, by idleness, negligence, or carelessness; by deceiving, defaming, or any kind of evil speaking: but, he must learn and labour to do him true and real service.

Ye must be faithful in all things. 1 Tim. i.

In all your labours let no iniquity be found. Hosea xii. 8.

Ye shall not steal, neither deal falsely, neither lie one to another. Lev. xix. 11.

Speak every man truth to his neighbour. Eph. iv. 25.

All that do unrighteously are an abomination to the Lord thy God. Deut. xxv. 16.

He that uttereth a slander is a fool. Prov. x. 18.

The lip of truth shall be established for ever, but a lying tongue is but for a moment; for the mouth of them who speak lies shall be stopped. Chap. xii. 19.

To do justice and judgment is more acceptable to the Lord than sacrifice; (for) they who deal truly are his delight. Chap. xxi. 3, chap. xii. 22.

His secrets keep; that is, conceal the particular secrets of his art, trade, or science, without divulging or making any one privy to them to the detriment of his Master, whose interest may very much depend on a peculiar management and knowledge of his business. To behave thus, is to serve faithfully; and fidelity is[421] the glory and perfection of a Servant, as his want of it is his greatest discredit and reproach.

Discover not a secret to another, lest he that heareth it putteth thee to shame, and the infamy turn not away. Prov. xxv. 9, 10.

His lawful commands every where gladly do; that is, he shall readily and cheerfully obey him in all things lawful, without murmuring, hesitation, or reluctance; for obedience from a Servant to his Master, is a duty established by all laws, human and divine; and is founded likewise in the very nature of things; it being impossible to preserve any superiority in the one over the other, unless the inferior submits himself to the direction of his superior in all such things as he has a right to command him to do; that is, all things lawful: he is indeed, properly speaking, no longer a Servant than while he obeys his Master’s commands; so that the covenanted obedience of an Apprentice is on all accounts indispensably necessary; and the more cheerfully he performs it, the more perfectly he fulfils his duty, and the greater will be the reward as well as pleasure of his obedience; for his Master will doubtless take all opportunities of encouraging him on account of his willingness; he will contrive to make his work as easy to him as he can; he will treat him with all the kindness, and shew him all the favour that is consistent with the relation between them; whereby his servitude will be rendered a kind of freedom; the necessary labours of it a delight; and the time of its duration short and pleasant: he will beside gain the advantage of being trusted and confided in by his Master, which must necessarily give him a quick and thorough insight into his trade, whereby he will become duly qualified for the power and dignity of a Master himself, and establish such a reputation and character as will gain him the esteem and friendship of all who know him; and can therefore have no other than a comfortable prospect of advancing his station and fortune in the world. The quite contrary of all which must be the lot of the disobedient, churlish, and[422] murmuring Servant; who will, in all probability, end his days as a Master (if ever he arrives at that honour) in the same discontented, uneasy, and disregarded manner, in which he lived as a Servant; feared by very few, beloved by none.

Exhort servants to be obedient unto their own Masters, and to please them well in all things, not answering again. Titus ii. 9.

His servants ye are whom ye obey. Rom. vi. 16.

Servants, obey in all things your Masters, according to the flesh; not only to the good and gentle, but also the froward. Col. iii. 22.

And when ye be buffeted for well-doing, take it patiently; for this is thank-worthy and acceptable with God. 1 Pet. ii. 20.

With good-will doing service. Ephes. vi. 7.

Not with eye-service, as men-pleasers, but in singleness of heart, fearing God. Col. iii. 22.

If any would not work, neither should he eat. 2 Thes. iii. 10.

In all labour there is profit; and the thoughts of the diligent tend only to plenteousness. Prov. xiv. 23.

The hand of the diligent maketh rich.—An idle soul shall suffer hunger. Chap. x. 4.—Chap. xix. 15.

Seest thou a man diligent, he shall stand before kings, he shall not stand before mean men. A slothful man is compared to a filthy stone, and every one will hiss him out to his disgrace. Chap. xxii. 29. Eccl. xxii. 1.

They that plough iniquity, and sow wickedness, shall reap the same. Job iv. 8.

The Lord will make them contemptible and base, before all the people, according as they have not kept his ways. Malachi ii. 9.

He shall do no damage to his said Master, nor see it to be done of others, but that he to his power shall let (that is, prevent or hinder) or forthwith give warning to his said Master of the same. He shall not waste the goods of his said Master, or lend them unlawfully to any. It is not sufficient that the Apprentice does not wrong his Master himself, by cheating, pilfering, purloining, wasting, spoiling, lending, or giving away any of his goods; by sloth and idleness, by neglecting his business, and loitering away his time; it is not enough that he does his Master no kind of[423] damage himself; but he must be watchful that he is not injured in any kind by his fellow-servants and others; and be sure to do what in him lies to prevent or discover it to his Master; for he cannot be indifferent or careless in such a case, or connive and conceal any thing of this kind, without breach of covenant, and incurring the guilt and shame that is due to unfaithfulness.

