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Title: The American Red Cross Bulletin (Vol. IV, No. 4, October 1909)

Author: American National Red Cross

Release date: March 21, 2024 [eBook #73219]

Language: English

Original publication: Washington, D.C: The American Red Cross, 1909

Credits: hekula03 and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at (This book was produced from images made available by the HathiTrust Digital Library.)


The American Red Cross Bulletin (Vol. IV, No. 4)

VOL. IV. OCTOBER, 1909. No. 4.



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Chairman of Central Committee,

National Director,

Board of Consultation

Surgeon-General, U. S. Army.

Surgeon-General, U. S. Navy.

U. S. Public Health and Marine Hospital Service.

Central Committee 1908-1909

Major-General George W. Davis, U. S. A. (ret.), Chairman.

Brigadier-General George H. Torney, Surgeon-General, U. S. Army, War Department, Washington, D. C.

Hon. Huntington Wilson, Assistant Secretary of State, Department of State, Washington, D. C.

Hon. Charles D. Norton, Assistant Secretary of the Treasury, U. S. Treasury Dept., Washington, D. C.

Medical Director John C. Wise, U. S. N., Navy Department, Washington, D. C.

Hon. Lloyd W. Bowers, Solicitor-General, Department of Justice, Washington, D. C.

President Benjamin Ide Wheeler, University of California.

Mr. John M. Glenn, 105 East 22d street, New York, N. Y.

Miss Mabel T. Boardman, Washington, D. C.

Hon. James R. Garfield.

Hon. A. C. Kaufman, Charleston, S. C.

Hon. H. Kirke Porter, 1600 I street, Washington, D. C.

General Charles Bird, U. S. A., Wilmington, Del.

Col. William Cary Sanger, Sangerfield, N. Y.

Judge Lambert Tree, 70 La Salle street, Chicago, Ill.

Hon. James Tanner, Washington, D. C.

Mr. W. W. Farnam, New Haven, Conn.

One vacancy.



Table of Contents 1
Red Cross Officers 2
View of Armenian Quarter, Adana 3
Preface 4
Turko-Armenian Relief. Illustrated. 8
By G. Bie Ravndal.
Italian Earthquake Relief. Illustrated. 45
Portuguese Earthquake Relief 61
Canal Zone Red Cross. Illustrated. 62
By Major C. A. Devol, U. S. A.
Use and Abuse of the Red Cross Brassard 66
By G. H. Richardson, M. D.
Repression of the Abuse of the Red Cross Insignia 67
The Story of the Red Cross 69
Tuberculosis Department. Illustrated. 71
1. Christmas Stamps.
2. District of Columbia.
3. Indiana.
4. New York.
5. New Hampshire.
Red Cross Nurses’ Department 81
First Aid Department. Illustrated. 84
1. California.
2. Illinois.
3. New York.
4. Pennsylvania.
5. Germany.
6. Great Britain.
Notes. Illustrated. 99
List of Red Cross Branches 3d page of cover

Entered at the Post Office, Washington, D. C., as second-class matter.






With the October number of 1909 the Red Cross Bulletin brings its fourth volume to a close. Those who recall the dry little report which constituted the first Bulletin, issued in January, 1906, will find a strong proof of the growth of the American Red Cross by contrasting the former with the Bulletins issued during the last year. The Red Cross is fast becoming a very vital force throughout the world, a force that is bringing the nations closer together in the bonds of human sympathy, brotherhood, and peace.

During 1909 our people, by means of the American Red Cross, have been able to express their sympathy and give their help to thousands of their fellowmen who have suffered from earthquakes in Italy and Portugal, from massacres in Turkey, and, just as this Bulletin goes to press, from floods in Mexico. In San Francisco the Relief Home and the thousands of little cottages built after the fire are monuments beside the Golden Gate to our Red Cross. Again, in sunny Italy the American Red Cross Orphanage and hundreds of little cottages are witnesses of its zeal and its sympathy. A picture in this Bulletin shows some of the cottages it has helped to build in Portugal,[5] and the Red Cross Day Camps that are beginning to dot the country over show its unforgetfulness of those who are victims of the “Great White Plague.” The transport that carried to China the generous cargo of food supplies provided by the Christian Herald floated the Red Cross flag; the relief ship Bayern, sent out by the American Relief Committee in Rome under the American Red Cross flew again that wonderful emblem, and from Beirut comes the news that the steamer on which our Red Cross committee there shipped relief supplies to the sufferers from the Armenian massacres sailed under the Red Cross flag. The ferryboat given by Miss Mary Harriman to the Brooklyn Red Cross for its tuberculosis work is another ship in what has been called “The Red Cross Navy.” So the water as well as the land has seen the beneficence of its labors.

Copyright, Harris-Ewing, ’08.

Our American Red Cross has suffered a serious loss in the death of Mr. John C. Pegram, of Providence, Rhode Island. Due to the interest and energy of Mr. Pegram, Rhode Island founded the first State Branch of the Red Cross after its reorganization in 1905. From this time until his death Mr. Pegram was its President, and he has also been a most faithful and valuable member of the National Central Committee.

We regret that the new plans for a reorganization in regard to State Branches are not yet in such shape as to be presented[6] in this Bulletin. Experience has shown the difficulty of maintaining efficient State Branches under present regulations. Our States are generally too large for the officers and members of Committees of a State Branch to hold frequent meetings, and in many cases it is not wise to concentrate all officers and members of State Committees in one city. The new plans leads to the creation of skeleton State Branches, to act only in case of disasters. The local, county, city, or town chapters will be brought directly in contact with the National Headquarters at Washington. In case of disaster in a State, it has been the custom of the Governor of the State to take prompt action for relief measures. For this reason it is probable that the Governors of States will be asked to act as Presidents of their respective State Branches. In appealing to the President of the United States for assistance, as has been the custom when the calamity has been of such magnitude that it was not possible for the State to render all the aid required, the Governor will appeal to the President of the American Red Cross, so the stricken community will be assured of assistance from the Government and also from the great national organization of the Red Cross. The new plans will soon be formulated and sent to all State officers of our Branches.

Copyright, Clinedinst, ’08.

Arrangements for First Aid Courses on a large scale are[7] fast developing. In October, under the Red Cross’ auspices, will be held a competition in First Aid among a number of Miners’ First Aid Corps from different mines in Pennsylvania. A prize, to be won three times, will be awarded, and bronze medals to the individual members of the winning team. Plans for the Nursing Department will receive much consideration. The new Christmas stamp for the tuberculosis work we trust will prove even more successful than that of last year, and so our Red Cross sees the future looming large and vigorous before it.


If, having proved to our people and to the world at large the use and value of our American Red Cross, we can now raise our Endowment Fund to a million dollars, so that by its income we may be always ready to render First Aid when great national or international disasters occur without having to wait for contributions to come in, and so that we may continue and carry on measures of teaching the hundreds of thousands of our men and women engaged in manufacturing, in mining, in railroading, etc., to be prepared to help themselves and each other in cases of the innumerable accidents of every day life, our Red Cross will take its place among the greatest, most efficient, and most blessed forces not only of our own country but of the world itself.




By G. Bie Ravndal,
American Consul-General, Chairman.

Beirut, Syria, June 5, 1909.

Your Committee desires to express its profound appreciation of its recognition by the American National Red Cross as the latter’s authorized agents in the matter of extending relief to the sick and destitute of Asia Minor and Syria in consequence of recent bloody disorders.

Such recognition strengthened our appeals for aid. It implied a thorough audit of accounts, and also that distribution to the needy would be made, irrespective of race or creed.

As Americans we have wished that credit for whatever we might be able to accomplish along the lines of alleviating suffering and destitution should be given to the American National Red Cross. For this reason, as well as for purposes of protection, we have displayed the Red Cross flag in the field as well as at our headquarters in Beirut, and we have also marked supplies as shipped by us to various local relief agents with the Red Cross insignia.

Commercially and otherwise, the stricken districts form part of Beirut’s tributary territory. This city, therefore, is especially suitable as a point of distribution of relief supplies in the present emergency. Your Committee, accordingly, was able to and did reach Adana and other afflicted points before any other relief agency. As soon as other instrumentalities had been provided for the Adana region, your Committee concentrated its efforts upon the less favored districts of Alexandretta, Latakia, Kessab, Antioch, and Marash.

We take pleasure in inclosing herewith a synopsis of the report of Prof. Harry Gaylord Dorman, M. D., of Beirut, who, while there, was called upon to superintend the entire medical relief work. Some of Dr. Dorman’s photographs show the Red Cross well to the front in Adana. We are grateful to the authorities of the Syrian Protestant College for granting Dr. Dorman the leave of absence required for the purpose indicated.

Inclosed financial statements, prepared by E. G. Freyer, Esq., our Secretary and Treasurer, who, as the executive member of your Committee, has displayed the most commendable zeal and tireless activity, explains the Committee’s operations up to the present time. Fuller accounts of the manner in which our cash remittances to Alexandretta, Marash, and Antioch were used will accompany our final and detailed settlement with the American National Red Cross. In every instance we have availed ourselves of the services of American, British, and German missionaries in the field, individually known to and fully trusted by your Committee, as distributing agents. Most of them “went through” the massacres of 1895, and thus acquired experience in relief work. Among such field agents we would especially mention Rev. Chambers, at Adana; Rev. Dodds, at Mersine; Rev. Kennedy, at Alexandretta; Dr. Balph, at Latakia; Rev. Maccallum, at Marash, and Rev. Trowbridge, at large, as having rendered valuable assistance.

While this is only the American Relief Committee at work, we are fully aware of the important services rendered by the International Committee at Adana, of which the British Vice-Consul, Major Doughty-Wylie, is chairman; Rev. W. N. Chambers (American), Secretary, and the Imperial Ottoman Bank (French), Treasurer. The latest letter received from Rev. Mr. Chambers, of Adana, shows that the relief work at that point still remains at its initial[9] stage (feeding the hungry and nursing the wounded), and that fresh relief measures are imperatively required.

Rev. T. D. Christie, D. D., President of St. Paul’s College Institute (American), at Tarsus, under the date of May 29, 1909, indorses an “Appeal for Help to Cilicia,” issued by an Armenian Bishop, in the following language:


“The above is not mere rhetoric; it understates rather than overstates the case. The needy refugees in these two Provinces of Adana and Aleppo now number about seventy thousand; the value of the property looted or destroyed is fifty million dollars. I trust there will be a generous response to this cry for help. Something is already being done, for which the men and women on[10] the ground are most grateful; but much more must be done if disaster is to be averted.”

Your Committee is not prepared to confirm any specific estimate of the number of destitute refugees. While in some places the devastation is complete, in other places the crops are left and may yet be saved. We do know, however, that the general situation in the stricken belt is extremely pitiable, and that we are perfectly justified in calling upon the American public for further help.


In the case of Kessab, we have supplied some mechanic’s tools and agricultural implements as the best means of obviating the necessity of issuing rations indefinitely. This policy will be pursued in other villages which were[11] looted and destroyed, and where the inhabitants are utterly destitute. Photographs show the steamer which carried our fairly large shipment for Kessab, and boxes composing the shipment. The steamer (Italian) flew the Red Cross flag in honor of the occasion.

Your Committee is deeply grateful for the opportunity of doing this kind of work under the inspiring auspices of the American National Red Cross, and would assure you that we constantly have in mind performing our task in such a manner as not to lower the high standard of efficiency and fidelity to duty set by your noble organization.

Supplementary Report of July 15.

In continuation of my report of June 14, 1909, I have the honor to submit the following further observations:

To begin with, the most pressing need called for food and medical aid. We, therefore, sent doctors and nurses and medical supplies to Adana and provisions, or cash wherewith to buy food, to various stricken centers, such as Adana, Tarsus, Alexandretta, Kessab, Antioch, and Marash. Kessab we also supplied with implements and tools of various kinds, as the village was utterly looted before being destroyed, and practically nothing but ruins was left of it. At Aintab and Beirut we have provided clothing, shoes, and bedding for some destitute orphans.


Fortunately, in many districts the crops were saved. The food problem, except at certain points, including Kessab, which is not an agricultural village, will therefore be deprived of its worst terrors until the winter sets in. There has been and still is a general demand for clothing, quilts, and blankets, especially[12] from the mountainous regions between Latakia and Marash. We shall hear more about the need of clothing and bedding and shelter as the season advances and the cold November rains begin beating down upon the mountains. Kitchen utensils are urgently wanted in many districts in which the marauders carried off everything portable.

But while the initial and most palpable suffering and destitution may be said to have been provisionally checked, and while preliminary steps are being discussed with a view to establishing orphanages and asylums for the fatherless and factories in which to give the widows employment, we feel that the real pinch is yet to come. After careful investigation, we are satisfied that relief on an extensive scale will have to be furnished for months to come, and that the coming winter will to the utmost tax the capacity of all the relief agencies at work, even if the funds at their disposal are very materially increased beyond the present ratio of contribution.


Confronted with so many unsolved problems of relief and of rehabilitation and feeling that some 25,000 destitute fellow-beings in the district between Marash and Latakia are looking toward this Committee for help, both for the present and during the approaching season of inclement weather, we are in duty bound to persevere.

As late as July 8, Rev. Kennedy reported from Alexandretta:

“Nothing has been done in the district so far to reinstate the refugees in their homes. They have been ordered back to their villages repeatedly, and even threatened if they did not obey, but they say they can not go back as long as they have no houses to return to. What the outcome will be I can not predict. To rebuild 746 houses, even though many of them are little better than huts, is no small thing.”




On July 3 this Committee received an appeal from Miss E. Chambers at Kessab for $500 for shoes, $250 for cotton cloth, and $5,000 for wheat, while urgent requests were made for money with which to rebuild houses. More than[14] 600 houses in Kessab had been ruined by fire and other means of destruction. We have supplied the money necessary to buy the shoes and the cloth, but we are unable as yet to provide winter stores or to assist in rehousing the people.

Regarding the matter of contributions, I would invite attention to the report of July 12 of the Secretary and Treasurer, Mr. E. G. Freyer, inclosed herewith. Your Committee’s first call for aid met with a surprisingly generous response from Syria, enabling us to be the first on the scene of devastation with help from the outside. The contributions were not large, but they came in promptly, and as shown by the financial statement of June 24, from numerous sources.

In the matter of distribution, this Committee has exercised very special care. We have dealt exclusively with American, British, and German missionaries in the field, men and women personally known to ourselves, and in whose trustworthiness and good judgment we had implicit confidence. We have full assurance that the supplies and the cash forwarded have been employed where they would accomplish the greatest amount of good. In that way the piasters or piasters’ worth furnished have been made to serve important ends. We, therefore, feel that we have not striven in vain, although the summary of receipts and expenditures does not run into very large figures.

The number of killed during the recent disturbances is variously estimated at 15,000 to 30,000, leaving thousands of widows and orphans. Business practically is at a standstill in the disturbed region. Hundreds of families wish to emigrate, and some have applied to American consuls for assistance to that end. It is a sad state of affairs. But emigration on a large scale at this time, when brighter days obviously are dawning upon this empire, unquestionably would be both a mistake and a misfortune.

Everywhere the Red Cross has been respected and honored, although the emblem of official relief work in Turkey is the red crescent.

Your Committee considers it a special and precious privilege to be permitted to help so many of these afflicted people under the inspiring auspices of the American National Red Cross. We once more appeal for further funds.


The Adana massacre was in two sections, the first massacre lasting from the morning of Wednesday, April 14, for three days, until Friday afternoon, April 16; the second followed after an interval of eight days, and lasted for two days, Sunday and Monday, April 25 and 26. The second massacre was followed by occasional killing of Armenians for five or six days more.

The feature of the first day was the plundering of the shops in the Armenian quarter by the Moslem mob. There was much shooting in the city, and some killing on both sides.

Thursday the shooting and killing was continued with more violence. The resistance of the Armenians in the Armenian section of the city was, to a certain extent, successful in preventing the pillaging of a large part of the Armenian quarter. But in the suburbs, where the Christian houses stood isolated, in their little vineyards or gardens the mob and pillaging soldiers had full play. Houses were entered, their inhabitants shot regardless of sex or age, and then, after having been plundered, the buildings were set on fire. On this Thursday afternoon the first assistance to the wounded was given by Mrs. Doughty-Wylie, the wife of Major C. H. M. Doughty-Wylie, British Consul at Mersine. These two had come up on the last regular train from[15] Mersine the previous day because of the report of trouble at Adana. However much of credit may have been, and rightly, given to the Major for a heroism and courage in these days of terror that was the means of saving the lives of thousands, his wife is no less deserving of credit for a brave and tireless devotion to the needs of the wounded, which has done much to mitigate the suffering that followed these awful massacres. To this work she brought not only a love for the details of nursing, but a genius for organization as well, and a training that prepared her in a peculiar way to fill the need. She had seen service as army nurse in the Boer war, and for six years she personally supported and conducted a hospital in Bombay, where she has nursed through famine and through plague. It surely was a special Providence that brought these two to Adana at such a time.


Thursday afternoon it was reported at the Consulate that nine wounded women and children from the ruined houses of the adjoining suburb had been brought into the Turkish guard house near the Consulate. A message to the guard house to ask if medical help could be given was answered by the curt reply that no assistance was needed as all would be dead by morning. There was firing on the street and murder abroad, but Mrs. Doughty-Wylie, taking with her a Greek woman and Dr. Danielides, who had taken refuge at the Consulate, went over to the guard house. The nine wounded were on the floor of a small room, lying in pools of blood. In an adjoining room were two wounded soldiers, one with a broken leg and one with a flesh wound. After a trip back to the Consulate for dressings, Mrs. Doughty-Wylie and the doctor dressed the wounds, caring first for the wounded soldiers. The women and children were then brought over and placed in a woodshed adjoining the Consulate, while the soldiers were left to the care of the proper military authorities. This formed the nucleus of the hospital relief work. There might have been ten instead of nine in this nucleus but for the fact that even while Mrs. Doughty-Wylie was at work in the guard house a wounded Armenian seeking its protection was stabbed to death by the bayonets of the soldiers in full view[16] of the English Consulate. Of the nine, two died of peritonitis in the course of a few days; two were discharged cured within two weeks, and others were convalescing in the hospital five weeks later.

A tenth was added to the list of wounded in the Consulate that afternoon by the wounding of Major Doughty-Wylie in the right forearm, who, in the role of peacemaker, was frequently between the fire of the contending parties.

End of First Massacre.

Friday morning, about nine o’clock, the bugles sounded the call to cease firing, and the first massacre ceased. Some four or five wounded men were brought into the British Consulate, and the little hospital overflowed into an adjoining Armenian house, where the patients lay in a little dark room with a mud floor.

On Monday a better house was engaged from a Greek. Here were four small rooms and a broad veranda, which for three weeks did service for surgical dressing room and operating room. The hospital was established with fifteen inpatients and a number of outpatients, who came for dressings. Dr. Danielides left in the middle of the week, and the work was carried on by Mrs. Doughty-Wylie, assisted by Miss Alltree and Miss Sinclair (English), and Miss Avania (Greek), until the arrival of Sick Bay Stewart Shenton and five first aid marines from the British cruiser Swiftsure. These came on Saturday, eight days after the end of the first massacre, and with a reinforcement of four more marines two days later they did thorough and efficient work until they were relieved after three weeks by a similar crew of men under Sick Bay Stewart Weiber from H. M. S. Minerva. The work of these men, and especially of Mr. Shenton, in caring for the wounded and in the daily dressing of what, after the second massacre, amounted to some 200 suppurating wounds, is deserving of the highest praise.


In the interval of eight days that elapsed between the first and second massacres, confidence had begun to be gradually restored. The wounded[17] were gathered in several places and cared for by Armenian doctors under the supervision of foreigners. Many of the wounds had gone four days without being dressed and were in bad condition.

Work Organized.

On Monday, April 9, three days after the end of the first massacre, work began to be organized, as follows:

Under the care of Miss Wallis, in the upper Gregorian Church, 60 wounded women and children, and in the Protestant Boys’ School, 15 wounded men, together with over 15 outpatients.

Under the care of Miss E. S. Webb, in the Armenian Girls’ School, and in the lower Gregorian Church adjoining, over 40 wounded, besides 30 sick.

Under the care of the Soeurs de Charite de Ste. Leon, in a large Armenian house, 25 wounded, besides 130 outpatients.


There were also about a dozen wounded in the Turkish School, and among the 2,000 or so refugees in the New Market Armenian Boys’ School there were 50 sick.

In all there were 330 wounded Armenians under treatment, of whom about half were able to come and go for their dressings. Besides this, there were some 100 sick among the crowded refugees. The small proportion of wounded relative to the total number of Armenians killed in the city during the first massacre—a number estimated at 2,500—is indicative of the vindictiveness of the killing. The chance of escape was small for a man, woman, or child once disabled by a wound.

Wounded Moslems were cared for in the government charity hospital outside the city. There were about 50 inpatients, among whom were said to be a few Christians, and about 150 outpatients. In the Turkish Military Hospital there were also about 40 wounded. From 50 to 60 other wounded[18] Moslems were cared for in their homes. The number of Moslems killed is unknown, but is said to have been 200, more or less.

Second Massacre.


On Sunday, April 25, the aspect of the medical relief work was abruptly changed by the occurrence of the second massacre. This began at 4 in the afternoon, with a determined fusillade on the New Market Armenian School, accompanied by the firing of the building, and followed by the massacre of most of its 2,000 or more helpless refugees as they sought to escape from the death trap. Carts piled high with bodies were busy for the next three days emptying the school playground of its dead. The acute stage of incendiarism and killing lasted only until the following night, Monday, April 26, but frequent fires and the shooting of stray Armenians continued for a week after. This massacre differed from the first in the absence of any effectual resistance on the part of the Armenians, the prominent participation of the soldiers in the killing, and in that it ended with the complete destruction by fire of the Armenian section of the town, representing something over one-fourth of the city’s area. It seems also to have been characterized by a peculiarly relentless cruelty; sick and wounded men, women, and children fell alike before the shots and bayonets of the pitiless soldiery. The 2,500 who are roughly estimated to have been killed in this second massacre are, for the most part, victims of the Armenian School massacre, together with those who were killed the same afternoon in the lower Gregorian Church and adjoining girls’ school. Of the 70 sick and wounded among the refugees here, most were either killed or burned. The hospital of the French Sisters was burned at the same time. Some of the patients were burned with it, but some were saved by two of the Jesuit Fathers, who carried as many as they could over to the Church of the Jesuit Boys’ School. Even this proved for them an uncertain refuge, for the following day the buildings of the Jesuit School were burned, and its refugees, together with the Jesuit Fathers themselves, were saved from the blood-thirsty[19] mob only by the timely intervention of Major Doughty-Wylie. In spite of his fractured arm, he had a guard from the Vali, and rode about in the endeavor to save life and restore order.

Monday morning, April 26, it was announced that government protection would be afforded only to those Armenians who should present themselves at the Konak or government house. So through the day refugees by the thousand, among them the sick and wounded, fled to the open space in front of the Konak, until the Armenian quarter was deserted. Many were escorted there by Major Doughty-Wylie with a guard of soldiers. Here they stood waiting helplessly, without food, for many hours. The women and children were commanded to stand apart from the men, and all were subjected to a thorough search for arms or valuables. Toward evening they were told to go, but no provision was made for their going. Like a herd of frightened sheep, turning back here and there as some new terror faced them, with a number trampled to death at every fresh panic, husbands separated from wives, and children separated from parents, dead bodies lying in the streets, and darkness coming on, they gradually drifted to the new quarter of the town near the railroad station, where they finally found refuge in the two great cotton factories—13,000 in Trepanni’s factory and 5,000 in the German factory. In this flight they were partially protected by the Macedonian soldiers. Some of them were cut and wounded as they passed by Arab soldiers, but none were killed.


The four emergency hospitals in the Armenian district were thus broken up. On that Monday 120 wounded from these hospitals came down to the hospital of Mrs. Doughty-Wylie for dressings, most of them destitute of beds or bedding. The next day, Tuesday, there were over 60 inpatients under the charge of Mrs. Doughty-Wylie; 100 wounded among the 5,000 refugees in the inclosure of the German factory were segregated in a good building intended for the use of foreign employees of the factory. There were no beds for these unfortunates at first. Of this 100 many were but slightly wounded, so that when the factory was emptied of its refugees a week later only 50 were left[20] as interne patients. Besides the 60 or more patients in Mrs. Doughty-Wylie’s hospital, 200 outpatients were also cared for.

There were thus in the three hospitals about 375 wounded under the care of foreigners, after the second massacre, not many more than the number of wounded before the second massacre, for the newly wounded were hardly more than enough to take the places of the wounded who had been killed or burned. Besides, the nature of the second massacre was such as to leave few wounded among those attacked. The kill was usually complete.

Dr. Connell, of H. M. S. Swiftsure; Dr. Bouthillier, of the French cruiser Victor Hugo; Dr. Bockelberg, of the German cruiser Hamburg, with a number of sailors and marines from their ships, gave much assistance.

A number of the native physicians likewise gave their services, though at first it was hardly safe for the Armenian doctors to do so.

