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Title: The english moths and butterflies

Together with the plants, flowers, and fruits whereon they feed, and are usually found.

Author: Benjamin Wilkes

Release date: May 13, 2024 [eBook #73622]

Language: English

Original publication: London: Wilkes, 1749

Credits: Frank van Drogen, A Marshall and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at https://www.pgdp.net

*** START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE ENGLISH MOTHS AND BUTTERFLIES ***
TRANSCRIBER’S NOTE

Some minor changes to the text are noted at the end of the book.

The new original cover art included with this eBook is granted to the public domain.

Errata listed in front matter have been applied to the book.

Plates have been moved to be adjacent to the description of the species which they represent. Larger, higher-resolution versions of the plates may be seen by clicking (High Resolution Image) below them.


(Cover)

(Title Page)

THE

English Moths and Butterflies:
Together with
The Plants, Flowers, and Fruits whereon they Feed,
and are usually Found.

All Drawn and Coloured in such a Manner, as to represent their several
beautiful Appearances,

Being copied exactly from the Subjects themselves, and Painted on the best
Atlas Paper.


Together with an Attempt towards a Natural History of the said Moths and Butterflies.

This work consists of one Hundred and Twenty Copper Plates, with a particular Account of the Flies represented in the said Plates setting forth the true Times of their Appearance in the Caterpillar, Chrysalis, and Fly State; the most ready Means of finding them; the Method of managing and preserving them; their Ways of feeding; the several Plants they feed on; and, in a Word, everything yet known relating to their Natural History. Together with the Names of the Plants, Flowers, Fruits &c.

The Price of this Work colour’d is Nine Pounds;

Which for the Conveniency of the Buyer is divided into four Parts, and each Part, or any single
Number, may be had separately.


Uncoloured Three Pounds Thirteen Shillings and Sixpence, or Two Shillings and Sixpence
each Number.

The Natural History by itself Ten Shillings and Sixpence.



LONDON;

Printed for, and Sold by BENJAMIN WILKES, the Proprietor, in Fleetstreet.


TO

MARTIN FOLKES, Esq; President,
And to the
COUNCIL and FELLOWS of the

ROYAL SOCIETY
OF
LONDO
N.

Gentlemen,

(Decorative letter I)

I Humbly take the Liberty to address this Work to You, and presume to hope, from Your exact Knowledge of the Subjects it contains, and Your having been pleased to countenance the several Parts of it, as they were published, with Your Acceptance and Approbation, that You will not, now they are put together, deny them the Honour of Your Patronage.

The Institution of Your Society for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge, must render it not improper to lay before You every Attempt towards such Improvement. On the contrary, You have a sort of Right to expect, that every Author in Natural History, should submit his Labours to Your Examination, and think himself happy if they will stand the Test of Your Judgment.

The Animal and Vegetable Parts of the Creation afford endless Stores for the Enquiry and Entertainment of the curious Naturalist: and some of the most beautiful of each Sort, are here presented to the Eye, in their true Size, Form, and Colour. Nor will it be objected by You, that too much Time and Pains has been bestowed on a Company of Insects, which few People trouble themselves about; for true Philosophy teaches, that the meanest thing God has made, is not below the Dignity of the most exalted of mortal Men to consider. But the Creatures here exhibited, are adorned with such a Variety of Beauty to engage our Notice, and undergo such amazing Changes in their Form and Appearance, that a thinking Mind can hardly avoid regarding them with uncommon Pleasure and a more than ordinary Attention.

Little, perhaps, is wanting to make the Study of Nature universally pursued, than to render it easy and intelligible; for, surely, the Understanding God has given us, can never be more properly employed, than in examining and considering those Proofs of his Divine Goodness and Power, which are placed every where around us. This is a most reasonable and satisfactory Entertainment; and I am fully persuaded, many of You, Gentlemen, have often experienced more real Pleasure from such Examinations, than those who know nothing of them can possibly conceive.

My Attempt towards a Natural History of the English Moths and Butterflies, (which is here added to the Paintings of them) wherein they are divided into Classes, and their several Progressions and Changes from the Egg to the Fly-state are described, (and that not from Books or Conjectures, but from actual Experiments and close Observation) will, I hope, meet with Your Approbation.

But not to be longer troublesome than to beg Pardon for this Presumption, and with a continual increase of Prosperity and Honour to the Royal Society of London, permit me to subscribe myself,

Gentlemen,

Your most obedient,

Humble Servant,


BENJAMIN WILKES.


(Decorative header)

THE
PREFAC
E.

(Decorative letter T)

The Painting of HISTORY PIECES and PORTRAITS in Oyl being the Profession of the Author of this Work, he frequently found himself at a Loss, in the Course of his Employment, to understand with Certainty what Colours would contrast with and set off each other to the best Advantage; and perhaps had still remained under the same Difficulties, had he not been led by Accident into the Means of learning all this from Nature, which undoubtedly is the best Instructor.

It happened that a Friend invited him one Evening, to bear him Company to a Society named the Aurelian: the agreeable Purpose of which is, to become acquainted with that Part of Natural Philosophy which relates to the Generation and Properties of Insects, of which they have a fine Collection. And here he first saw such Specimens of Nature’s admirable Skill in the Disposition, Arrangement, and contrasting of Colours (particularly amongst the Moths and Butterflies) as struck him with Amazement, and convinced him, at the same Time, that studying them would turn greatly to his Advantage.

With this View he desired to become a Member of the Aurelian Society, and soon after had the Honour to be admitted; when, by his own Diligence, together with the genenerous and kind Assistance of some Gentlemen of the Society, it was not long before he had acquired a tolerable Collection of English Moths and Butterflies; and for ten Years past his leisure Hours have chiefly been employed in the collecting and making Drawings of the different English Caterpillars, Aureliæ or Chrysalides, Flies, &c. that he could any Ways obtain; and in making such Observations and Remarks thereon as shall now, with all Submission, be laid before the Publick.

He has been greatly assisted in this Work by that well-known and ingenious Naturalist, Mr. Joseph Dandridge; to whose noble Collection he had free Access during his Life-time, and also the Liberty of making what Use he thought fit of his curious Remarks on these Subjects, which were the Fruits of no less than forty Years Experience. And he is still favoured in the like Manner by his Successors, as often as he finds Occasion.

Respect to the Memory of this valuable and worthy Man, will not suffer him to omit this Opportunity of giving him the Character that is most justly his due, viz. That he was a Person of unbounded Curiosity, and unwearied Application in his Researches into the Works of Nature; in the Study of which all those Hours were employed that could be spared from his immediate Business; by which Means, during a long Life, he had not only got together a great Variety of the most rare natural Productions, but also from Time to Time had written down his Observations thereon, which deserve the highest Regard, as his Judgment and Veracity were both without Exception. And, as he loved these Studies himself, he was a zealous Encourager of all that had the same Inclination, whom he was always ready to assist with his laboriously acquired Knowledge.

But to proceed—He must also acknowledge, that in the Course of this Undertaking he has made use of the Drawings of some Caterpillars and Flies which were published not long ago in a curious Work of this Sort, by J. A. Rosel, at Norimburgh, in Germany: But he has taken from him such only as are exactly of the same Species with what we have in England, though we have not yet been so fortunate to meet with them under all their several Changes: what Information that Gentleman has given, as to those Particularities concerning them which we are yet unacquainted with, he therefore judged proper to insert.

As to the Plants, Flowers, and Fruits, he declares himself under the highest Obligation to a most curious Naturalist, and worthy Member of the Royal Society of London, whose costly and valuable Collection is known to the learned World, and esteemed as it deserves. This Gentleman has generously permitted him to make use of many excellent Paintings of these Subjects, which were taken from Nature by those two celebrated Artists Mr. George Dennis Ehret, and Mr. Jacobus Van Heysum, and executed with the utmost Judgment and Command of Pencil, so that he could hardly doubt but that true Copies of them would give great Pleasure to the Lovers of Botany, whom he has endeavoured to entertain with all the Variety he could introduce.

Some Ill-natured People, that love to find Fault with every Thing, have, he hears, objected against the Liberty he has taken, in giving in several of his Plates, Plants, Flowers, and Fruits, that are not in Reality the Food of the Caterpillars therein exhibited; but as the greatest Part of the Caterpillars described in this Work feed chiefly on the Oak, Elm, Black-Thorn, White-Thorn, Willow, and Nettle, all which are separately represented in different Plates, it was judged unnecessary (and would certainly have been tiresom) to repeat those Subjects, as often as different Caterpillars are presented to which they serve for Food: and therefore, instead of so doing, the Author has enriched his Undertaking with some of the most beautiful Productions of Nature in the Vegetable Kingdom: But, however, has not forgot to place the Caterpillars, in most of the Plates, on a small Specimen of the real Plant on which it feeds, as will be properly explained in the Account of each Particular Fly:—and this Care, it is hoped will be an Answer to all unreasonable Cavils.

The Plates are all drawn and etched with his own Hand, in a quite new Manner; whereby every Design, when coloured, appears like a regular Piece of Painting; and the Flies are drawn and Painted with the utmost Exactness, from as fine and perfect Specimens as can be bred. The common Method of amusing the Reader with long Accounts of the Colours and Markings of each Fly is avoided in this Work, as entirely needless, when the Objects are truly represented before his Eyes.

His Classing of the Caterpillars will be found of great Use; for if it be enquired what Fly any Caterpillar that may happen to present itself will produce, by observing its Character you will easily be satisfied (if it is in this Collection) and be likewise taught what its proper Food is, &c. Names are absolutely necessary to distinguish one Fly from another, and enable the Curious in this Study to communicate any Observations they may make; which, without giving Names to the Flies, would be very difficult, if even possible to be done; as they must be greatly at a Loss to make others perfectly understand what Flies they are treating of. The worthy Members of the Aurelian Society, and several other ingenious Gentlemen, have been so sensible of this, that they, from Time to Time, have thought proper to bestow some Name on every Species that has come within their Knowledge.

Indeed Names are arbitrary, and if remembered, and the Intent of them well understood, may, whatever they are, serve the Purpose of giving them: But here, as in every Thing else, a Propriety is to be aimed at, and the Names given ought to denote some distinguishing Particularity, and that the most obvious, in the Subject on which they are bestowed, so as to make the Name, if possible, descriptive of the Thing: Which Rule has been followed as strictly as might be in naming the Moths and Butterflies contained in this Work: that is to say, the Shape, the Colour, the Marking, the Food, or the Place where found is what they are named from. But in doing this, where the Author found them named to his Hands in this descriptive Manner, he has gladly retained the Name they had already, and only presumes to bestow Names himself on such as either had none at all, or which he thought not sufficiently denotative of the particular Flies intended to be known by them.

The Division of the Work into Books and Chapters may need some Explanation, since under some of the Divisions very few, or even but one single Fly is placed; the Reason whereof is, that the Plan here laid down is intended for the Arranging of all the Moths and Butterflies, whose Progression is known at present, or shall hereafter be discovered in England; of which, as the Flies here given are but a small Part, this must be considered but as an Out-line to be filled up occasionally.

It is hoped the Directions here given how to collect the Caterpillars or Chrysalides, how to feed and take Care of them, how to preserve the Flies when bred, and where and at what Times they may be found most easily, will prove both acceptable and useful to every curious Collector; and as the Author thinks himself under great Obligations to the Subscribers to, and Encouragers of this Undertaking, a List of their Names is added as a Memorial of his Gratitude.

These Things being premised, we come now to give a short Sketch of the Natural History of the English Moths and Butterflies in general.


(Decorative design)

INTRODUCTION.

Of Moths and Butterflies in general.

(Decorative letter T)

The Opinion of Equivocal Generation however formerly received, has by the present Age been deservedly rejected; since every Observation proves, that all Creatures are produced by Parents of their own Kind, and that in general those Parents are Male and Female; and the Production of every Moth and Butterfly in this Manner, is I believe at present not doubted by any Body.

The Females, both of the Moth and Butterfly, lay their Eggs in a short Time after Copulation, upon or contiguous to what will supply proper Food for the young Brood when produced. After a certain Period the Infant Caterpillars included in the Eggs burst their Shells, crawl forth, and feed upon the Provision ready prepared for them. And each of these Caterpillars, having fed its appointed Time, becomes a Chrysalis or Aurelia; from which State, after a while, it issues forth a Fly in the Likeness of its Parent.

Some Species of Butterflies breed twice a Year. Those that come forth in May lay their Eggs soon after, which Eggs in about nine Days Time are hatched. The Caterpillars feed for about six Weeks, then change to Chrysalis, lie in that State for about fourteen Days, and then the Flies are bred. These lay their Eggs as the first Brood did, the Caterpillars change to Chrysalis in September, and the Flies come forth in the following May.

The Variety of the Moth Kinds is so great, that perhaps there is scarce a Day in the Year when some of them are not bred. The Time of their Continuance in the Chrysalis State will be best known by attending to the Account of each Moth described in the following Plates. Some Moths as well as Butterflies breed twice a Year.

It frequently happens, that the Fly does not come out at the usual Time, but continues in the Chrysalis State till that Time Twelvemonth; so that the Creature remains in that Case a Year and nine Months (and sometimes longer) in a State of Rest, without Nourishment of any kind.

Thus much in general:—We descend now to particular Observations.

On the different Manner of laying their Eggs.

All Butterflies and Moths lay a great Number of Eggs, some even as far as two or three Hundred. The Eggs of some Kinds are glutenous, or covered with a glewy Moisture; but those of others are not so: The glutenous are fixt (sometimes singly) on Grass, the Leaves of Trees, Shrubs, &c. and sometimes in Clusters after the same Manner. Some Sorts of Eggs are laid naked or uncovered, and others are cloath’d with a sort of Down, &c. Some Flies lay them in a Spiral Line, or Screw-like Figure, round a small Twigg, a Stalk of Grass, &c. And these may be pulled off entire, in Fashion like a Cylindrical Tube, and as hard as Horn: Others deposit theirs in the Chinks of the Barks of Trees, &c. &c. &c.

It is observeable, that the whole Process from the Egg, to the Fly, of many Species, is perform’d in about sixty Days. But the Goat Moth is an Exception to this Rule, being reported to be three Years proceeding from the Egg to the Fly State.

Of the Eggs.

The Eggs are of various Forms; some are round, some are oval, and many of the Moth-Kind flat, and perforated through the Middle; so that the Embrios or Caterpillars lie curl’d up before they are hatch’d, as they frequently do afterwards when come to Maturity. They are found of all manner of Colours, and many of them are extremely beautiful if view’d with a Microscope; some being curiously rib’d and adorn’d with Protuberances, &c. like the nicest carved Work; others marbled and spotted with an amazing Variety of delightful colouring.

Of Caterpillars.

Caterpillars are usually divided into the Naked and Cloathed Kinds. Among the Cloath’d some have only small Tufts of Hair or Down, others are cover’d all over with it.