Have no fellowship with the unfruitful works of darkness, but rather reprove them. Ephes. v. 11.

Beware of evil workers, and be not thou partaker with them.

Thou shalt not suffer sin in thy brother, but by any means reprove him. Phil. iii. 2.

When thou sawest a thief thou consentedst with him. Psalm l. 18.

He shall not commit fornication. This vice has been the bane of so many young men in all ages and places, that every one’s memory must furnish him with divers instances of its fatal effects; the Sessions papers are filled with numberless accounts of unhappy persons who are brought by it to public shame and infamous ends; and indeed nothing is so destructive to the morals and happiness of youth, as the having any kind of commerce with lewd and shameless women; for such conversation infallibly destroys the health, consumes the fortune, blasts the credit, and extinguishes that modesty which is the principal ornament and surest preservative of youth from the vices and dangers they are most exposed to.

Flee fornication: He that committeth fornication, sinneth against his own body. 1 Cor. vi. 18.

Keep thee from the evil woman, from the flattery of the tongue of the strange woman: lust not after her beauty in thy heart, neither let her take thee with her eye-lids; lest thou give thine honour to others: lest strangers be filled with thy wealth; and thou mourn at the last, when thy flesh and thy body are consumed. Prov. vi. 24, 25.—Prov. v. 10, 11.

Let not thy heart decline to her ways, for her house is the way to hell. Thou goest after her as an ox goeth to the slaughter, till a dart strike through thy liver; as a bird[424] hasteth to the snare, and knoweth not that it is for his life. Prov. vii. 25, 27, 22, 23.

Neither fornicators nor adulterers shall inherit the kingdom of God. 1 Cor. vi. 9.

Whoremongers and adulterers God will judge. Heb. xiii. 4.

Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God. Matt. v. 8.

Nor contract matrimony within the said term. Marriage is a very improper state for Apprentices, but is too often entered into rashly without consideration, or the consent of friends and relations; and therefore is very seldom advantageous, and generally unhappy. The necessary expense and charge which attends a growing family, must quite consume a small fortune, very much lessen a good one, and entail heavy debts and lasting misery on the generality of married Apprentices, who cannot hope to avoid a jail; and it is well if that is their worst misfortune. At best such a marriage is an act of great disobedience and contempt towards parents and friends, of injustice towards the Master, and must be attended with the loss of their esteem and friendship, if not with their heavy displeasure. It is a direct violation of this covenant, a forfeiture of their right to the freedom of London, and tends to unsettle and alienate the mind from business, and to disable the Apprentice from ever becoming a complete master of his trade.

He shall not play at cards, dice, tables, or any other unlawful game, whereby his said Master may have any loss. All sorts of gaming for money is prohibited by this covenant; it being a habit of the most pernicious consequence. Those who have an itch for gaming, very rarely have any relish for business; the dispositions and qualifications for the one, being quite inconsistent with the other. Modesty, caution, industry, frugality, and strict integrity, are indispensably necessary to the forming a good and successful tradesman; but no man ever made his fortune by play, without corrupting his morals and forfeiting his character; for the gamester must be bold and adventurous,[425] extravagant and profuse, fraudulent, tricking, and deceitful, of scandalous life, and infamous reputation; and such will the unwary and thoughtless Apprentice soon become, who is addicted to this vice; who begins with it under pretence of amusement, but suffers the love of it to grow on him till it becomes habitual; and what assurance has he, that the loss of his own money, and the flattering hopes of better fortune, will not tempt him to steal and hazard what is his Master’s? What hopes can he have that he shall escape the rock on which so many have perished? The Apprentice therefore who would not expose himself to guilt, to shame, punishment, and ruin, must religiously observe this prohibition.

Wo onto him that buildeth his house by unrighteousness, and his chambers by wrong. Jer. xxii. 13.

Wo unto them that have made dishonest gain of their neighbours, by extortion, or by the iniquity of their traffic. Ezek. xxii. 12.

My soul come not thou into their secrets, unto their assemblies my honour be not thou united. Gen. xlix.

We have renounced the hidden things of dishonesty, therefore let us not walk in craftiness. (For) better is a little with righteousness, than great revenues without right. 2 Cor. iv.

Wealth got by vanity shall be diminished: but he that gathereth by labour shall increase. Prov. xiii. 11.

If sinners entice thee, consent thou not. Walk not then in the way with them; lest thou learn their ways, and get a snare to thy soul. Prov. i. 10, 15.—Chap. xxii.