The German Emperor had sent his own ship, the Hamburg, post haste from Corfu to Mersine soon after the first massacre, and the supplies needed for the German Hospital were to a large extent furnished from the ship’s stores.


Conditions of Refugees.

In the four days following the second massacre the condition of the refugees in the factories was pitiable. A little raw flour was given out, even on Monday evening, but for most of the people it was two and a half days before bread was distributed to them. The suffering was great. Conditions were not as bad in the German factory as in the Greek factory, because the inclosure of the former was spacious, and the number of refugees less. In the Greek factory the 13,000 filled all available space. The buildings were packed, with people sitting everywhere on the floor; many crawled under the machinery to find a place to lie. Out in the yard of the factory the last comers were jammed together tightly, so that for many there was actually “standing room only.” Among the refugees here few were wounded, but many sick. There had been an epidemic of[21] measles in the town before the trouble began, and in the crowding of refugees from the first massacre there had been a thorough spread of infection. The two weeks that had elapsed since the beginning of the first massacre gave time for the incubation period, and now many children broke out with the rash of measles.

A smallpox scare was of benefit, in that it hastened the evacuation of the factory. This early turning out of the crowd from the factory was one of the best steps taken in all the relief work, for although it caused some few deaths by pneumonia from exposure, it avoided the awful calamity of an outbreak of typhus fever, such as occurred after the Armenian massacres of 1895. The moving of refugees into camp from the Trepanni factory was superintended by Commander Carver, of H. M. S. Swiftsure. By Thursday noon the 13,000 had been divided up into about 30 sections to facilitate the distribution of bread. On Friday, when it was desired to empty the factory, it was announced that bread would no longer be given out in the factory, and each section, according to directions, followed its own particular bread cart out to the place of encampment, at the Yenemahalle. Here, without sufficient covering, and for a time without any tents, families were required to pass nights still cold and chilly, and days rendered intolerable by exposure to the intense heat of the sun at midday. Children in the acute stage of measles passed the night on the bare ground without any covering, and exposure to the chill air resulted in many cases of broncho-pneumonia, from which, for a time, they were dying at the rate of ten a day.


Two days after the establishment of the camp an attempt was made to separate the families with measles, and between 300 and 400 of such were collected by Commander Carver in an orange grove, a quarter of a mile away from the main Yenemahalle camp.

Tuesday, May 4, eight days after the second massacre, the German factory was cleared of its 5,000 inmates, and these were located part in an open[22] camp and part in adjoining houses, which, although rented by Armenians, had been spared the general destruction because belonging to Turkish owners. This location was nearly half a mile distant from the Yenemahalle camp. The people here were fed by German funds, and the place was known as the “German camp.”

At this time the allowance of rations was doubled in the large Yenemahalle camp, so that from this time on the people had sufficient food. But the bread from the emergency bakeries of the first two weeks was often poorly baked, and many people had diarrhœa, approaching dysentery, from eating the raw dough that for many was the only food available during the first two days in the factory. Tuesday night and Wednesday 500 blankets and 100 quilts, sent from Beirut, were distributed to the most destitute of the sufferers in the Yenemahalle and measles camp, but when half of the 13,000 refugees were without covering for the night, it can be understood that the 600 pieces were woefully insufficient to go around. A week later 300 more blankets were received and distributed.


On this Tuesday a request made to Ashraf Bey, municipal sanitary inspector, for aid in medical inspection was answered by the sending of two Turkish doctors and two pharmacists, who, the following day, opened an emergency pharmacy near the measles camp.

Red Cross Sends Medical Aid.

Immediately after the second massacre, a call for medical assistance was sent by the Adana Relief Committee to Beirut, where a Red Cross Relief Committee had been constituted by Hon. G. Bie Ravndal, American Consul General; Mr. E. G. Freyer, of the American Presbyterian Mission, and Dr. Geo. E. Post, of the Syrian Protestant College. This was answered by sending an Armenian physician, Dr. Armadouni, on Wednesday, April 28, who, on arrival at Mersine, found that it was impracticable to proceed farther on[23] account of government restrictions of Armenians. Surgical supplies sent with him were forwarded to Adana, and he returned to Beirut.

Another still more urgent appeal for doctors came from the Adana Relief Committee on Friday, April 30. The surgeons from the English and German ships were necessarily irregular in their attendance, and soon to be compelled to leave; Armenian doctors were not available, and severe epidemics were to be expected among the crowded and poorly fed refugees. In response to this call the American Red Cross Committee at Beirut sent a medical commission, which reached Adana on Wednesday, May 5, consisting of two students of the fourth year of the Syrian Protestant College Medical School, Dr. Kamil Hilal and Dr. Fendi Zughaiyar; Miss MacDonald, a Canadian, who had been teaching in Jerusalem, and Dr. H. G. Dorman, of the Syrian Protestant College, who is the writer. With us was a complete hospital outfit of surgical instruments, sterilizers, sterilized dressings and sutures, and a supply of condensed milk, tinned soups, drugs, etc. Miss MacDonald was succeeded later by Miss Davis, who arrived May 10. The size of the Beirut delegation was increased later by the arrival, on May 12, of Mr. Bennetorossian, of the third year in the Syrian Protestant College Medical School, and on May 20 by Dr. Haigazum Dabanian, who had been released by Dr. Torrence, of the Tiberias Mission, from his engagement in the English hospital there that he might assist in the Adana relief work. The two senior medical students were Syrians who spoke Turkish; the last two men were Armenians and deserving of especial credit in coming to Adana at this time, for they knew that in so doing they ran the risk of government suspicion and arrest.


With the delegation going from Beirut, although not sent by the Red Cross Society, were two Kaiserswerth Deaconesses from the Johanniter Hospital in Beirut, Sister Louisa and Sister Hannah. These two sisters were sent in response to an appeal from the captain of the Hamburg. They took the German hospital in charge from the time of their arrival in Adana and inaugurated a reign of cleanliness and order that made the German hospital a pleasure to behold.


On Tuesday, May 6, as the doctors from the English and German ships were compelled to leave, the writer was asked by the Relief Committee to take entire charge of the medical work. I began with a survey of conditions.

In the German hospital were 23 men and 25 women and children now under the care of the two German Deaconesses; 15 or 20 outpatients were coming in for daily dressings.

In Mrs. Doughty-Wylie’s hospital were 17 men and 20 women and children, and in the railroad freight house, under her care, were 21 men and 4 women; 160 outpatients were having their dressings done at this hospital.

In the American Girls’ School were 15 women and children, under the care of Miss Wallis and Dr. Salibian. Some 10 or 15 wounded outpatients were also dressed at the daily clinic held by these two in the Yenemahalle camp.

Thus there were at this time, in all, 305 wounded under the care of foreigners.


Except for the need of a surgeon in charge of Mrs. Doughty-Wylie’s hospital, the surgical work seemed well in hand and likely to be of lessening urgency, while the medical need was just getting into its prime and had been so far almost entirely neglected. In the Yenemahalle and German camps some 200 were reported as sick, while in the measles camp between 75 and 100 children were suffering from the sequence of measles, bronchitis, pneumonia, otitis, and from diarrhœa and dysentery, as the result of bad food. A discouraging feature of the outlook was the lack of bedding to protect the sick from exposure, and another difficulty was the absence of milk or soup for the hundreds who could eat nothing else. When people die from starvation, it is usually not for lack of something to put in their stomachs. Their hunger compels them to swallow things unfit for food and a fatal diarrhœa or dysentery is the result. For the children, made sick by eating dough during the days in the factory, the rations of the camp, consisting at first of coarse and half-cooked beans (fule), were as impossible food as is grass to a healthy man. Only a limited supply of milk at famine prices was at this time available. There was sometimes two cups of milk a day, sometimes one, and sometimes none for the sick babies, and[25] consequently the little ones were fading away quickly. Happy were the mothers who were nursing their own children, but it was sad to see little ones starving where the mother was too sick to nurse. I was reminded of the work of thoughtless hunters, who kill the parent birds in nesting time and leave the little ones to starve in the nest. Day by day the rows of little unnamed graves were lengthened near the measles camp. Heart rending scenes of mothers beseeching help for their dying babies were common. Some babies were killed in the massacres by cutting and shooting, and perhaps there the Turks were the more merciful.

The camps were rapidly becoming foul from lack of sanitary restrictions. Swarming flies were zealous to convey infection, and it only needed a good hard rain, such as is common in Adana at this time of the year, to spread an epidemic of typhoid or dysentery that would have been impossible to combat.

These were the needs of the camps: Cleanliness, milk, bedding, efficient medical attendance, medicines, and pharmacists. All these needs were gradually supplied in the course of the next ten or twelve days.


The first week’s work after our arrival seemed rather discouraging, although constant progress was made. The camps were rigorously cleaned under threat of short rations. Fortunately the rain held off, and in time the camps became relatively sweet and clean. After a week and a half the refugees began moving back to their ruined homes, and the relief of the congested condition of the camp was a constant lessening of the menace of epidemic outbreak. Until medical force became reinforced, we had to cover the field among us as best we could. Sickness was on the increase, and once the daily reports handed in by the head men of the camp sections showed 400 sick in camp, of whom 75 were reported as “very sick.”

The medical staff at first was quite inadequate for the work of visiting all these sick. The two Turkish doctors and the two pharmacists found the life too strenuous for much more than half a day’s work at a time. It was several days before we were able to do more than make sure that the very sick were seen by a doctor each day.


There was also a shortage of drugs. The remedies needed were few and simple, but they were needed in large quantities. This lack was soon supplied from the drug shops in Mersine. There was a shortage of bottles to put fluid medicines in, and medicines when not taken on the spot were dispensed in finjans, old tin cups, or anything that would hold fluids. One man at the dispensary, whose prescription for castor oil had been filled, in spite of protestations, into his own mouth, when he was told to go finally made clear that it was for his wife that he wanted the medicine.

Conditions Improve.

These rough and ready methods gradually passed as better organization became possible. Dr. Peoples, newly arrived for American mission work in Mersine, joined the medical staff in Adana on May 9, and gave valuable assistance in various branches of the work. After a week, on May 12, the returning French Sisters of Charity, among whom were two experienced nurses, opened a pharmacy and clinic for the refugees of the German camp.

On Sunday, May 16, an Armenian delegation, sent by the Armenians of Constantinople, consisting of three senior medical students, one doctor, and two pharmacists, opened a well-equipped pharmacy, which they had brought with them, in the Yenemahalle camp.

In the meantime the conditions of hospital work became greatly improved. On May 8, three days after our arrival, the surgical hospital of Mrs. Doughty-Wylie was moved from the little cottage and railroad sheds, where such excellent emergency work had been done under such adverse circumstances, to a large commodious house, which had been generously offered for the work by its owner, Cosma Simeonides. In the well-ventilated, spacious rooms of this building 60 patients were comfortably housed, and sufficient space was left for an admirable operating room, for accommodations for help, and for kitchen needs. To care for the patients in these improved quarters, and to relieve the work of the British marines, the necessity for whose withdrawal was anticipated in the near future, a corps of 15 young Armenians and Greeks were enrolled as hospital assistants. These volunteers were for the most part students of St. Paul’s Institute, at Tarsus, and their knowledge of English facilitated the work for the English speaking doctors and nurses. Under these new conditions work which before was arduous and imperfect became a constant source of satisfaction and pleasure. A large debt of gratitude is due to the owners who so generously devoted their beautiful home to this work.

The transfer of the surgical patients left the first emergency hospital free for the accommodation of medical patients. It was soon filled and overflowing, and within a week it was found necessary to accept an offer of the use of the Greek School for the accommodation of patients. On Saturday, May 15, this building was opened as a medical hospital with 50 patients, the most part cases of pneumonia, enteric fever, and dysentery. These patients, too, were under the general care and oversight of Mrs. Doughty-Wylie. In this building also were housed the four American first-aid bluejackets who came up from the cruiser North Carolina the following week; and here, too, was instituted another pharmacy to supply the needs of the hospitals under the care of the sailors who had had training in pharmaceutical work.

Work of Trained Nurses.

In connection with the improvement of the hospital work should be mentioned the noble work of several trained nurses, whose services were early[27] volunteered. Miss Yerghanian, sent by the King’s Daughters Society of Smyrna for this work, arrived on May 5. Miss La Fontaine, of the British Seaman’s Hospital at Smyrna, came soon after. These two, in conjunction with two Armenian nurses who came with the Constantinople Armenian Relief Commission, undertook the nursing of the medical hospital. Miss Davis, of the Jessie Taylor Memorial School, of Beirut, furnished Mrs. Doughty-Wylie most acceptable and skillful assistance in the work at the surgical hospital.

It has been said that perhaps the greatest need of the medical work for the Adana refugees was the lack of sufficient supply of milk. Accordingly the most encouraging day of our work was the day, ten days after our arrival, when arrangements were made to secure huge quantities of goats’ milk from peasants at less than half the famine price of cows’ milk that prevailed in the first days of the camp life. Distribution of the milk and soup in the camps had been early assigned to the Misses Webb, of the American Girls’ School in Adana. The work of these two ladies in their constant, tireless devotion to the relief of discomfort, sickness, and trouble incidental to the distressing conditions of the camp life, calls for the warmest admiration. To the sufferers, whose constant appeals to them were never slighted, these sisters were veritable ministering angels of mercy. Another assistant in this relief work was Mrs. Kuhne, of Mersine, who, while her health permitted, helped in the work of the upper camp.


On Monday, May 17, twelve days after we reached Adana, medical assistance was arriving in such force that I felt justified in returning the three medical students who were with me to Beirut, where their approaching examinations necessitated their early return. On this day, in addition to the helpers already enumerated, Dr. J. T. Miller, surgeon of the American cruiser North Carolina, arrived with four first-aid bluejackets. Dr. Gogel, of the British cruiser Minerva, arrived with four marines to take the place of the Swiftsure marines, who were leaving.


International Feature of Relief Work.

I remained in Adana five days longer to make sure that the work was all apportioned and running smoothly. When I left, on Saturday, May 22, the medical work was well in hand and fully manned. Dr. Miller was in charge of the medical hospital, which it was agreed to call the American Red Cross Hospital, and also in charge of the sick children in the measles camp. Dr. Gogel was in charge of Mrs. Doughty-Wylie’s surgical hospital, and a ward for sick babies that had been instituted in an adjoining building, under the care of Miss Alltree. The patients in the hospitals were improving and being discharged, but other patients had been admitted, so that the original numbers were maintained. Some wounded had come in from outside the city. The German hospital, under Dr. Phanouriades, had not taken in new patients, and the number there had diminished to 25. Responsibility for the German encampment was turned over to the French clinic and pharmacy. On May 20 the French opened a little hospital of 12 beds, for medical cases, near their pharmacy. In the Yenemahalle camp rounds were being made by the Turkish and Armenian doctors; the Armenian pharmacy was in full operation and two daily clinics were being held.


The Turkish military doctors were continuing the clinic at their pharmacy near the measles camp. There were thus in operation four hospitals—English, American, German, and French; four dispensaries—Turkish, Armenian, French, and American, and five daily clinics—English, French, Turkish, and two Armenian. The staff of workers included 25 doctors—English, American, French, Greek, Syrian, Turkish, and Armenian; 11 trained nurses—English, German, and Armenians; 8 first-aid men from the English and American ships, and 12 Armenian assistants. In all this work one of the pleasantest features was its international character. No friction or international jealousies were seen. Before the great need and common aim, distinctions of race or nation fell away, and one helped another with a single desire for service. While I[29] have spoken of the surgical hospitals as English and the medical hospital as American, the distinction is only in name, for the English and Americans have worked together indiscriminately in both hospitals.

The provision for the medical wants of the refugees was sufficient, and it seemed only a question of time until the emergency relief work should grade off into the permanent medical work required for 20,000 homeless and penniless people. When the time for this change should come, it was desired that some permanent good might remain as a memorial of the relief work in Adana, and it was planned that the patients remaining from the American Red Cross Hospital, together with whatever hospital equipment might have been accumulated, should be left to the care of the American Mission in a large building belonging to them, which is now being altered for use as a hospital. There is no hospital in Adana, except one poorly equipped and totally inadequate charity institution, and the field of usefulness for a good hospital would be great. There could be no fitter legacy of permanent help to the Adana sufferers than the founding among them of such a permanent hospital.

The evacuation of the camps, forced by the government on all those who had remaining houses or vineyards, while it worked hardship in some cases, was a necessary precaution for the avoidance of epidemics, and at this time the campers had been reduced by about one-half.

A share in the Adana relief work has been a privilege not alone as an opportunity for service, but it has been a still greater privilege to see the men and women there who, in sublime unconsciousness of self, are daily giving themselves to fill the swarming needs of thousands of destitute people. Especially is this true of Major Doughty-Wylie and Mr. Nesbit Chambers. Credit for the high personal bravery shown by them at the time of the massacres is surpassed by admiration for their devotion now that, acting as directors of the Adana relief work, and showing foresight, discretion, and economy, they have established themselves to bear the burden through the hot days of the long summer. Honor may well be given to those who couple courage in danger with humanity in time of need.

(Signed) HARRY G. DORMAN, M. D.,
Of the Adana Relief Delegation of the
American Red Cross Committee in Beirut.


By Stephen van R. Trowbridge.

Kessab was a thrifty Armenian town of about 8,000 inhabitants, situated on the landward slope of Mount Cassius (Arabic, Jebel Akra), which stands out prominently upon the Mediterranean seacoast, halfway between Alexandretta and Latakia. Kessab is now a mass of blackened ruins, the stark walls of the churches and houses rising up out of the ashes and charred timbers heaped on every side. What must it mean to the 5,000 men and women and little children who have survived a painful flight to the seacoast and have now returned to their mountain home, only to find their houses sacked and burned! There were nine Christian villages which clustered about Kessab in the valleys below. Several of these have been completely destroyed by fire. All have been plundered and the helpless people driven out or slain.

On Thursday, April 22, serious alarm reached the people of Kessab. It was known that a massacre of the Armenians had taken place in Antioch, 36 miles to the north, and that attacks were being planned on the Christian villages[30] of the mountains. A parley was arranged with the Mudir (magistrate) of Ordou, the nearest seat of government, and a telegram asking for military protection was dispatched to the Governor of Aleppo. The Mudir, whose name is Hassein Hassan Agha, met the Kessab delegation halfway down the mountainside and assured them that he had already scattered the mobs that had gathered with evil intention. But his pledges soon proved to be idle tales, because that very Thursday evening he permitted crowds of armed Moslems to come into Ordou from Jissr Shoughr, Kusayr, Antioch, and even from Idlib, far to the east. Early the next morning, after entertaining the raiders overnight, he sent them on their way to the sack of Kessab. Moreover, the Mudir detained the eleven gendarmes which were ordered by the Aleppo government to protect American and Italian interests in Kessab. The Mudir instructed the gendarmes that they should remain in Ordou.


Thursday evening the Kessab scouts brought word into the town that great crowds of armed Turks and Arabs had gathered in the nearest Moslem village. It was an anxious night. Before daylight, Friday morning, rifle shots told of the enemy’s advance. By three separate mountain trails, from the north, northeast, and east, thousands of armed Moslems came pouring up the valley. Their Martini rifles sent the bullets whizzing into the Kessab houses, while the shotguns of the 300 Christians who were posted on the defense could not cover the long range. It was a desperate struggle, and the Kessab men realized their straits. The plan which they thereupon made is to their honor and credit. They resolved to hold out as many hours as possible, so as to furnish time for the women and children to escape into the clefts and caves of the mountains to the south. For five hours the fusillade continued with fierce determination. By midafternoon Turks from the Antioch villages had circled around Jebel[31] Akra on the north, so as to command a position above Kessab. The Arabs had flanked the town on the southeast. Meanwhile the vanguard of the Ordou Moslems had captured and burned the adjacent villages just below Kessab, and had set fire to three of the houses at that end of the town. Their cries and frantic threats could be heard distinctly. The women and girls gathered up the little children on their backs and in their arms, hastened along the west trail over the ridge toward Kaladouran, and clambered up into the cliffs and crevices which overlook the sea at an altitude of 5,000 feet. Some in small groups, others entirely alone, hid themselves underneath the thorny underbrush or in the natural caves. Toward evening the men had been compelled by the overwhelming odds to give up the defense. They fell back without any panic or noise. And the Turks and Arabs who rushed into the streets of the town were so seized with the lust of plunder that they did not pursue the rear guard of the Christians. Angry must have been the scenes as the plunderers fought with one another over the stores of raw silk, the chief product of Kessab. Cattle, mules, copper kettles, bedding, clothing, and rugs were carried out by the Turks in feverish haste, as one after another the houses were set on fire. Some of the aged Armenians, who had not the strength to flee, were caught in their houses and barbarously put to death. Others, who had delayed flight in order to gather up and rescue a few valuables, were likewise put to the sword. Axes and knives finished up what the rifles had spared. But the instinct to escape had been so strong among the Christians, and the greed of plunder so absorbing among the Mohammedans, that in all the day’s fray only 153 Armenians and a handful of Turks were killed.

A Kessab girl named Feride, 20 years of age, had a remarkable escape. She had gone over to the village of Ekizolook (Twin Hollows) to save the little bridal trousseau of one of her friends. It was well on in the afternoon when she had gathered up the garments into a bundle. And when she hurried out into the street to join the fugitives she found, to her dismay, that everyone had gone beyond sight and hearing. A moment more and she saw a host of Arabs rush up through the street. She dashed through several little gardens and reached the rocks and underbrush above the village. On and on she made her way without being discovered. In a deep cleft between the rocks she hid and listened. She had dropped the precious bundle, but kept in her hand her New Testament, which was more precious than anything else. As she listened and watched many Arabs and Turks ranged past the entrance to the cleft. Then came one who peered in closely. Their eyes met. He gave a cry to his comrades, “There is a maiden here!” and sprang forward. She summoned her whole strength and leaped up the side of a great rock which rises up above the village. It was a feat which no athlete could commonly have done. At first the Arab could not follow her. He cried again to his companions. They replied by shouting to one another, “Surround her! Surround her!” She was now standing on top of the rock in full sight of fifteen or sixteen Arabs, all in her pursuit. They called fiercely to her to come down. She answered in Arabic, “You may shoot me, but I will never give myself up.” Then they ordered her to throw down to them the purse she had in her hand. She told them it was not her purse, but her Holy Gospel. And she held out her hands in prayer to God. Just then the Arab who had first seen her made a spring up the side of the rock. She leaped in the opposite direction down into some brushwood, but was caught at the side of the rock by branches of briar. The Arab came on over the top of the rock and had reached out his arm to seize her, when a Christian young man, who had taken refuge in another part of the brushwood, fired and shot him dead. He gave a long groan, threw up his arms, and fell prostrate upon the rock. The other Moslems were startled by the unexpected[32] shot and retreated for a time. This gave Feride time to escape into the caves farther up the mountainside, where she remained entirely alone all night and part of the next day. When I was in Ekizolook the Arab had not yet been buried. I took his headdress—a coil of black wool and the “keifiyye” which goes with it—as a trophy. Feride herself told me the story of her escape. Her eyes were bright and her cheeks flushed as she recalled the dangers through which she had passed. She said that after she was discovered in that cleft of the rocks all fear left her. A strange courage came over her, and she felt sure that God would save her from being captured.

One of the school teachers, named Mariam, was caught by the Arabs not far from where Feride had hidden. The Arab who captured her ordered her to become a Moslem. When she refused he threatened to kill two little boys she was trying to protect. Then he raised the axe which he carried and placed the edge against Mariam’s neck, threatening her three separate times. Each time she said she would never become a Mohammedan, nor deny her faith in Christ, nor surrender her honor. The Arab snatched the money which she had with her and tore off the dress and shoes which she was wearing. He told her he would make her his slave. Just then some Turks from Ordou came up and recognized among the women the wife of Dr. Apelian. The doctor had often served these Turks medically. A sharp skirmish ensued, which ended in the defeat of the Arabs. The women were that night taken in safe conduct by these Turks to a Greek house in Ordou, where they were kindly cared for until the fighting was over and they could return to Kessab.

One of the saddest experiences was that of Azniv Khanum, wife of the preacher in Kaladouran. Ten days before the massacre she had given birth to twin children, a boy and a girl. When the flight to the mountains took place she had not the strength to climb with the others, so her husband hid her and their four children among the rocks near the edge of the village. The babies were wrapped in a little quilt and the other children clung to their mother, while the father hid in a cave close by. Before long Azniv Khanum and the children were discovered by the Turks. One of the plunderers snatched up the quilt, despite the mother’s entreaties. The two babies rolled out, one in one direction and one in another, over the rough stones. Then the Turk rudely laid hold of the mother, and, holding his revolver against her breast, ordered her to become a Moslem. She bravely refused. “You are my slave,” he said, and beat her with the flat of his sword. He commenced to drag her down in order to tie her on his horse. Her foot tripped, she fell, and rolled over and over for about eight yards. There she lay on the rocks, bruised and exhausted, in the hot sun. The Turk seeing a chance to plunder, abandoned her. Afterwards other Turks took her money and her dress and shoes and her little girl about four years old. It is wonderful that she lived through it all. One of the little babies lived a week, the other about ten days, after that. When I was in Kaladouran we buried the little boy. It was a very touching service out under the trees.