The Caterpillars of all known Butterflies have six Hooks or Claws before, eight Feet in the Middle of their Body, and two Holders behind. Those that produce Moths have all six Hooks or Claws before, and Holders behind. Some have eight Feet in the Middle, some four, and some only two next their Holders.

Some Species of Caterpillars always feed inclos’d or spun up in the Leaves they feed upon, others take their Food openly and in Sight.

Some are sociable and herd together whilst young, but when they change their third Skin they grow unsociable and feed separately.

Others are born unsociable, and feed separately from their Infancy.

Some Species spin a large Web that will contain an hundred Caterpillars, or more, from which they never go far till they have eat up all the Leaves that are near thereto: Then they spin a new Web, and so (shifting their Quarters) in a short Time, instead of the green Leaves that they have devoured, leave the Tree, or Bush, covered only with their white Webs.

Some Sorts, when disturbed, let themselves down by a Thread like a Spider, by which Means they avoid being devoured by other Insects that have not the Means of following them, &c.

Of the Food of Caterpillars, and their Manner of Feeding.

Their Food is almost general, but some Kinds will eat nothing except their own particular Trees, or Plants.

Some Species feed upon Herbage, others live and feed upon the solid Parts of Trees, and Barks.

Some dwell in the Earth, or other private Recesses in the Day-time, and at Night come forth, and feed on Grass, Flowers, &c. Others again feed on the different Kinds of Mosses, Heath, Broom, the Leaves of Trees, Shrubs, &c.

Some feed upon the Waters naked and exposed, and others make themselves Cases of Sticks, Rushes, &c. in the Waters, where they get their Food.

Of the Forms of Caterpillars.

The Variety and Beauty which present themselves to our Eyes in the Form and Colouring of Caterpillars, are no less remarkable than the Flies themselves, as the Reader will be satisfied by examining the following Plates.

Of the Change of Caterpillars into the Chrysalis State.

When a Caterpillar has fed its appointed Time, and is come to full Maturity, it undergoes a Change, and becomes a Body of a different Form, incrusted with a Shell, and usually called a Chrysalis or Aurelia; the Shell of which is formed underneath the Skin of the Caterpillar, which Skin comes off as soon as the Aurelia becomes perfect.

Of the Chrysalis or Aurelia.

During its Continuance in the Chrysalis State, it seems to have no Sense but Feeling; and some of them have even that in a very low Degree, for they may be touched pretty roughly without moving.

The Chrysalides or Aureliæ of the Butterfly-Kind are all very beautiful; some of them look as if they were studded with Gold; some are striped, others spotted, and others mottled with all the various Colours of the Rainbow. But those of the Moth-Kind are not so; differing very little from one another, either in Shape or Colour, except the Magpye, and some few besides.

How the Aurelia or Chrysalis is secured.

Nothing in Nature is perhaps more deserving Notice, than the many different Methods whereby Caterpillars conceal and secure themselves whilst in this helpless and unactive Condition.

Some of them spin a large Case of Silk in Form of an Egg, wherein the Chrysalis lies concealed, till the Time comes for the Fly to make its Appearance, which it does by piercing through this Case.

Of such Cases there are several Sorts, different in Form and Colour:

Some are long, and drawn out to a Point at each End; others are more round.

The Texture of some is very thick and close.

Others are thin, like Gause, insomuch that the Chrysalis may be seen thorough them.

Some Aureliæ are white, some yellow, and others of different Hues; and most of the hairy Caterpillars intermix their Hair amongst the Spinning.

Some Caterpillars form a hard-crusted Case, composed of silk Threads glewed together, in such Manner as to become hard like an Egg-shell, so that when the Fly comes out, a round Hole like a Door appears.

The Silk-spinning Caterpillars are of various Kinds, and deposit their Aureliæ in different Places, and in different Manners, viz. some fasten them on the Leaves and Stalks of Plants, without any Covering; others spin the Leaves over them; others lodge them in Holes and Crevices; and others in the Earth.

Many of the Moth-Kind place their Chrysalis in the Earth, about an Inch or two deep, surrounding it with a Case of Earth lined with a glutenous Matter, that no Wet can penetrate: And what is very surprizing, notwithstanding the extreme Delicacy and Tenderness of the Fly when first bred, be the Ground never so hard, it makes its way thorough it without ruffling a single Feather.

Few, if any, of the Butterfly-Kind form a Case or Spinning, except what fastens the Tail and Body of the Chrysalis. Some hang perpendicularly downwards, and others in an horizontal Position, being fastened by the Tail, with a Thread round the Back and on each Side. Some are secured within the Leaves spun together; others are hid in the Hollows and Barks of Trees; and others again under the Copings of Walls, in Houses, Sheds, &c.

Of the FLY.

After the Chrysalis has remained its due Time, the Fly bursts the Shell wherein it was contained, and comes out formed perfectly in every Part, except the Wings, which then appear too small to cover its Body. In this naked Condition it crawls up to some convenient Place, where its Wings may hang down without any Hindrance: And when thus disposed, the Wings begin to expand themselves so much, that in the Space of half an Hour, the Wings (of Butterflies) are stretched commonly to their full Size; nay, even those of the largest Moths seldom require above an Hour’s Time. At first they are flabby, like wet Paper, but soon afterwards they become stiff, and capable of supporting them in their Airy Flights, &c.

In this Fly State their first Care seems to be the Propagation of their Species, for some of them will copulate immediately if they can find a Mate; to seek which the Male Butterfly takes Wing, as soon as his Wings are in a proper Condition: But few Moths, whether bred in the Night Time or in the Day, ever offer to fly till the Night after their Birth, when they go in Search of the Females.

The Females (especially of the Moth Kinds) seldom, if ever, take Wing till they have been cocked: they often continue in Conjunction twelve Hours and more, after which the Female lays her Eggs, flies about for a Time, and then dies.—The Females of some Kinds are without Wings.

The Males (of some Species) have a surprizing Quickness and Distinction in their Sense of Smelling, exceeding that of the Blood-Hound, or any other Creature yet known; for if a Female be concealed in a Box, and there are any Males within half a Mile or more, they will fly directly to the Place, and hover round it. By this Means a Dozen Male Egger-Moths have been taken in an Hour’s Time, and that at about Twelve o’Clock at Noon, as may be seen in the Account of the Egger-Moth.

Their Continuance in the Fly State depends greatly on the Weather, many Flies being destroyed as soon as bred, by Storms of Hail, &c. but if the Season proves favourable, many will live for a Fortnight, three Weeks, or longer, and some even all the Winter through.

The Distinction of Moths and Butterflies.

MOTHS and BUTTERFLIES agree in their Progression from the Egg to the Fly State, are different when in that State, in the following Particulars.

BUTTERFLIES have a Ball or Knob at the Extremity of each of their Antennæ, or Horns.

The Horns of MOTHS have not such Balls or Knobs, but are constantly threaded or pointed: except the Males of some Species, whose Horns are ramified, or in the Form of Combs.

All BUTTERFLIES settle with their Wings erect, and generally keep them in that Posture, unless when basking in the Sun.

Most MOTHS do not settle with their Wings erect, but place them horizontally, or inclining to their Feet.

All BUTTERFLIES come abroad by Day-Light, and chiefly when the Sun shines bright.

MOTHS fly, some by Day-Light, some by Twilight, and some in the Dead of Night.

N. B. There is a Species of Fly betwixt the Moth and the Butterfly, whose Horns are more flat and hollow; this is describ’d in the second Book of this Work, by the Name of the Burnet.

Concerning the Food of the Fly.

The Food of these Creatures in the Fly State, is very different from what it was when they were Caterpillars: Butterflies feed on all Kinds of Flowers, and on several sorts of Fruits, and I have seen them extremely fond of the Juices that issue from the Bodies of several Sorts of Trees.

MOTHS feed on the same Things, as also on the Honey-Dew that is found on the Leaves of Limes, Elms, &c. The Moths, as well as the Butterflies, are furnished with a long Proboscis, or Tongue, which lies curl’d up like a Watch-Spring, under the fore Part of the Head. The Length of this Proboscis varies according to the Species of the Fly, and is from half an Inch, to four Inches long.

The Enemies of Moths and Butterflies.

Nature has been so abundant in the Production of these Creatures, that were it not for the many Dangers they are exposed to, through every Stage of their Lives, the whole World would be too small to contain their Offspring, in four or five Years; for, upon Calculation, the Progeny of one Pair of large Butterflies, (supposing them to lay only 100 Eggs, whereas many of them lay 2 or 300, and that twice a Year) would be sufficient to cover the whole Kingdom of England in about twelve Years.

While in the Egg, they are devoured in great Numbers by Birds and other Animals.

Whilst Caterpillars, they are a Prey to small Birds of all Kinds, being almost the only Food wherewith such Birds nourish and rear their young ones.

CATERPILLARS likewise kill and devour one another; and, besides that, Numbers of them die in shifting their Skins, and in changing into the Chrysalis State. But the greatest Enemy they have in this State, is the Ichneumon Fly.

In the Aurelia State, such as have no Case are a Prey to Birds, &c. those in the Earth, to Moles, Mice, and other subterraneous Animals; and besides, great Numbers are destroyed by Frosts and Wet. In the Fly State they are a Prey to Birds, Batts, and many other Creatures.

There are four different Ways, in one or other of which all Animals of the Moth or Butterfly-Kind subsist during the Winter Season, viz.

It is likewise to be observed, that the several Species of them chuse different Places for their Residence

Several Kinds of Caterpillars come forth of the Egg in July, August, September, and October,
remain in the Caterpillar State all the Winter, feed up in the Spring, then change into
the Chrysalis State, and produce Flies a few Weeks afterwards.

Others there are that continue in the Egg State all the Winter, are hatched in the
Spring, and feed up in about 45 Days: then change into the Chrysalis, and produce their Flies
in about 14 Days afterwards.

N. B. The Curious may be assured, that all these Observations are founded on real Facts,
and not on any Supposition or Conjecture.

And now, (as it seems exactly suitable to this Work) we shall beg Leave to close the Introduction
with a short Description of the Butterfly, taken from a Poem called The UNIVERSE,
which was written some Years ago
By Mr. Henry Baker.

SEE, to the Sun the Butterfly displays
Its glittering Wings, and wantons in his Rays:
In Life exulting, o’er the Meadows flies,
Sips from each Flow’r, and breathes the vernal Skies.
Its splendid Plumes, in grateful Order, show
The various Glories of the painted Bow.
Where Love directs, a Libertine it roves,
And courts the fair ones thro’ the verdant Groves.
How glorious now! How chang’d since Yesterday!   }
When on the Ground, a crawling Worm it lay,              }
Where ev’ry Foot might tread its Soul away!               }
Who rais’d it thence? And bid it range the Skies?
Gave its rich Plumage, and its brilliant Dyes?
’Twas God:—Its God and thine, O Man, and He    }
In this thy Fellow-Creature lets thee see,                    }
The wond’rous Change which is ordain’d for thee.    }
Thou too shalt leave thy reptile Form behind,                     }
And mount the Skies, a pure ethereal Mind,                        }
There range among the Stars, all bright and unconfin’d.   }

(Decorative Design)

An Account of those Places where some Gentlemen
of the

AURELIAN SOCIETY
Have been used to collect Caterpillars, Chrysalides and Flies,
In the following Months of the Year.

MARCH.

(Decorative letter F)

From the 15th to the 25th of this Month, a Moth called the Orange Under-Wing, may be taken in Hornsey-Wood, and in the Fields close to the Sides thereof. It flies in the Day-time, is an exceeding pretty Moth, and not to be met with in such Plenty any where else, that I know of. The Oak-Beauty, and some other Moths are bred in this Month, but are rarely met with in the Fly State.

APRIL.

In this Month a great Variety of Caterpillars and Chrysalides may be taken by the Method already described. The Banks about the Chelsea Water-Works and such-like Places are most likely to furnish the Chrysalides of the Hawk Tribe.

At the Roots of the Elm, Lime, Willow, and Poplar Trees, you will find in this Month a Variety of Aureliæ, which will produce their Flies in the May and June following.

Be now diligent to collect Caterpillars from all kinds of Growths, which, if taken Care of, will produce their Flies a few Months hence. Towards the End of this Month some Flies may be taken in the Day-time, and some Moths in the Evening.

MAY.

This delightful Month brings forth in the Woods and Meads a surprising Variety of Flies. Hornsey, Cain, and Tottenham Woods; the Woods near Southgate; Hanging Wood, by Charlton, in Kent; Oak of Honour Wood, by Dulwich; Comb Wood, by Kingstone, in Surrey, and the Fields adjacent are all frequented by them in this Month in the Day-time as well as in the Evening; and if the Weather be fine you will never fail of Sport. Abundance of different Caterpillars are likewise to be found at this Time, such as those of the Emperor-Moth, of the Lappit, Drinker, Egger, and of Numbers of other Sorts.

JUNE.

This Month adds greatly to the Number of Flies bred in May.—From the 20th to the 30th are usually produced: in Southgate, Comb, and Oak of Honour Woods, the Great Fritillary and other fine Butterflies, with Plenty of Moths; all which may be taken in and near the Woods already mentioned.

JULY.

The first ten Days in this Month are the Time for taking the Purple Emperor-Butterfly in Comb Wood; and the Fields adjacent can furnish such a charming Variety of Moths and Butterflies, that I do not know any Place where an Aurelian can spend a Week with more Satisfaction and Assurance of Success. As soon as the Purple Emperor-Butterfly begins to grow bad, the Time comes on when the second Breed of the Swallow-tail Butterfly is quite fresh, as also the Great Tortoise-shell, Peacock Butterfly, &c. About the Middle of this Month you may find the Great Red Underwing and the Goat-Moth standing against the Willow-Trees which usually grow by the Sides of Ditches about the old Barge-House, Rotherhith, Vauxhall, and likewise in other Places. Seek also for the Caterpillars that produce the Great Elephant and Gold-Spot Moths: the most certain Places to find which, that I know of, are by the Sides of the Ditches in Rotherhith Marshes. The Caterpillars that produce the Elephant Moth feeds on the White Ladies Bedstraw, those of the Gold-Spot on the Great Water-Grass. I have taken the Gold-Spot Chrysalis and Caterpillar likewise in the low Grounds by Vauxhall in Surry.

AUGUST.

At the Beginning of this Month may be found amongst the Willows, about the Banks by the Chelsea Water-Works, the Caterpillars that produce the Eyed-Willow and Poplar-Hawks, also the Buff-Tip-Puss, &c. and from the 20th to the 30th the Admirable Butterfly, &c.

SEPTEMBER.

If this Month proves fine, a great many scarce Moths are to be taken in the Evenings, and the second Brood of the Comma-Butterfly, as well as some other Flies, present themselves. Caterpillars are likewise to be got in Plenty off the Oak, Black-Thorn, and a Variety of other Foods; and these, if taken Care of, will produce scarce and valuable Flies in the succeeding

Spring. From the End of this Month to the Middle of March
there are but few Flies that frequent the Fields; altho’
I am of Opinion that some Moths are
bred in every Month of
the Year.