With his own goods, or others, during the said term, without license of his said Master, he shall neither buy nor sell. The apprenticeship is a time of labour and improvement, not of gain; it is the season wherein youth are to acquire a thorough knowledge of trade, and to establish in themselves such habits as will enable them to carry it on hereafter with pleasure and profit. A liberty for the Apprentice to trade on his own account, would, in most instances, be rather a snare than an advantage to him; it would oftener increase his acquaintance and expenses than his fortune; it would furnish him with excuses for absenting[426] himself from his Master’s house and business, under pretence of promoting his own; and lead him into company-keeping, and a large acquaintance, before he hath judgment to make a proper choice; and it is to be feared, would sometimes be the occasion of his being unfaithful, and create continual jealousies and misunderstandings between him and his Master. Upon all which accounts this prohibition is for their mutual advantage; and the breach of it on no account to be connived at by the Master, nor practised by the Apprentice.

If ye have not been faithful in that which is another man’s, who shall give you that which is your own?

He shall not haunt taverns or play-houses, nor absent himself from his said Master’s service day or night unlawfully. I have joined these three prohibitions together, because of the connexion they have; the Apprentice cannot commit the two first without being guilty of the last, which is a great act of injustice; for the Master has not a better title to his own money or goods than to the time of his Apprentice. He therefore must not upon any pretence whatsoever absent himself day or night from his Master’s house, without his consent. He must not, when the common business of the day is over, think himself at his own disposal, and take the liberty of going on his pleasure, without permission. Many things may occur which require his presence: business sometimes offers very unexpectedly; and the Apprentice should be always ready for his Master’s service. Add to this, that the house, the shop, and effects of his Master, are continually under his care, and the looking well after them a duty always incumbent on him; which such a one can never faithfully discharge who lists himself in clubs, or haunts taverns, or any other kind of tippling houses, or who frequents play-houses, and such like diversions. These habits are not only attended with a great waste of the Master’s time, but with an expense which few Apprentices can afford, and will probably lead him from wrong to robbery, when the Master’s[427] money becomes as necessary to his pleasures as his time; for, he who scruples not to waste the one, will not be long before he makes free with the other. It is therefore the interest and happiness of youth, to be restrained from frequenting these places, where they can only associate themselves with the young and giddy, the raw and inexperienced, the loose and disorderly; for discreet and prudent persons will not encourage Apprentices in such unlawful haunts, by keeping them company. And what must be the fruits of such society? what, but noisy empty mirth; loose and licentious discourse, riot, intemperance, and disorder; of the same pernicious kind are the pleasures they receive from plays, interludes, and such like diversions. These, to youthful and unsettled judgments, are but vain and airy entertainments, which fill the head with romantic and unnatural ideas of life and the world, and tend only to alienate the mind from business, which is its proper, and ought to be its chief entertainment; and to expose youth to the danger of being corrupted by lewd and vicious persons of both sexes, who always crowd such places. Upon the whole, then, it is evident, the Apprentice cannot haunt taverns, that is, any kind of public tippling-houses, or frequent play-houses, nor absent himself day or night from his Master’s service, without breach of covenant, nor indeed without exposing himself to the loss of reputation (for such as his companions and pleasures are, such will his character be) and contracting vicious and expensive habits, which will probably bring him to want and misery, to shame and punishment.

He that is faithful in that which is least, is faithful also in much; and he that is unjust in the least, is unjust also in much. Luke vi. 10.

That which is altogether just shalt thou follow. Deut. xvi. 20.

Blessed are those servants, whom their Lord, when he cometh, shall find watching. Luke xii. 37.

Be ye therefore ready also. Luke xii. 40.

I wrote unto you not to accompany with fornicators. 1 Cor. v. 9, 11.


If a brother be a fornicator, or covetous, or an idolater, or a railer, or a drunkard, or an extortioner, with such a one eat not.

Be not among wine bibbers, amongst riotous eaters of flesh. Prov. xxiii. 20.

He that is a companion of riotous men, shameth his father. Prov. xxviii. 7.

Look not thou on the wine when it is red, when it giveth its colour in the cup, when it moveth itself aright; at the last it biteth as a serpent, and stingeth like an adder. Prov. xxiii. 31.

Wine is a mocker, strong drink is raging. Prov. xx. 1.

Withdraw yourself from every brother that walketh disorderly. Thes. iii. 6.

He that followeth vain persons is void of understanding.

Thou shalt not follow a multitude to do evil. Exod. xxiii. 2.

Cease to hear instructions that causeth to err from the words of knowledge. Prov. xix. 27.

He that loveth pleasure shall be a poor man: he that loveth wine and oil shall not be rich. Prov. xxi. 17.