Now, to return to the narrative. Friday evening it occurred to Dr. Apelian that if he could reach the seaport of Latakia, forty miles to the south, he could telegraph for assistance by sea. With a trusty guide he set out that same evening for the house of a Moslem chief in the mountains. This Turk agreed to ride with him to Latakia, and thus give him protection along the way. Without this escort the doctor could never have made this trip. Even as it was he took his life in his hands. They arrived in Latakia at 2 o’clock at night, called the British and French consuls to Dr. Balph’s home, sent telegrams to Alexandretta and Aleppo, and at dawn notified the Mutasarrif (Lieutenant-Governor)[33] of the attack on Kessab. Turkish soldiers were dispatched at once, and a Messageries steamer started to the rescue from Alexandretta.

Meanwhile, all day Saturday the sacking and burning went on. The large village of Kaladouran was devastated. The Moslems increased in numbers as raiders from distant villages arrived. In the afternoon Selhan Agha, captain of gendarmerie, arrived with forty cavalrymen. He joined in the sack of the town, taking for himself and his company the most valuable share of the booty, the raw silk found in the merchants’ shops. He and the cavalrymen were afterward intercepted at Idlib, on their way to Aleppo, and their saddlebags were found to be crammed full of plunder. Selhan Agha, with the forty horsemen, had been dispatched from Jissr by orders from Aleppo, Thursday afternoon, to go at once to protect Kessab from any mob violence. He could have gone in eight hours, or even less, from Jissr to Kessab. At that time the attack had not yet commenced. Instead of going directly to Kessab he went to Sheikh Keoy and spent the night there. The next day all the Moslems from that village were out on the warpath, while Selhan Agha turned far out of his way and made a sixty-mile detour to many other Mohammedan villages and to the city of Antioch. Finally he reached Kessab, forty-eight hours after receiving his orders, and when he arrived he did not stop the burning and looting, but himself became a plunderer. This whole disgraceful affair has been probed by the Aleppo Commission, and their findings substantiate all of the above statements. I have most of the evidence, however, directly from one of the gendarmes named Mehmet Ali.


By Saturday night there was not much valuable plunder left. The iron bars were wrenched out from the windows and the household pottery smashed to pieces out of sheer vandalism. As the loot became exhausted the Moslems[34] commenced to range the mountainsides, exploring the caves, and firing into the bushes in the effort to exterminate the Christians. One woman’s husband was cut to pieces before her very eyes, and she herself was severely wounded in the side. She escaped to the deep ravines near the summit of Mount Cassius and lived on snow for twelve days. She is now in the American hospital at Latakia.

All the tradesmen’s shops and merchants’ storehouses in Kessab are burned. In fact, the whole market is in ashes. The Roman Catholic and Protestant Churches are completely burned. The latter was a spacious building, seating a congregation of 1,800. The American Mission residence, occupied by Miss E. M. Chambers, was burned; so, also, the Girls’ High School (American property), the Boys’ Grammar School, and the Protestant parsonage; 530 houses, including the homes of all the well-to-do families in Kessab, are also destroyed by fire. The 700 houses which remain, plundered, but not burned, are small one-room or two-room houses, belonging to laborers and other poor people. In Ekizolook 38 homes are burned; 22 remain. In Kaladouran 65 are gone; 135 are left. In Duz Aghaj 24 are burned; 1 remains. In Keorkine 55 are burned; 45 remain.

On Saturday one of the Latin priests, Father Sabatine, made the journey to Latakia, at considerable risk, in order to appeal for help. Whether it was by the influence of his telegrams or the ones sent twenty-four hours before by the Protestant physician, Dr. Apelian, I do not know, but at all events on Sunday morning a Messageries Maritime steamer came down the coast toward the cove at Kaladouran, at the foot of Mount Cassius. The news was carried from mouth to mouth to all the hiding places among the crags and ravines, so that within a few hours the fugitives began to pour in streams down the Kaladouran gorge to the seashore. The painfulness of that descent can scarcely be imagined. Most of the people had not had anything to eat for two days. Many of them had become separated from their families and were now plodding down toward the sea with a strange blend of hope and despair. The suffering of many of the women was severe indeed. Fourteen children were born during that flight, and the mothers had no alternative but to press onward as best they could in the wake of the multitude.

An 8-year-old little boy was captured by the Turks and carried off to become a Moslem. He was given a Mohammedan name and made to wear a little turban. He acted very demurely and kept quiet. But when a chance offered, as he had permission to go to a nearby well, he ran for dear life and got away. With an instinct as keen as that of a wild creature of the woods, he made his way among the mountains and across the maritime plain forty miles, to Latakia, where he found his mother.

The Messageries steamer took aboard about 3,000 and brought them to Latakia, where they were divided up among several churches and schools. On Monday, a French cruiser brought 4,000 more. The largest number were cared for in the grounds of the American Presbyterian Mission. The hospital was crowded with wounded and sick under the care of Dr. James Balph. Miss Elsey, the trained nurse, opened a maternity ward, and all the Americans worked hard in relief measures. The days in Latakia, under the hot sun and with the constant fear that the Turks of the town might rush in and attack them, were days of exile and hardship, in spite of all that could be done for safety and health. They gathered quietly in the evenings for prayer and for the singing of the hymns that they all know by heart. After a few days sickness began breaking out rapidly. Several smallpox cases were discovered, and the crowded conditions threatened still further disorders. The Mutasarrif,[35] who is chief magistrate in Latakia, had from the start done everything in his power to protect and provide for these fugitives. He himself patrolled the streets at night, and, with the few soldiers at his command, dispersed the angry Moslem mobs which repeatedly made attempts at disorder. He furnished a ration of flour for all and expressed his sympathy with those who were in sorrow. When he saw the rapid increase of sickness he advised that they should all return to Kessab, and to give the people assurance of safety on the road he went with them in person. The courageous and kind-hearted action of this Turk saved Latakia, and the thousands of Kessab people sheltered there, from the dreadful event of a massacre. His conduct stands out in strong contrast with the criminal behavior of Hassein Hassan Agha, the Mudir of Ordou.


Can you imagine the feelings of the Kessab people as they climbed on foot the long trail up the mountain, and then as they came over the ridge into full view of their charred and ruined dwellings? Their stores of wheat, barley, and rice had been burned; clothing, cooking kettles, furniture, and tools had gone; their goats, cows, and mules had been stolen; their silk industry stamped out; their beloved churches reduced to smouldering heaps. The bodies of their friends and relatives who had been killed had not been buried. And yet the love of home is so strong that the people have settled down there with the determination to clear up the debris and rebuild their houses. If generous gifts arrive from England and America the Local Relief Committee hopes to put into the hands of the Kessab men such tools as shall enable them to earn their usual livelihood by one of the trades or by farming. For the present food supplies and clothing must also be forwarded from Latakia and Beirut. But as soon as a man begins to earn a daily wage, no matter how small, his name is struck off the ration lists. I insisted upon this rule in the case of[36] muleteers, who were paid for carrying up the first shipment of relief supplies. Two capable doctors are ready to give their services for the sick, but they have lost all medical and surgical supplies. It would be of the utmost benefit to furnish them with instruments and medicines. In this, as in other needs, we heartily appreciate the prompt cooperation of the Beirut Relief Committee. Miss E. M. Chambers, who was in Adana during these troubles, has now returned to Kessab. She has lost everything, but is quite ready to share the lot of the people. She is secretary for the Kessab Relief Committee, of which Dr. James Balph, Latakia, is chairman and treasurer.

On Sunday afternoon, May 23, the first preaching service for four weeks was held out under the trees near the burned church. My heart went out to the people as I spoke to them and looked into their faces. I realized then a little what they had been through during the past month. May God’s blessing be richly poured out upon them!

Supplementary Report.

For the first few weeks we were all compelled to do emergency work, the doctors to treat the wounded, the rest of us to secure flour, rice, and water for the throngs of homeless people. But now the attention of all of us is directed to construction work, providing for the industrial needs of the sufferers, rebuilding wherever possible and reorganizing the agricultural work of the peasants. For the orphan children homes are being established, chiefly by the missionaries, and for the widows whose livelihood has been cut off by the killing of husbands, fathers, and sons, the establishment of embroidery, rug making, and silk culture, the materials and tools furnished by the relief committees, the wages to be paid daily to the earners. Where many men have survived, the common trades of carpentry, masonry, stonecutting, tailoring, and weaving may be reestablished by a sufficient financial backing from relief societies. There is also great need of men to specialize in relief work and administer the large funds required. Missionaries can not rightly give up all their regular work, nor can navy officers nor consuls, but a few American volunteers, such as those sent to southern Italy and Sicily after the earthquake, could do a wonderful amount of good.

Perhaps the most effective and wide-reaching relief work thus far has been done by Dr. F. D. Shepard and his wife in the large villages of Hassan Beyli and Baghche. This American surgeon could use to excellent advantage a staff of young men from the homeland. The work of the Beirut Relief Committee in providing hundreds of the men who survived the Kessab attack with tools and implements, so that they might commence earning a living at once, deserves note as a typically American plan, financed chiefly through the generosity of the American National Red Cross. To avoid pauperizing the people is one of the most difficult feats. Here in the city of Aintab, where there has been practically no loss of life, but great economic loss and resulting increase of poverty, I have furnished some of the unemployed weavers with twelve looms for six months. Twelve stonecutters, who were out of work since April 16, I have set to work digging pits or holes in the limestone of the hospital grounds, so that trees may be planted in the pits next spring. The earth is only a few inches deep here.

Although the American people have helped very generously, the work of relief has only just begun, and a more thorough effort to put the people here on their feet again and to make kindly provision for all the helpless persons, the old women and little children, requires large plans and large appropriations from such societies as the American National Red Cross.


An English Woman’s Heroism.

Mrs. Doughty-Wylie, wife of the British Vice-Consul, in a letter to her mother, describes with the vividness of an eye witness the horrors of the last days of the rule of the late Sultan, Abdul Hamid.

Major Doughty-Wylie, a soldier who has taken part in many campaigns, was severely wounded while engaged in the work of rescue. His heroic services have won from the American missionaries laurels that will not fade. Mrs. Doughty-Wylie also, according to impartial witnesses, displayed the courage of her race, and by her devotion and energy saved many lives.

From a letter from Mrs. Doughty-Wylie we make the following extracts:


“We are having a perfectly hideous time here. Thousands have been murdered—25,000 in this province, they say; but the number is probably greater, for every Christian village was wiped out. In Adana about 5,000 have perished. After Turks and Armenians had made peace and the Armenians had given up their arms, the Turks came in the night with hose and kerosene and set fire to what remained of the Armenian quarter. Next day the French and Armenian schools were fired. Nearly everyone in the Armenian school perished, anybody trying to escape being shot down by the soldiers.

“In the French school a large number of Fathers and Sisters, with 2,000 Armenians, were rescued by Dick (Major Doughty-Wylie). Thirty, who tried to escape, were shot. Dick found their bodies at the gate, but he got the survivors out of the schools and brought them right through the Turkish quarter without losing a soul. Altogether he got several thousand people out of the burning quarter and encamped them near our temporary dwelling.

“I have the hospital—sixty-five beds so far and about 150 outpatients[38] requiring surgical dressings. Fifteen thousand starving people are to be fed and we are running into debt nicely.

“The Turkish authorities do nothing except arrest unoffending Armenians, from whom by torture they extort the most fanciful confessions. Even the wounded are not safe from their injustice. A man was being carried in to me yesterday when he was seized and taken off to gaol. I dare not think what his fate may be.

“Nobody is safe. They murder babies in front of their mothers; they half murder men and violate their wives while the husbands are lying there dying in pools of blood. Then they say it is the fault of the Armenians, because there existed a revolutionary society of about sixty members, who talked and wrote a good deal of rot.

“We arrived in Adana from Mersine the first day of the massacre, April 14. The murderers boarded the train. There was a rush of Armenian passengers into our compartment. While I tried to buck them up a bit Dick went and tackled an assassin who was just going to shoot somebody else. At Tarsus they murdered two men who were coming from the station just behind us. One man made a rush and gained the guardhouse, but the soldiers shoved him out and watched him done to death in the road.

“Dick got into uniform the moment he arrived, and we saw no more of him till 11 at night. He had been rescuing all the foreign subjects he could find. The following day I saw more brutal murders. An Armenian quarter near us was attacked by Arab soldiers from our guard and was practically wiped out. Their officers and one or two decent soldiers stuck to the guardhouse and took no part in the murders. The officers, at my earnest appeal, even saved some women and children—but how dreadfully shot they were.

“After an hour’s argument I got a Greek doctor to come out with me to the guardhouse and dress the wounded women and children. The room was a puddle of blood, and while we were working there a wounded Armenian, who was staggering in to be dressed, was stabbed to death by some of the soldiers. I saw many murders, and nobody seemed to care.

“The authorities did nothing, and the soldiers were worse than the crowd, for they were better armed.

“One house in our quarter was burned with 115 people inside. We counted the bodies. The soldiers set fire to the door, and as the windows had iron bars nobody could get out. Everybody in the house was roasted alive. They were all women and children and old people. It was in that part of the town that Dick was wounded. They told him that some wounded Turkish soldiers were lying among the burning houses, and he went to rescue them, which they certainly did not deserve. The house from which he was shot had a garden filled with dead women and children, and I have no doubt that some Armenian, who had lost entire family and most of his friends, shot him in a sort of mad fit, probably taking him for a Turk.

Slaughter in the Fields.

“Outside Adana every Christian village—Greek, Syrian, or Armenian—has been burned and every soul in them killed. Unfortunately, it was just before harvest, and thousands of peasants from the mountains and other districts were there to start work. From 100 to 200 men and women were murdered on every farm. Turkish farms were not burned or looted, but the Armenian servants were killed. I know of only one farmer—a friend of ours—who had the nerve to save his Armenians.



“The French engineer and an English traveler gallantly did some saving. They had escorts, and the Frenchman stood a three-days’ siege and made his escort fight some Circassians to save a dozen Armenians. It was gallantly done. The Englishman, whose name is Gunter, refused to save himself unless the Armenians who had thrown themselves on his protection were saved. It was touch and go for the lot, but British pluck won and he got his own terms.

“The Germans, however, who were shut up in a place called Bagche gave up the Armenians in their house as the price of their own safety. Here the Germans are working splendidly on relief work. They are all Saxons and had a factory full of Armenians, which held out all right. When the Armenians were being brought out of the factory to the camp, as soon as things were supposed to be quiet, the soldiers started killing them. I happened to be at the guardhouse and got my little officer to go to the rescue, and all were brought in safely except three, who had been already shot.

“Things are still very unsettled. Murders and fires continue; but, of course, it is not like the first days of horror.

“We have 15,000 people starving and without shelter. All we can give them is a fragment of bread or a handful of rice. We have nothing more to give. No milk for the babies—nothing. And measles and dysentery are rife.”



Beirut, Syria, July 12, 1909.

Mr. E. G. Freyer, Secretary-Treasurer of the Relief Committee, with his financial statements sends a special appeal for Kessab. He also says, in regard to the Committee’s work as American Red Cross Agents:

We realized, first, that under the American National Red Cross our Committee would take the field as a distinctively American undertaking, even though recognizing the principle which governs all Red Cross work—that its benefits should reach all in need, irrespective of nationality or creed.

Secondly, it gave the Committee a standing, a guarantee before the public which enabled it to raise funds in quarters where remittances under other circumstances might not have been forthcoming.

The sending of doctors and nurses to Adana in the name and under the protection of the Red Cross flag was not only a source of satisfaction to the Committee, but of the very greatest help and blessing to the many who at that time required immediate medical aid.

Those of us who have lived in the Orient for years have become accustomed to the remark, and in many cases have allowed ourselves to believe, that the native will not help himself, much less others, but that he is willing to be dependent on the charity of the outside world. Be this as it may under ordinary conditions, the present crisis has fully demonstrated that the native can and will rise to the occasion and help not only himself but his neighbor as well.

In looking over the summary of receipts it is more than gratifying to note the very generous response which has come to our appeal from the Syrians, or those whom we designate as “natives.” When we consider that out of a total of 564,538 piasters received fully one-third has come from native sources, this fact in itself may be considered a success commensurate with any relief and help which the money itself has brought to the sufferers. It is proverbial that it is difficult to get money from the native. It is a satisfaction to know that he is sympathetic, and that he can and will help.

Many cases can be cited where sacrifices have been made to help along the work of relief. One man who had saved his metallic pieces (1 cent plus) for nearly three years, and who had his small box nearly full, handed it over with the remark, “Here, I have saved these for three years. I know not what the box contains. Take it for the fund.” The proceeds of that box netted the fund 385 piasters, or $13.75. The children brought their pennies, school girls went without portions of their meals, the poor gave of their little, and by these acts of self-denial helped to feed and clothe their fellow-countrymen.

We have esteemed it a privilege to work under Red Cross auspices, even though our funds have come also from many other sources.

From England we have received many contributions, large and small. The latter are numerous, and indicate the desire many have had to help.

A Special Appeal for Kessab.

Relief work at Kessab, as in many of the disturbed districts of northern Syria, has been going on since the end of April last. During that time the Beirut Relief Committee has been able to aid in feeding and clothing the many widows and orphans who were left entirely destitute, while tools for[41] carpenters, blacksmiths, and masons, also plows and farming implements, have been sent there so that the work of reconstruction might begin.

Until now relief work has consisted chiefly in feeding the hungry; more could not be undertaken on a large scale. The summer months have proved favorable in that the people did not require special housing. Improvised tents and shelters of various kinds were constructed, and for the present these have served their purpose well, but the great question which confronts all who are engaged in this work is, how these people are to be housed and sheltered during the bleak winter months. It must be remembered that the winters at Kessab are exceptionally severe. Situated on the side of a mountain at a high altitude, the winds and rains not infrequently cause the place to be entirely covered with ice and snow.

Then, again, how are they to be provided with food to tide over the winter, or until they can raise their next crop of silk worms, the chief industry of Kessab? We can not go on feeding them indefinitely, yet it is a duty to feed and house this people until, under ordinary conditions, they can provide their own support and repair their homes.

In regard to providing shelter, it is thought that it may be feasible to erect two or three large barracks to give at least temporary shelter to the women and children. Conference with those on the field and those who know the conditions which hold good at Kessab may prove that this is not a feasible plan, but that it would be better to roof over some of the larger buildings. While practically all the houses in Kessab were destroyed by fire, the walls of most of them are standing and in good condition. It may be found more advantageous to roof over several of these large houses, or even the Protestant and Armenian Churches. The latter could be used by the constituents of either sect, and under such conditions as the Relief Committee may see fit to make. Unless some such measure of relief is adopted immediately great will be the suffering and privation of the people of Kessab during the coming winter months.

The very lowest estimate places the cost of the construction work at $10,000 and the cost of a sufficient quantity of wheat to sparingly supply the needs of the people at $5,000.

In view of the foregoing facts a special appeal is therefore made for $15,000, $10,000 of which to be specifically designated as intended for and to be applied to constructive work.

It is hoped that these specific objects for which funds are so urgently needed, and the receipt of which will do untold good, may appeal to many who are in a position to give.

Abstract of First Financial Statement, Beirut Relief Committee, June 24, 1909.

Your Committee has long felt the necessity of rendering at least a preliminary statement, showing amounts received and expended, in connection with the relief work made possible through your generosity.

Without the aid of regularly paid assistants it has, however, been impossible for the Committee to render such an account earlier, feeling that its first efforts should be directed toward the work of relief rather than that of accounts.

It is a pleasure to acknowledge with thanks the gifts of so many who have responded to our call for aid. Considerable has been done to alleviate the sufferings and wants of the sick and destitute, but from all accounts from the stricken districts the work of relief is far from completed. Until we can get sufficient funds wherewith to purchase tools, etc., the people can not be set to[42] work at their various trades. This, and this only, can solve the problem of reconstruction which confronts all engaged in this work.

Very truly, yours,

American Consul-General,

Secretary and Treasurer.

Syria 136,581.10
Palestine 28,012.05
Asia Minor 17,505.00
Cyprus 1,322.35
Egypt 35,667.25
Belgium 815.25
France 543.30
England 51,658.25
America 223,930.25
Grand Total 496,037.20
£3,627 6s. 7d.
Adana 60,088.10
Kessab 76,960.10
Alexandretta 81,006.25
Latakia 7,000.00
Antioch 26,029.20
Tarsus 14,099.05
Aintab 12,462.20
Marash (Americans) 79,193.20
Marash (Germans) 23,253.30
Deaconesses, Beirut 4,404.00
Miscellaneous 31,575.00
Grand total 416,072.20
Beirut currency: Piasters.
Total receipts 496,037.20
Total expended 416,072.20
June 24, 1909. Balance on deposit in bank 79,965.00

E. G. FREYER, Treasurer.


8,783  pieces of clothing and 182 pairs of shoes, sent in by 152 donors.
3,600  blankets purchased by Committee.
1,100  quilts purchased by Committee.
130  sacks of rice purchased by Committee.
23  sacks of wheat purchased by Committee.
197  sacks of flour purchased by Committee.


Cash 198,942.10
Medicines and medical supplies 13,371.25
Blankets 29,295.00
Quilts 21,548.10
Foodstuffs 50,000.20
Clothing 26,012.40
Miscellaneous, including carpenters’, masons’, and farming tools; sewing machines, tin pots, pans, spoons, copper pots, blacksmiths’ tools, plows, pickaxes, spades, needles, thread, buttons, administration, etc. 76,903.15

I have examined the above accounts, compared the same with vouchers, and hereby certify that they are correct.

W. R. GLOCKLER, Auditor.

Beirut, Syria, June 24, 1909.

Abstract of Second Financial Statement, Beirut Relief Committee, July 26, 1909.

Credit by balance brought forward June 24, 1909 79,965.00
Syria 2,759.30
Palestine 316.25
Asia Minor 664.35
Egypt 1,317.10
Cyprus 136.15
Denmark 69.10
England 83,728.10
America 79,929.00
Interest, bank account 564.15
Total 249,450.30
Expended for account:
Adana 13,344.30
Kessab 30,715.30
Alexandretta 27,082.30
Antioch 485.35
Antab 12,462.20
Oorfa 411.10
Marash 18,264.30
Miscellaneous 4,520.00
Total 107,287.25
Credit by balance on hand July 26, 1909 142,163.05 [44]
Total of all receipts to date 665,523.10 or $23,768.68
Total of all expenditures to date 523,360.05 or 18,691.43
Credit by balance carried forward to new account 142,163.05 or 5,077.25

Respectfully submitted,

E. G. FREYER, Treasurer.

I have examined the above accounts, have compared them with vouchers, and hereby certify that they are correct.

W. R. GLOCKLER, Auditor.

Supplementary Statement or Cash Memorandum, Beirut Relief Committee, July 28, 1909.

Credit by balance brought forward July 26 142,163.05
Cash received per C. A. Wilson, Alexandria 13,962.25
Cash received from Isper Bayoud, Amatour 160.00
Cash received from N. Berouti, Jaffa 217.20
Total 156,502.50
Debtor to—
T. L. 300, transferred to Dr. Balph for purchase of wheat and storage of same 37,387.20
Telegram to Dr. Balph 22.10
225 pieces kham for Kessab 9,344.00
600 blankets, tinware, etc., for Kessab 9,263.30
40 dozen each of crockery plates and bowls 1,203.20
Medical supplies for Kessab 1,436.10
Cost of packing bales for Kessab 23.05
Cost of sending cash to Dr. Balph 30.20
Miscellaneous shipping, telegram fees, etc. 118.30
Total 58,829.25
Balance, approximately, T. L. 783 97,673.25

Turkey-Armenian Relief Fund.

Advanced from General Emergency Fund $12,500.00
Contributions, Christian Herald (New York) 12,500.00
Contributions, Armenian Relief Committee (New York) 3,500.00
Contributions, miscellaneous 1,187.01
Total receipts 29,687.01
By cable to the American Ambassador, Constantinople $28,000.00
Repayment to General Emergency Fund 1,500.00
Total disbursements 29,500.00
Balance September 1, 1909 187.01

Note.—The Red Cross wishes to invite the attention of its members and friends to the amount contributed by the Christian Herald for this fund. Our readers will remember the large amounts contributed by this paper in the past to various Red Cross Relief Funds, especially the following: Japanese Famine Fund, $200,000; Chinese Famine Fund, $250,000 in money and a Government transport load of food supplies, and to the Italian Earthquake Fund, $55,000.—Editor.



From Mr. Lloyd Griscom and Lieutenant-Commander Belknap final reports have been received of the American Red Cross Relief work in Italy. A printed report of Mr. Griscom’s American Relief Committee in Rome, together with all the vouchers and correspondence of this Committee, have been sent to the American Red Cross at Washington for permanent filing in its archives. The vouchers for all expenditures have been revised and certified to by the Banca Commerciale Italiana at Rome. The vouchers for all the expenditures connected with the American Red Cross Relief Ship Bayern are already on file at Washington.