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In order to oblige such persons as may be desirous
To make a COLLECTION of

MOTHS and BUTTERFLIES,
Though unacquainted with the Manner how,
It is judged proper to lay down the following
DIRECTIONS.

(Decorative letter P)

Provide yourself with a Net made of Muschetto Gause, and in Shape like a Bat-fowling Net; let its Length be one Ell, the Width at Bottom three Quarters of a Yard, at Top half a Yard, and cut circular; this must be sewed to a Tape or Ferret, that it may be fastened to a couple of Hasle or other Sticks five Feet long each, the upper Part whereof should be bent circular to fit your Net.

You must likewise have a Stick of Hasle, or any other Wood, about five or six Feet in Length, wherewith to put the Flies and Moths on the Wing, by beating the Boughs, Hedges, Shrubs, or other Growths you are near, so that you may be better able to see and take them.

Furnish yourself likewise with Boxes of such Sizes as will go into your Pocket, let them be lined at the Top and Bottom with Cork; be also provided with a Pin-cushion, well stock’d with different Sorts of Pins.

These Things being in readiness, go into the Woods and Fields thereto adjacent (always placing yourself where the Sun has most Power, and the Wind the least) also into Chalk-pits, rough Grounds, Lanes, &c. In all which Places, if it is a fine Day, and a proper Season of the Year, you’ll find Plenty of Sport.

When you have taken a Fly in your Net, lay the Net flat on the Ground, which will prevent the Fly from fluttering, then put the Fore Finger of your Left Hand under the Fly, and with the same Finger of your Right Hand give it a squeeze on the Back or Chest, and that will kill it; be careful, however, not to press too hard, least you damage the Fly. This done take a Pin and run it through the Body, betwixt the Wings, letting that Side be uppermost which is most beautiful; then stick it in your Box, and look for more Sport.

Having collected such a Number of Flies as you think proper, and being returned home, look into your Boxes, and observe which of them are fit to set: such as you find dead and not stiff are so.

Then (having prepared before-hand two or three Boards covered with Cork, of about ten Inches by sixteen in Size, or as you find most convenient to place your Flies in order on and extend their Wings in the best manner: by the Assistance of little Braces made by cutting a Card into Lengths or Slips, with a small Pin thrust through the End of each) proceed to manage them as follows:

Take a Fly out of your Box: see if the Pin be run through it perpendicularly: if so, stick it on one of your setting Boards, and with the Point of a Needle (which must be fixt into a small Stick, or what else you like best) extend one Wing leisurely, till such Time as the Point thereof is even with the Nose of the Fly you are setting. That done, fix one of your Card Braces gently on that Wing, to prevent its giving way; serve the other Wing in the same manner, and your Fly will appear extended as in the Paintings. Let the Braces remain on the Wings of Butterflies a Fortnight, on those of great Moths a Month. Take Notice, however, that a great Number of small Moths must be set in your Boxes in the Field, otherwise your labour will be lost; you’ll presently know which these are, by observing them to be dead and almost stiff; so that it is proper to carry always about you a little Box of Card Braces for this Purpose.

The Way to preserve your Flies, after you have taken them from your Setting Board.

If you put them in Drawers, Boxes, or Frames with Glasses before them, its proper to get some Camphire, which inclose in small Muslin Bags, and fasten it to those Places where your Flies are; by this Means you will destroy those Insects that would otherwise injure your Flies; and by renewing now and then this Method, I am convinced your Flies may be preserved several Years. The Months in England that produce the greatest Variety of Flies, are April, May, June, July, and August, especially of the Butterfly Kind; and for Moths, I am of Opinion, that there are many different Species produced all the Year round. The best Time to take the greatest Variety of Moths, is for one Hour after Sun-set, and the properest Places are in and by the Sides of Woods, Gardens, Green Lanes, &c. where with your Net you’l seldom fail of Sport. Thus much seemed necessary to say in Respect to taking Insects in the Fly State, and more would be superfluous.

But as it may be agreeable to some to breed the Flies themselves from the Caterpillars, I shall likewise give the best Instructions I am able for that Purpose.

In the Spring and Autumn Season you may collect great Variety of Caterpillars, by spreading a Sheet under Oak-Trees: then beating the Boughs, many Caterpillars will fall, which if taken Care of, will produce scarce and valuable Moths; you may also obtain by the same Means Caterpillars from the Black-Thorn, White-Thorn, Bramble, Chickweed, Willow, and many other Growths.

When you have collected a Number of Caterpillars, and remark’d the Food you found them on, put them into Boxes, which prepare as follows: Take a Deal or Wainscot Box, cut a large Square out of the Top and Bottom, cover the Place cut out with a Piece of Crape Hatband, glewing the same all round to prevent any Escape. This done, put your Caterpillars into the Box, with some of the same Food you found them on, giving them, if you can, fresh every Day. Here you’ll find them feed and thrive; and after changing their Skins (some five and some six Times) they will go into the Aurelia State, and there remain for a certain Time, some much longer than others; but in about fourteen Days from this last change you may look into your Boxes, to see if you have any Flies bred; remembring that out of such as are produced in this manner, much more perfect Flies may be chosen, than any that can be caught; and as several Sorts of Caterpillars go down into the Earth, and there change to Chrysalis, some Earth must be put into the Boxes for that Purpose, at least two or three Inches deep. Never take the Chrysalides out of the Earth, nor disturb them till the Flies are bred.

There is yet another Thing proper to be known, in order to compleat your Collection. A great Number of Caterpillars go into the Earth, and there change to Aureliæ, whose Moths are seldom upon the Wing till Night; these Aureliæ are to be got by digging with such a Trowel as the Bricklayers use, about the Roots of Trees, such as Oaks, Elms, Limes, Poplars, Willows, &c. also by the Sides of Walls and Pales. The usual Time to dig for them is from September to March.

When you have obtain’d a Number of Aureliæ by digging, you must provide for them thus: Get some Earth and scowering Sand, mix them well together, and put the Mixture into some large Garden Pots; lay your Aureliæ thereon, covering them with Moss; then sew a Piece of Crape Hatband round a small Hoop, and put such a Cover on each Pot, in order to receive the Flies when bred, which will usually be in the Months of March, April, May, and June. I have always kept my Pots of Aureliæ out in the open Air, and the Flies have been produced with great Success; however it may be proper to place a Piece of Board over each Pot, to prevent unforeseen Accidents.

Those who think proper to put these Directions in Practice, will, I am convinced, in a short Time, be possessed of a great Number of valuable Flies. What Food the Caterpillars mentioned in this Work chuse to feed on, the Time when they change into Aureliæ, and when they issue forth
in the Fly State, may be seen
in the Description of
each Plate.

ERRATA.

Page. Num. Read. Instead of
8 XVII Chrysalis Chrysalisis
11 VI nigra alba
18 II Cl. 3. S. A. 2. Cl. 3. S. E. 1.
20 VII form from
23 XIII to o
49 I Sect. a.
51 V Cl. 2. S. a. 5. Cl. 2. S. a. 2.
52 I 4 The Great     }
Fox-tail Grass.}

53 IV Cl. 2. S. b. 4. Cl. 2. S. a. 4.
62 III Cl. 1. S. a. 3. Cl. 2. S. a. 4.
63 of Butterflies of Caterpillars
On the Plates.
38 I Cl. 1. S. b. 1. Cl. 1. S. a. 1.
38 II Cl. 1. S. b. 2. Cl. 1. S. a. 2.
42 I Cl. 2. S. a. 1. Cl. 2. S. 1. b. 1.
42 II L. I. Ch. III. L. I. Ch. II.
62 II Cl. 1. S. a. 2. Cl. 1. S. a. 1.

A Synoptical TABLE of the Moths and Butterflies contained in this Work.

CATERPILLARS.
Producing Moths.
Having circular Rings or Joints.
Naked.
Without Protuberances.
The great yellow Underwing. The Wild Arrach. The Angle Shades. The Pease Blossom. The small green Oak Moth. The small Ermine Moth. The Broom Moth. The sallow Moth. The Codling Moth. The Province Rose Moth. The Scallop-wing’d Oak Moth. The Black-thorn Moth. The green Moth with silver Lines. The Ranunculus Moth. The Water-Betony Moth. The small Elephant Moth. The Gold-spot Moth. The Sword-grass Moth.
With Horns on the Tail.
The Jessamine-Hawk Moth. The Unicorn, or Bindweed-Hawk Moth. The Privet-Hawk. The Olive-shades, or Lime-Hawk. The Eyed Willow-Hawk. The Poplar-Hawk. The Ladies Bedstraw, or Elephant Moth.
With one Protuberance on the Rump.
The Ealing’s Glory.
With two or more Protuber.
The Ozier, or Pebble Moth.
With Shoulders rising into an Angle.
The Puss Moth. The Wild Rose Moth.
Having little Hair.
Without Protuberances.
The Goat Moth. The Emperor Moth. The Plumb-Tree Moth.
With Protuberances.
The Willow Red-Underwing.
Having much Hair.
Without Protuberances.
The Great Tyger. The Cream-Spot Tyger. The Scarlet Tyger. The Black Arches. The Great Ermine Moth. The Spotted Buff Moth. The Gipsey Moth. The Buff Tip. The White Satin Moth. The Lacquey. The Great Egger. The Grass Egger. The December Moth. The Spotted Red and White Underwing. The Wood Tyger. The Mother of Pearl Moth. The Yellow July Oak Moth. The small Egger. The Fox-coloured Moth.
Having Rings of different Colours.
The Cinnabar Moth.
Having indented Marks.
The Bramble Moth.
Having fleshy Protuberances on the Head, Back, or Tail.
The Lappit-Moth. The Drinker. The Yellow Tail. The Dagger Moth. The Wild Pine Tree Lappit-Moth.
Having many Tufts of Hair.
The Black Tussock. The Yellow Tussock. The Red Spot Tussock. The Orange Tussock. The Nut-Tree Tussock. The Sycamore Tussock.
Half Loopers.
Having 8 Feet, 2 Holders, 6 Claws, and with Protuberances.
The Crimson Underwing.
Having 4 Feet, 2 Holders, 6 Claws. Hairy.
The Silver Y Moth.
Loopers.
Naked.
Without Protuberances.
The Brindled Beauty. The July Arrach Moth. The Mottled Umber. The July Sallow Moth. The Buff Argus. The Green Broom Moth. The Lime Moss Moth.
With Protuberances.
The Spotted Elm Moth. The Swallow-Tail Moth. The October Moth. The Brimstone Moth. The Scallop-winged Moth. The Richmond Beauty. The Hawthorn Moth.
Hairy.
Without Protuberances.
The large Magpye, or Curran Moth. The Gooseberry Moth.
Having Tufts of Hair.
The Brindle Moth.
Shaped like Wood-lice.
Small Oak Egger-Moth.
Producing Moths whose Generation is unknown.
Glory of Kent. Cleifden Nonpareil.
Producing Flies between the Moth and Butterfly.
The Burnet Moth.
Producing Butterflies.
Smooth.
Without Protuberances.
Swallow-Tail Butterfly. Brimstone Butterfly.
Having little Hair.
Producing round-winged Butterflies.
White Butterfly with black Veins. Large white Garden Butterfly. Small white Garden Butterfly. White Butterfly with green Veins. Orange Tip, or Lady of the Woods.
Producing scallop-wing’d Butterflies.
The Marmoris, or Marble Butterfly. The Meadow Brown. The Great Argus, and Wood Argus.
Producing Butterflies with large Heads and Bodies.
The Grizzled Butterfly.
Armed with Spikes.
Whose Chrysalis hangs by the Tail.
The Admirable Butterfly. The Peacock Butterfly. The painted Lady. The great Tortoise-shell. The Comma-Butterfly. The Great Fritillary. The Plantain Fritillary. The Heath Fritillary. The Willow Butterfly. The small Fritillary. The great Fritillary, with silver Spots.
Shaped like Wood-lice.
The Purple Hair-streak Butterfly. The Brown Hair-streak. The green Butterfly.
Producing Butterflies whose Generation is yet unknown.
The Blue Argus Butterfly. The Purple High-Flyer, or Emperor of the Woods.

THE
Names of the Subscribers to, and Encouragers of,
Mr. WILKES’s Attempt towards a Natural History of
English Moths and Butterflies.



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BOOK I.

PART I.

The Caterpillars, described in this Book, are such as produce Moths; of which, as there is a great Variety, ’twas thought proper to range them under the following Heads or Chapters.

CHAP.  I.

(Decorative letter T)

The Caterpillars belonging to this Chapter have six Hooks or Claws before, eight Feet in the middle, and some have, and some have not two Holders behind. Their Bodies are composed of twelve circular Joints, or Rings, conjoined by a common Membrane, which they are capable of contracting or expanding. When they would move along, they dilate the muscular Skin that separates the first Ring from the next; they advance the first Ring to a certain Distance, and then, by contracting and expanding the Skin of that Part, they move the second Ring: the same Method moves the Third, and so the whole Body marches in Succession: the Motion of their Feet and Claws corresponding with and assisting the progressive Motion of the Rings. Vide Spectacle de la Nature, Dial. I.

[2]

The Caterpillars under this Head may likewise be divided into three Classes:

The First Class, or the NAKED and without Hair, may be subdivided in the following Manner.

Class I.

Such Caterpillars whose Bodies are Smooth.

Sect. A.

Without Risings, or Protuberances

L. 1. Ch. 1.

I.

Cl. 1. S. A. 1.

The Great Yellow-underwing Moth. The Caterpillar of this Moth lives through the Winter, and comes to its full Growth in May: It is found in Gardens, and other Places, and usually feeds in the Night, as many other of the naked Caterpillars do. Indeed, were they to do otherwise, they would soon be devoured by the Birds, which are much fonder of these Smooth Caterpillars than of the HAIRY ones. In the Day, they hide themselves within the Earth, and in other secret Recesses. They feed on the Leaves of the Stock-July and other Flowers, as also on Grass, &c. They put on the Chrysalis Form, within the Earth, in May, and the Moths are bred in June. Great Plenty of this Moth, and other Species of the Yellow-Underwing, were taken feeding on the Honey Dew, on the Limes and other Trees, in the Gardens of John Philips, Esq; at Layton in Essex; they were discovered, by the Help of a Candle and Lanthorn, from Twelve o’Clock at Night till Two in the Morning; and were so fearless, that they would suffer one to take them with the Hand. At the same Time the Angle-Shade and several other Moths were taken.

See Lister on Godartius, P. 52. N. 41. Albin, P. 72. Reaumur, Pl. 14. Pag. 342. vol. 1.

L. I. ch. I.

Cl. 1. S. A. 1.