Who hath woe? who hath sorrow? who hath contention? who hath babbling? who hath wounds without a cause? who hath redness of eyes? they who tarry long at the wine! they who go to seek mixed wine: and men of strength to mingle strong drink: that rise up early in the morning, that they may follow strong drink.

It is better to hear the rebuke of the wise, than for a man to hear the song of fools. Prov. xxiii. 29.—Isaiah v. 22.

But in all things, as a faithful Apprentice, he shall behave himself towards his said Master, and all his, during the said term.

That is, he shall faithfully and diligently perform the covenants in this Indenture, and demean himself humbly, dutifully, and obligingly to his Master and Mistress, with civility and respect to their children, friends, relations, and customers, and all who belong to them.

And the said Master in consideration of ____ being the money given with the said Apprentice, his said Apprentice, in the same art and mystery which he useth, by the best means that he can, shall teach, or instruct, or cause to be taught and instructed, finding unto his said Apprentice, meat, drink, apparel, lodging, and[429] all other necessaries, according to the custom of the City of London, during the said term.

The end and design of Apprenticeship, is for the training up of youth to the knowledge and practice of some art or business; whereby they may learn to get their own living, and become useful to the public; and for the promoting this good and laudable design, the Master here covenants to furnish the Apprentice with all necessaries during the term of his Indenture, and to take especial care of his instruction and improvement in the trade he follows. It is, therefore, the indispensable duty of every Master to use his best means, that is, to take all proper methods for performance of these covenants. He must endeavour to render his Apprentice skilful and industrious, by due information and constant employment: he must enforce the duties of diligence, frugality, and honesty, by his own example, by kind and gentle usage, and by instilling into his mind the necessity and usefulness of these and all other good and virtuous habits. He must restrain him from whatever interferes with his duty or obstructs his improvement, by advice, by exhortation, by reproof, and (if need be) by moderate and reasonable correction; and if all these prove ineffectual, he must apply to the magistrate, and call to his assistance the authority of the Chamberlain, who will judge indifferently between the Master and the Apprentice, and oblige both parties to perform the covenants of their Indentures.

Let as many servants as are under the yoke, count their own masters worthy of all honour. 1 Tim.

Let not the child behave proudly against the ancients, nor the base against the honourable. For by pride cometh contention. Isai. iii. 5.

Honour widows. 1 Tim. v. 3.

A soft answer turneth away wrath, and yielding pacifieth great offences; (but) grievous words stir up anger. Prov. xv. 1.—Eccl. x. 4.

Please them well in all things, not answering again.

Whereas thy servant worketh truly, treat him not evil. Eccl. vii. 20.

Let my soul love a good servant. Ver. 21.

Masters, give unto your servants that which is just and[430] equal, forbearing threatening; knowing that ye have also a Master in Heaven: neither is there respect of persons with him. Gal. iv. 1.—Eph. vi. 9.

Despise not the cause of thy servants when they contend with thee. Did not He that made thee in the womb, make him: And did not one fashion us all in the womb? Job. xxxi. 13.—Ver. 15.

Be not hasty in thy spirit to be angry. Eccl. vii. 9.

Ye shall not rule over one another with rigour, for ye are brethren. Lev. xxv. 49.

Be thou an example of the believers, in word, in conversation, in charity, in faith, in purity. 1 Tim. iv. 12.

Six days in the week shalt thou labour, and do all thy work.

Remember the Sabbath Day, to keep it holy. In it thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, nor thy servant, &c.

Why is the house of God forsaken?

Unto his habitation shall ye seek, and thither shall ye come, ye and your households.

That ye may hear, and that they may learn, and fear the Lord their God, and observe to do all the words of his law.

According to the sentence of the law which they shall teach thee, and according to the judgment which they shall tell thee, thou shalt do: thou shalt not decline from the sentence which they shall shew thee, to the right hand or to the left. Deut. xxxi. 12.

And for the true performance of all and every the said covenants and agreements, either of the said parties bindeth himself unto the other by these presents. In witness whereof, the parties above named of these Indentures, interchangeably have put their hands and seals, the ____ of ____ in the ____ year of the Reign of our Sovereign, ____ of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, ____ Defender of the Faith, and in the year of our Lord, &c.





Table I. From Five-farthings to Two-pence three-farthings per
pound, yard, &c.
No. d. d. d. 2d. d. d. d.
    s. d.   s. d.   s. d.   s. d.   s. d.   s. d.   s. d.
  0  1¼    0  1½    0  1¾    0  2     0  2¼    0  2½    0  2¾
  0  2½    0  3     0  3½    0  4     0  4½    0  5     0  5½
  0  3¾    0  4½    0  5¼    0  6     0  6¾    0  7½    0  8¼
  0  5     0  6     0  7     0  8     0  9     0 10     0 11 
  0  6¼    0  7½    0  8¾    0 10     0 11¼    1  0½    1  1¾