Cottages of standard type, built 16×20×9 feet 1,039
Grand Hotel Regina Elena, 75 bedrooms, two stories and partial third story; 100 feet central part with two wings, each 132 feet long, all finished except plaster, plumbing, lighting, Eternit roofing, and inside paint; material used equivalent to 178
Building suitable for church, material used equivalent to 24
Building attached to church, material used equivalent to 15
Laboratorio, material used equivalent to 12
Two school buildings, together equivalent in material to 12
Total buildings at Messina, equivalent in material to 1,280
Material remaining at Messina for continuing construction of houses 350
Cottages of standard type 500
Villagio Regina Elena.
Cottages of semidetached type, each 16×20 75
Hospital Elizabeth Griscom, equivalent in material used to 30 houses; plumbing, lighting, and furnishing done by Her Majesty’s staff 30
Palmi and District.
Cottage of special smaller type built, 13×16×10, as a model, complete, and frame for a second built 1
Material sent to this district for other such houses 500
Ali and Surrounding District.
Portable houses erected 49
Houses of Palmi type built as models 5
Roccalumera 3, Santa Teresa Riva 2, Nizza-Sicilia 2 (models of Palmi type built) 7
Material sent to this district for houses of this type 300
Total built by American construction party 1,898
Total number of houses furnished 3,097






Captain Belknap, on the 10th instant, consigned the completed work at Messina to the Ministry of Public Works, who then assumed charge.

Ensign Robert W. Spofford, U. S. N., remained to direct the work in general until it had become well organized under the new direction. He will also supervise the completion of certain work being done by contract not yet completed.

Commander Belknap’s Work.

Mr. Griscom says: “The report of Captain Belknap is worthy of careful study. Its only fault is that it does not do justice to his work. I feel that it is incumbent upon me to endeavor to express to you the admiration I have for the manner in which Lieutenant-Commander Belknap has performed his duty. The magnitude of the task could only be appreciated by one who has been on the spot and seen the difficulties as they arose and witnessed the courageous and adroit manner in which he overcame all obstacles and carried to successful conclusion a work which is truly remarkable. The departure of Lieutenant-Commander Belknap from Messina was a veritable personal triumph. All the highest military and civil authorities were present at the steamship landing, together with a military band, and he was given full military honors and received a remarkable and spontaneous public demonstration of admiration. He and several of his assistants were formally made citizens of Messina. To-day he has been formally received by their majesties, the King and Queen of Italy, and had extended to him their majesties’ personal expressions of gratitude.”

Commander Belknap’s Tributes to His Assistants.

Before closing this report, I beg to mention those who have labored so energetically and faithfully to bring about results which have been kindly commended by all who have visited the camps.

The special prominence of the services rendered by Tonente di Vascello Alfredo Brofferio stand apart from all else. He worked unremittingly in the closest association with us, his duties touching every feature of the work, and it would be impossible to place too high a value upon his far-seeing, conscientious, and self-sacrificing devotion to our success.

The Italian authorities’ cordial attitude toward us and hospitable care made away with innumerable difficulties. To their magnanimity and their earnest devotion to their own duties was due their sincere appreciation of our efforts and their frank and grateful acknowledgment of our gift to their cities.

Commander Harry P. Huse, U. S. N., commanding the U. S. S. Celtic, established us on a living and working basis in our camp at Messina, the Celtic serving as our base until the first group of houses were ready for us, and he was most felicitous in all that he did to promote a genuine feeling of cordiality in our relations with the authorities.

Lieutenant-Commander George Wood Logan, commanding the U. S. S. Scorpion, gave his most cordial support and interest in the undertaking from the first, and placed every facility at our disposal.

Lieutenant Allen Buchanan, U. S. N., was the mainstay in the executive work, and I was always able to rely on his good judgment on the frequent occasions when taking counsel was necessary. He discharged his duty with unremitting industry and exemplary zeal, and he left behind him in Messina and among the members of our organization a feeling of the most uniform good will and admiration for his character and ability as an officer.


Ensign John W. Wilcox was in charge of the Reggio division of the work, which he managed with exceptional skill. He had many difficulties to contend against, but solved them with an ease and discernment that an officer of long experience might envy.


Ensign Robert W. Spofford, U. S. N., had charge of the unloading of steamers. He has done excellent work and is left in charge of the work being completed at Messina. To Assistant Surgeon Donelson, U. S. N., for medical supervision of the camp, and to Pay Inspector J. A. Mudd, U. S. N., for the care taken in the shipment of the building materials from America, Captain Belknap gives high praise. The enlisted men of the Navy performed their work most faithfully, and Captain Belknap mentions many of them by name. This country may well be proud of the splendid work of the officers and men of our Navy so far outside their regular duties. Captain Belknap says also that thanks are due to Mr. John Elliott, who was a most devoted worker, and left his beautifying touch on every part of the work. Mr. H. W. C. Bowdoin and Mr. Charles King Wood were among the other tireless and efficient volunteer workers to whom our thanks are due. And finally, many of the master carpenters sent from America gave most satisfactory and valuable service under difficult conditions.

Committee on American Offerings.

Of this committee Mr. Griscom says: “As you already know, after consultation with his excellency, the Minister of Foreign Affairs, Signor Tittoni, I placed the sum of 256,250 lire (the equivalent of $50,000) in the hands of a committee appointed by Mr. Tittoni, of which his wife, Donna Bice Tittoni, was Chairman. This committee has to-day handed to me its report and accompanying[50] vouchers, which are transmitted to you herewith under separate cover. I am satisfied that this committee carried out some of the best rehabilitation work which has been done since the earthquake. It was done in a rapid and businesslike way.”

The American Red Cross Orphanage.

Signor Bruno Chimirri, Chairman of the Committee on Orphans, called the “Patronato Regina Elena,” reports: “Being desirous of expediting the plant of the colony before the departure of the Ambassador from Rome, and not wishing to touch one single lire of the American capital, the Patronato voted 200,000 lire (about $40,000) for the building of the colony. This depended upon us, and it has been done. As to the choice of a site upon which it will be erected, it is not a question of choosing any piece of land, but a ground within the jurisdiction of the Itinerant Chair of Agriculture, in order to secure not only gratuitous teaching but also the very best obtainable. With this end in view, two months ago I addressed myself to the Minister of Agriculture, upon whom depends the Itinerant Chair that has to choose a suitable locality. I have finally brought the matter before the House of Deputies. Nor is this all. In order to facilitate the negotiations for the purchase of the land, since the Ministry would not consider the price of the proprietor, I have induced the municipality of Nicastro to contribute to the expense by paying the difference, as you will see by a copy of their decision appended hereto. As soon as we receive an answer we shall send the Professor of the Itinerant Chair to visit the proffered land, and, if his report is favorable, we shall hasten to secure possession and lay the cornerstone before Mr. Griscom’s departure.”

The Italian government consented to pay $4,800 for the land, and the District of Nicastro voted to contribute the balance of the $6,000 which was asked.

In regard to this Orphanage there is given an open letter to the American Red Cross from Mr. Anthony Matre, Secretary of the American Federation of Catholic Societies. This letter was published in some of the prominent Roman Catholic papers before it even reached the hands of the officers of the American Red Cross, an act that can hardly be considered courteous. It was referred by the Chairman of the Executive Committee of the American Red Cross to our Ambassador at Rome, and his reply is embodied in an answer to Mr. Matre. As the Roman Catholic Church made appeals for the Italian sufferers, and the offerings it received in reply were sent to the Pope, it is probable that but a very small percentage of the contributions received by the Red Cross, possibly 5 or 10 per cent, came from members of the Roman Catholic Church. The receipts show many contributions from Protestant Churches and Sunday Schools, but none from any Roman Catholic institution, and yet, according to Mr. Matre’s figures, some 97 per cent, and, according to Mr. Griscom’s letter, 99 per cent, of these contributions must have been expended in Italy for the people of this faith. Of the funds sent to our Ambassador, a generous contribution was made to the Pope for the relief work in which he was interested, and other moneys were placed in the hands of bishops and priests in the stricken district to aid them in their work for the earthquake sufferers. The Red Cross considers neither race nor creed; its mission is to mitigate, as far as lies within its power, the sufferings of the sick and wounded in the misfortune of war or of the victims of fire, flood, famine, earthquake, pestilence, and other great disasters.

The following copies of correspondence will be of interest:


St. Louis, Mo., March 22, 1909.

To the President, Secretary, and Officers of the American Red Cross Association:

Gentlemen: The American Federation of Catholic Societies, representing millions of American Catholics, desire official information regarding the dispatch published in the papers of the United States on February 8th, and referring to an appropriation made by your society. The dispatch reads:

Rome, Feb. 7.—It is officially declared that the American Red Cross, through Ambassador Griscom, has put $250,000 at the disposal of the committee organized by Queen Helena, which has undertaken the establishment of an orphanage to be devoted to the care of children left homeless and without parents by the earthquake disaster.”


Under date of February 6, 1909, the Civilta Cattolica, published at Rome, states that a national patronage of orphans, under the name of “Queen Helena,” has been erected by decree of the 14th of January, and to it has been granted all legal rights for the protection of orphans who have suffered by the recent calamity or who will need protection on account of any future disaster; that the direct administration of this orphanage is committed to a council, half of whose membership shall be appointed by royal authority and the other half by election or choice of those contributing annually to its support.

In the same paper, the Civilta Cattolica, of February 20, 1909, appears the following: “There has been appointed to the Presidency of the National Committee the Mayor of the first city of Italy, Erneste Nathan, a Hebrew, a very bitter enemy of Catholicism.” The same issue states that the National Committee[52] has appointed three women to take charge of “Patronato Nazionale Regina Elene,” namely, Turin, an unknown woman, a Socialist and Freemason; Labriola, a Protestant woman (a Valdensian Protestant), and Levi, a Jewess. To them was confided the care of all orphans brought to Naples from the scene of the disaster. This charge was taken from the Nepolitan authorities because they were good Catholics.

The Civilta Cattolica states: “It is evident from the entire policy of the National Committee that the Pope was refused all voice in the disposition of the orphans. He never entered into the committee’s consideration, except that it is trying and succeeding in hampering his efforts everywhere, for instance:

1. The government, i. e., the National Committee, refused to send any of the wounded to the hospital of Santa Marta in Rome, so that the Knights of Malta have to make up a train themselves to go to Naples in order to get the wounded.

2. The Catholic officers of the Spanish ship Cataluna were hampered in the gathering of the wounded and orphans at Messina to take them to Rome for disposition of the Pope. This ship has been placed under direct control of the Pope by the Count of Comillas, the owner.

3. The Pope was interfered with in placing orphans in the care of the French priest, Santol. (The Pope has offered to care for 2,000 earthquake orphans, one-half of whom were to be put in charge of Father Santol.)”

From the above it appears that part of the money contributed by our fellow-citizens, irrespective of creed and nationality, is being used by missionary societies and others against Catholicity. Some of our Catholic fellow-citizens feared that such would likely be the case, but they nevertheless contributed liberally, thinking that in such a crisis and such distress haste was necessary and bigotry would not be allowed to have part. But from the above statements it is evident that their fears were well founded, and if it turns out that the statements are true, the Red Cross Society, though splendid in its aims, will never be trusted again by the 15,000,000 of Catholics in this country, nor by the 270,000,000 Catholics the world over.

Your organization is no doubt aware that all civilized countries now acknowledge the right of the child to be educated in the religion of its parents, and though the Red Cross Society of America may not have anything to do with the education of these children without religion, it has the right and duty to protest against funds sent from America being used in such a way as to outrage justice.

It will not be amiss to show you how few Protestants there are in Italy:

Last summer at the International Congress of Religious Liberals, held in Boston, Rev. Tony Andre, of Italy, gave these statistics: “Italy is essentially a Catholic country. Out of the 32,475,253 inhabitants enumerated in the census of 1901, 31,539,863 declared themselves Catholics; that is, 97.12 per cent of the population. All told there were 65,595 Protestants, 20,538 of whom were foreigners. At the same time, 795,276 were unwilling to say to what religion they belonged, and 36,092 declared they were of no religion.” This will show that practically all the children to be cared for are Catholics.

We address this open letter to your society and expect that you will give the matter referred to therein immediate investigation and consideration.

Very respectfully, yours,


ANTHONY MATRE, National Secretary.


July 9, 1909.

Mr. Anthony Matre,
Secretary, American Federation of Catholic Societies, St. Louis, Mo.

Dear Sir: The American Red Cross is in receipt of the expected reply from the American Ambassador at Rome to an inquiry of the Embassy adverted to in my letter to you dated April 12, 1909.

Mr. Griscom states that there was no true basis for the statement published in the Catholic Transcript in Rome and quoted by you in the open letter, whereby you charged the American Red Cross with grave wrong to the Italian children made orphans by the earthquake of December 28, 1908, the offense consisting in the assignment of the control of the American Red Cross Italian Orphanage, and the instruction and rearing of these orphans to non-Catholics, such as Hebrews, Masons, and Socialists.


Mr. Griscom, to whom I sent a copy of your attack upon the Red Cross, brought the matter to the attention of Countess Spalletti Rasponi, the President of the Queen’s Orphanage, who, as such, has general supervision over the branch of the same known as the American Red Cross Orphanage, and for which latter Mr. Bruno Chimerri is Chairman of the Executive Committee.

The following is a translation of a quotation from a letter from the Countess Spalletti to Mr. Griscom, the American Ambassador, dated Rome, April 19, 1909:

“After reading the article published in the Catholic Transcript of March 25, 1909, I consider myself, as the President of the Queen’s Orphanage, bound to reassure your excellency, and send you some information regarding the system pursued by those placed in control of the orphans in choosing a place for the[54] orphans and abandoned minors, with the tutelage of whom we have been charged by the royal decree, dated January 14, 1909.

“The number of wretched creatures left destitute of any support and guidance being considerable, we have undertaken to take the place, as far as possible, of the parents in their education and start in life. We have proceeded in accordance with this principle, and have decided that the minors should be, as far as possible, brought up in the religion of their parents, and educated in conformity with the conditions in which their families were, with the only tendency to ameliorate those conditions. We consider it to be our duty to bring up these children in the religion of their parents.

“Referring to the article published in the Catholic Transcript, I have to point out that the Mayor of Rome, Mr. Nathan, is not the President of the Queen’s Orphanage. He has no connection with it whatever, but is President of the Executive Board of the Central Relief Committee for the earthquake sufferers, of which committee his royal highness, the Duke of Aosta, is the President....

“It is, moreover, to be noted that the President of the Palmi Subcommittee is the Bishop of Milito, Monsignor Morabito. Our representative in Messina has been another most worthy Catholic Priest, the Rev. Luigi Orione.

“I am confident that this summary will be sufficient to remove from the souls of American Catholics all apprehensions.”

In forwarding this letter, Mr. Griscom, our Ambassador to Rome, remarks in substance:

“You will observe that the governing body of the Queen’s Orphanage have exercised the greatest care to place Protestant orphans in Protestant hands and Catholic orphans in Catholic hands. I am satisfied that this wise policy has been consistently carried out. American Protestant Missions have received the tutelage of the children of the members of their missions in cases where there were no surviving relatives to assume the burden. I am satisfied the Catholic Transcript would not have published such an article had they been in possession of the full facts....

“You will be interested in knowing that long before I heard from you on this subject the head of one of our American Protestant Missions in Rome stated to me that he understood our orphanage was to be governed and managed by Catholic priests, and that the Protestant contributors of money in America would never tolerate such a thing. When I explained to him the policy of those in charge of the Queen’s Orphanage in regard to orphans, he seemed thoroughly satisfied. It is interesting that we should have received a protest from the Protestant Church that the Catholics are being favored, and then that the leading Catholic papers in America should publish an article implying that the Catholics are receiving unfair treatment.

“The very nature of the organization and the legal status of the orphanage work under the Queen’s patronage makes it impossible that it should be governed in the interest of one denomination....

“In my opinion, the Queen’s Orphanage is entitled to our admiration and respect for the very just and liberal policy adopted to solve the very delicate questions raised by the different religious denominations of the orphans. During the whole of this trying period I have not received a single complaint from any of the American Protestant Missions with regard to the disposition[55] of the orphans belonging to their denomination; nor has any complaint from a Catholic source been brought to my knowledge until you forwarded me the clipping from the Catholic Transcript. I am extremely disappointed that such a fair-minded paper should have failed to do justice to the perfectly correct course of the Italian authorities with regard to the religion of the earthquake orphans.

“It goes without saying that a great part of the moneys which came from America through the American Red Cross and otherwise went to the assistance of Catholics. The money received by Protestant Italians would be a minute fraction of 1 per cent. It seems strange that there should be any expression of discontent from any Catholic source.


“On the other hand, I am most happy to say that we have the most gratifying expressions of appreciation from such persons as Archbishop Ireland, the Archbishop of Messina, the Bishop of Milito, and other distinguished prelates of the Catholic Church.”

The Red Cross has no method of knowing how much or what part of the amounts received for Italian earthquake relief (about $1,000,000) was contributed by Catholics. Assuming that the proportion this part bore to the whole was the same as the ratio of the Catholic population of the United States to the whole population, then the funds of Catholic origin, so to speak, received by the Red Cross must have been one-seventh or one-sixth of the whole.

It seems to be established as a fact that there was no sufficient basis for your charge that the American Red Cross had adopted a course that would or did result in the perversion of faith of the Catholic orphans. Those appointed by the King to the solemn trust of rearing these orphans are discharging their duty conscientiously. The prelates of the Catholic Church on the spot are[56] thoroughly familiar with what was ordered to be done and with what is being done in this regard, and they will be careful to note and call attention to any deviation from conditions imposed by royal warrant and by justice.

Your letter to me of March 22, 1909, was given to the press before it reached me, and before you had taken pains to inquire into the proofs relied on to support the assertions which were the basis for your arraignment of the Red Cross.

I have sent copies of this letter to the Catholic press of the United States, in the belief that the readers of the original charge are entitled to know what are the actual facts respecting the measures taken by those applying the generous contributions of American Catholics and non-Catholics to insure the rearing and instruction of the earthquake orphans in the faith of their fathers.

The American Ambassador in Rome is a member of the permanent Executive Committee of the American Red Cross Italian Orphanage.

Yours, very sincerely,

Chairman, Central Committee.

Disposal of Balance of Italian Fund.

As the American Red Cross was desirous of bringing to an end its Italian relief work, an inquiry was made of our Embassy in Rome as to the best use to be made of a small balance of funds still in hand. It was advised to contribute this amount to the Queen of Italy for the benefit of her relief work in the model village of Regina Helena, built for the refugees near Messina, and in which her majesty is deeply interested. In acknowledgement of this gift of $5,000 the following letter was sent to the American Ambassador:

Court of Her Majesty, the Queen, Rome, July 3, 1909.

Excellency: Her majesty, the Queen, has charged me to request you to thank the American Red Cross for the relief it has so generously given to the refugees of the Sicilian disaster.


Testimonials of Gratitude.

On June 19 the American Red Cross received from the Italian Red Cross a beautiful gold medal and diploma as tokens of appreciation of the assistance rendered by America after the earthquake in Sicily and Calabria.

Cuts of the medal are shown herewith, and below are printed the letter of the President of the Italian Red Cross transmitting the medal and diploma, and the letter of the President of the American Red Cross in acknowledgment.

Rome, Italy, April 19, 1909.

Illustrious Sir: In the never-to-be-forgotten calamity by which she was overcome Italy has found but one solace. It was to feel, to know, that the sorrow was universal, and that the heart of the world throbbed in unison with hers.

Touching evidence of human solidarity came to us from every part of your glorious Republic, but every burst of charity was outdone by the Red Cross, over which you preside, sir, and which assisted her Italian sister with a supreme munificence of relief.

May you find the medal and diploma we now send you as tokens of our gratitude, of which, however, they are but a modest outward sign, acceptable. More durably than in the metal is our gratefulness engraved in the hearts of the Italians, whose mindful blessings will stand as the sacred heritage of the generations to come.

President, Italian Red Cross.

To the President of the American Red Cross, Washington, D. C.


Washington, D. C., June 22, 1909.

Sir: I have received your courteous communication of April 19 last, with which you transmit a gold medal and diploma, presented by the Italian National Red Cross to the American National Red Cross, as testimonials of gratitude for the contributions furnished by the latter for the sufferers from the earthquakes in Calabria and Sicily.

As President of the American National Red Cross it affords me great pleasure to accept these testimonials in behalf of the association, not only because of their beauty and intrinsic worth, but as tokens of the humanitarian spirit which joins the world in fraternal kinship in times of great distress.

Not less valued that they are the sentiments of generous appreciation on the part of the Italian Red Cross, to which you give expression in your communication.

I beg you to be so good as to convey to the Italian Red Cross the thanks and appreciation of the American Red Cross for their considerate action, and am,

Very cordially, yours,

President, American National Red Cross.

Count R. Taverna,
President, Italian Red Cross.

Translation of Inscription on Medal Received from the Italian Red Cross.

Inscription of the circle around the medal: To the well deserving of the Italian Red Cross.

Inscription on medal: To the American National Red Cross: most generous cooperation in the relief of the sufferers of the earthquake in Calabria, Sicily, 1908.


Translation of Inscription on Diploma Received from the Italian Red Cross Society.


Under the high patronage of their Majesties, the King and the Queen, and of her Majesty, the Queen Mother.

Association incorporated by law of May 30, 1882. No. 768, Side Series.

Under Articles 115 and 116 of the Organic By-Laws, upon the motion of the Honorable President of the Association of the Central Committee, in its deliberations of the 3d of April, 1909, has been awarded the Diploma of Honor to the American National Red Cross. Rome, April 3, 1909.

President of the Association.

A Token of Gratitude from the Italian Government.

On May 17 Miss Boardman received a letter from Baron Mayor des Planches, the Italian Ambassador at Washington, of which a translation is given below, with Miss Boardman’s reply:

Washington, D. C., May 17, 1909.

Dear Miss Boardman: Have you seen the Literary Digest of the 15th, which betrays an official secret? The Minister of Foreign Affairs, M. Tittoni, has written me that the government of the King desired to send you a decoration, but unfortunately the statutes of our chivalresque orders do not permit the decoration of women. Our gratitude toward you will be testified by an artistic gift, which we hope you will accept as a souvenir of the benefits you have rendered.

Believe me, dear Miss Boardman, very sincerely,


Washington, D. C., May 17, 1909.

Dear Mr. Ambassador: I have not seen the Literary Digest to which you refer. Permit me to express my deep appreciation of the intention of his majesty’s government to present to me some testimonial in recognition of the American Red Cross work in Italy.

It has been for some time the intention of our society to take under consideration the question of permitting members to receive gifts or testimonials because of any special work of relief in which they have taken part. Therefore, should the plan of his majesty’s government to present to me some testimonial be as yet not so advanced as to cause any embarrassment if not carried out, I would be glad to have it held in abeyance until the question is decided.

But as there exists no regulation of this nature at present, if this plan has been so advanced that my not receiving this testimonial would cause any embarrassment to his majesty’s government, or to the Minister of Foreign Affairs, please take no action in the matter.

Permit me to again express to your excellency my sincere appreciation, and to say whatever should be decided I shall always value the intention of such[59] kindly recognition of the American Red Cross and its work on the part of the Italian government.

Please accept, Mr. Ambassador, the expression of my highest esteem and my heartiest good wishes for the return of prosperity to Sicily and Calabria.

Yours, sincerely,


To this letter the Ambassador replied that the testimonial had already been completed, and he begged that no action against its acceptance be taken.


A beautiful reproduction in yellow gold of the ancient civic crown of Rome, sent in a most artistic leather jewel case, was later presented to Miss Boardman, in the name of the Italian government, by the Marquis Montagliari, the Italian Charge d’Affairs, in the absence of the Ambassador. On a plate in the case is engraved:

To Miss Mabel Boardman
Of the American Red Cross Society.
The Italian Government as a Token of Gratitude.

A translation of the graceful letter of the Minister of Foreign Affairs, Signor Tittoni, which accompanied the gift, is given below:

Rome, June 16, 1909.

Illustrious Lady: The royal Ambassador has already expressed, and will reiterate, to you the sentiments of our gratitude for the highly generous work inspired by you, and accomplished with such intelligent love, during the terrible disaster which overwhelmed our country at the end of the last year.

Now I desire to address you personally, offering to you, in the name of the government and the Italian people, an object which is inspired by our artistic[60] traditions, and which will serve to recall to you the benefactions rendered and the memory which we preserve thereof.

We have wished to see in the action, so prompt, so efficacious, so vast, and so enduring of the American Red Cross, something more than a simple evidence of human fraternity. We love to consider it a fresh proof of the spiritual ties by which the United States feel themselves bound to the Mother Italy; therefore this action has been doubly dear to us. To you belongs so large a share of the merit, allow us to see personified in yourself all the feminine grace of the institution which has known how to give expression to these ties in the form most acceptable to the grateful beneficiaries.