(High Resolution Image)

The Double Stock July-Flower.

Leucoium incanum, majus, variegatum, flore pleno. C. B. Pin. 201.

[3]

L. 1. Ch. 1.

II.

Cl. 1. S. A. 2.

The WILD ARRACH MOTH, Mr. Rosel says, The Caterpillar feeds on the Wild Arrach; that it changes to a Chrysalis, within the Earth, in September, and that the Moth appears at the End of May following. I once took some of these Caterpillars feeding on the Arrach in September, but had not the good Fortune to breed any Flies from them. See Rosel, Cl. 2. Tab. 32.

L. I. ch. I.

Cl. 1. S. A. 2.

(High Resolution Image)

The Wild Arrach in Flower.

Atriplex folio deltoide. Petiv. Herb.

L. 1. Ch. 1.

III.

Cl. 1. S. A. 3.

The ANGLE-SHADES, a Moth. It is advisable to look for the Caterpillar of this Fly on Nettles, altho’ some feed on Fruit Trees, Bramble Bushes, &c. It goes into the Chrysalis State at the End of June, in a Web mixed with Earth, which it forms upon the Ground; and thus it remains till the Beginning of September, when the Moth is produced. There is an early Breed of this Moth in May, but, as I have not had the Caterpillar in the Spring, I cannot relate its Progression. The Fly may be taken in the Evenings, in Gardens, feeding on the Flowers; but I have not met with them very frequent.

See Godartius, Part 1. Tab. 56. Lister on Godartius P. 54. N. 44. Albin, Pl. 13. Reaumur, Pl. 8. P. 258. Pl. 14. P. 342. Vol. 1.

L. I. ch. I.

Cl. 1. S. A. 3.

(High Resolution Image)

The Great Mogul Plum.

Prunus fructu magno ovato rubente. Tourn.

L. 1. Ch. 1.

IV.

Cl. 1. S. A. 4.

The PEASE-BLOSSOM, a Moth. Its Caterpillars are reported by Merian, and Rosel, to feed upon the wild Lark-Spur that grows amongst Corn. They are full fed at the Beginning of August, when they change to the Chrysalis, but appear not in the Moth State till the June following. This Fly has been bred in England by the Honourable Mrs. Walters, and by Nathaniel Oldham, Esq; but, at present, is very rare.

See Merian, Vol. 1. Ch. 40. Rosel, Cl. 2. Tab. 12.

L. I. ch. I.

Cl. 1. S. A. 4.

(High Resolution Image)

The Lark-Spur.

Delphinium, hortense, flore majore & multiplici cœruleo. Tourn.

[4]

L. 1. Ch. 1.

V.

Cl. 1. S. A. 5.

The SMALL GREEN OAK MOTH. The Caterpillar feeds on the Oak, and sometimes such Numbers of them are produced at the Beginning of May, that they, in a Manner, strip the Oak-trees of their Leaves. They are enabled, by the Help of a Spining, which they fasten after the Manner of the Spider, to let themselves down from one Bough to another, and from thence to the Ground, if they have a mind. They change into the Chrysalis State in a curled Form within the Oak-leaves, (which they wrap over them, and fasten together by their Web) and, after remaining so for about fourteen Days, the Fly is bred. If you beat the Branches of the Oak-trees you may take Plenty of this Moth in the Day-time.

L. I. ch. I.

Cl. 1. S. A. 5.

(High Resolution Image)

The Yellow Strip’d Tulip.

Tulipa hortensis flore luteo variegato.

L. 1. Ch. 1.

VI.

Cl. 1. S. A. 6.

The SMALL ERMINE MOTH. The Caterpillar that produces this Moth is as common as those just mentioned. I have seen a Hedge-row of White-thorn, at the End of May and at the Beginning of June, the Leaves of which have been eaten almost up by these Caterpillars. They feed also on Black-thorn, Fruit-trees, &c. when they are preparing to change to Chrysalis, they get together in Numbers, and spin a large transparent Web, within which they fasten themselves by the Tail, and undergo their Change. They remain in this Condition for about three Weeks: The Moths come forth in June and July, and are very common about most Hedges.

See Albin, P. 70. Reaumur, Pl. 12. Pag. 208. Vol. 2.

L. I. ch. I.

Cl. 1. S. A. 6.

(High Resolution Image)

The Orange-Peach, with its Blossom.

Persica, dura carne buxea. C. B. Pin.

L. 1. Ch. 1.

VII.

Cl. 1. S. A. 7.

The BROOM-MOTH. The Food of this Caterpillar is the Leaves of Broom, on which I found Plenty of them, from the 20th to the 30th of September, near Shooter’s Hill in Kent; they were of the Bigness express’d in the Plate. The Green ones produced male Flies. They all went into the Earth at the Beginning of October, and, at the Beginning[5] of May following, the Moths were bred. I never could take any of them in the Fly-state.

See Rosel, Cl. 2. Tab. 52.

L. I. ch. I.

Cl. 1. S. A. 7.

(High Resolution Image)

The Broom, in Flower and Seed.

Genista angulosa Trifolia. I. B. 1388.

L. 1. Ch. 1.

VIII.

Cl. 1. S. A. 8.

The SALLOW MOTH. The Caterpillar was fed by Mr. Dandridge on the common Sallow, until it changed to a Chrysalis within the Earth, which was at the Beginning of June. The Moth was produced about the Middle of September. These Moths are not common; for, in all my Practice, I have not been able to take above three or four, and that was in the Evening, near Shooter’s Hill, in the Month of September. The Caterpillars are likewise very scarce.

See Albin, Pl. 33.

L. I. ch. I.

Cl. 1. S. A. 8.

(High Resolution Image)

Common Sallow in Flower.

Salix Cutifolio rotundo. C. B. Pin.

L. 1. Ch. 1.

IX.

Cl. 1. S. A. 9.

The CODLING MOTH. Mr. Rosel says, The Caterpillar of this Moth feeds on the Kernels of Apples and Pears. The Moth lays her Eggs at the End of June: Eight Days after the Caterpillars are bred; and, when full fed, they go out of the Fruit and change to the Chrysalis under the Bark of the Tree. They remain there all the Winter, and the Moths are bred in June following. I have, myself, found Plenty of these Flies sticking on the Bark of the Oak-trees, in Richmond Park, at the End of June, in the Day-time.

See Rosel, Cl. 4. Tab. 13.

L. I. ch. I.

Cl. 1. S. A. 9.

(High Resolution Image)

The Codling-tree with its Blossom.

Pomum Coctile. Raii Hist.

L. 1. Ch. 1.

X.

Cl. 1. S. A. 10.

The PROVENCE ROSE MOTH. Rose Leaves are the Food of this Caterpillar. In the Middle of May I had some of them that changed to the Chrysalis[6] folded in the Leaves; at the Beginning of June the Moths were bred. They may be taken in Gardens in the Evening.

See Rosel, Cl. 4. Tab. 9.

L. I. ch. I.

Cl. 1. S. A. 10.

(High Resolution Image)

The Moss Provence Rose.

Rosa, Provincialis spinosissima, pedunculo muscoso. Boerh. Ind. alter.

L. 1. Ch. 1.

XI.

Cl. 1. S. A. 11.

The SCOLLOP-WINGED OAK MOTH. I took the Caterpillar of this Moth, feeding on Oak-leaves, about the 10th of June, at which Time it went into the Chrysalis, spining itself up in a Leaf; and the Moth was bred on the 7th Day of July. Both Moth and Caterpillar are very scarce.

See Rosel, Cl. 2. Tab. 63.

L. I. ch. I.

Cl. 1. S. A. 11.

(High Resolution Image)

The Yellow Rose.

Rosa, Lutea, multiplex. C. B. Pin. 4831.

L. 1. Ch. 1.

XII.

Cl. 1. S. A. 12.

The BLACK-THORN MOTH, or, Figure of 8. The Caterpillar is easily found, feeding on Black Thorn, White Thorn, Crab-tree, &c. towards the End of May, at which Time it spins a hard Case against its Food, and changes to a Chrysalis; the Moth is bred about the End of August, and is not commonly taken.

See Albin, P. 13. Rosel, Cl. 2. Tab. 16. Reaumur, Pl. 18. Pag. 342. Vol. 1.

L. I. ch. I.

Cl. 1. S. A. 12.

(High Resolution Image)

The common Periwinkle.

Pervinca vulgaris angustifolia, flore pleno saturate purpureo. Tourn.

L. 1. Ch. 1.

XIII.

Cl. 1. S. A. 13.

The GREEN MOTH with SILVER LINES. I fed its Caterpillar with Oak-leaves, on which it had been found. It work’d itself up in a dark brown Case on the Back-side of one of the Leaves, and changed into a Chrysalis the 27th of September; the Moth appeared the 20th of May following, and is difficult to meet with.

See Albin, P. 31.

L. I. ch. I.

Cl. 1. S. A. 13.

(High Resolution Image)

The Bruxells Apricock.

Malus Armeniaca, Bruxells vulgo dicta.

[7]

L. 1. Ch. 1.

XIV.

Cl. 1. S. A. 14.

The RANUNCULUS MOTH. The Caterpillars represented in this Plate were found feeding on the Ranunculus Flower about the Middle of June, at which Time they were full fed, and soon changed to the Chrysalis within a Spining or Web; and the Moths came out at the Beginning of September. The Caterpillar and Moth are both very rare.

See Rosel, Cl. 2. Tab. 53, 54.

L. I. ch. I.

Cl. 1. S. A. 14.

(High Resolution Image)

The double Orange Ranunculus.

Ranunculus hortensis, flore aurantio pleno.

L. 1. Ch. 1.

XV.

Cl. 1. S. A. 15.

The WATER-BETONY MOTH. The Caterpillars are sociable, and feed together. They may be found, towards the End of May, full fed, on the Water-Betony; as also on the Mullein, which is their proper Food. They go into the Earth about that Time, and change to the Chrysalis, within a Case composed of Earth and a webby Matter, which they spin together. The Moth appears in March following; but it is not commonly taken in its Fly-state.

See Raii Hist. Insect. P. 168. N. 25. Albin, Pl. 13. Rosel, Cl. 2. Tab. 22. Reaumur, Pl. 43. P. 602.

L. I. ch. I.

Cl. 1. S. A. 15.

(High Resolution Image)

The Water-Betony; or Water-Figwort.

Betonica Aquatica, Ger. 579. Scrophularia Aquatica major. C. B. Pin. 235.

L. 1. Ch. 1.

XVI.

Cl. 1. S. A. 16.

The SMALL ELEPHANT MOTH. Mr. Rosel informs us, That the Caterpillar is to be found on the Grass in Meadows, in the Month of August; but whether that be its favourite Food he does not know. It makes a Spining, and changes to a Chrysalis towards the End of that Month. The Moth is bred about the End of May.

In the Year 1743, on the 28th of May, I took several of these Moths, in the Evening (after Sun-set) as they were hovering about, and feeding on a Flower called The Batchelors Button, by the Side of Osterly Wood, near Brentford. They are very swift in flight, and therefore must be taken as soon as they approach the Flower. The Females layed their Eggs freely, and, after seven Days, the Caterpillars were hatch’d, to the Number of about 300. I[8] took the utmost Pains to raise them; but, for want of their proper Food, they all died.

See Rosel, Cl. 1. Tab. 5.

L. I. ch. I.

Cl. 1. S. A. 16.

(High Resolution Image)

The Guelder-Rose.

Opulus, Flore Globoso. Tourn. Inst. 607.

L. 1. Ch. 1.

XVII.

Cl. 1. S. A. 17.

The GOLD-SPOT MOTH. The Caterpillar, whence this Moth is produced, may be found about the End of July, full fed, in the Marshes about Rotherhith, Vauxhall, and such like Places. It feeds on the Leaves of the great Water-grass, &c. but the Caterpillar is not so easily found as the Spining which it makes to contain its Chrysalis; for that spining, being of a whitish Colour, may be seen at a good Distance, in Shape and Manner as described in the Plate. It lies in the Chrysalis State about three Weeks, and the Moth is bred from the Middle to the End of August; but it is seldom taken in the Fly-state.

L. I. ch. I.

Cl. 1. S. A. 17.

(High Resolution Image)

Purple Flowered Ketmia.

Ketmia, Syrorum, Flore purpureo violaceo. Tourn. Inst.

L. 1. Ch. 1.

XVIII.

Cl. 1. S. A. 18.

The SWORD-GRASS MOTH. Mr. Rosel informs us, That the Caterpillar of this Fly feeds on the Orache; that, in June, it changed to a Chrysalis within the Earth, in which State it remained three Weeks, and then the Moth was bred. I once took one of these Caterpillars, full grown, feeding on the Sword-grass in the Marshes at Rotherhith; but that was in the Month of August, and the Moth was bred with me at the End of September. Both Caterpillar and Moth are very scarce.

L. I. ch. I.

Cl. 1. S. A. 18.

(High Resolution Image)

The Persian Iris.

Xiphium Persicum, præcox, flore variegato. Tourn.

[9]

Sect. B.

Caterpillars having Horns on their Tails.

L. 1. Ch. 1.

I.

Cl. 1. S. B. 1.

The JESSAMINE-HAWK MOTH. This Moth was bred in England by Mr. Dandridge, who took the Caterpillar, at Hampton-Court, full fed, on the Jessamine, about the Middle of July; at which Time it went into the Ground, and changed to a Chrysalis, and the Moth came forth at the End of October. This Gentleman had also five or six Caterpillars, of the same Kind, brought to him, that were taken upon an Elder-tree in Goodman’s Fields, which likewise changed to Chrysalis in the Ground in July; and the Moths were also bred in October: From whence I conclude that to be the Time when the Fly is usually bred.

See Albin, P. 6. Reaumur, Pl. 14. Pag. 342. Vol. 1.

L. I. ch. I.

Cl. 1. S. B. 1.

(High Resolution Image)

The Jessamine in Flower.

Jasminum vulgatius flore albo. C. B. Pin. 397.

L. 1. Ch. 1.

II.

Cl. 1. S. B. 2.

The UNICORN, or BINDWEED-HAWK MOTH. Mr. Rosel reports this Caterpillar to feed in Corn-fields, on the Green-leaves of the Corn. At the End of July it was full fed, and went into the Earth in order to change to its Chrysalis State; and the Moth was bred in June following. Merian’s Account of this Fly is, That the Caterpillar feeds on the Roots of the Lesser Purple-Bindweed, which grows amongst Corn; that it went into the Ground, and changed to a Chrysalis at the End of July, and that the Moth was bred in September.

I have not yet had the good Fortune to meet with this Caterpillar, but have seen several of the Moths that have been bred and taken in England. The Dung of this Caterpillar is of a very extraordinary Size and Figure; as well as some others that are expressed in the Plates.

See Rosel, Cl. 1. Tab. 7. Merian, Chap. 25. Reaumur, Pl. 24. Pag. 322. Vol. 2.