With the most cordial regards, yours, most devotedly,


Your Excellency: Permit me to express, through you, to the Italian government and to the people of Italy my most profound appreciation of the honor conferred upon me by the presentation of the beautiful reproduction of the civic crown of Rome, as a token of gratitude for the sympathy and assistance of the American Red Cross after the terrible disaster in Sicily and Calabria.

It was with a sense of the greatest sorrow and the sincerest sympathy that the people of the United States, through their Red Cross Society, found means to express in tangible form these heartfelt emotions. To many of our people Italy is the motherland, and to many others she has given so rich a treasury of art and literature that we must remain forever in her debt. Stricken by one of the great and mysterious forces of nature, thousands of her people were destroyed and thousands were left homeless, suffering, and in dire distress. Our people, overwhelmed by her misfortune, were glad, in the spirit of brotherly love, to take some share in her assistance.

That the Italian government selected as a token of gratitude an object around which clusters the great traditions of ancient Rome moves us deeply, and will be an inspiration for our Red Cross to continue constant in its efforts to conquer suffering and be worthy of such recognition.

Permit me to express my own gratitude, and to say that what little I have been able to do personally has been done with sincere affection for Italy and her people, and because of the sympathetic and hearty support of our people and Red Cross officers.

With earnest wishes for the prosperity of your country, and for the speedy rehabilitation of the stricken communities, and with cordial regards and many thanks for your excellency’s most kind communication, I am

Yours, sincerely,


Senator Tittoni,
Minister of Foreign Affairs, Rome, Italy.

On June 10, 1909, the Executive Committee adopted the following resolution:

Whereas, It has sometimes occurred that members of the American Red Cross, engaged in some special work, have been presented with gifts because of appreciation of this work; and,

Whereas, The Executive Committee of the American Red Cross considers that this is an unwise custom to permit to continue; and,

Whereas, The American Red Cross itself provides a medal of merit for recognition of especially meritorious relief work;

Be it resolved, That hereafter no member of the American Red Cross shall be permitted to receive any valuable gift in recognition of special relief work in which he or she has taken part, and that no testimonial or medal shall be accepted without authority of the Executive Committee.



Lisbon, Portugal, August 5, 1909.

The American National Red Cross, Washington, D. C.

Gentlemen: Through His Excellency, Colonel Page Bryan, American Minister at Lisbon, we have just received your new contribution of $300 for our Earthquake Relief Fund, your credit on that account having thus risen to $1,300.

We beg to present to you our earnest thanks for this generous manifestation of your sympathy and take the liberty of enclosing a photo showing the design of the houses you kindly have aided us to build for 160 families of the poorest classes in the four villages destroyed by the earthquake.

Very faithfully, yours,


G. L. Santos Ferreira, Secretary.



By Major C. A. Devol, U. S. Army.

Of the three great classes of Red Cross work, war relief, international relief and emergency relief, the last is the field in which the Canal Zone Branch is making itself peculiarly useful.


On the Canal Zone there is less need of such an organization in some ways than there would be in a community of 50,000 people in the United States, because here the government, through the Isthmian Canal Commission, maintains a good system of hospitals and district physicians, and also because there are few people here who cannot work, and almost none who cannot get work if they want it. But there is a limit beyond which the Commission may not go in the expenditure of government funds, and, broadly, that limit is that it may not aid people who are not employed on the Canal work. To the cases that lie outside this limit the Red Cross addresses itself.





An instance arose recently in Colon, where a family was destitute because it had been deserted by the husband and father. The mother and three children were kept alive by private subscription until the Red Cross was organized. The Red Cross then sent the family to New York, where the members of the Masonic order came to their relief and sent them to the mother’s home in England. The Commission could not help in such a case, but the Red Cross could, and did.

A citizen of France, living near Tabernilla, and not employed on the Canal work, was bitten by a mad dog a few weeks ago. He had no money to pay his way to a Pasteur Institute; attempts to inoculate for hydrophobia on the Isthmus have been of uncertain value, and the Commission could not send a non-employee to the United States. The Red Cross appropriated $50 for his steamship fare to New York and he was successfully treated in the Pasteur Institute in that city.


A Spanish laborer who had lost both his legs on the Isthmus was sent to New York by the Commission, where he was fitted with two cork legs and then sent back to his home in Spain. The Red Cross gave him $50 to help him on his way, for the Commission could not advance more than his actual transportation and medical fees.

Not long ago a Boer, who had become naturalized as an American, was declared so far gone with tuberculosis that he could not work on the Isthmus nor remain here with safety. He had been in Mexico a few years before, and felt sure that if he could return to the plateau region his health would be restored. The Red Cross advanced him $150 to defray his expenses—in other words, gave him another chance for his life.

A number of cases have been relieved where the necessity was just as pressing but where a smaller amount was sufficient.

It is not improbable that there may be a call for immediate relief on a larger scale before the Canal is completed and the Americans in this big construction[65] camp pass on to other work. If an accident occurs, it will find a thorough organization with funds in hand and ready to begin work without any preliminaries.

Lectures on first aid are delivered by the district physicians along the line of the Canal to members of the police and fire departments. To what extent this instruction will aid in time of emergency is conjectural, but it should have the effect of adding instructed men to the corps of nurses and doctors in case of a big accident. It is probable, however, that there is no place on earth where the hospital corps is so well equipped to give prompt aid as on the Canal Zone. On this account, the instruction of the police and firemen is not likely to prove such a benefit as it would in a less thoroughly organized community.


The Canal Zone Branch has already spent about $500 in its relief work, and its balance on July 1, 1909, was $1,577.17.

The suggestion that a branch of the American National Red Cross be organized on the Canal Zone was made by Miss Mabel T. Boardman, member of the Executive Committee, to Major C. A. Devol, U. S. A., Chief Quartermaster of the Isthmian Canal Commission, in a letter dated October 26, 1908. At the request of Major Devol, Major Lynch, of the Medical Department, U. S. A., author of the text-book, “How to Prevent Accidents and What to Do for Injuries and Emergencies,” came to the Isthmus in January, 1909, and addressed Red Cross meetings at Ancon, Culebra, Gorgona and Cristobal. Major Devol accompanied Major Lynch, and invited all persons interested to help organize a Canal Zone Branch. On January 17, at a meeting held in the Hotel Tivoli, at Ancon, a permanent organization was effected, with Major C. A. Devol as president; Mr H. D. Reed, treasurer; Miss J. Macklin Beattie, secretary. The Canal Zone was divided into fourteen districts, and the work of perfecting district[66] organizations was begun. At a meeting held in the Hotel Tivoli, February 28, twelve district organizations were represented. The central organization was perfected by electing Mrs. Lorin C. Collins, Lieutenant-Colonel John L. Phillips, Major Chester Harding, and Mr. A. Bruce Minear an executive committee; and Mr. W. W. Warwick, auditor. A Committee on First Aid Lectures was appointed, consisting of Lieutenant-Colonel Phillips and Mr. H. D. Reed.

A noteworthy event in the early history of the Canal Zone Branch was the visit of President-elect Taft, National President of the Red Cross, to the Canal Zone in February, 1909. On the night of February 3 he made an address at the Commission Club house in Culebra, in which he outlined the work of the Red Cross. The meeting was attended by over 1,200 members of the Red Cross, and had a marked effect in arousing popular interest in this most important work.

The Canal Zone has now a membership of 1,300, divided among fourteen districts. The following are the officers of the district organizations:


By G. H. Richardson, M. D.,
Late First Lieutenant Medical Reserve Corps, U. S. A.

In a War Department order issued on February 10, 1909, the importance of regulating the issue of brassards to those entitled to neutrality by virtue of the first paragraph of article 9, and articles 10 and 11 of the Geneva Convention, was recognized. At the same time, and by the same order, the Medical Department was authorized to provide and deliver the “necessary certificates of identity to those persons attached to the sanitary service who do not have a military uniform.”

It is generally understood that this order shall not be applicable in time of peace; yet it would seem that, to make it effective and to anticipate the confusion incident to a declaration of war, some plan or system should be developed in the American Red Cross (which is the sanitary service recognized by the War Department) whereby the individual members could be definitely classified, and, when the occasion demanded, the necessary brassards and cards of identity could be expeditiously given them.

That this question should engage the attention of the American Red Cross is apparent to those of us who were in San Francisco during the weeks immediately following the disaster of April 18, 1906. On almost every other man was seen[67] the Red Cross emblem in some form, it being generally known that those engaged in duties pertaining to this organization were permitted to pass and re-pass the sentries on duty in different parts of the city; for while we were not technically “under martial law,” yet the streets were everywhere patrolled by armed men, some of whom were directly under military control and others only partially so. It was in passing one of these patrols that a personal friend of mine was shot and killed for refusing, when challenged, to stop his automobile, on which was flying a Red Cross flag. It is needless to say that not one-quarter of those using the emblem were legally entitled to do so, and much harm was done the organization by those who wore the brassard for personal gain and benefit.

Only by the study of past experience can we judge what the future will produce; and if we expect the general public ever to recognize and respect the brassard we should begin at once a campaign of instruction which will explain its legitimate use and the reasons for regulating its issue.

It would be of incalculable benefit in time of war, or when martial law was declared, to have brassards and cards of identification already issued and recorded, for they could readily be re-stamped or copied by the Medical Department, as provided for in the order quoted, with the result that much time would be saved and much confusion avoided.


At the time of the Eighth International Red Cross Conference held in London, June, 1907, Professor Louis Renault presented in the name of the Central Committee of the French Red Cross a report upon the “Repression of the Abuse of the Red Cross Insignia.” In this report Professor Renault showed that for twenty years this question had not ceased to be considered. This abuse continues in certain countries—ours among the number—because of insufficient legislation. Still, important steps have been taken, and if to-day the work has not been completed it is on the right road. At the International Convention of 1906, at Geneva, when the revised treaty was accepted it contained special paragraphs referring to the protection of the insignia and name which all the countries of the world have agreed upon to designate the hospital formations and their personnel protected by this treaty. The countries signing this treaty obligated themselves, in case their present laws do not provide sufficient protection to the Red Cross name and insignia, to apply to their respective legislative bodies for the further necessary legislation. The report of Professor Renault had for its object to call attention to these promises that had been made. The honor and the interest of each country demand that they be kept. The Swiss Federal Council has lately prepared a law which it will present to the Chambers to preserve to this emblem of humanitarian neutrality, which the Cross of Geneva represents, all its moral value and its noble signification.

Action of American Medical Association.

Major W. M. Ireland, Medical Corps, U. S. Army, presented to the House of Delegates of the American Medical Association the resolution adopted by the Executive Committee of the American National Red Cross, October 18, 1907, and then offered the following resolution:


Whereas, By the terms of the Treaty of Geneva, 1864, and the Revised Treaty of Geneva, 1906, the emblem of the Greek Red Cross on a white ground, and the words “Red Cross,” or “Geneva Cross,” were adopted to designate the personnel and materiel of the medical departments of the military and naval forces and of the recognized volunteer aid societies in time of war for the humane purpose of rendering them immune from attack or capture; and

Whereas, The United States, as well as all other civilized powers, is a signatory to said treaties; and

Whereas, The use of the Red Cross by medical associations and individuals of the medical profession must seriously impair the usefulness of the emblem for the purpose for which it was created and adopted; be it therefore

Resolved, That it is the sense of the American Medical Association that the use of the Geneva Red Cross by associations or individuals, other than those of the army, navy and Red Cross Society, should be discontinued, and, if desirable, some other insignia adopted, and be it further

Resolved, That the adoption of this resolution be given as wide publicity as possible in the medical journals of the country.

Dr. Samuel Wolfe, of Pennsylvania, supplemented the resolutions presented by Major Ireland by introducing the following preambles and resolution, which were also referred to the Reference Committee on Legislation and Political Action:

Whereas, It is held that the Red Cross, which now constitutes the main character in the official badge of the American Medical Association, is eminently distinctive of certain broader fields of philanthropy, rather than of medicine in particular, and

Whereas, The traditions of medicine would be fully satisfied by the adoption of a design as herewith submitted and described as follows:

A shield on which is emblazoned the American eagle holding in its talons a laurel wreath within which is the knotty rod and entwined serpent and the letters A. M. A.; therefore, be it

Resolved, That the American Medical Association adopt as its official insignia or badge this design.

Protect the Red Cross.

Issued by the New York State Branch.

When the Red Cross insignia was first adopted at the Geneva Convention, as a sign of a hospital in war, and for many years after that, no one dreamed of using it as a mark on goods sold in trade. Gradually, however, such use became more common, and a badge of humanity, which men in the midst of warfare respected, became more and more, in trade, a meaningless label, applied to all kinds of medicinal boxes, bottles and jars, and every other conceivable package and bundle.

The badge of the Red Cross in America would have become a mere commercial mark but for the efforts of the American Red Cross and its branches.

We have worked hard to stop this wrongful use of the red cross, and we appeal to you to help us in this work, and to respect the law, for the unauthorized use of the red cross is in violation of a Federal statute. Help us to make the red cross what it should be, the badge which stands for humanity, and help to those who suffer in war and in calamities of all kinds. Help us to do this by stopping the use of the red cross or using the words red cross on your own articles of commerce and by urging others to do the same.


Even if it helps you to sell a few articles by using this mark on them, is it worth while bringing the red cross into the domain of commercialism, when so many thousand Americans, men and women, in private and in public life—President Taft as well as the smallest worker in the smallest branch—are trying to make the red cross the emblem of the great Red Cross work all over this country, and of that work only?

We forget only too readily what is done in such cases as the San Francisco and the Messina earthquakes, and few recall now the Red Cross work in the Spanish War—fewer still the similar work of the Sanitary Commissions during the Civil War. We pour out money to the associations organized to help those in distress, and we give the Red Cross millions of dollars to distribute. Nobody questions its work; nobody doubts its efficiency; all trust it. Why not then help it as we ask you to do? City officials in New York, and hundreds of individuals have stopped the use of the red cross on ambulances, automobiles, wagons, boxes, packages and all kinds of other articles. They have chosen other emblems suggesting medicine and purity of the articles sold. We urge you to do the same.

Help us, therefore, to make its badge honored and respected, so that it shall stand for nothing but the presence of the ever-ready American Red Cross.

Resolution adopted by the National Association of Retail Druggists in convention at Louisville, September 6-10, 1909.

Whereas, By the terms of the Treaty of Geneva, 1864, and the revised Treaty of Geneva, 1906, the emblem of the Greek Red Cross on a white background and the words “Red Cross” or “Geneva Cross” were adopted to designate the personnel and materiel of the medical departments of the military and naval forces and the recognized volunteer aid societies in time of war, for the humane purpose of rendering them immune from attack or capture, and

Whereas, The United States, as well as all other civilized powers, is a signatory to said treaties,

Resolved, That the National Association of Retail Druggists request its members to refrain from using this insignia to designate their places of business.



“Why did I write ‘Un Souvenir de Solferino’”? M. Dunant asks himself, and replies:

“That societies, like those suggested, with a permanent existence should be organized so that they could be ready to act the moment war was declared. They should receive official recognition from their respective governments, with permission and facilities for continuing their noble work to the end. Among their officials should be the most honorable and esteemed men. In our century of egotism what an attraction for generous hearts and chivalrous characters to brave the same danger as the soldier, with a voluntary mission of peace and consolation! History proves there is nothing chimerical in counting upon such devotion. Two facts especially confirm this. While the Sisters of Charity cared for the sick and wounded of the French army in the Crimea, the Russian and British armies witnessed the arrival from the north and the west[70] of two legions of noble women nurses. The Grand Duchess, Helene Paulowna, of Russia, widow of the Grand Duke Michael, engaged nearly 300 ladies of St. Petersburg and Moscow, provided them with supplies, and sent them to the hospitals in the Crimea, where these good women were blessed by thousands of the soldiers.

“Miss Florence Nightingale, having received from the Minister of War a pressing appeal to help the sick and wounded English soldiers, left for Scutari in November, 1854, with 27 other women. In 1855 Miss Stanley, with 50 more women, went out. The image of Florence Nightingale, her little lamp in hand, passing at night down the vast wards of the military hospitals and taking note of each of the sick and wounded will never be effaced from the hearts of the men who were the objects of her noble charity, and the story of her work will remain forever engraved in history.

“In many cases of similar devotion, ancient and modern, how many proved of little value because they were isolated and were not supported by the sympathy of others intelligently associated together for a common end? Had trained nurses and hospital orderlies been at Castiglione those terrible days of June 24, 25, and 26, how many human lives would have been saved? The sight of so many brave young soldiers crippled by loss of arm or leg returning disconsolately to their homes must arouse a feeling of remorse that no measures had been taken beforehand to prevent such consequences of wounds which would have healed had proper care been given them at first.

“For the accomplishment of such a work help must be immediate, for he who can save the wounded to-day can not save them to-morrow. Why could not such humane work be organized, permanent, and universal, instead of desultory, temporary, and restricted? It appeals to the men of all countries and all ranks, from the monarch to the workingman, for all may take their part in this good work, from the high-born lady to the simple housewife—all who desire to contribute to their neighbor’s welfare. It appeals to the general, to the marshal, the minister of war, the writer, who by his publications may plead for a cause that interests all humanity.”

Dunant also urged the calling of special conferences to formulate an international treaty for the protection of the sick and wounded and the hospital personnel in time of war.

The result of these reflections was the formation in 1863 of the universal work of the Red Cross, which should not only be useful on the battle field in war time, but also in time of epidemic, floods, fires, and catastrophes generally, and in 1864 the first treaty of Geneva, since accepted by all the civilized countries of the world, was signed.

The Bishop of Orleans pronounced this “a beautiful and Christian idea of M. Dunant’s,” observing that “he who does good is the compatriot of all, and deserves a universal passport.”




Terms and Conditions Governing their Sale and Disposition of the Proceeds.

Practical experience in the Red Cross Christmas stamp campaign in the season of 1908, and in the distribution of the proceeds from stamp sales, has shown the necessity of certain changes in conditions and methods. The rules which will govern in the sale of stamps and disbursement of proceeds from July 1, 1909, until further notice are as follows:

Rule 1. The American Red Cross will appoint agents to sell the stamps and dispose of the proceeds. The stamps will not be sold to agents but will remain the property of the Red Cross until sold at retail by the agents. Agents will be such State branches and sub-divisions of the Red Cross and such anti-tuberculosis societies or other organizations as may be appointed.

Rule 2. Before entrusting the sale of Christmas stamps to any society, the Red Cross will require satisfactory evidence of the reliability and standing of the society and its ability to creditably carry out the Red Cross purposes in the expenditure of the proceeds from stamp sales.

Every State branch or subdivision and every other society desiring to sell Christmas stamps is required to first submit to the Central Committee a statement of the particular anti-tuberculosis work which it proposes to support or promote with the proceeds from the stamp sales. If the organization desiring to sell stamps intends to expend the money itself, the statement should make plain the exact character of the work proposed to be carried on. If it intends to turn the money over for expenditure to one or more other societies or agencies, the names of such other societies or agencies and the kind of work for which the money will be expended by them should be explicitly stated.

All the information called for in rule 2 should reach the National office of the Red Cross during the summer in order that there may be no delay in the appointment of agents or the forwarding of stamps when the selling period arrives.

Rule 3. The appointment of agents will be for the period ending March 1, 1910. During the term of its appointment an agent shall have the exclusive right to sell Red Cross stamps within the city (including suburbs) in which such agent is situated and the expenditure of the proceeds of the sale of stamps will be under the immediate direction of such agent, in accordance with the general plan approved by the Red Cross.

Rule 4. The American Red Cross will supply Christmas stamps to agents free of charge. It will also supply, free of charge, posters and printed matter intended to assist in the sale of stamps.

Rule 5. When the stamp sale is ended the agent will return all unsold stamps to the National office of the Red Cross. The Red Cross must pay for all stamps printed whether they are sold or not. Unsold stamps returned are a[72] total loss. In view of this all agents are requested to order stamps with the utmost care. It is expected that all orders can be promptly filled. There will, therefore, be no necessity for trying to make a first order large enough to cover all the demands for the entire season. This advice is especially urged upon agents who have not heretofore sold the stamps.

Rule 6. All express charges and all postage required in forwarding shipments of stamps or in returning unsold stamps will be paid by the Red Cross.

Rule 7. Christmas stamps are to be sold at the uniform price of one cent each. The stamps will be printed in sheets of 100 each and shipped in packages of 10,000 stamps or multiples of 10,000. No broken packages will be shipped. Stamp books will not be issued in 1909.

Rule 8. In ordering stamps as Christmas approaches, it is important to consider the congested condition of business with the express companies and post offices, and the distance which the shipment must travel. By careful forethought it will usually be found possible to estimate needs early enough for orders to be filled in good time. The Red Cross will respond promptly, but cannot prevent express and postal delays.

Rule 9. On or before February 1, 1910, every agent which has sold Red Cross Christmas stamps shall pay to the American Red Cross an amount of money equal to one-third of the face value of all stamps sold by such agent. Any expenses incidental to the sale incurred by the agent will be paid from the two-thirds retained by the agent and the remainder will be applied to local anti-tuberculosis work in accordance with the plans previously approved by the Red Cross.

Societies which sold Red Cross Christmas stamps in 1908 will note that the plan of selling stamps and disposing of the proceeds described above marks a considerable departure from the plan of last year.

This change is the result of careful thought and is believed to be in the direction of better business method and greater justice to all concerned. It seems eminently fair that the important direct work of the Red Cross should in some measure profit from the sale of stamps. The loyal and generous support which the American people have given to the Red Cross leads to the belief that the buyers of stamps will be pleased to know that a portion of the money comes direct to its great work.

In making the societies which sell the stamps its agents the Red Cross is giving them certain concessions which are extremely important. They will require no cash capital or initial expenditures. The provisions for a free supply of posters and printed matter and the payment of express and postal charges by the Central Committee will assure every agent against loss. If all the work of selling stamps is carried on by volunteers, there will be no expense to the agents connected with the campaign. In any event the necessary expenses will be trifling and there is no risk of loss involved in undertaking the agency for the stamps.

The total cost to the National office of the Red Cross of printing and handling of Christmas stamps in 1908 was about $13,000. This amount was repaid from the proceeds of the wholesale price at which the Stamps were sold to agents. In 1909, under the proposal set forth in the rules above, the expenditures by the National office of the Red Cross will include not only the printing and handling of the stamps but the printing and distribution of posters, circulars, etc., and the payment of all express and postal charges upon shipments of stamps and other supplies. Instead of charging these expenses directly to the agents, as in 1908, they will be covered by the one-third share of the proceeds of stamp sales reserved by the Red Cross, as described in rule 9 above.


With a double incentive to the purchase of stamps on the part of the public, an absolute absence of risk or initial expense on the part of agents, and the great favor of the public established last year, the campaign for the Christmas season of 1909 should bring a generous return to all concerned.


By Miss I. L. Strong.

The second season of the Red Cross Day Camp for Tuberculosis began the first of April. Several improvements were made on last year’s camp. We now have two visiting physicians, Dr. Norcross and Dr. Lawson; a caretaker in charge (who is also “taking the cure”), two large tents loaned by the War Department, and our own kitchen and cook. One of the instructive visiting nurses is both Superintendent and nurse. The patients are ambulatory cases in the first and second stages. A few advanced cases have been admitted, but most of these have been referred to the hospital. The Camp draws its patients largely from the dispensaries.


The patients arrive about 9 a. m., and are given a lunch of milk and eggs. After having their temperature and pulse taken they wander out under the trees, where the hammocks and reclining chairs are found. Here they stay reading and sleeping till noon, when a hot dinner is served. This consists of meat, potatoes, one vegetable, milk, bread and butter, and a dessert, usually made of milk and eggs. After an hour’s rest the children generally play croquet or visit the spring in the woods. Lately they have been much interested in seven puppies found in the woods. Of course they have been promptly adopted. A setting hen is also a member of the family. Another lunch of milk and eggs is served at 4, the afternoon temperatures recorded, the car tickets given out, and preparations made to “break camp” at 5.30 p. m. The[74] Camp is ideally situated among the trees high up behind the new Municipal Hospital. On the list to-day there are 19 patients—5 white men, 3 white women, 2 white boys, 5 colored men, 1 colored woman, and 3 colored children. Of the cases thus far treated 2 have been discharged cured, 3 improved and continue the out-door treatment in the country, 7 have been transferred to the hospital, 3 have died, and 9 are at home, either at work or unable to attend, thus giving a total of 43 patients admitted, with an average attendance of 14. Of the patients now on the list 9 are making constant progress, and 10 are holding their own. We feel sure that though the camp has hardly as yet made a beginning, yet the results thus far justify its continuance. The camp life is educational as well as beneficial. Fresh air, cleanliness and carefulness are constantly being taught, and each patient becomes a little center to spread the knowledge of the cause and prevention of tuberculosis. Now that it is started the District of Columbia cannot afford to be without its Red Cross Day Camp.


By Rowland Evans,
Secretary Indiana Branch American Red Cross.

“Whether tuberculosis will be finally eradicated is even an open question. It is a foe that is very deeply intrenched in the human race. Very hard it will be to eradicate completely, but when we think of what has been done in one generation, how the mortality in many places has been reduced more than 50 per cent., indeed, in some places 100 per cent., it is a battle of hope, and so long as we are fighting with hope the victory is in sight.”—Dr. William Osler.






The Indiana Branch realized $3,851.58 from the sale of Christmas stamps. To dispose of this fund to best advantage in anti-tuberculosis work, the Executive Committee early in February appointed as a sub-committee, with power to act: Dr. Frederick A. R. Tucker, of Noblesville, president of the State Board of Health; Rev. Francis H. Gavisk and James W. Lilly. After providing specific relief in four curable cases, it was found that the greatest good could be accomplished by enlisting local co-operation in the practical work of relief.


The Indianapolis Board of Health, through its health officer and secretary, Dr. Eugene Buehler, had recently established free clinics at the City Dispensary and Bobbs’ Free Dispensary, and had begun a campaign of publicity, advertising its clinics and carding groceries and meat markets, which were raised to a better sanitary standard, and in various ways, by visitation and distribution of pure food and medicines, surrounding patients at their homes with better hygienic conditions. The need for facilities to isolate and treat curable cases with the necessary fresh air and sunshine resulted in the establishment of a colony of cottages on the City Hospital grounds, the Indiana Branch furnishing the first four—two single and two double cottages. As soon as this became known the Second Presbyterian and St. John’s Catholic churches and private individuals arranged to donate others, until there are now on the grounds eleven cottages. The single cottages cost complete, $62, size 10 × 12; double cottages, 10 × 16, $80. The specifications are:

House, 10 × 16 feet, with concrete foundation under house and porch; foundation to be 6 inches high. Siding to be tongued and grooved drop-siding; framing material to be 2 × 4 placed flatwise 30 inches on centers; flooring and roof material to be tongued and grooved. Hip-roof on main building and shed roof on porch. Porch to be 6 feet wide, with square posts and small rail. Four windows, 35 × 35, with canvas tacked[77] on frame hinged at top. Three windows, 18 × 35, with canvas tacked on frame hinged at top. One glass door to be placed in each single and two in each double house. All lumber to be dressed on both sides and to receive two coats of paint inside and out, color to be selected by owner. Two-ply rubberoid roofing to be placed on roof. Price for cottages outside Indianapolis same, with freight added.

A cottage was also erected, partly through funds provided by the Indiana Branch, to be used in connection with the colony for dining room and kitchen to prepare food for patients and quarters for nurses and cook. This cottage has sewer connection, hot and cold water and sanitary plumbing. Patients’ cottages have electric call bells to summon the nurse, and electric lights are supplied from the City Hospital plant. A bath house is now being erected, providing separate bath rooms for male and female patients.

Adjoining the City Hospital grounds the Flower Mission—a private charity partially supported by public funds—maintains a hospital for incurables. It is the only place in the State where hopeless cases are received. The Flower Mission nurses also minister to the relief of tuberculosis patients at their homes. The branch donated $500 to the furtherance of this work.

The plan inaugurated at Indianapolis under Dr. Buehler’s management contemplates (1) extension of facilities of the colony system to include and care for every offered curable case; (2) minimizing the danger of contagion and infection from chronic or incurable cases by isolation where practicable, or else supervizing the home conditions so as to surround the patient with hygienic comforts, pure food and drugs, and lessen the danger of infection to other members of the household. Both parts of the work are well under way and as fast as funds will permit the work will be extended.

The sub-committee, under the direction of Dr. Tucker, secured like co-operation of local authorities elsewhere in the State, and cottages have been erected as follows: Four in South Bend, four in Terre Haute, six in Evansville, three in Lafayette, and negotiations are pending for supplying Richmond, Fort Wayne, New Albany, Frankfort and Huntington. The branch erects the cottages and the local authorities maintain them. In every case it has proven an effective stimulus to local aid by the municipality and private charity.


Ferryboat for Red Cross.

Miss Mary Harriman, eldest daughter of E. H. Harriman, has taken one of her father’s Erie ferryboats and turned it into a man-o’-peace to fight tuberculosis. She has presented the boat to the Brooklyn Committee on the Prevention of Tuberculosis and the Brooklyn Red Cross Society.

It will go into commission as a part of the Red Cross Navy on July 1, when its flag will fly over an anchorage off Brooklyn.

Hammocks, steamer chairs, and other conveniences of out-in-the-air sleeping will be arranged for the accommodation of 300 men, women and children. Three meals a day will be served on the boat.

Resolution of the International Association of Accident Underwriters.

Mr. A. E. Forrest, president of the North American Accident Insurance Company of Chicago, presented the following resolutions, which were unanimously adopted:

Resolved, That the International Association of Accident Underwriters, in convention assembled, herewith voices its profound admiration for the magnificent[78] work of the American National Red Cross in its efforts for the relief of suffering and distressed humanity and for the prevention of disease;

Resolved, That we extend to the officers and members of the American National Red Cross our heartfelt co-operation, and earnestly recommend that not only the companies and associations, members of this association, but that all branches of insurance interests will, so far as lies in their power, promote its humane labors by a liberal use of the Red Cross Christmas stamps;

Resolved, That the thanks of this convention are herewith tendered to Miss Mabel T. Boardman, a noble woman, whose ardent labors in the cause of humanity sheds such bright lustre upon American womanhood, for the charming compliment which her letter addressed to this association so graciously conveys; be it further

Resolved, That the thanks of this convention are herewith tendered to Mr. Max Cohen, editor of Views, Washington, D. C., for embodying this appeal from one of the greatest instrumentalities for a higher and finer civilization in his interesting and instructive address pertaining to the presentation by this association of its George E. McNeill medal in rewarding acts of heroism in the saving of human life.


By George B. Leighton.

New Hampshire is a small State, but its people have the same interest in advancing the methods of living and the same desire to be abreast of the times that people of other States have. The motives which govern its people are as high minded as in any other State, and a great deal that has been said in regard to the political shortcomings of the State are not in accordance with the facts. The people of New Hampshire became interested in the Christmas stamp idea, and, so far as they were able, have seemingly accomplished a good deal to be proud of. The New Hampshire Federation of Women’s Clubs, through the then president, Mrs. Lorin Webster, took a deep interest in the Christmas stamp campaign of last December, and largely through their efforts we had in bank something over $1,300. Naturally, many people who had helped in selling the stamps felt that they should have a part of the funds for particular cases of tuberculosis in which they were interested, but the officers of the Red Cross took the position that these funds were to be used for general rather than for special work, believing that in the end more good would be accomplished. As there are no tuberculosis societies in the State of any prominence, although one exists in name, we decided to spend this money on rather new lines. We believed that the way to exterminate a disease was to prevent, so far as possible, new cases. To accomplish this end a poster was prepared, which is indicated in the cut, and[79] it has been very generally circulated through the State, being placed in all schools, mills, railway stations and places of public meeting. In the distribution of this poster the Women’s Clubs assisted materially. All together, some 8,000 of these posters have been distributed and requests are coming in continually for additional copies. The poster states in concise language three conspicuous factors or conditions in the campaign against tuberculosis, that the disease is contagious, that it is curable, and that it is preventable. The Boston & Maine Railroad, which operates practically the entire railway mileage in New Hampshire, has taken a deep interest in this matter in that they have placed the placards in all of their stations and have instructed their agents to see that they are not defaced or removed. This assistance has been most helpful. The railway even went further and placed the placards in its stations in other States, for it has a considerable mileage in Massachusetts, Vermont and Maine. The result of this has been that numerous requests have been received from Massachusetts, from people interested in the tuberculosis campaign, for those posters, as they have seen them in the other States. The people in the good commonwealth of Massachusetts have been obliged to confess that they have had to come to New Hampshire for a very important suggestion in this work. The more the writer familiarizes himself with the tuberculosis campaign the more he is impressed that if the disease can be eliminated it must be done by informing practically every citizen of the State how to avoid contracting it, and we believe that what we have accomplished by this poster has been or will prove to be successful.

The superintendent of public instruction in our State, Mr. Morrison, grasped the idea of the importance of this poster early in the campaign, and he prepared a letter to all his subordinates directing them to place the poster in the schools and to see that attention was directed to them by the teachers. Again, Rev. R. E. Thompson, head of the New Hampshire Sunday School organization, felt the importance of this work, and he, too, prepared a circular letter to be sent to 600 superintendents and teachers in the State requesting them to put a placard in all Sunday Schools and direct attention to it. Copies of the poster were sent to the different granges throughout the State. The posters have been printed on cardboard, measuring 19 × 12½, and they cost, with envelopes, about a cent a piece.

In addition to this form of publicity the New Hampshire Branch has prepared two bulletins, one being a reprint of Rev. Elwood Worcester’s article which appeared in the Ladies’ Home Journal for March, 1900, on the class method of treating tuberculosis. This has been circulated gratuitously throughout the State. The conditions seem to be such in our State that in a good many communities the class method ought to accomplish much. Again, we prepared as Bulletin No. 3 an article issued by the Boston Association for the Relief and Control of Tuberculosis, which treats in a very simple manner of the essentials of right living and clean living. This bulletin is also being distributed gratuitously.

So much as indicating how the campaign has been carried on through the assistance of printer’s ink, but we have in addition secured the services of Mrs. Duryea, whose duties are to go about the State and tell of the class method of treating tuberculosis. The method of procedure is that she communicate with the officers of the local Women’s Club, some of the medical men and other prominent citizens, to the end that a meeting will be arranged, and at this meeting she tells of what has been done in Boston at the Massachusetts General Hospital in curing those afflicted with the disease.

We have found, regrettably, that the doctors in some of the smaller communities have not sufficiently studied the apprehension of the disease in its early stages. The State Board of Health has recognized this and is endeavoring[80] to bring before the profession means and suggestions so that all of its members may have the latest word on this subject. The State of New Hampshire has directed, and is about to open for the treatment of patients, a sanitarium situated in the northern central section of the State, but this sanitarium will accommodate very few cases, and for this reason our campaign has been largely to interesting communities in establishing tuberculosis classes.

The death rate from tuberculosis in New Hampshire has decreased materially in the last ten years. It has dropped from considerably over 1 death per 1,000 of population to less than 1 death per 1,000 of population. A study of the report of the State Board of Health shows that the death-rate is higher in proportion to the population in that part of the State nearest the sea than it is in the western or Connecticut valley district.

We feel that we can not as yet consider our work anything more than begun. It is a campaign of education, and when considered from this point of view we feel that we have accomplished a great deal. Unquestionably, a very much larger number of citizens know certain things about tuberculosis than they did six months or a year ago. Everybody must know these facts before the work of publicity is fully accomplished.

We have made an open offer of financial assistance to any tuberculosis class or summer camp that is established, and in the coming years a much larger amount of money can be distributed in this way.


Miss Delano’s Appointment.

The Red Cross can not fail to be greatly pleased by the following announcement:

Miss Jane A. Delano, of New York, has been appointed Superintendent of the Army Nurse Corps. Miss Delano was formerly Superintendent of Nurses at the Bellevue Hospital in New York, and is President of the National Association of Nurses. It is probable that an attempt will be made at the next session of Congress to enlarge and organize the Army Nurse Corps.

Miss Delano has long been deeply interested in the Red Cross and has been for some time a member of the New York State Branch Committee on Nurses. She will be appointed a member of the Red Cross War Relief Board and be made the Chairman of its Subcommittee on Nurses. By this arrangement the whole system of the Regular Army Nursing Corps and Red Cross Nursing Corps will be placed under one head, so that in case of war the plans for Red Cross nursing assistance will fall into complete accord with the demands of the Army Medical Service. Miss Delano will, therefore, be not only fully advised as to the regular nursing strength of the Army Corps, but will know exactly the status of the volunteer aid of the Red Cross Nursing Corps.

At the annual meeting of the Federation of Nurses, held last June at Minneapolis, a resolution was passed that the Alumnæ Association of Trained Nurses of the United States affiliate with the Red Cross according to the plan outlined by the War Relief Board. This plan provides for a Subcommittee on Nurses of the War Relief Board, the committee of fifteen to consist of a Chairman, who is to be a trained nurse, two other trained nurses, an Army surgeon, and a Navy surgeon, and one other person, all members of the War Relief Board, six trained nurses selected from a list submitted by the Nurses’ Alumnæ[81] Association, and three other persons, all to be appointed by the Chairman of the War Relief Board.


The lectures of the Nurses’ Auxiliary of the California Branch, of which Mrs. L. L. Dunbar, President of the Children’s Hospital, is Chairman, and Miss Frances S. Hershey, Secretary, have continued uninterruptedly. Miss Katherine Brown, Superintendent of Nurses at the Children’s Hospital, and Miss Killiam have been very active in this work, as well as Miss Eisel and Miss McCarthy. The lectures at the Heynemann Overall and Shirt Factory, at the noon hour, have proven very interesting and profitable, both to lecturer and the class. They have found the work mutually enjoyable. This auxiliary has also undertaken a course of lectures at the request of the Young Women’s Christian Association. Notices of these lectures have been posted in the retiring rooms of the large department stores. The Branch is planning courses in home nursing and hygiene for the Chinese women of the city of San Francisco.


Work of a Red Cross Nurse.

Philadelphia, July 30, 1909.

Captain John S. Muckle,
President, Pennsylvania Branch, American National Red Cross.

I have the honor, in compliance with your request, to hand you the following report in reference to my aid to the injured at the collapsed building at the northeast corner of Eleventh and Market streets, Philadelphia, on Thursday afternoon, July 15, 1909:

I was walking west on the north side of Market street, between Tenth and Eleventh streets, about 1 o’clock, with my mother, Mrs. D. S. Baxter, when I heard a terrific crash, followed by clouds of dust. I left my mother standing on the sidewalk and ran in the direction of the disaster, and on my way left my hat in the saloon of the Bingham House, southeast corner of Eleventh and Market streets, and then ran over to the collapsed building and saw two injured women being taken away to a hospital from the sidewalk in an automobile. As I entered the ruins I was stopped by a city policeman, and stated to him that I was a Red Cross nurse, and the officer immediately let me pass into the collapsed building. I found a projecting joist, which I hung on to and dropped into the cellar, where I saw two men; one was already dead, and the other, H. W. Fickis, I called to and he answered. By this time a police officer and a doctor of medicine joined me, and we three tried to remove the above two, but found it impossible. I then turned to help others, and succeeded in bringing one, Martin L. Lewis, to the surface, and stuffed my handkerchief into the cut in his head and took him to the Hahneman Hospital in a patrol wagon; then returned to the building and continued removing those I found, James Haggerty, Thomas Devine, Peter Nelson, and James Noble, dressed their wounds, and sent one, James Haggerty, to the Hahneman Hospital, and the others to Medico Chi Hospital, in a patrol wagon. By this time they had removed the man I had seen in the cellar, H. W. Fickis, put him in the patrol wagon, and I dressed his wounds and took him to the Hahneman Hospital. My last injured man, Albert Creen, I sent to the Jefferson Hospital in a patrol wagon. In dressing the wounded I used my handkerchief and underskirt, and when these gave out used the bandages I found in the patrol wagon. After I had taken[82] and sent about twenty-two injured to the hospitals, and the dead, six, were removed, I returned to the collapsed building and helped the firemen and police officers and workmen who were cleaning up the debris, as they were alone, no one having remained to help them. I stayed in the collapsed building until the very last person had been removed. Through the courtesy and kindness of Mr. George W. B. Hicks, Mayor’s statistician, I was taken home in his automobile late that night. I hand you a copy of a letter from Hon. John E. Reyburn, Mayor of Philadelphia.

Very truly, yours,

American National Red Cross Nurse No. 604.

Office of the Mayor,
, July 15th, 1909.

Mrs. Margaret B. Simon, Philadelphia, Pa.

My Dear Mrs. Simon: In a report of the terrible accident at Eleventh and Market streets this afternoon when a building of the United Gas Improvement Company collapsed, imprisoning in a mass of wreckage a large number of people, special mention is made of your heroic action in offering early aid to those seriously injured.

The Red Cross badge justifying your membership in a great organization gained you immediate entrance to the heart of the disaster, and all agree in saying that you proved by your splendid work and helpful sympathy your right to be considered an honor to the great order.

I think it due to you that public recognition should be made of your brave and successful work in a time of extreme excitement and danger; grateful for this new reason to be proved not only of the Red Cross but of the women of Philadelphia.

I am, yours, very truly,

Mayor of Philadelphia.

Letter from President of the Red Cross.

The White House, Washington, August 5, 1909.

Mrs. Margaret B. Simon,
Louden and Camac streets, Philadelphia, Pa.

Dear Mrs. Simon: Through the President of the Pennsylvania Red Cross Branch I have learned of your brave and helpful action on July 15, at the time of the serious accident caused by the collapse of a building in the city of Philadelphia. As President of the American Red Cross permit me to express to you its sincere appreciation of the services you gave in the capacity of Red Cross nurse in rendering first aid to so many of the victims and at so much risk to your own life.

The knowledge that the society has enrolled so courageous, faithful and valuable a nurse as yourself is a great satisfaction to its officers and an inspiration to its nursing corps.

Sincerely yours,


Reunion Program.

Following is the program of the First Annual Reunion of the nurses enrolled in the Pennsylvania Branch of the American National Red Cross at Philadelphia, September 18 to September 25, 1909:

Saturday, September 18—Reunion.


Sunday, September 19—Attend service at Christ Church (11 a. m.).

Monday, September 20—Call on the Hon. John E. Reyburn, mayor of Philadelphia, at the City Hall (12 noon). Afternoon, visit places of interest, institutions, etc.

Tuesday, September 21—Visit Philadelphia hospitals. Afternoon, visit places of interest, institutions, etc. Evening, Keith’s Theatre, as the guests of Mr. B. F. Keith, through the courtesy of Mr. H. T. Jordan.

Wednesday, September 22—Visit Philadelphia County Prison, Tenth and Reed streets (morning), and Eastern Penitentiary (afternoon). Evening, reception given to the nurses by the “Colonial,” at Logan, Pa.

Thursday, September 23—Trip on the river. Assemble at Race street wharf at 2 p. m. (A boat has been placed at our disposal through the courtesy of the Hon. Henry Clay, director of public safety of the city of Philadelphia.)

Friday, September 24—Call on Mrs. John S. Muckle, wife of the President of the Pennsylvania Branch, at her summer home “Windrush,” in Germantown. Train leaves North Philadelphia Station 12.26 p. m. for Queen Lane Station.

Saturday, September 25—“Atlantic City.” Train leaves Broad Street Station at 9.40 a. m.




The Red Cross and the Dragon.

By William Lathrop McClure.

Going to the smart new office building of the Canton Bank, passing shops filled with the weird and bizarre merchandise of the Orient, passing blouse-clad forms shuffling by on heelless boat-shaped sandals—truly, I think, this cannot be the old Chinese quarter of San Francisco. These are clean streets, these buildings are handsome, this public school is of concrete faced with bright blue tiles and filled with smiling little Chinese men and women. Sanitary? Yes, but still picturesque. Soon this ancient race will weave exotic mystery and charm about steel-girdered walls and balconies will bulge with great globular lanterns of oiled paper swinging in the wind. For some days to come Chinese ladies with “lily feet” will look down over their tulips upon the crowded street, and[85] wish for the Good Lady Festival that they may wear their brocade and gold abroad, even as “other” women.


But the old order changeth. New China does not brook the “cycle of Cathay.” And here, in the Canton Bank Building, under the wing of the American National Red Cross, has grown a flourishing offshoot of the Grand Legion of the Red Cross, of the California Branch, that has, in the vernacular of the street, “made good.” For a while—a short while—it was contented to be one detachment: then it became a twin; now its membership has reached about the hundredth mark, with supporting members. We watch this changeling with surprise. It needs no nursing.


Saturday evening, March 27, 1909, saw the hall of the Chinese Presbyterian Church so crowded that a burly policeman had the doubtful pleasure of turning away visitors of both races. Inside was filled with merchants and their families—the men on one side, the women and children on the other. The Consul, in a robe of biscuit brocade, followed by his suite, entered and aroused the interested glances of Caucasian and Oriental alike. Like flowers, bloomed from the dark blue background of the bloused and trousered women, a parterre of babies in cap and gown of purple, blue and rose. Tiny ques and tiny sandals, smiling faces, and not a whimper the long evening through.

Under the guidance and by the gracious courtesy of Donaldine Cameron, a noble friend of Chinese womanhood, a choir of Chinese young ladies sang the “Battle Hymn of the Republic.” Later the audience rose to the “Star Spangled Banner,” most beautifully rendered by Miss Wong in a clear mezzo-soprano. The program—partly interpreted by Mr. Wong, partly in Chinese—closed in a glory of flashlight, the sudden burst raising pandemonium among the baby choir, who were “velly much ’flaid.” A small dog smuggled in under the blouse of Lee Ching, a real boy, supplied the necessary bass for the tiny Celestial singers.

Organized by Dr. G. H. Richardson and the writer, the welfare of this successful detachment has been splendidly nourished by Dr. Mark Neumann, the Medical Director. From occupying the “parlors” of the Chinese Native Sons[86] of the Golden State, its members became ambitious to have quarters of their own. Dr. Neumann donated his waiting room. On one wall hangs the Dragon and the Stars and Stripes about a Red Cross on a field of white. On another the portrait of President Taft; on the third, beautifully written in Chinese characters, the By-laws of the Legion and the Proposed Women’s Auxiliary. Often a silk-trousered Chinese lady, with polished hair ornamented by fine workmanship of jade and gold, sits before these by-laws studying them seriously, beginning at the upper right hand corner and reading downward.


Most remarkable will be the evolution of a Women’s Auxiliary to the Red Cross Legion; most remarkable to those best acquainted with Chinese life and character. It is an emergence from sheltered living, a setting aside of a custom scarce permitting a Chinese young lady to appear upon the street. One does not even talk to a Chinese gentleman about his household. But there is a precedent. Chinese ladies are going about the streets of the great ports of New China obeying the calls of humanity and the voice of recent ideals of social development and service. For China has a Red Cross.

A Chinese merchant rarely calls upon a male physician for his family, but an up-to-date woman physician is welcome in the families of the educated. Favorable as is one’s impression of the prosperity, intelligence and generosity of our Chinese friends; the advantages of enlightened medical knowledge and sanitary science among them in San Francisco, not to mention the vast interior of the Chinese Empire itself, cannot be overestimated.

It is one of the functions of the Red Cross to create and foster enduring friendship between nations. War is often the instrument of passion rather than equity. Whether war is eternal or not the function of the Red Cross is to be neutral and to heal. With acquaintance comes understanding. We have our superstitions regarding the Chinese; they have theirs regarding us. Beyond the Pacific the pulse of a mighty nation is quickening, and through the Golden[87] Gate the young Chinese will soon be lured by opportunity to the Flowery Kingdom. Nor will they go as student, tourist or commercial man alone. Slow, indeed, will be the opening of the vast interior. The intelligently trained Mongolian is a great organizer and China’s metropolitan progress will be swift. Since the fire the evolution of the Chinese quarter has been marvelous. Some undesirable conditions still exist, but measuring by these only heightens the achievement of the progressive.


Across the Western seas New China wakes from sleep,
And hearts of exiled sons in filial answer leap;
Her sons with quickened pulse of other lands,
Shall hold the mother’s future in their hands.
We may not flatter yet that we have done our part,
We may not now forget the foes at China’s heart.
She asks our friendship now, the same she had of old,
That she may hold secure her crown of jade and gold.
Our neighbor, separate only by the restless sea,
Yet linked by ships, the birds of commerce, bold and free;
Let us not fail the higher duty, man to man,
Which lights the world and thus reveals the master plan.


Additional Notes.

The practical value of First Aid instructions as instrumental in saving life was demonstrated by Lee Wong, a member of the Chinese Detachment, First Legion, State of California, who applied continuous pressure upon the artery of a man wounded by a knife until the arrival of a physician.

Mr. Tinyut Lee, an active member of the Chinese Detachment, who made a remarkable record for the sale of Christmas and New Year stamps in the Chinese Colony, promised to excel that achievement by 800 per cent. As the colony has had no theatre since the fire rendered 23,000 Chinese homeless, this resourceful detachment hired the Oriental Theater, a clean moving-picture resort in the heart of the quarter, to swell its bank account. This benefit, with 5 cent tickets, netted $40. The Detachment has paid into the California Branch treasury $87. It is now contemplating a Red Cross Hospital, and plans are being prepared for a home nursing course for Chinese young women.

Members of the Columbia Park Boys’ Club Detachment, who did not accompany that organization to Australia, were equipped with a first-aid outfit for their summer outing at Cloverdale.

Dr. G. H. Richardson, Field Agent of the California State Branch, has completed his course of lectures to the Merchant Marine on First Aid. His important work has been highly appreciated and a movement to repeat them at many ports is advocated. This is pioneer work for the Red Cross among sailors and Dr. Richardson is to be congratulated on his faithful and disinterested service. The masters, mates and pilots of Lodge Harbor 15, before whom he has been lecturing, have placed upon record their appreciation of his efforts in their behalf.