L. I. ch. I.

Cl. 1. S. B. 2.

(High Resolution Image)

The Small Bindweed.

Convolvulus minor vulgaris. Park. 171.

L. I. ch. I.

Cl. 1. S. B. 2.

(High Resolution Image)

[10]

L. 1. Ch. 1.

III.

Cl. 1. S. B. 3.

The PRIVET-HAWK MOTH. The Caterpillars feed on Privet, Lilac, Holly, &c. and are to be found in Nurseries and Gardens. Look on the Ground under such Trees; and if you discover any of their Dung, that will direct you to the Caterpillars on the Trees above. They go into the Ground, and change to the Chrysalis State in August and the Moth appears in June following. ’Tis not very common to take the Moth in the Fly-state.

See Raii Hist. Insect. P. 144. N. 1. Moufet. P. 91. N. 5. P. 182. Ch. 2. Albin, Pl. 7 Reaumur, Pl. 20. P. 282. Vol. 2.

L. I. ch. I.

Cl. 1. S. B. 3.

(High Resolution Image)

The Evergreen-Privet in Flower.

Ligustrum; foliis majoribus, & magis acuminatis, toto anno folio retinens.

Pluk. Alm.

L. 1. Ch. 1.

IV.

Cl. 1. S. B. 4.

The OLIVE-SHADES, or LIME-HAWK MOTH. This Caterpillar is to be got by beating the Boughs of the Lime and Elm Trees, in the Month of August; at which Time it goes into the Earth, and there changes to a Chrysalis, and the Moth is bred in May. By looking carefully about the Bodies of Lime and Elm Trees, in May, these and other Moths may be found: For, if the Flies are bred in the Morning, or any Part of the Day, they never offer to fly till Night. You may likewise get these Moths, and many other Sorts, in the Chrysalis State, by digging with a Trowel about the Roots of the Trees the Caterpillars feed on; and the best Time to dig for the Hawk Kind is the Month of April. This Fly is seldom taken on the Wing.

See Merian, Vol. 2. Ch. 24. Albin, Pl. 10. Rosel, Cl. 1. Tab. 11.

L. I. ch. I.

Cl. 1. S. B. 4.

(High Resolution Image)

The small leaved Lime-tree in Flower.

Tilia fœmina, Folio minore. C. B. Pin.

L. 1. Ch. 1.

V.

Cl. 1. S. B. 5.

The EYED WILLOW-HAWK MOTH. The Caterpillars are to be found on the Willows that grow about the Chelsea Water-works, and in most such like Places. At the End of August, I have also found them in Gardens feeding on the Leaves of Apple-trees. They put on the Chrysalis Form within the Earth in September, and the[11] Moths are produced in May. The Chrysalis and Moth may be got at the same Time as directed for the Lime-Hawk.

See Lister’s Godart. N. 24. Merian. Vol. 2. Ch. 37. Raii. P. 148. N. 2. Moufet. P. 91. N. 6. Albin, Pl. 8.

L. I. ch. I.

Cl. 1. S. B. 5.

(High Resolution Image)

The Crack Willow.

Salix, folio longo, latoque, splendente, Fragilis. Raii. Syn.

L. 1. Ch. 1.

VI.

Cl. 1. S. B. 6.

The POPLAR HAWK MOTH. The Caterpillar of this Moth feeds on the Leaves of the Poplar Tree, as also on the Willow, and is to be found at the same Times and Places as the Willow-Hawk Caterpillar. It becomes a Chrysalis in the Ground in September, and the Moth appears in May. It is to be found in the Chrysalis and Fly-state as the before mentioned. All the Hawk-tribe fly very swiftly, and I am inclined to believe feed in wet marshy Places, by reason I have never taken them on the Wing in Places where I have always met with Plenty of other Moths.

See Albin, Pl. 57.

L. I. ch. I.

Cl. 1. S. B. 6.

(High Resolution Image)

The Black Poplar-tree.

Populus nigra, minoribus foliis. C. B. Pin.

L. 1. Ch. 1.

VII.

Cl. 1. S. B. 7.

The LADIES BEDSTRAW, or ELEPHANT MOTH. The Caterpillars are to be found in the Ditches in Rotherhith Marshes, and also by the New River Side, near Hornsey. They feed on the White Ladies Bedstraw, and are full grown at the End of July; at which Time they usually go into the Chrysalis State, by making a light Spining amongst their Food, where they remain till the End of the following May: At which Time the Moth is bred; but very seldom taken in the Fly-state. Mr. Albin has mentioned something very remarkable of this Caterpillar, viz. its Dexterity in Swiming: For, feeding commonly in or near the Water, if at any time it happens to fall in, it turns itself on its Back, and swims, with its Head and Tail turned together, till it gets hold on some Part of the Plant, by which it helps itself up again. It lies in the Egg-state about nine Days.

See Raii Hist. Insect. P. 145. N. 2. Albin, Pl. 9.

L. I. ch. I.

Cl. 1. S. B. 7.

(High Resolution Image)

The White Ladies Bedstraw.

Gallium Album. Ger. 967.

[12]

Sect. C.

Caterpillars having one Protuberance on the Rump, with indented Markings.

L. 1. Ch. 1.

I.

Cl. 1. S. C. 1.

EALING’S GLORY, a MOTH. Its Caterpillar feeds on Black Thorn, White Thorn, Crab-tree, &c. becomes a Chrysalis in the Earth in May, and the Moth appears in September. Charles Lockyer, Esq; has bred great Numbers of this Moth at his House at Ealing; but I have heard of no body else who has met with them in any Plenty.

See Albin, Pl. 14. Rosel, Cl. 11. Tab. 33.

L. I. ch. I.

Cl. 1. S. C. 1.

(High Resolution Image)

The Black Thorn.

Prunus Sylvestris.

Sect. D.

Caterpillars having two or more Protuberances.

L. 1. Ch. 1.

I.

Cl. 1. S. D. 1.

The OZIER, or PEBBLE MOTH. Mr. Dandridge found the Caterpillar feeding on the Dutch Willow, in the Marshes near Rotherhith, about the Middle of July; it changed to a Chrysalis within the Leaves spun together; and at the Beginning of August came forth the Moth. This fly is very scarce.

See Albin, Pl. 14. Lister’s Godart. N. 21. Rosel, Cl. 11. Tab. 20. Reaumur, Pl. 22. P. 282. Vol. 2.

L. I. ch. I.

Cl. 1. S. D. 1.

(High Resolution Image)

The Ozier.

Salix, vulgaris, alba, arborescens. C. B. Pin.

[13]

Sect. E.

Caterpillars whose Shoulders rise into an angular Figure, having no Holders behind.

L. 1. Ch. 1.

I.

Cl. 1. S. E. 1.

The PUSS-MOTH. Though the Caterpillar of this Fly seems most fond of the Willow, it is often found on the Abele, or Poplar Tree. It has a Power of stretching out, and putting back its Head, at Pleasure; which it seems to do as it thinks itself more or less in Danger. It is armed with two Tubes at the End of the Tail, and two others within those, of a Blood red Colour, which it nimbly, if touched by any Thing, darts out: The Use of these is (as I apprehend) to prevent the Ichneumon Flies from settling on them; but, notwithstanding those Flies are often able to remain long enough to leave their Eggs behind: In such Case, the Moth is not produced, but, instead thereof, the Ichneumon pictured in the Plate. Such Caterpillars as the Ichneumons have not fixed their Eggs on, usually go into the Chrysalis State at the Beginning of August, on the Body of the Tree, and generally near the Ground, the Caterpillar gnawing the Wood into a Kind of Sawdust; which, mixing with a glutenous Matter, or Cement, that comes from its Mouth, makes a hard Case, in which the Chrysalis is formed, on the outside of the Tree; the Moth appears the May following. These Moths are seldom taken in the Fly-state; but may easily be obtained by breeding the Caterpillars, which may be found at the same Time, and in the same Places, where you take those that produce the Willow and Poplar Hawks.

Figure 2. in the same Plate, represents a Moth called the KITTEN. The Caterpillar feeds on Black Thorn, Willow, &c. becomes a Chrysalis at the Beginning of August, and the Moth is bred in May. The Caterpillar and Fly are rarely to be met with.

See Lister’s Godart. N. 20. Moufet P. 183. Raii Hist. Insect. P. 153. Albin, Pl. 11. Rosel, Cl. 11. Tab. 19. Reaumur, Pl. 21. Pag. 282. Vol. 2.

L. I. ch. I.

Cl. 1. S. E. 1.

(High Resolution Image)

The Willow.

Salix.

[14]

L. 1 Ch. 1.

III.

Cl. 1. S. E. 3.

The WILD ROSE-MOTH. The Caterpillar feeds on the Sweet Briar sometimes, but most commonly on the Oak; changes to a Chrysalis (within the Leaves of such Trees fastened together by a Spining) at the End of September, and the Moth is bred in the Middle of May. The Caterpillar and Fly are both scarce.

See Albin, P. 65. Reaumur, Pl. 22. Pag. 282. Vol. 2.

L. I. ch. I.

Cl. 1. S. E. 3.

(High Resolution Image)

The Wild Rose, or Sweet Briar.

Rosa sylvestris; foliis odoratis. C. B. Pin.

(Decorative Design)

[15]

Class II.

Caterpillars having little Hair.

Sect. a.

Without Protuberances.

L. 1. Ch. 1.

I.

Cl. 2. S. a. 1

THE GOAT-MOTH. The most likely Means of obtaining the Caterpillars is, to separate the Bark of some old Willow from the Body of the Tree by a Chissel. Thus probably you may discover some of them: Put them into an earthen Jar, and feed them with Willow Wood, which Food they seem most fond of; but cover the Jar least they creep away. Do not keep them in a Box, or any Thing made of Wood, least they eat their Way through it and be lost. These Caterpillars are full fed about the Middle of May, at which Time they gnaw the Wood into a Kind of Sawdust, which, being mixed with a glutenous Matter from their Mouths, makes a Case wherein they change to the Chrysalis. They lye in that State for about six Weeks; after which the Moths appear, and may be found on the Bodies of Willow Trees. This Chrysalis, by the Help of strong, short Saw like Teeth round Part of each Joint, and pointing towards the Tail, is enabled to force its Fore Part through the Body of the Tree, (as is expressed in the Plate), near which you’ll find the Moth, if you chance to look that Day it is bred. They are reported to be three Years proceeding from the Egg to the Fly; but this I have not myself experienced.

See Lister on Godart. P. 49. N. 39. Albin, Pl. 35. Rosel, Cl. 2. Tab. 18. Reaumur, Pl. 17. Pag. 342. Vol. 1.

L. I. ch. I.

Cl. 2. S. a. 1.

(High Resolution Image)

The Willow-tree.

Salix.

L. 1. Ch. 1.

II.

Cl. 2. S. a. 2.

THE EMPEROR-MOTH. The best Way to be furnished with this fine Moth is, to breed it from the Caterpillar, which may be found in its infant State during the Month of May; but it is most adviseable to seek for them before the 20th. The Caterpillars,[16] when newly hatch’d, are sociable, and keep together for about three Weeks, after which Time they separate and are difficult to be found. The most certain Food to take them on is the Black Thorn, and of that such as is not of above two or three Years Growth. They are usually found on Twigs about one or two Feet from the Ground, and (as I have observed) herd in Clusters together, when they are in their first, second and third Skins.—On the 12th of May 1745, I had about sixty Caterpillars hatched from such Sort of Eggs as are expressed round the Black Thorn in the Plate: On the 19th they appeared in their second Skin; on the 25th, in their third; on the 18th of June, in their fourth, and, on the 22d, in their fifth. The Caterpillars grew so much in this Skin in four Days, that they were three Times as big as when full fed in their fourth Skin. On June the 30th, they shifted into their sixth and last Skin; in which Skin (as well as in the former Skins) such as appear most Green are the female Caterpillars. On the 12th of July some of them began to spin Cases, in order for their Change into the Chrysalis State; and, on the 26th, the whole threescore had spun themselves up. Thus they remained throughout the Winter, and, from the 16th to the 30th of April following, I had forty of the Moths bred; but the Rest of the Aurelias did not produce their Moths till the Year following: So that about twenty of my Number were in the Chrysalis State near two Years; and yet produced Moths at last that were equally beautiful and large. The Female lays from 250 to 300 Eggs, in such Manner as is represented in the Plate, and these she hides in three or four different Places for the more certain Security of some of them.

The Case which contains the Chrysalis is well worthy Notice, being composed of a glutenous Matter fit to resist all Kinds of Weather; and, for its greater Security, that Part which I call the Mouth is doubly guarded: So that, if any Insect should chance to force the first Fence, it will there meet with a second Resistance, and that of so strong a Nature, from its particular make, that I am apt to believe few, if any, can ever enter; and thus the Chrysalis is preserved in the most secure and wonderful Manner, as will be better understood by attending to the Figure represented in the Plate. The Moth is very seldom taken in the Fly State.

L. I. ch. I.

Cl. 2. S. a. 2.

(High Resolution Image)

The Black Thorn.

Prunus Sylvestris. Ger.

L. 1. Ch. 1.

III.

Cl. 2. S. a. 3.

This Plate represents the Male and Female of the EMPEROR-MOTH, of which I have already given an Account.

See Merian, Vol. 1. Ch. 23. Albin, Pl. 25. Rosel, Cl. 2. Tab. 4, 5. Reaumur, Pl. 49 and 50. Pag. 554. Vol. 1.

L. I. ch. I.

Cl. 2. S. a. 3.

(High Resolution Image)

The White Fruit-bramble.

Rubus vulgaris major, fructu albo. Raii. Syn.

[17]

L. 1. Ch. 1.

IV.

Cl. 2. S. a. 4.

THE PLUMB-TREE MOTH. The Caterpillar feeds in Gardens on various Fruit-trees: It changes to a Chrysalis about the End of May, within Leaves spun together, and lies in that State till the Middle of June, when the Moth appears.

See Albin, Pl. 36.

L. I. ch. I.

Cl. 2. S. a. 4.

(High Resolution Image)

The red Roman Nectarine.

Nucipersica Romana rubra.

Sect. b.

Caterpillars, hairy, with Protuberances.

L. 1. Ch. 1.

I.

Cl. 2. S. b. 1.

THE WILLOW RED-UNDERWING MOTH. The Caterpillar feeds on Willow; changes to a Chrysalis, betwixt the Bark and Body of the Willow Tree, about the Middle of June. The Moth is bred in the Middle of July, and may be found at that Time on the Barks of Willows, and other Trees, as also against Walls, Houses, Barns, &c. If the Weather proves very hot, the Moth will fly in the Day-time. The Caterpillar is rarely found.

See Albin, P. 80. Rosel, Cl. 2. Tab. 15.

L. I. ch. I.

Cl. 2. S. b. 1.

(High Resolution Image)

The weeping Willow.