I have the honor to submit the following data about the organization and equipment of the Illinois First-Aid Corps of the Red Cross:

The Illinois organization was officially born January 11, 1909—that is to say, less than five months ago. On that day the reporter was appointed Director-in-chief of the Illinois units to be organized. Within a few days after the Illinois Branch was handed about forty applications as a nucleus.

These new members who joined the American National Red Cross, and at the same time the First Relief Column, were not gathered in a few days, but represented a loyal band of men and women who had joined in 1908 an independent, private first-aid corps under my command.

All the officers were fully uniformed, practically in accordance with army regulations. The fact, however, that the Relief Column officers have no distinctly military rank and that the regulations in Major Lynch’s text-book would compel them to remove the coat-of-arms from the cap, the buttons, and the insignia of rank from the straps; possibly, also, to lay aside their sidearms (there being no mention of sidearms) produced such intense opposition that for a time I feared not a single one with whom I had been associated in our attempt to raise a first-aid brigade would remain with me. And for one man to do all the work and to look for congenial co-workers all over again appeared a Herculean task. It was then that I submitted in writing certain propositions to Mr. Ravell, Secretary of the Illinois Branch, who agreed to place them before the Central Committee at Washington. On his return from Washington last December I was advised that we could retain the caps and adopt more suitable collar insignia, so that there remained but one objection, viz, lack of military rank for the officers.



However, with the objected-to features of the uniform overcome, I assured the officers that if they would go to work and aid me in the organization so that we could show the American people that we have the personnel, if not the material equipment, I would do all in my power to induce the authorities to grant us a certain status, which, though not equivalent to that enjoyed by the National Guard, would still mean more than empty titles beautifully engrossed in “commissions” signed by a few private citizens. This had the desired effect. Immediately after my appointment I called them together and delivered an impassioned address. I pointed out to them the seriousness of the step, the great responsibility it involves, the sacredness of the work to be done and the honor and prestige that is to be ours if we succeed. I made them pledge to observe the strictest possible discipline, to obey implicitly, and to respond to any call issued by the proper authorities.

A week later all our former members, new friends, patients of mine—in short, any one who could be reached—were called to attend a meeting in the parlor of a large hostelry, and the work of organization was begun in earnest.

For about two months bi-weekly lectures were delivered at hotel parlors. An independent detachment which had been associated with a fraternal organization was induced to join our column as a body. We agreed to accept them without the Legion dues by merely paying for membership in the Red Cross. The evening that body of young men in uniform entered the lecture hall in military order new life was infused, especially among the male members. I was repeatedly besieged by them with the request to supply them with uniforms and to take them to some place where they could learn how to march, carry litters, transport patients, etc.


I promised them all these things for the near future. As I am myself living in moderate circumstances, and as our Legion dues of $1 per annum (we had to make the dues low to enable the poorest working man and working woman to join) were not sufficient to pay for the most urgent needs, I presented myself to our Chairman of the Executive Committee, Dr. L. L. McArthur, and laid the matter before him. He finally consented to our appealing to certain private citizens when I was supported in my contentions by the Secretary and by Colonel Gordon C. Strong, I. N. G., a member of the Executive Committee, and a gentleman, by the way, to whom we are indebted for many services rendered the organization and your reporter.

At a meeting of the Executive Committee Mr. J. Spoor, president of the Union Stock Yards, promised to fully equip a detachment of 22 men recruited in the yards. He not only paid for 22 uniforms, but equipped that detachment with hospital pouches, canteens, litters, and a national flag.


Four detachments were completed by this time. The day a fifth one was completed I recommended to the committee that the entire command be officially declared as the “First Illinois Legion,” for there were then already indications that detachments would soon be organized in other cities in Illinois, and, in fact, detachments will be completed in the near future in Springfield, Joliet and Decatur, all depending on the writer’s ability to go to these towns and perfect the details. Our aim is not only to raise the full quota for this Legion, but to have in Chicago two legions and a third one distributed through the State.

At about the same time Colonel Strong induced Captain Maurice Woolman, commanding Battery B, Illinois National Guard, to let us have his armory at the cost of expense ($15 monthly). We occupy that armory every Thursday evening. Captain Woolman was so pleased with our men, who began drilling in civilian suits, that he consented to act as military instructor to the First Legion, and since has attended every drill and instructed the officers in infantry tactics.

But the most important thing had yet to be done. We had to secure uniforms to enable the men to participate in the Memorial Day parade. I interviewed[91] the Hon. Lambert Tree, and that gentleman subscribed $100. I also sent a dozen letters to prominent citizens, who, I knew, were familiar with the aims of the Red Cross. Only one so far responded with $10. But that was a beginning, and Dr. McArthur, after learning of my efforts to raise enough to uniform the men made us all happy by calling me into his office and telling me to have all the men uniformed, that he would guarantee the bill, though I must raise the money within 90 days. The firm honored Dr. McArthur’s guarantee, and when his action was announced to the assembled detachments all military discipline was thrown to the winds and our boys yelled themselves hoarse. The uniforms are good regulation khaki. We have now a total of 121 service uniforms for enlisted men and non-commissioned officers.

Each uniform consists of: Campaign hat with maroon cord, blouse with the letters “Ill.” and a large Red Cross button on the collar, one pair of trousers, one regulation belt, one pair leggings. Each man has a pair of tan shoes (private property). One detachment has pouches and canteens. Each detachment has a guidon (five in all). We have at our disposal 19 regulation army litters. Several of them are private property, but available.

The writer is chief surgeon to the Abraham Lincoln Hospital, with a capacity of 32 beds and a complete operating room outfit, laboratory, etc. This hospital is at the disposal of the Executive Committee without any expense for board, nursing or service.

The total strength of our personnel is as follows:

Director-in-Chief, commanding all Illinois “Relief Columns” 1
Surgeons, attached as his staff, available as instructors or in a professional capacity (ranking as assistant directors) 6
Director-in-Chief, First Illinois Legion 1
Staff Assistant Directors, corresponding to adjutant and quartermaster, respectively 2
Detachment Commanders 5
Doubtful and unassigned or suspended 2
Total officers 17
Five detachments of non-commissioned officers and privates (each 21) 105
Color bearers 4
Bugle and drum corps 16
Nurse corps (ladies) 21
Non-active, or not yet assigned, pending completion of 6th and 7th detachments 58
Total strength 221

This report is not satisfactory to us from a numerical standpoint because we have paid no attention to recruiting owing to the proximity of Memorial Day, having strained every nerve to drill the men so as to make a creditable showing.

Work Done.—Lectures delivered (bi-weekly) during January, February and March. Drills (weekly) during April and May. Sunday, May 23, the entire command assembled at the armory at 10 a. m. and accompanied Battery B to divine service. They marched in orderly fashion and were very dignified. At 1.30 p. m. the command met a second time at Rose Hill Cemetery and assisted in the ceremonies. Conduct and appearance elicited hearty approval from G. A. R. speakers.



Decoration Day Parade.—The writer was marshal of the 5th Division. None but Red Cross officers were selected for the staff. They were all in dress uniforms, sidearms, and were decently mounted. The Red Cross detachments marched in the center of the division with their bugle and drum corps, colors flying. Several detachments carried litters. I noted that the people greeted the command with hearty applause. General Grant and Governor Deneen, who reviewed the parade, seemed interested. No less an officer than Colonel Van Hoff, Chief Medical Officer, Department of the Lakes, who witnessed the procession, admitted that we made a fine showing. I have been assured by many military men that our men marched as well as any seasoned troops. We certainly have succeeded in raising a feeling of pride in the breasts of our men for their organization.

But we have only begun. We must now proceed to increase our organization all over the State. The writer will be compelled to visit cities, deliver addresses and “incite” the organizers to activity. Our medical officers will be compelled to attend courses in military hygiene and surgery, which I will deliver from August 15 to September 30. Lectures and drills will go on. In July the command will be taken out on a three-day “hike.” The money for this will be raised by a concert and ball. This “hike” will enable us to teach our officers the rudiments of military map-making and map-reading (topography). But all these efforts fall into insignificance compared with the task before me of raising funds to pay off the debt guaranteed by Dr. McArthur and to equip the new members, several hundred of whom are expected to join within a few weeks. We need more litters, pouches, dressings, tents, bedding, transport wagons, ambulances, wheeled litters, all of which are requisites for an emergency.[93] I am aware that in times of disaster the State will aid us with its equipment of tents, kitchens, etc., yet I feel that we must have at our disposal a field hospital—at least 100 stretchers, folding cots, bedding, blankets, surgical appliances, kitchen (field), a transportable x-ray machine, etc.

I also realize that there must be a system at the very beginning, and within a few days books will be prepared in which all information about the personnel will be recorded for reference in an emergency. Something like that has been done already, but I intend to learn who can be depended upon to respond to a call—their ’phones, business, social status, and the like.

I am disheartened when I look at the figures tabulated in England, Germany, Japan and Australia, with their thousands of men and women, and millions in property. I am anxious to do my share, but I feel confident that success would come surer and faster if the following suggestions were carried out:

1. Reorganization of the First-Aid Department with national and State chiefs.

2. Proper descriptive nomenclature for the entire corps, State Divisions and units.

3. A definite military status for officers and men. Even such terms as “detachment commander,” “column commander,” etc., would be better than “assistant director,” “director,” etc.

4. Aid in material by the government.

5. Preparation of “rules and regulations” on a similar plan to that used in the army, to insure uniformity and discipline.

6. Uniform stationery, blanks, enlistment pledges, vouchers and similar equipment to be issued from the main headquarters.

7. Assignment of medical officers of the army to diverse States as instructors and teachers.

8. The Red Cross to participate in army maneuvers.

I have the honor to remain, very respectfully,


Editor’s Note.—The second part of the entertainment given for the benefit of the First Illinois Legion of the Red Cross was devoted to an interesting exhibition of its training and drills.

Litter Drill—Detachment B, H. H. Wood commanding.

First Aid to Injured—Detachment D, Harry L. Coon commanding.

Exhibition Drill—Detachment C, John A. Stedge commanding.


Red Cross and Y. M. C. A. Co-operation.

Important announcement of first aid till the doctor comes for camp, summer school, home, shop. The American National Red Cross and the International Committee of Young Men’s Christian Associations will grant joint certificates in first aid to the injured, signed by President William H. Taft and a representative of the International Committee, to men and boys completing the requirements.

What to do for broken limbs, hemorrhage, poisoning, sunstroke, lockjaw, cramps, drowning, scalds, burns, cuts, bruises, etc.

Examination (August 25). Part practice, part written. Cost, 25 cents each person.

For any Association boy or man. A short course—10 lessons. Teacher—a doctor or physical director. In camp, at home, anywhere. Any text book.

Certificate granted to those with passing grade of 75 per cent. or above in examination. No extra charge.


For further particulars, see or write Secretary, Young Men’s Christian Association, or Educational Department, International Committee, 124 East Twenty-eighth street, New York.

First Aid Certificate.

This certifies that __________ has satisfactorily completed the elementary course of study and passed the examination in first aid to the injured at the Young Men’s Christian Association, __________.

For the American Red Cross:

WM. H. TAFT, President.

For the International Committee, Educational Department:



August 18, 1909.

Hon. William H. Taft,
President Red Cross Society, War Department, Washington, D. C.

My Honored Sir: On the 17th of July, while traveling on the Canadian Pacific Railway, near Fields, B. C., I met with a distressing accident by having two of my fingers almost mashed off by being pinched by the car door. We had no doctor on the train at that time, but fortunately a Red Cross man from Philadelphia, Mr Joseph A. Steinmetz, was on the train. He came quickly to my relief, bound up my fingers as best he could, and was the embodiment of kindness and sympathy itself. I appreciate his services very much and desire to become a life member of a society that is doing so much everywhere to relieve suffering.

I therefore enclose you my check for $25.00, and, if agreeable to your society, would thank you to send me a life membership certificate.

With deep appreciation of the service of your secretary from Pennsylvania, I am, very sincerely yours,


Mr. Hackney also sent a contribution to the Pennsylvania Red Cross.





During 1908 the members of the German Red Cross Relief Columns gave assistance in 8,268 cases of accidents, 4,643 of which occurred in factories, showing the value of first aid instruction among men employed in manufactories.


Das Rothe Kreuz, the official organ of the German Red Cross, gives interesting[96] accounts of the great assistance rendered by the Relief Columns of Nuremberg in the earlier part of the year and also of that given by the Relief Columns of Osterburg and Seehausen after floods in their respective neighborhoods in November, 1908, and February, 1909. The Osterburg Column had already proved its usefulness after a railroad accident in 1903. Since then it had established an alarm system and by means of this it was quickly called into active service. Provided with boats placed at its disposition for this work, its members rescued many, and to others, who were cut off from the outside world by the flood, carried food and other supplies until the waters subsided. In some cases persons who were ill were carried in wheel ambulances on the boats and then transferred to the hospital at Osterburg. In February the Seehausen Column proved of service in its neighborhood. Its wheel ambulance stands always at the market place near the bridge, its station being marked by a Red Cross flag. These facts are a new proof of the value of these columns to any community and that they can provide faithful and capable assistance in every kind of accident.



[From Daily Mail (Great Britain), August 18, 1909.]

The Red Cross in Every Home.

We are enabled to give to-day full details of one of the most remarkable developments of the voluntary principle in English life. It is a scheme which makes a great and comprehensive effort to enlist the patriotic services of all classes for a humane purpose—the succor of the sick and wounded in war. Further, the scheme will associate with the Territorial Force thousands, including women, who can not themselves serve in our army for home defense.

The War Office, the County Association, and the British Red Cross Society[97] are all engaged in the appeals which will be put forward from to-day to members for the general purpose of urging them to join the new Red Cross detachments which are to train for the assistance of the Territorial Army Medical Corps in war. No one need be left out. In the detachments may be included peers, peeresses, landowners, ladies of the manor, squires, squires’ wives, local doctors, trained nurses, chemists, chemists’ assistants, carpenters, women cooks, joiners, smiths, drivers, mechanics, grocers, and butchers.

Many other occupations could be named whose everyday knowledge would be of special utility in war. All will be welcomed in the new “organization of voluntary aid in England and Wales,” the proposals for which were yesterday submitted to the County Associations and the Branches of the British Red Cross Society.

Famous Surgeons Aid.

Its details were the work of Sir Alfred Keogh, Inspector-General of the Army Medical Service at the War Office, backed by the enthusiastic assistance of Sir Frederick Treves, the famous surgeon, whose experiences in South Africa have given him an unequalled expert knowledge, and Sir Richard Temple. Already there exists an organization which would come into active operation the moment war is declared, and which provides for the manning of general hospitals throughout the kingdom.

To these, scattered all over the country, in Cambridge, Brighton, London, Manchester, Leeds, Liverpool, Glasgow, Edinburgh, and elsewhere, are attached all the best medical men in Great Britain. There are, to name only a few, Sir Watson Cheyne, Sir T. Barlow, Sir T. C. Allbut, Sir T. Oliver, Dr. Norman Moore, Dr. Gibson (Edinburgh), and Sir Hector Cameron (Glasgow). The names of these voluntary officers of the force, colonels, majors, and captains, who only assume their rank in war time, fill twenty-four columns of this month’s Army List.

To them would fall the task of succoring the sick and wounded who were brought to them from the field hospital and the ambulances. Unlike France and Germany, we have no line of communication by which the victims of war can be passed from the fighting line to safety in the hospital far in the rear. The Red Cross Society and the English people are now asked to meet the want. The scheme is so to train the inhabitants of our towns and villages that they can render first aid after a battle, convey the wounded to the nearest hospital, and forward them on through a chain of similar units from rest house to rest house till the base hospital is reached.

Sir Alfred Keogh has so planned his proposals that no one in future will be able to say that he or she can not assist in the duties of the Territorial Force. He takes the village as a unit. In each he places a Red Cross detachment, in which both men and women may share. The commandant may be some one of leading in the place, and the women’s portion of the detachment will have a lady superintendent, a position which, it is hoped, some one of note will always be ready to fill.

Details of the Scheme.

Every voluntary aid detachment will be so arranged as to admit of dividing into two complete half detachments, thus:

Men—Commandant, medical officer, quartermaster, pharmacist, assistant pharmacist, under officer and 12 men; assistant commandant, medical officer, quartermaster, pharmacist, assistant pharmacist, under officer and 12 men.


Women—Commandant (medical officer), quartermaster, lady superintendent, ten women (including one trained nurse); assistant commandant (medical officer), assistant quartermaster, lady superintendent, ten women (including one trained nurse).

Under the commandant will be two sections, each commanded by an officer, who ought to be the village doctor. Their under officers will again be the chemist and his assistants. The men of the sections will be made up of tradesmen and workmen. Each will have an assigned duty. The carpenter and the smith would train to convert the church and the school into a hospital, make ready carriages and carts to convey wounded and sick, and fit up railway wagons, coal trucks, and the like for a similar use.

Others would prepare in peace time, so that when mobilized they could go to a house here or a house there, obtain beds promised beforehand, and fit them up in the temporary hospital, procure tables for operations, lay in the necessary food and fuel. Under the lady superintendent is to be the trained nurse, and her associates are to include those who have volunteered as cooks, and others who will look after the cleanliness of the hospital, wash clothing, and do all those thousand and one tasks which make for the comfort and the restoration to health of ailing men. In the larger towns and cities there may be dozens of these splendid organizations for making less terrible the dreadful results of war.

The Red Cross detachments have no place in our regular service. Because our forces serve over seas the War Office itself provides the necessary chain of hospitals and communications for bringing the wounded to the base. But the Territorial Forces are created only for service at home, and the hope is that those who can not for any reason join its ranks may at least render valuable assistance as members of their local Red Cross detachment.

The Central Council of the Red Cross Society will superintend the scheme, and the local Branches in the counties will cooperate with the various Territorial Associations in carrying out arrangements. The main object will be the base hospital, which is even now part of the Territorial Force organization. Beyond that, however, it is hoped that the Red Cross organizations and the general public may provide a convalescent hospital, where the men wasted by war may recruit before, if necessary, returning to the fighting line.

In time of war the organization would be: Fighting line, Territorial Army Medical Service, field ambulances, clearing hospitals, voluntary aid detachment, rest stations, ambulance trains, general hospital, convalescent depot, and homes.





Mr. Steinmetz, Secretary of the Pennsylvania Branch, who has lately been in California, writes: “It was my desire to study carefully the design of the wood houses issued to the refugees. Mr. Dohman very kindly put me in the hands of Mr. McLaren, Superintendent of the Golden Gate Park, and I went with him in his automobile, accompanied by one of the active workers of their Organized Charities, and visited a great many of the little houses. These wooden houses have been carried away to different permanent sites, where they now form the permanent homes of their owners. As a rule they have been somewhat rebuilt, have been raised off of the ground, front porches and rear kitchens added, and they have been shingled and painted and set in the midst of gardens of blooming plants and shrubs, forming beautiful little suburban homes in which anyone would be content and happy. The woodwork, as far as I observed, was in a good state of preservation. There does not seem to be any rotting of the sills, the roofs seemed taut and, altogether, the wisdom[100] of issuing these houses has more than been proved, showing that really your Central Committee builded better than it knew.”

Palma Cogliandro, the little girl who was brought from Italy by the Red Cross, and who, during an attack of measles, was most kindly cared for by officers of the Massachusetts Red Cross, has safely reached her destination and is with her uncle in California.


The District of Columbia Branch of the National Red Cross Society has finished equipping its relief station in the old Pierce mill, Rock Creek Park, and in the future all accidents occurring in the park will be given emergency treatment at this station.

A complete outfit of first aid to the injured has been installed. No regular attendant will be stationed at the building, but the equipment will be available to all who may need it at any time, day or night. The keys to the room in which the outfit is located, and which will be used as an accident ward until the arrival of one of the city ambulances, have been placed under the glass at the side of the door of the mill. Telephone connection with the city hospital has been made.


A request was received at Red Cross headquarters from the Railroad Commission of the State of Indiana for some ten thousand of the Red Cross railroad posters, of which some sixty thousand have been distributed. The Commission was informed that the railroads had already asked and received thousands of these posters. The following reply to this communication was later received from the Commission, which also issued a special circular to all the railroads in the State urging them to apply for these posters:

Dear Sir: Your favor of June 7th was received and carefully noted.

I agree with you that your system of distribution of the Red Cross warning posters is adequate, and you will allow me to say that it is my opinion that they are doing a great deal of good.

Our Commission has been so impressed with the value of these posters that we desire to go further than you have done in their distribution, if it can be satisfactorily arranged. We wish to post them in the schoolhouses of this State. We think that children ought to be instructed, especially those who, in the country, ride over unprotected highway grade crossings, as to how serious is the danger that they constantly incur.

There are 11,000 unprotected highway grade crossings of the railroads in this State. A great many people, and very often children, are killed by the trains on these crossings. We think that the attractiveness of your poster, its large letters and its colors would strike the attention of the children in the public schools.

If you can arrange in some way to supply this Commission with the quantity mentioned in my letter of the 7th, I believe the result would be satisfactory to your Association.

Yours, very truly,

W. J. WOOD, Chairman.

The posters were sent as requested.


The Secretary of the Massachusetts Branch writes National Headquarters as follows:


“Mr. Richard M. Saltonstall, a lawyer and member of the Massachusetts Branch, has been successful in stopping the use of the Red Cross as an advertisement on several occasions, notably in connection with the offices of quack doctors.”


St. James, Minn., May 31, 1909.

Mr. Ernest P. Bicknell,
Of the American National Red Cross, Washington, D. C.

Sir: I got your address from clipping herewith from our Minneapolis Journal. I write for a copy of the last report of your organization.

I am, so far as I know, the sole survivor of the original “Auxiliary Relief Corps” of the U. S. Sanitary Commission, a corps organized by the commission in the winter of 1863-64, and taking the field with Grant’s movement on Lee, May, 1864, its first entry into the personal relief work.

In January, 1865, I put the Geneva Cross, now the Red Cross, on our corps of some fifty young men attached to the base hospitals of the armies of the Potomac and the James, its first display upon any organized body of men on any field in the world. The “San. Com.” had already been sufferers from lack of this protective emblem of neutrality.

Such reports, etc., as may give me a notion of the present condition of this now assured success, the Red Cross of America, I shall be grateful for.

I am, sir,



Mr. Leighton, President of this State Branch, has sent to the editor of the Bulletin a copy of an excellent essay on the Red Cross, written by a young man of the Antrim High School, and suggests that local Red Cross Divisions offer prizes for the best essay written on the Red Cross in their respective high schools, which seems to us an excellent idea. We regret that lack of space prevents our printing the essay referred to above.


A large and enthusiastic meeting in the interest of the American National Red Cross was held in Florence Nightingale Hall, Presbyterian Hospital. Miss Mary E. Gladwin, Superintendent of the Woman’s Hospital, presided, and addresses were made by B. O. Satterwhite, Mrs. W. K. Draper, Mrs. Charles C. Stevenson, and Mrs. F. J. Brockway.

The purpose of the meeting was to enlarge the general membership and to increase the number of nurses enrolled. The speakers especially urged nurses to enroll now, because of the approaching Hudson-Fulton celebration, during which the American National Red Cross expects to maintain twenty-one relief stations, six army tents, and an automobile ambulance service, with nurses in attendance.

It was announced that the Mills Training School had decided to affiliate with the Red Cross nurses’ organization, and the announcement was received with much applause, for, as the chairman explained, there had been a dearth of good male nurses in the Red Cross.


The American National Red Cross and the Rhode Island Branch have sustained a great loss in the death of Mr. John C. Pegram, of Providence, a[102] member of the Central Committee of the American Red Cross and the President of the Rhode Island Branch. The Red Cross in this country has had no more loyal and faithful supporter than Mr. Pegram since its reorganization in 1905. At the next meeting of the Central Committee appropriate action will be taken to express the deep appreciation of the Red Cross of Mr. Pegram’s services and its sincere sympathy with the members of his family and the Rhode Island Red Cross Branch.

John Combe Pegram, a member of the Providence bar since 1868, a former Representative in the General Assembly, and prominently known throughout the city and State because of his activities in benevolent and civic work, died at the Hope Club at 6 o’clock on the morning of August 11. His death resulted from an attack of cerebral hemorrhage.


John Combe Pegram, son of William B. and Charlotte Combe Pegram, was born August 26, 1842, at Owensborough, Ky. He was a graduate of the United States Naval Academy, of Annapolis, in the class of 1863, and served in the south Atlantic blockading squadron from July, 1863, to October, 1864, on the U. S. S. Wachusett in 1865-66, on various other vessels during the civil war, and on the staff of Admiral Dahlgren. He resigned from the navy in 1866, when he went to Cambridge. He was graduated from the Harvard Law School in the class of 1868. He was admitted to the Rhode Island bar in 1868, and had been the senior member of the firm of Pegram & Cooke since 1885, though he had not been in active practice recently.

Mr. Pegram had always been active in public affairs and had held many[103] offices testifying to his interest in hospitals of the community. He was a trustee of the Rhode Island Hospital, and for several years was Secretary of the Board of Trustees. He was, until last year, a Trustee of the Rhode Island State Sanatorium at Wallum Lake, and President of the Rhode Island Branch of the American National Red Cross.