Salix orientalis, flagellis deorsum pulchre pendentibus. Tourn. Cor.


[18]

Class III.

Caterpillars having much Hair.

Sect. A.

Without Protuberances.

L. 1. Ch. 1.

I.

Cl. 3. S. A. 1.

THE GREAT TYGER MOTH. The Caterpillars are hatch’d from the Egg in August, and feed in their infant State on Nettles, Lettice, &c. till the End of October; when, if the Weather be cold and bad, they find themselves a Residence for the Winter in Holes and private Recesses, where they continue till the March or April following, as the Spring is more or less forward. At their coming out of their Holes they feed on the young Nettles, Chickweed, &c. that grows in dry Ditches and Gardens; and, when they are in their last Skin, which is usually at the End of May, they may easily be found in the Places already mentioned. At the Beginning of June they spin a Bag, and within that change to the Chrysalis, in which State they lye for one Month, after which the Moths come abroad and are very common. I have observed, that most of the hairy Caterpillars live throughout the Winter, after the Manner above mentioned.

See Lister’s Godart. N. 99. Moufet. 15. P. 93. Raii Hist. Insect. P. 151. N. 3 and P. 152. N. 7. Merian, Vol. 1. Ch. 5. Albin. Pl. 20. Rosel, Cl. 2. Tab. 1. Reaumur, P. 534. Vol. 1.

L. I. ch. I.

Cl. 3. S. A. 1.

(High Resolution Image)

The Hatfield Plumb.

Prunus, fructu magno crasso subacido. Tourn.

L. 1. Ch. 1.

II.

Cl. 3. S. A. 2.

THE CREAM-SPOT TYGER MOTH. Chickweed, Nettles, Lettice, &c. are the Food of this Caterpillar, which is to be found on such Growths in dry Ditches, in Woods, &c. at the End of April. It lives all Winter as the last mentioned, and[19] changes to a Chrysalis, within a Spinning, at the Beginning of May. The Moth is bred about three Weeks after; flies in the Day-time, and is very common.

See Merian, Vol. 1. Ch. 6. Albin, Pl. 21. Reaumur, Pl. 31. Pag. 534. Vol. 1.

L. I. ch. I.

Cl. 3. S. A. 2.

(High Resolution Image)

Chickweed.

Alfine media. C. B. 250.

L. 1. Ch. 1.

III.

Cl. 3. S. A. 3.

The SCARLET TYGER MOTH. The Caterpillar lives all Winter, and is to be taken feeding on the Hounds-Tongue, Nettles, and White Archangel, at the End of April. If you look for them from Charlton-Church, in Kent, down to the Road that leads to Woolwich, there you will find them in Plenty. They make a Spinning in May amongst the dead Leaves on the Ground, and there change to the Chrysalis. The Moths come forth in June and fly by Day.

See Merian, Vol. 2. Ch. 8. Albin, Pl. 22.

L. I. ch. I.

Cl. 3. S. A. 3.

(High Resolution Image)

The Hounds Tongue in Flower.

Cynoglossum majus, vulgare. C. B. 257.

L. 1. Ch. 1.

IV.

Cl. 3. S. A. 4.

The BLACK ARCHES, a MOTH. The Caterpillar of this Fly remains in Egg all Winter, and hatching about the Middle of April, feeds on the Leaves of the Oak, Apple Trees, &c. A Caterpillar brought up by Mr. Cabrier came to its full Growth near the Middle of June; at which Time it fastened itself, in the Corner of the Box, by a few small Threads: The 14th it changed to a Chrysalis, and the Moth appeared the 4th of July. The Caterpillar was fed, in its infant State, with Lettice, there being no Oak Leaves at that Time. This Moth is to be found sticking on the Barks of the Oak Trees in Richmond, Bushey, and other Parks, in July; but is not common.

See Merian, Vol. 2. Ch. 22.

L. I. ch. I.

Cl. 3. S. A. 4.

(High Resolution Image)

The Apple Tree in Blossom.

Malus.

[20]

L. 1. Ch. 1.

V.

Cl. 3. S. A. 5.

The GREAT ERMINE MOTH. Its Caterpillar feeds on most Kinds of Plants and Flowers; turns to a Chrysalis, within a Web on the Ground, in September: The Moth is bred in the May following, and may be found sticking on the Barks of Trees, on Pales, Walls, &c.

L. I. ch. I.

Cl. 3. S. A. 5.

(High Resolution Image)

The small Garden Sun-Flower.

Corona Solis, perennis & vulgaris. Vaill.

L. 1. Ch. 1.

VI.

Cl. 3. S. A. 6.

The SPOTTED BUFF-MOTH. The Caterpillars of this Moth are very mischievous in Gardens, feeding on most Kind of Herbage; but may easily be shaken off the Plants and killed. They change to the Chrysalis within a Web on the Ground, and sometimes within the Ground, in September, and the Moths came out in May. Their Eggs are of a light green Colour; and the Caterpillars, when first hatch’d, which is about the Middle of June, are white and hairy. The Moth is frequently taken sticking on Houses, Walls, Pales, &c.

L. I. ch. I.

Cl. 3. S. A. 6.

(High Resolution Image)

Arsmart.

Persicaria maculosa. Ger. 361.

L. 1. Ch. 1.

VII.

Cl. 3. S. A. 7.

The GIPSEY MOTH. The Caterpillars are very destructive to all Fruit-trees, on which they are found in Swarms envelop’d with a Web like that of the Spider. In the Day-time they disperse themselves over the whole Tree, but at Night come together again, and retire to their Web. They put on the Chrysalis, form within a Spinning, at the Beginning of July, and the Moth is bred about fourteen Days after. Their Eggs are covered with a yellowish Down, whereby they are preserved from Cold throughout the Winter. This Moth is very common in Germany, and was produced from a Nest of Eggs that were sent to Mr. Peter Collinson, who gave them to Charles Lockyer, Esq; He bred Moths from them as above mentioned; and, having turned Numbers of them wild (as I have been informed)[21] about Ealing near Brentford, in Middlesex, they are to be found there, but not any where else that I have yet heard of.

See Rosel, Cl. 2. Tab. 3. Merian, Vol. 1. Ch. 18.

L. I. ch. I.

Cl. 3. S. A. 7.

(High Resolution Image)

The Crab-tree.

Malus sylvestris. Ger. 1276.

L. 1. Ch. 1.

VIII.

Cl. 3. S. A. 8.

The BUFF-TIP MOTH. The Caterpillar feeds on the Willow and Oak, and may be easily found amongst the Willows growing about Chelsea, and in such like Places. They may be taken full fed towards the End of August; at which Time Numbers of them go into the Earth, and there Change to the Chrysalis, and the Moths appear in the following May. It is not a very common Thing to take this Moth flying.

See Lister’s Godart, N. 95. Raii Hist. Insect. P. 162. N. 14. Albin, Pl. 23. Rosel, Cl. 2. Tab. 14.

L. I. ch. I.

Cl. 3. S. A. 8.

(High Resolution Image)

The Yellow Dwarf-Willow.

Salix folio longo subluteo, non auriculata, viminibus luteis. Raii. Syn.

L. 1. Ch. 1.

IX.

Cl. 3. S. A. 9.

The WHITE-SATIN MOTH. Its Caterpillar feeds on the White Poplar, as also on Willow; changes to a hairy Chrysalis, within the Leaves spun together, in June; lies in that State about twenty Days, and then the Moth flies abroad. You may take these Flies by shaking the Boughs of the Trees they feed on. Their Eggs, when first laid, are of a pale green Colour, which they cover with a Substance looking like Leaf-silver. They continue about one Month in the Egg-state, and the Caterpillars live all Winter.

See Lister on Godart. P. 84. N. 87. Rosel, Cl. 2, Tab. 9. Reaumur, Pl. 34. Pag. 534. Vol. 1.

L. I. ch. I.

Cl. 3. S. A. 9.

(High Resolution Image)

The White Poplar-Tree.

Populus alba majoribus foliis. C. B.

L. 1. Ch. 1.

X.

Cl. 3. S. A. 10.

The LACKEY-MOTH. The Caterpillars are very common, and feed on most Kind of Herbage, especially Black Thorn, White Thorn, &c. about the Middle of June[22] they change to the Chrysalis within a Case, which they spin, and cover with a fine Dust of the Colour of Brimstone. In this State they remain for about one Month; then the Moth appears, and lays her Eggs, in a spiral Order, round the young Twigs of such Trees as are proper Food for the infant Caterpillars. They hatch in the Spring, and keep together in a Web while young. As these Caterpillars are destructive in Gardens to Fruit-trees, &c. its adviseable to destroy them.

See Godartius, P. 1. Tab. 10. Albin, Pl. 19. Rosel, Cl. 2. Tab. 6. Reaumur, Vol. 2. Pl. 4. Pag. 120.

L. I. ch. I.

Cl. 3. S. A. 10.

(High Resolution Image)

Figure 1. Tway Blade. 2. The Crane’s Bill. 3. The Yellow-Vetchling.

1. Bifolium, vulg. C. B. 2. Geranium Robertianum. 3. Lathyrus luteus sylvestris dumetorum. 1. B. II. 304.

L. 1. Ch. 1.

XI.

Cl. 3. S. A. 11.

The GREAT EGGER-MOTH. The Caterpillars of this Moth are to be found, full grown, towards the End of May, feeding on Black Thorn and White Thorn. At the Beginning of June, they spin a brown Case, in the Shape of an Egg, in which the Chrysalis is formed: They remain in that State for about one Month; then the Moth is produced. The Males fly swiftly in the Day-time, from 12 o’Clock to 5 in the Afternoon. The Eggs are of an oval Shape, and usually hatch at the latter End of July. When the Caterpillars are young, you may feed them with Black Thorn, or White Thorn, and, during the Winter, with Bramble, Holly, Privet, &c. When you breed any female Egger-Moths, take one of them and put it in a Box (covered with a Piece of Crape, to prevent its getting away), carry the Box with you to the Sides of Woods and green Lanes; and, if the Day be fair, and the Sun shines bright, put it upon the Ground: And, if there is a Breed of these Moths near, the Males will come and endeavour to get at the Female. By this means I have taken with my Net near twenty in an Hour. This Method of taking Flies is called Simbling; and many other Kinds of Moths are to be catched the same Way.

See Godart. P. 1. Tab. 7. Lister’s Godart. N. 88. Merian, Vol. 1. Ch. 10. Moufet, P. 92 N. 9. Raii’s Hist. Insect. P. 142. N. 2. Albin, Pl. 18. Rosel, Cl. 2. Tab. 35. a. Reamur, Pl. 35. Pag. 534. Vol. 1.

L. I. ch. I.

Cl. 3. S. A. 11.

(High Resolution Image)

The White Thorn in Flower.

Mespilus sylvestris, seu Oxyacantha.

[23]

L. 1. Ch. 1.

XII.

Cl. 3. S. A. 12.

The GRASS EGGER-MOTH. I took the Caterpillars of this Moth feeding on Clover amongst Grass. They make a Spinning and Case, on the Surface of the Earth, about the Middle of June, and therein turn to a Chrysalis. The Moth flies in the Middle of August; but is not commonly met with.

See Rosel, Cl. 2. Tab. 35. b.

L. I. ch. I.

Cl. 3. S. A. 12.

(High Resolution Image)

The double flowering Cherry, and Grass.

Cerasus hortensis, flore roseo. C. B. Pin. 450.

L. 1. Ch. 1.

XIII.

Cl. 3. S. A. 13.

The DECEMBER MOTH. Mr. Dandridge took some of its Caterpillars, at the Beginning of June, on the Hasle; but, observing they eat but little, gave them fresh Boughs that were wet with Rain, on which they fed greedily. The next Day he gave them Water and Honey mixt together, of which they drank a good Quantity, and fell to eating again very heartily. In this Manner he fed them every Day, and sometimes twice a Day, till the Middle of the same Month, when they went into the Earth and changed into Chrysalis. The Moths came out at the End of December. I took this Year (1748) two of these Caterpillars on the Leaves of an Oak, wherewith I fed them till the Middle of June, when they spun a dirty coloured Case which contained the Chrysalis; and the Moths were bred on the 24th October.

See Albin, P. 85. Rosel, Cl. 2. Tab. 60.

L. I. ch. I.

Cl. 3. S. A. 13.

(High Resolution Image)

The Nut-tree.

Corylus, Sativa, fructu anguloso. C. B. 418.

L. 1. Ch. 1.

XIV.

Cl. 3. S. A. 14.

The SPOTTED RED and WHITE UNDERWING MOTH. I found and fed the Caterpillar on Black Thorn: It made a Spinning, and changed to[24] Chrysalis in the Middle of April, and the Moth came abroad about the Middle of May. The Caterpillar lives all Winter, and the Moth is rarely to be met with.

See Rosel, Cl. 2. Tab. 43.

L. I. ch. I.

Cl. 3. S. A. 14.

(High Resolution Image)

Figure 1. The Black Thorn. 2. The Columbine. 3. The Ranunculus. 4. The White Bells.

1. Prunus sylvestris. C. B. 2. Aquilegia vulgaris simplex. C. B. 3. Ranunculus. 4. Hyacinthus, flore albo. C. B.

L. 1. Ch. 1.

XV.

Cl. 3. S. A. 15.

The WOOD TYGER MOTH. This Moth I first discovered in Cain Wood. The Caterpillar lives all Winter, feeds on Chickweed, Lettice, the Lesser Plantain, &c. and is full grown about the Middle of April, when it changes to the Chrysalis within a Spinning: The Moth is bred in the Middle of May, flies by Day, and may be taken in Cain or Tottenham Woods; an Afternoon is the best Time.

L. I. ch. I.

Cl. 3. S. A. 15.

(High Resolution Image)

The Vredenrick Hyacinth, and Lesser Plantain.

Hyacinthus Belgicus Vredenrick dictus. Plantago minor. I. B.

L. 1. Ch. 1.

XVI.

Cl. 3. S. A. 16.

The MOTHER of PEARL MOTH. Nettles are the Food of the Caterpillar, within the Leaves of which (folded together) it lives, and feeds till the Beginning of June; when it puts on the Chrysalis Form wrapt up within a Leaf, whose Edges are fastened by a Spinning: Fourteen Days after the Moth appears, and may be taken, very commonly, in an Evening, amongst Nettles.

See Albin, P. 73. Rosel, Cl. 4. Tab. 4.

L. I. ch. I.

Cl. 3. S. A. 16.

(High Resolution Image)

The Cherry-Plumb.

Prunus, fructu majori, rotundo, rubro. Tourn.

L. 1. Ch. 1.

XVII.

Cl. 3. S. A. 17.

The YELLOW JULY OAK-MOTH. The Food of the Caterpillar is the Leaves of the Oak Tree, on which it feeds till the Middle of June; then it[25] changes to a Chrysalis in some Chink or other that it meets with in the Bark of the said Tree, over which Chink or Hole the Caterpillar spins a strong Web, which prevents any Bird or Insect from getting at it in its Chrysalis State. The Moth is bred in the Middle of July, and may, now and then, be found on the Barks of the Oak Trees in Richmond and other Parks, about that Time; but it is not a common Fly.

See Rosel, Cl. 2. Tab. 17.

L. I. ch. I.

Cl. 3. S. A. 17.

(High Resolution Image)

The May-cherry.

Cerasus, majalis, fructu duro subdulci. Tourn.

L. 1. Ch. 1.

XVIII.

Cl. 3. S. A. 18.

The SMALL EGGER-MOTH. Black and White Thorn are the Food of the Caterpillars, which are always found in Colonies; the whole Nest of them feeding together till they are ready to change. When they are first hatch’d from the Egg, they spin a Web to shelter themselves from the Weather; and, as they grow, enlarge it with several Divisions. They seldom go from the Plant they are first hatched on, till they have eaten it quite bare and want Food. They ordinarily spin a Thread from their main Web to guide them Home again; this is very particular, and seems necessary to them. About the Beginning of July you may find them full fed; then they spin a Web, within which a Case is formed, shaped like an Egg, which contains the Chrysalis: In this State they remain all Winter, and the Moths are bred in March. It is adviseable, if you feed the Caterpillars, to take the whole Nest with the Web. I have seldom taken the Moths.

See Rosel, Cl. 2. Tab. 62. Albin, P. 19.

L. I. ch. I.

Cl. 3. S. A. 18.

(High Resolution Image)

The Almond Tree, Blossom and Fruit.

Amygdalus sativa fructu majore. C. B. Pin. 441.

L. 1. Ch. 1.

XIX.

Cl. 3. S. A. 19.

The FOX COLOURED MOTH. The Caterpillar is hatch’d in July, lives all Winter, and feeds on Grass, Brambles, &c. I have seen them in September as large as they are in the Middle of April, which is the Time they go to Chrysalis, within a Spinning or Web. The Moth is bred in the Middle of May, and the Cock flies swiftly in an Afternoon; but may be taken in a Net, by the Sides of Woods and green Lanes.

See Albin, P. 81.

L. I. ch. I.

Cl. 3. S. A. 19.

(High Resolution Image)

The Blackberry Fruit.

Rubus, fructu nigro.

[26]

Sect.A.

Caterpillars having Rings of different Colours surrounding them.

L. 1. Ch. 1.

I.

Cl. 3. S. 2 A. 1.

The CINNABAR-MOTH. The Caterpillars of this Fly are sociable and feed together in Numbers on the Ragwort; in July they are full grown, and then some go into the Earth, and others spin on the Surface of the Ground, in order to their Change into the Chrysalis State. The Moths are produced in the May following, and are common in Fields and Gardens.

See Lister on Godart. P. 61. N. 54. Albin, Pl. 34. Rosel, Cl. 2. Tab. 48. Reaumur, Pl. 16. Pag. 342. Vol. 1.

L. I. ch. I.

Cl. 3. S. 2. A. 1.

(High Resolution Image)

The Ragwort, in Flower.

Jacobea, vulgaris. J. B. H. 1057.

Sect. 3 A.

Caterpillars having indented Markings.

L. 1. Ch. 1.

I.

Cl. 3. S. 3 A. 1.

The BRAMBLE MOTH. Its Caterpillar is to be found feeding on the Bramble, on the Oak, &c. at the Beginning of September; and, towards the Middle of the same Month, it changes to a Chrysalis, mixing its Hairs with the Bag it spins: The Moth comes forth the May following, and is not very common.

L. I. ch. I.

Cl. 3. S. 3. A. 1.

(High Resolution Image)

The Orange Apricock.

Malus Armeniaca, fructu aurantio.

[27]

Sect. b.

Caterpillars having hairy, or fleshy Protuberances, on the Head, Back, or Tail.

L. 1. Ch. 1.

I.

Cl. 3. S. b. 1.

The LAPPIT-MOTH. The Eggs of this Moth are laid about the Middle of July, and remain in that State fourteen Days. I fed the Caterpillars, when first hatch’d, with Black Thorn, and continued giving them the same Food till October; at which Time they were in their fourth Skin, and appeared as represented at Letter a; They there stretched themselves at full Length on the Twigs, and remained so till the April following, without eating any thing that I could perceive, notwithstanding at different Times I put in fresh green Food to try them. About the End of May the Caterpillars are full grown, in which Condition b represents the Female; they then make a Spinning, within which the Chrysalis is formed, and remains in that State for one Month, when the Moth is bred; though it is rarely met with in the Fly-state. The Caterpillars are to be found, at the End of May, sticking close to the Boughs of the Black Thorn, Bramble, &c. You must look for them about a Foot or two from the Ground; but, as their Colour nearly resembles the Bark of their Food, it is very difficult to see them.

See Albin, Pl. 16. Rosel, Cl. 2. Tab. 41. Merian, Vol. 1. Ch. 17. Reaumur, Pl. 23. Pag. 322. Vol. 2.

L. I. ch. I.

Cl. 3. S. b. 1.

(High Resolution Image)

The Privet leaved Phylerea.

Phyllyrea, Ligustri folio. C. B.

L. 1. Ch. 1.

II.

Cl. 3. S. b. 2.

The DRINKER-MOTH. Its Eggs are usually laid about the Middle of July; in about fourteen Days the Caterpillars come out: They feed in the Winter-season on long Grass, &c. and change to Chrysalis at the End of May (within such a Case as is expressed in the Plate) at which Time they are easily found upon the Grass, by the Sides of Fields and Hedges. The Moths are bred at the End of June, and may be taken flying in an Evening, in green Lanes and by the Sides of Woods.

See Lister’s Godart. N. 82. Albin, Pl. 17. Raii Hist. Insect. P. 142. N. 3. Rosel, Cl. 2. Tab. 2.

[28]

L. I. ch. I.

Cl. 3. S. b. 2.

(High Resolution Image)

Figure 1. The Yellow Vetchling. 2. Bistort. 3. The White Darnel Grass. 4. The Wood-Pease.

1. Lathyrus sylvestris, dumetorum, flore luteo. C. B. 2. Bistorta major. I. B. 3. Gramen loliaceum spica longiori. C. B. 4. Astragalus sylvaticus. Ger. Emac.

L. 1. Ch. 1.

III.

Cl. 3. S. b. 3.

The YELLOW-TAIL MOTH. The Caterpillar feeds on Elder, Oak, Black Thorn, &c. upon all which Growths you may find them at the End of May. It changes to a Chrysalis, within a Spinning, at the Beginning of June, and the Moth comes forth at the End of the same Month. They may be found sticking against the Barks of the Trees in Parks, and other Places, and also flying in the Evening. They lay Eggs of a pale Colour, and cover them with a woolly Substance. The Caterpillars are hatch’d in August, and will feed on Black Thorn till the End of October; at which Time they spin themselves little Cases, and remain in them till the Spring following.

See Rosel, Cl. 2. Tab. 21. Reaumur, Pl. 16. Pag. 342. Vol. 1.

L. I. ch. I.

Cl. 3. S. b. 3.

(High Resolution Image)

The Alder-Tree.

Alnus, rotundifolia, glutinosa, viridis. C. B.

L. 1. Ch. 1.

IV.

Cl. 3. S. b. 4.

The DAGGER MOTH. The Caterpillar feeds on Rose Trees, Fruit-trees, and Shrubs; becomes a Chrysalis within the Earth in October, and in May following the Moth appears, and may be found sticking against Pales, Walls, Trees, &c. Their Eggs are very small, and of a fine green Colour, and the Caterpillars are common in Gardens and other Places. It is observed, that the Protuberance on the Back of the Caterpillar is of a fleshy Substance, with Hair growing out of it.

See Albin, P. 86. Rosel, Cl. 2. Tab. 7. Reaumur, Pl. 42. Pag. 602.

L. I. ch. I.

Cl. 3. S. b. 4.

(High Resolution Image)

The most double Sweet Briar Rose.

Rosa sylvestris, sive Eglanteria, flore pleno.

[29]

L. 1. Ch. 1.

V.

Cl. 3. S. b. 5.

The WILD PINE-TREE LAPPIT-MOTH. Mr. Rosel informs us, That the Caterpillars of this curious Fly feed on the Pinus sylvestris, or Wild Pine: That they are full fed in the Month of June, at which Time they change to Chrysalis, within such a Spinning as is represented in the Plate; and, after lying in that State three Weeks the Moths appear.

About the Middle of September, 1748, I took one of these Caterpillars upon a White Thorn Bush, near Richmond Park; which is still alive this 20th Day of January 1748-9, though it has eat nothing, that I know of, since it has been in my Custody. It remains stretched out, in the Manner of the Lappit-Caterpillar represented at the Letter a of the first Plate of this Section; and I do not think it will begin to feed until there are Buds of Black or White Thorn to give it. This is the only Caterpillar of the Kind that I have known taken in England.—For the Drawings exhibited in my Plate, I am obliged to Mr. Rosel.

See Rosel, Cl. 2. Tab. 59.

L. I. ch. I.

Cl. 3. s. b. 5.

(High Resolution Image)

The Wild Pine-Tree.

Pinus sylvestris. C. B. Pin.

(Decorative Design)

[30]

Sect. c.

Caterpillars, having many Tufts of Hair, producing Tussock-moths.

L. 1. Ch. 1.

I.

Cl. 3. S. c. 1.

The BLACK TUSSOCK-MOTH. This Moth is bred about the Middle of June; at which Time it lays Eggs of a light grey Colour, inclosed within a woolly Substance; and thus they continue for about one Month. When the infant Caterpillars appear, they feed on Black Thorn, White Thorn, Bramble, &c. They live all the Winter in the Caterpillar State, and change to a hairy Chrysalis, within a Spinning, about the Middle of May. The Caterpillars may be found, full fed, on Black Thorn that grows by the Sides of Woods and Hedges; as for the Moth, it is not commonly taken in the Fly-state.

See Albin, Pl. 26. Rosel, Cl. 2. Tab. 37.

L. I. ch. I.

Cl. 3. S. c. 1.

(High Resolution Image)

The White double Garden-Rose.

Rosa Alba hortensis, flore pleno. I. B. 1144.

L. 1. Ch. 1.

II.

Cl. 3. S. c. 2.

The YELLOW TUSSOCK-MOTH. Its Caterpillar feeds on the Red Archangel, Oak, Hasle, &c. towards the End of September. It makes a Spinning, within which a hairy Chrysalis is formed, where it lives till the Middle of May following, and then the Moth takes its flight; but it is not a very common Fly.

See Merian, Vol. 1. Ch. 47. Albin, Pl. 26. Rosel, Cl. 2. Tab. 38. Reaumur, Pl. 33. Pag. 534. Vol. 1.

L. I. Ch. I.

Cl. 3. S. c. 2.

(High Resolution Image)

The Red Archangel.

Lamium rubrum. Ger. 568.

L. 1. Ch. 1.

III.

Cl. 3. S. c. 3.

The RED-SPOT TUSSOCK-MOTH. The Caterpillars are very common, feeding on most Elm and Lime Trees about Town. They make a Spinning[31] under the Copings of Walls, Pales, &c. at the End of May; and the Moth is bred at the End of June and in July. The Females have no Wings; but, if you carry one or two of them in a Box (where there is a Breed of this Moth) the Males will follow you in order to get at them: So that, if you put the Box on the Ground, you may easily take the Cocks with your Net. Several other Moths may be taken by the like Means.

See Albin, P. 89. Reaumur, Pl. 19. Pag. 342. Vol. 1.

L. I. ch. I.

Cl. 3. S. c. 3.

(High Resolution Image)

The smooth Leaved Elm.

Ulmus folio Glabro. Ger. Em. 1481.

L. 1. Ch. 1.

IV.

Cl. 3. S. c. 4.

The ORANGE TUSSOCK-MOTH. The Food of its Caterpillar is Hasle, St. John’s Wort, Oak, &c. About the Middle of May it made a Spinning, and changed to a Chrysalis, and the Moth came forth three Weeks after. It is very scarce, and the Female has no Wings. I took one of these Caterpillars, feeding on Oak Leaves, on the 25th of September 1748; two Days after, it spun up in order to its Chrysalis State, and, on the 8th of October, the Moth was bred: From whence I conclude, this Moth breeds twice in a Year.

See Rosel, Cl. 2. Tab. 40. Albin, P. 90.

L. I. ch. I.

Cl. 3. S. c. 4.

(High Resolution Image)

The elegant upright St. John’s Wort.

Hypericum pulchrum Tragi. I. B. III. 383.

L. 1. Ch. 1.

V.

Cl. 3. S. c. 5.

The NUT-TREE TUSSOCK-MOTH. The Caterpillar of this very scarce Fly was fed upon the Hasle. About the Middle of September it spun up, and changed into a Chrysalis, and the Moth was bred at the Beginning of April.

See Albin, P. 90. Rosel, Cl. 2. Tab. 53.

L. I. ch. I.

Cl. 3. S. c. 5.

(High Resolution Image)

The Masculine Apricock.

Armeniaca, fructu minore præcocior. Miller.

[32]

L. 1. Ch. 1.

VI.

Cl. 3. S. c. 6.

THE SYCAMORE TUSSOCK-MOTH. You may find the Caterpillars on Sycamore Trees, and, towards the End of August, they are usually full fed; at which Time they spin themselves up, intermixing their Hairs with the Web, and change into the Chrysalis State. The Moths are bred in May and June, are not uncommon, and may be found on the Bodies of the Trees in St. James’s Park, on Pales, Walls, &c.

See Albin, P. 83. Reaumur, Pl. 34. Pag. 534. Vol. 1.

L. I. ch. I.

Cl. 3. S. c. 6.

(High Resolution Image)

The Sycamore Tree.

Acer majus, multis falso Platanus. I. B.

(Decorative Design)

[33]

CHAP.  II.

Caterpillars that perform their progressive Motion after a different Manner, viz. by drawing up the Tail towards the Head, whereby their Bodies become bent into the Form of a half Loop, on which Account they are called Half-Loopers.

Class I.

Caterpillars having eight Feet, two Holders, and six Claws or Hooks, and having Protuberances.

Sect. a.

L. 1. Ch. 2.

I.

Cl. 1. S. a. 1.

THE CRIMSON UNDERWING MOTH. The Caterpillar of this Moth feeds on Oak-leaves, and becomes a Chrysalis, within some of the same Leaves spun together, at the Beginning of June. The Moth appears at the Beginning of July, and is extremely scarce, as is also the Caterpillar.

L. I. ch. 2.

Cl. 1. S. a. 1.

(High Resolution Image)

The Oak-Tree.

Quercus Latifolia. C. B.

[34]

Class II.

Caterpillars which are hairy, having two Holders, four Feet, and six Hooks or Claws.