The Providence Journal says of Mr. Pegram:

“There was a fine blending of Southern chivalry and New England rigor in John C. Pegram, who died suddenly yesterday. His Annapolis training and naval service during the civil war were marked by the same sense of public responsibility as his interest in our local hospitals and charities. He was the leader of the Red Cross movement in Rhode Island, and the Rhode Island Hospital and the State Sanatorium especially profited by his loyal and valued cooperation. Independent in politics, fearless in denunciation of everything unwholesome, refined in thought, cultivated in speech, a gentleman of pleasing address, he gave to this community willingly of his time and labor and leaves it in his debt for forty years of good citizenship.”


Monsieur Moynier, President of the International Committee since its foundation in 1864, has collected in a cabinet all the souvenirs, orders, and testimonials of gratitude he has received during his long connection with the universal Red Cross. The idea of Christian charity is represented by an engraving of Christ dying upon the cross. Photographs of the founders of the Red Cross in different countries fill one album, and the publications of the International Committee form in themselves quite a library. The University of Tomsk, on the 350th anniversary of its foundation, unanimously conferred honorary membership of the university upon Monsieur Moynier, the highest academic honor that can be given in Russia. The Grand Duchess of Baden, in the name of the Baden Women’s Union of the Red Cross, has sent to Monsieur Moynier, with a personal letter, a medal and an illuminated address. The medal bears the indication of the 50th jubilee of this union, which was actually formed before the Red Cross, with a red cross in the center on the one side of the medal and on the other the grand ducal arms and the motto of the society, “Gott mit uns.”

Of the American Red Cross Text-Book on First Aid, by Major Charles Lynch, U. S. A., Dr. Ferriere speaks most highly in the International Bulletin, saying that it merits being translated and adopted by other Red Cross Societies.

The International Bulletin, in referring to the international relief work done by the Red Cross, says: “The international solidarity is developing and may well some day crystallize into a convention like that of Geneva, for the purpose of organizing specially for international assistance at times of great calamities.”

The American Red Cross ventures respectfully to suggest that this international assistance after great calamities needs no special convention, that the Red Cross Societies of the world, originally organized to render volunteer aid in time of war, have, almost without exception, so broadened their scope of work as to include the assistance necessary after great calamities. The American Red Cross, since its reorganization in 1905, has rendered assistance after some eighteen serious disasters, eleven of which were in foreign lands. If the American Red Cross shall have the honor and pleasure of receiving the Ninth International Red Cross Conference at Washington, it will ask that special attention be paid to this question of international assistance at times[104] of great calamities. Such international cooperation in relief measures would not only bring the financial assistance that does so much to relieve the sufferings of the victims and gives them new courage because of the consciousness of brotherly sympathy the world over, but the experience and knowledge of each and all as to methods of relief after various kinds of calamities, such as fires, earthquakes, famines, floods, and epidemics, could be available for the benefit of those in need of such aid. Much time, money, and supplies are often wasted and unnecessary suffering caused because of lack of experience in how best to proceed with relief measures.


The annual meeting of the Bulgarian Red Cross was held at Sofia on May 1. The reports show that the society possesses, in funds and value of supplies, about $336,200. It will soon open a new hospital for the instruction of its nurses. In 1908 it took energetic measures to prevent an invasion of cholera from Russia. Funds were also raised for the benefit of the victims of the fire at Uscub, Macedonia.


The International Committee of Geneva has sent out Circular 123, announcing the receipt of the statutes of the Chilian Red Cross, which are in accordance with the Red Cross international regulations, and therefore the Chilian Red Cross is declared duly accredited to the Central Committees of the Red Cross.


As the Congo has now become a colony of Belgium, the Congo Red Cross, which has done much good work for the amelioration of the sufferings of the victims of the sleeping sickness at Boma and Leopoldville, has been dissolved.



Decree No. 406.

Habana, Cuba, May 10, 1909.

The Cuban Red Cross Society will enjoy in Cuban territory all privileges accorded, or which may hereafter be accorded, charitable institutions.

The statutes and by-laws of the International Society of the Cuban Red Cross, adopted by the Supreme Assembly of the society on March 10, 1909, are approved by the government.

Dr. Diego Tamayo y Figueredo, elected on March 10, 1909, President of the Supreme Assembly and of the Executive Committee of the society, is officially recognized in such capacity and is appointed delegate of the Cuban government, as provided in article 36 of the by-laws of the society.

Mrs. Dulce Maria Perez Ricart de Sanchez Fuentes is officially recognized as President of the Central and of the Provincial Executive Committees, to which she was elected on March 13, 1909.

The insignia, uniforms, banners, etc., of the society, provided for in articles 5, 6, 7, 21, 23, 178, 179, 182, 184, and 196 of the by-laws, are similarly recognized.

Gen. Armando Riva y Hernandez, E. P., and Gen. Gerardo Machado y Morales, Inspector General of the Armed Forces, and Dr. Arturo Sonville, Major Medical[105] Corps, R. G., are appointed commissioners of the government for the purpose of drawing up, together with commissioners designated by the society, the regulations contemplated by article 31 of the by-laws for the government of relations between members of the Red Cross and of the official medical corps in time of war.

Dr. Florencio Villuendas y de la Torre is, in accordance with article 13 of the by-laws, designated to represent the Secretary of government in the Supreme Assembly of the society.

The provisions of this decree will be communicated to the commanding generals of the Armed Forces for the information of said forces, and to the provincial Governors for the information of Alcaldes in their respective jurisdictions.

The Department of Government is intrusted with the fulfillment of the provisions of this decree.

JOSE M. GOMEZ, President.

NICOLAS ALBERDI, Secretary of Government.


The Life Saving Society of France has asked to become affiliated with the French Red Cross. It has been in existence thirty years, and its object is to provide assistance to the victims of accidents of public calamities and epidemics. This society, in time of war, will place its litter bearers at the disposition of the Red Cross. The French Society of Secouristes, composed of volunteer men nurses, whose object is to install emergency first-aid stations in Paris and other large cities, has asked for a like affiliation for the purpose of placing its 1,000 trained men at the disposal of the Red Cross in time of war. The Navy Department has issued an order permitting the French Red Cross nurses to study in the navy hospitals. Both the Army and Navy Departments have issued orders authorizing their officers to become members of the Red Cross. The methods of discovering the wounded after battle, especially when the search has to be made at night, is receiving particular attention in France; the use of trained dogs and of powerful lights are being carefully studied.

The income of the Central Committee of the French Red Cross last year amounted to $71,162, without including those of the two branches, the Association of French Women and the Union of the Women of France. Legacies amounting to $11,200 were also received. The Academy of Moral Science, in recognition of the Red Cross work in Morocco, awarded the society the Audifferd prize of $3,000, the highest distinction it can confer. As a recognition of the same services, the Chamber of Deputies voted an appropriation of $3,000 to the Red Cross “as a testimony of the gratitude of the nation.” The society, during the past year, sent to the military posts 6,800 books and magazines, not counting 360 subscriptions to periodicals; 3,612 games were also sent for the soldiers’ use. The French Red Cross presented to the Queen of Italy and to the Duchess of Aosta the gold medals of the society in appreciation of their heroic work for the earthquake victims.

Red Cross and Aviation.—Near the Red Cross temporary hospital stood a man with a telescope, sweeping the whole plain. Beside him was an automobile, ready to start at a second’s notice. As soon as Bleriot fell assistance was rushed to him and he was quickly in the nurse’s hands. His injuries, considering that he had fallen sixty feet, proved slight, but his nervous system received a terrible shock. When he appeared at lunch on the stand his left hand was bandaged and he walked with a slight limp. He was heartily cheered.


In an hour’s time after news of the earthquake in Provence had reached it, the Marseilles Committee of the Association of French Women of the Red Cross had ready a fully equipped hospital with its personnel, which was established at Rognes. In speaking of this work one of the Marseilles papers said: “The promptitude of this mobilization proves to us the value of the Red Cross and the necessity for its practical instructions.”

The French War Department has conferred the gold medal of honor upon Mademoiselle Berthe Clavery, a Red Cross nurse, who, after many months of most devoted service in Morocco, nearly lost her life through typhoid fever contracted while on this patriotic duty.


By postal regulation all contributions for the Central Committee of the German Red Cross, addressed to that Committee in care of its official bank, can be sent free.

The society reports up to date that contributions for the flood sufferers in Germany amount to $46,185.


The War Department of Great Britain has issued a circular to the officers of the Territorial Medical Corps, recommending that on their retirement they become members of the St. Andrews’ Ambulance Corps of the Red Cross, which now numbers 4,000 active members. In the First Aid Department of this Bulletin will be found a most interesting article on the plans of the British War Department and the Red Cross for developing the latter for war relief service. In April, 1909, the Canadian Red Cross was officially recognized by the government. It is affiliated with the British Red Cross.


In its report for 1907, the Greek Red Cross states that it furnished antiseptics and other supplies to twenty-three hospitals. The sick and wounded refugees from Macedonia were aided. For a number of sick refugees from Roumelia and Bulgaria tents, linen, and other necessary articles were provided. After the International Conference at London, the Greek Red Cross formulated the following recommendations:

1. To procure, as soon as possible, further legal protection for the name and insignia of the Red Cross.

2. To procure different means for the transportation of wounded.

3. To found a school for the training of nurses.

4. To continue to take part in the anti-tuberculosis campaign.

Its funds and value of supplies amount to $155,285.


After the Italian earthquake the Japanese Red Cross made an appeal in its public press and $81,800 were received and sent to Italy. In a letter its President, Count Matsukata, says that there were many touching contributions from poor students, sons of peasants, who made great sacrifices to send their modest contributions, which were accompanied by naively cordial words of sympathy.


H. R. H., the Duke of Mecklenburg, a prince of the Netherlands, has been appointed President of the Dutch Red Cross.



The Russian Red Cross has again to mourn the loss of one of its most distinguished members, Prof. Frederick de Martens, who died June 20 while on his way to his estate in Livonia. Professor Martens, renowned for his knowledge of international law, was a most devoted and enthusiastic supporter of the Red Cross. In June, 1907, before attending The Hague Convention, where he was the most prominent Russian representative, he represented the Russian Red Cross at the Eighth International Red Cross Conference and carried from this conference some of its important resolutions to The Hague Convention. During the war with Japan he was at the head of the Bureau of Prisoners of the Russian Red Cross, and at the time of his death he was President of the International Red Cross Jury on the Awarding of the Marie Feodorovna Fund prizes. The American Red Cross extends its sincere sympathy to the Russian Red Cross for the serious loss it has thus sustained, and which loss is shared by the International Red Cross.


The Saxon Red Cross has created a special committee, which has charge of relief measures after great calamities. The society sent $5,000 and a large amount of supplies to the Italian earthquake relief.


The Spanish Red Cross has received from Monsieur Bayod, pharmacist of the court, two automatic apparatus for the production of oxygen. The contributions of this society for the Italian relief amounted to some $20,000, besides a large amount of supplies.


The Swiss Red Cross has suffered the misfortune of again losing by death its President, Monsieur Pestalozzi. We desire to express, on the part of the American Red Cross, our sincere sympathy to our sister society. The Swiss Red Cross raised $108,646 for the Italian relief. A number of houses were built in Reggio and Messina, which shelter seventy-four families.


At the time of the Armenian massacres the International Committee received an appeal from the College of Tarsus for Red Cross assistance for the victims. The Committee telegraphed to the Committee of Constantinople, asking it to render immediate aid. The latter replied by telegraph that owing to the lack of personnel, and because of conditions in Constantinople, it was unable to respond to this appeal. By letter it also expressed its regrets that it could not send aid to Adana, as its stores had been entirely exhausted during the Greco-Turkish war and not replenished. From its small funds it, however, appropriated $400 for the relief at Adana. The letter, which was signed by Fayk G. della Sudda, as President of the Red Crescent, told of the difficulties under the old government, which almost prohibited the society from raising any funds, but states that under the new government it hopes to make rapid progress.



is the relief from the acute stinging pain of inflammations and eczematous eruptions about the mucocutaneous margins when Resinol Ointment is applied. And a permanent cure is effected by this remedy with greater facility in all skin affections where a local application is indicated than by any other method. As a dressing for Burns, Carbuncles, etc., there is nothing approaches it.

Resinol Soap is the greatest adjunct to the Ointment, and renders the necessary bathing of the parts an aid to the cure, where the ordinary application of water and other soaps usually increases the trouble.

Resinol Ointment and Resinol Soap

Are Genuine Comforts to Physician and Patient Alike


Resinol Chemical Company

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Agents for Australasia, Sydney, N. S. W.


The Red Cross

ensures speedy relief to the suffering, the needy and the distressed. THE EQUITABLE LIFE ASSURANCE SOCIETY not only furnishes relief to the distressed, but prevents suffering and poverty through the prompt payment of its policies all over the world. In 1908 the Equitable distributed nearly Forty-Eight Millions of Dollars among its beneficiaries and policy holders. Practically all of this vast sum is now at work alleviating the daily wants of widows and orphans; providing support for the aged; liquidating mortgages left by homeseekers; guarding estates of capitalists; or doing good in a multitude of other ways. By no other method can you so adequately and so safely guard your loved ones, your home and your estate as by life insurance.


of the United States

PAUL MORTON   President





The first Sanitarium established by Seventh-Day Adventists was at Battle Creek, in 1866. Since then institutions have been started in many places. At present nearly sixty exist in various parts of the world.

Washington is known as “The City Beautiful.” Much has been written of the many beautiful and historic spots around Washington, but one which is a revelation to all who visit it is the new Washington Sanitarium, located at Takoma Park, on an elevation of 300 feet. The Washington Sanitarium has only been in operation a little over a year. It already has a splendid patronage; it is undoubtedly destined to become well known not only for its beauty and delightful surroundings, but as a health resort. During the fall and winter the climate is almost ideal; the summer climate is good—no mosquitoes or other pests are to be found.

A Branch Sanitarium is conducted at Nos. 1 and 2 Iowa Circle. The Branch Sanitarium has recently been overhauled, and extensive alterations have been made. The surroundings of this health-home are also attractive and restful. Both institutions are thoroughly scientific, and employ the most modern methods in the treatment of patients.

Massage, electricity in its various forms, baths of all descriptions, and special dieting are the agencies chiefly depended upon.

For further information address

The Washington Sanitarium

Phone, Takoma 127 and 128   Branch Sanitarium Phone, North 1325


Telephone, N 4372

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solves the question. It contains diet lists and what to avoid in the various diseases, as advised by leading hospitals and physicians in New York, Boston and Philadelphia. It also gives in detail the way to prepare the different foods. Also appropriate diet for the different stages of infancy. A book of great value for the physician, nurse and household.

Pattee’s “Practical Dietetics”

Has been recommended by

Governments—United States and Canada (Adopted for use by the Medical Department and placed in every Army Post).

Medical Colleges and Hospitals, Training Schools—(Adopted as a text-book in the leading schools of United States and Canada).

State Board of Examiners of Nurses—(New York, Maryland, Virginia, Connecticut, Minnesota, Indiana, and North Carolina included in their Syllabus).

Public Schools—Boston and New York (Added to their authorized text-book list)

Fifth Edition just out. 12mo. 320 Pages.
Price, $1.00 Net. By Mail, $1.10. C. O. D., $1.25.


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The “Storm” Binder and Abdominal Supporter



The invention which took the prize offered by the Managers of the Woman’s Hospital of Philadelphia.

The “Storm” Binder may be used as a SPECIAL support in cases of prolapsed kidney, stomach, colon and in ventral and umbilical hernia; as a GENERAL support in obesity and general relaxation; as a POST-OPERATIVE Binder after operation upon the kidney, stomach, bladder, appendix and pelvic organs, and after plastic operations and in conditions of irritable bladder to support the weight of the viscera.

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Illustrated folder, giving styles, prices and diagram for measuring and partial list of physicians using “Storm” Binder sent on request. A comfort to athletes, especially horseback riders. Of marked value in the prevention and relief of intestinal disorders.

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American Red Cross Membership

Any man, woman or child who desires to become a member of the American Red Cross may do so by filling in one of the Application Blanks at the bottom of this page and forwarding it, with the dues, to THE AMERICAN RED CROSS, WASHINGTON, D. C. Checks or money orders should be made payable to THE AMERICAN RED CROSS.

The membership fee of $1.00 includes subscription to the quarterly Red Cross BULLETIN.


Application for Membership

American Red Cross, Washington, D. C.   Date ____

I hereby signify my desire to become a member of the American Red Cross. One dollar for membership dues and subscription to the BULLETIN is enclosed herewith.

Name _________________________________

Address ______________________________


Application for Membership

American Red Cross, Washington, D. C.   Date ____

I hereby signify my desire to become a member of the American Red Cross. One dollar for membership dues and subscription to the BULLETIN is enclosed herewith.

Name _________________________________

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First-Aid and Relief Columns”

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Being a Manual of Instruction for the Prevention of Accidents and What to do for Injuries and Emergencies



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Pocket Size, viii+244 Pages.

For Sale by The American National Red Cross, Washington, D. C.

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American Security & Trust Company



Surplus and
Dec. 31, 1891— $  588,715 $1,320,238 $ 2,159,704
1893— 809,261 1,462,097 2,905,658
1895— 1,266,201 1,533,184 3,777,185
1897— 2,627,182 1,587,455 5,149,138
1899— 3,702,594 1,738,455 5,807,569
1901— 3,943,832 1,838,108 6,012,165
1903— 4,061,215 4,606,856 8,680,468
1905— 5,555,065 4,709,706 10,311,840
1907— 5,753,260 4,904,048 10,712,722
Nov. 30, 1908— $7,450,174 Assets $12,407,298
Amount Paid to Customers in Interest $1,285,735.18
Amount Added to Capital for Protection of Customers $1,750,000.00
Amount Added to Surplus for Protection of Customers $1,967,124.47

From the foregoing it will be seen that the business of the Company has steadily grown from year to year, and, while the shareholders have received a fair return on the capital invested, the directors have always borne in mind that their first duty was protection to the depositors, which they have accomplished by adding over four million dollars, making a guarantee fund to its clients, including shareholder’s liability, of EIGHT MILLION DOLLARS, a record shown by few banking corporations in the United States.

This statement does not include our Trust Department, the securities of which, under the law, are kept entirely separate and distinct from the assets of the Company, and our relations being of a confidential nature, no published statements are made. The growth has, however, been much greater than the above.

Accounts Solicited   Interest Paid on all Deposits, Large or Small.



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JOHN F. DRYDEN, President.   Home Office, NEWARK, N. J.




Phone, Main 1679

Office, 506-508 Fourteenth Street, Cor. Pennsylvania Ave.
Washington, D.C., U. S. A.






PHONE, M 2000



After having tried the various remedial agents for this purpose as a necessity to the toilet of your patients’ hygiene with unsatisfactory success, we would suggest that you recommend a twenty-five cent box of Tyree’s Antiseptic Powder, a preparation which both science and practice has demonstrated time and again to be of unfailing value in the treatment of diseases peculiar to the genital organs, in both male and female, as well as dermatologic practice. Prickly Heat, Ulcers, Poison Oak, Tender Feet, Offensive Perspiration, etc. It neither pains or stains. Is odorless and economical, consequently can be used by persons of moderate means, without the all-pervading tell-tale odor of Carbolic Iodoform, and such objectionable preparations.

Our little booklet containing its composition and how to use it will tell you more about it. Free upon application. Specify Tyree’s. Take no other but TYREE’S.

J. S. TYREE, Chemist
Washington, D. C.


Jewelers and Silversmiths

High-Grade Watches and Clocks

Loving Cups and Other Presentation Pieces

Among which we mention the Silver Services for the U. S. S. Pennsylvania, Kentucky, Iowa, Mobile and Mississippi

Makers of the Insignia for Buffalo Homœopathic Hospital, U. of Pa. Hospital, Atlantic City Hospital, Wilkes-Barre Hospital, etc.


902 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pa.

and Patents that PROTECT

yield our clients enormous profits. Write us for PROOF. Inventors lose MILLIONS through WORTHLESS patents.

R. S. & A. B. LACEY
Dept. 55 WASHINGTON, D. C. Estab. 1869


For preparing an



Superior to the Natural,

Containing the Tonic, Alterative and Laxative Salts of the most celebrated Bitter Waters of Europe, fortified by the addition of Lithia and Sodium Phosphate.


277-279 Greene Avenue, BROOKLYN—NEW YORK.

Write for free sample.

Telephone, Main 3495


Habit and Dressmaker


908 Fourteenth St., opp. Franklin Park
(2d Floor, Bradford Building)

In answering advertisements please mention THE AMERICAN RED CROSS BULLETIN.



Note.Crosses Indicate States and Possessions in Which Branch Societies Have Been Organized.

CALIFORNIA: Mrs. Thurlow McMullin, Secretary, 2200 California street, San Francisco, Cal.

CANAL ZONE: Miss J. Macklin Beattie, Secretary, Ancon, Canal Zone.

COLORADO: Mr. L. L. Aitken, Secretary, Colorado Springs, Colo.

CONNECTICUT: Mrs. Sara T. Kinney, Secretary, P. O. Box 68, Hartford, Conn.

DELAWARE: Miss Emily P. Bissell, Secretary, 1404 Franklin street, Wilmington, Del.

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA: Mr. W. A. Slater, Secretary, 1731 I street N. W., Washington, D. C.

GEORGIA: Mr. Allan Sweat, Treasurer, Savannah, Ga.

HAWAII: Mrs. W. W. Hall, Secretary, Honolulu, Hawaii.

ILLINOIS: Mr. Chas. H. Ravell, Secretary, 135 Adams street, Chicago, Ill.

INDIANA: Mr. Rowland Evans, Secretary, Indianapolis, Ind.

IOWA: Mr. Charles Hutchinson, Secretary, 916 Fleming Building, Des Moines, Iowa.

KANSAS: Mrs. B. B. Smyth, Secretary, Room 8, 4th floor, State House, Topeka, Kan.

MAINE: Mrs. Anne Morrill Hamlin, Secretary, P. O. Box 732, Portland, Maine.

MARYLAND: Mr. George Norbury Mackenzie, Secretary, 1243 Calvert Building, Baltimore, Md.

MASSACHUSETTS: Miss Katharine P. Loring, Secretary, Prides Crossing, Mass.

MICHIGAN: Mr. Ralph M. Dyar, Secretary, 818 Penobscot Building, Detroit, Mich.

MINNESOTA: Mr. Edward C. Stringer, Secretary, St. Paul, Minn.

MISSOURI: Mr. Leighton Shields, Secretary, 1200 Third National Bank Building, St. Louis, Mo.

NEW HAMPSHIRE: Address of Branch, Mr. Wm. F. Thayer, First National Bank, Concord, N. H.

NEW JERSEY: Mr. W. E. Speakman, Secretary, Woodbury, N. J.

NEW YORK: Mrs. William K. Draper, Secretary, 500 Fifth Avenue, New York City.

NORTH CAROLINA: Mrs. Theodore F. Davidson, Secretary, Asheville, N. C.

OHIO: Mr. R. Grosvenor Hutchins, Secretary, Columbus, Ohio.

OKLAHOMA: Dr. Fred. S. Clinton, Secretary, Tulsa, Okla.

PENNSYLVANIA: Mr. Joseph Allison Steinmetz, Secretary, Independence Hall Building, Philadelphia, Pa.

PHILIPPINE ISLANDS: Mrs. Victorino Mapa, Secretary, Manila, P. I.

PORTO RICO: Miss Josefina Noble, Secretary, No. 9 Tetuan street, San Juan, P. R.

RHODE ISLAND: Professor George Grafton Wilson, Secretary, care Brown University, Providence, R. I.

SOUTH CAROLINA: Mr. A. W. Litschgi, Secretary, 187 King street, Charleston, S. C.

TEXAS: Mr. Raymond D. Allen, Secretary, 483 Bryan street, Dallas, Texas.

VERMONT: Mr. Chas. S. Forbes, Secretary, St. Albans, Vt.

WASHINGTON: Rev. M. A. Matthews, Seattle, Wash.

WEST VIRGINIA: Miss Elizabeth Van Rensselaer, Secretary, Berkeley Springs, W. Va.

WISCONSIN: (Madison Sub-Division) Prof. Eliot Blackweleder, Secretary, care University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin.

WYOMING: Mr. Chas. F. Mallin, Secretary, Cheyenne, Wyo.


(Pronounced Kinnosol)


(Extract from Bacteriological Report from the Lederle Laboratories.)


There is no longer any excuse for running the risk of poisoning by carbolic acid or corrosive sublimate.


In use in hospitals throughout all Europe.



Every physician approves of the prompt application of a proper antiseptic to a bruise, cut, wound or burn, thus insuring surgical cleanliness until he can reach the patient.




Guaranteed by us to comply with National and State Pure Drug Laws—No. 2335.

CHINOSOL CO.—PARMELE PHARMACAL CO., Selling Agent, 54 South St., N. Y.

The Carnahan Press