Sect. a.

L. 1. Ch. 2.

I.

Cl. 2. S. a. 1.

The SILVER Y MOTH. The Caterpillar feeds on Sage, Clover, Burdock, &c. changes to a Chrysalis, within a slight Spinning, in August, and the Moth is bred in September; is very common in most Fields and Gardens, and flies in the Day as well as at Night. There is an early Breed of this Moth in May.

See Rosel, Cl. 2. Tab. 5. Albin, P. 79. Lister on Godart. P. 20. N. 14. Reaumur, Pl. 19. Pag. 342. Vol. 1. Pl. 26. P. 348. Vol. 2.

L. I. Ch. 2.

Cl. 2. S. a. 1.

(High Resolution Image)

Common Sage in Flower.

Salvia hortensis. I. B.

(Decorative Design)

[35]

CHAP.  III.

The Caterpillars of this Chapter have two Feet and two Holders, with six Hooks or Claws; but have no Feet in the Middle Part of their Bodies like those already described. Their progressive Motion is performed by fixing the Head-part, and drawing up the Tail to it; so that each Step, forming a Loop, they are called Loopers. They are provided with strong and sharp Claws in their Holders, by which they can fasten themselves in such manner as to support the Rest of their Bodies, either perpendicularly or horizontally, or in any other Posture they please, without any regard to the Center of Gravity in their respective Bodies. They are able likewise, out of their own Viscera or Bowels, to furnish themselves with Lines, whereby they can let themselves down from the Branches of Trees, or other Heights, as they find Occasion.

Class I.

Smooth or naked Loopers.

Sect. a.

Having no Protuberances.

L. 1. Ch. 3.

I.

Cl. 1. S. a. 1.

The BRINDLED BEAUTY MOTH. The Caterpillar will feed on most Fruit-trees, as also on the Willow, &c. Its Chrysalis is formed within the Earth towards the End of June, and the Moth comes forth in April. I have taken Plenty of them sticking on the Barks of the Willow Trees about the Water-works at Chelsea.

See Merian, Vol. 1. P. 75. Chap. 37. Albin, Pl. 39.

L. I. ch. III.

Cl. 1. S. a. 1.

(High Resolution Image)

The Honey-Cherry.

Cerasus, sylvestris, septentrionalis, fructu rubro parvo serotino. Raii. Syn.

[36]

L. 1. Ch. 3.

II.

Cl. 1. S. a. 2.

The JULY ARRACH MOTH. The Caterpillar may be found, full fed, on the wild Arrach, about the Middle of September; at which Time it changes to a Chrysalis in the Earth: The Moth is bred in July, and may be taken in an Evening in and near the Gardens about Vauxhall and other Places.

See Albin, Pl. 47.

L. I. ch. III.

Cl. 1. S. a. 2.

(High Resolution Image)

The Black Curran-Tree.

Ribes nigrum vulgo dictum, folio olente. I. B.

L. 1. Ch. 3.

III.

Cl. 1. S. a. 3.

The MOTTLED UMBER-MOTH. The Caterpillar feeds on Fruit-Trees, Oak, Elm, Black-Thorn, &c. and turns to a Chrysalis, within the Earth, about the Middle of May. The Moth comes forth in October, and may be found at that Time sticking on the Bark of Trees in Parks, &c.

See Albin, P. 100.

L. I. ch. III.

Cl. 1. S. a. 3.

(High Resolution Image)

The Apricock-Plumb.

Prunus fructu parvo præcoci. Tourn.

L. 1. Ch. 3.

IV.

Cl. 1. S. a. 4.

The JULY SALLOW MOTH. The Caterpillar feeds on the common Sallow, in the Top-leaves of which (spun together) it lies concealed in the Day-time. Some Leaves, thus spun together, looked as if they had been dead; but, on Examination, Caterpillars of this Sort were found therein: They changed to a Chrysalis, spun amongst the Leaves, at the End of May. The Moth is bred at the Beginning of July, and may be taken, in the Evening, by the Sides of Woods, Hedges, &c.

L. I. ch. III.

Cl. 1. S. a. 4.

(High Resolution Image)

The Wild Black Cherry.

Cerasus major ac sylvestris, fructu subdulci nigro colore inficiente. C. B. Pin.

[37]

L. 1. Ch. 3.

V.

Cl. 1. S. a. 5.

The BUFF ARGUS-MOTH. The two Caterpillars exhibited in this Plate were taken by me upon the Oak, they feed likewise on the wild Briar, White-Thorn, &c. They tied themselves up against the Leaves, after the Manner of the White Butterfly, with their Heads upwards; changed into Chrysalis about the Middle of June, and the Moths were bred about the Middle of July. These I suppose to be Male and Female of the same Species. You may take them flying, in an Evening, by the Sides of Woods and Hedges, and in green Lanes.

L. I. ch. III.

Cl. 1. S. a. 5.

(High Resolution Image)

The double-flowered Sweet Briar.

Rosa sylvestris odora, sive eglanteria, flore duplice. Park. Parad.

L. 1. Ch. 3.

VI.

Cl. 1. S. a. 6.

The GREEN BROOM-MOTH. The Caterpillar feeds on the Leaves of the common Broom; and, about the Middle of June, changes to a Chrysalis in a thin Spinning; in which State it continues for about three Weeks, then the Moth appears, and may be taken in the Day-time, by beating the Furze and Broom, wherein they usually are found.

See Rosel, Cl. 3. Tab. 12.

L. I. ch. III.

Cl. 1. S. a. 6.

(High Resolution Image)

The Needle Furze.

Genista minor Aspalathoides, vel Genista spinosa Anglica. C. B. Pin.

L. 1. Ch. 3.

VII.

Cl. 1. S. a. 7.

The LIME MOSS MOTH. The Eggs are of a greenish Colour, and are laid in June; after being in that State about ten Days the Caterpillars are hatch’d. They feed on the Moss that grows on Lime Trees; live and feed all the Winter in the Caterpillar State, and about the Beginning of May, are full grown, at which Time they make a Spinning amongst the Moss, and change to Chrysalis. The Moths are bred at the Beginning of June, and may be taken in the Evenings, by the Sides of Woods, in green Lanes, &c.

L. I. ch. III.

Cl. 1. S. a. 7.

(High Resolution Image)

The Yellow-flowered Sage.

Phlomis fructicosa, Salviæ folio latiore & rotundiore. Raii Hist. 511.

[38]

Sect. b.

Naked Loopers, with Protuberances.

L. 1. Ch. 3.

I.

Cl. 1. S. b. 1.

The SPOTTED ELM-MOTH. Its Caterpillar is not very common, altho’ it feeds on the Leaves of the Elm, Lime and Oak. It goes into the Earth, and turns to a Chrysalis in August: The Moth appears in May, and is then to be found sometimes, sticking on the Barks of the above Trees; but it is not common.

See Albin, P. 40, 41. 91, 92.

L. I. ch. III.

Cl. 2. S. b. 1.

(High Resolution Image)

The Witch Elm.

Ulmus folio latissimo scabro. Ger. Em. 1481.

L. 1. Ch. 3.

II.

Cl. 1. S. b. 2.

The SWALLOW-TAIL MOTH. The Caterpillar feeds on Bramble, Oak Leaves, and other Growths; lives all the Winter: When it changes to a Chrysalis, which it does in March, the Chrysalis is fastened by the Tail, and lies, with its Head upwards, within a few fine Threads of its own spinning. The Moth is bred in May and June, and may be taken flying in an Evening by the Sides of Woods, and in green Lanes.

See Rosel, Cl. 3. Tab. 6. Albin, P. 94.

L. I. ch. III.

Cl. 2. S. b. 2.

(High Resolution Image)

The Bramble.

Rubus, fructu nigro. C. B.

L. 1. Ch. 3.

III.

Cl. 1. S. b. 3.

The OCTOBER-MOTH. Its Caterpillar is to be found, full fed, at the End of May, by beating the Boughs of the Oak, Elm, Black-Thorn, &c. which are the Food it feeds upon. It changes to the Chrysalis State, within the Earth, about that[39] Time, and the Moth is bred in October, when it may be found sticking on the Bark of Trees, in Parks and other Places.

L. I. ch. III.

Cl. 1. S. b. 3.

(High Resolution Image)

The smooth leaved Elm.

Ulmus folio Glabro. Ger. Em. 1481.

L. 1. Ch. 3.

IV.

Cl. 1. S. b. 4.

The BRIMSTONE MOTH. The Caterpillar is found on the White-Thorn, towards the Middle of September, when it is full fed, and changes to a Chrysalis, within a Spinning, and the Moth is produced in the April and May following. It flies slowly, and is easily taken in an Evening. This Moth breeds twice in a Year; the first Time in April and May, the second in July and August.

L. I. ch. III.

Cl. 1. S. b. 4.

(High Resolution Image)

Figure 1. The White Thorn. 2. The Blue Bells. 3. The Red Ranunculus.

Fig. 1. Oxyacanthus. Ger. 2. Hyacinthus Anglicus. Ger. 3. Ranunculus hortensis flore rubello.

L. 1. Ch. 3.

V.

Cl. 1. S. b. 5.

The SCALLOP WINGED MOTH laid her Eggs on the 5th of August, and eight Days after the Caterpillars appeared. I fed them with White-Thorn and Privet, till the Beginning of October, at which Time several of them changed to the Chrysalis betwixt the Leaves spun together. They remained in that State during the Winter, and the Moths were bred in May following. This Moth is to be taken, in the Evening, by the Sides of Woods, Hedges, &c.

L. I. ch. III.

Cl. 1. S. b. 5.

(High Resolution Image)

The White Thorn, with its Fruit.

Mespilus, Apii folio; sylvestris, sive oxyacantha. C. B. Pin. 458.

L. 1. Ch. 3.

VI.

Cl. 1. S. b. 6.

The RICHMOND-BEAUTY, a MOTH. Mr. Rosel assures us, that the Caterpillars feed on the Leaves of the Pear Tree, &c. and is to be found at the End of May and the Beginning of June. They change to the Chrysalis amongst the Pear[40] Leaves: They continue fourteen Days in that State, and the Moth appears about the End of June. This Moth is to be taken in an Evening by the Sides of Woods, in green Lanes, Gardens, &c.

See Rosel, Cl. 2. Tab. 10.

L. I. ch. III.

Cl. 1. S. b. 6.

(High Resolution Image)

The Spanish or Catalonian Jasmine.

Jasminum humilius magno flore. C. B. Pin.

L. 1. Ch. 3.

VII.

Cl. 1. S. b. 7.

The HAWTHORN MOTH. The Caterpillars that produce this Kind of Moth are of various Colours, some being much lighter than others. I got several of them by beating the Boughs of the White Thorn, about the Middle of September; at which Time many of this Sort spin themselves amongst the Leaves and change to Chrysalis, and the Moths are bred in the Middle of May following. This is a very scarce Fly.

L. I. ch. III.

Cl. 3. S. b. 7.

(High Resolution Image)

The Carolina Hawthorn.

Mespilus Caroliniana, Apii foliis volgari similis major fructu luteo. Millar.

L. 1. Ch. 3.

VIII.

Cl. 1. S. b. 8.

The ORANGE MOTH. The four different coloured Flies represented in the Plate, were all produced from Caterpillars that were hatched from the Eggs of such a Female as is represented at Fig. 1. The Eggs were of a pale green Colour, and were hatch’d on the 13th July 1747; and the young Caterpillars were fed with the Leaves of Black-Thorn, till about the 20th, when they changed their first Skin; on the second of August they changed their Skin again, and, about the Middle of the same Month, they left off eating: But, October the 25th, being put on Bramble Leaves, they began to eat again, and changed their Skin a third Time, November the 28th; after which they remained pretty quiet the whole Winter without eating. At the End of March they began to eat the fresh Buds of the Black and White-Thorn, and changed their Skin for the fourth Time. About the End of April, one that was separated from the Rest changed its Skin a fifth Time May the 10th: spun up May the 29th: and the Moth was produced June the 17th. Several others spun up between May the 22d and June the 5th, and the Moths were produced between June the 12th and 25th. One that did not change its Skin, for the last Time, till June the 26th, was given to the Proprietor of this Work; it spun up in the Leaves, on the 10th of[41] July, and the Moth, Fig. 2. was bred on the 1st of August. Of eight Moths that were produced, three were Females of the common Orange Kind, and five were Males, one of which only was all over of an Orange Colour. Amongst the Caterpillars there was one that changed its fourth Skin, July the 4th, and fed for some Time; however, it has not yet changed its fifth Skin, tho’ it continued alive, without eating, till December the 25th 1748, at which Time it was put on Bramble Leaves, and has continued to feed thereon till the present 3d of February 1748-9.——The Author of this Work was favoured with the preceeding Account by a most skilful and exact observer, whose Name, had he leave to mention it, would do him great Honour.

L. I. ch. III.

Cl. 1. S. b. 8.

(High Resolution Image)

The Dwarf-Willow.

Salix pumila Alpina, rotundifolia repens, inferne subcinerea. C. B. Pin.

(Decorative Design)

[42]

Class II.

Hairy Loopers.

Sect. a.

Having no Protuberances.

L. 1. Ch. 3.

I.

Cl. 2. S. a. 1.

The LARGE MAGPYE, or CURRAN MOTH. Most Gardens and Hedges abound with the Caterpillars of this Fly, which feed on Curran and Gooseberry-Bushes, and also on the Black Thorn, &c. They change into the Chrysalis State, hanging by the Tail, at the End of May, and the Moths appear in the Middle of June. They are very common, and easily taken in an Evening in the Gardens, and most other Places, and may likewise be catch’d in the Day-time, by beating the Hedges and Bushes. The Caterpillar lives all Winter, and in the Spring begins to feed as soon as the Buds are open.

See Lister on Godart, P. 13. N. 9. Merian, Vol. 1. Chap. 29. Albin, P. 43. Rosel, Class 3. Tab. 2.

L. I. ch. III.

Cl. 2. S. 1. a. 1.

(High Resolution Image)

The Curran Tree.

Ribes major fructu rubro, Hort. Eyst.

L. 1. Ch. 3.

II.

Cl. 2. S. a. 2.

The GOOSEBERRY-MOTH. The Caterpillars are hatch’d at the latter End of the Year, and live all Winter. About the Middle of May you may find Plenty of them on the Gooseberry and Curran Bushes; about which Time they go into the Ground, and turn to Chrysalis, and about the Middle of June the Moths appear. They are common in most Gardens in the Evening, and may be taken in the Day-time, as the last.

See Lister on Godart, P. 19. N. 12. Merian, Vol. 1. Chap. 25. Albin P. 47. Rosel, Class 3. Tab. 4.

L. I. ch. III.

Cl. 2. S. a. 2.

(High Resolution Image)

The Gooseberry Tree, with its Flower and Fruit.

Grossularia, fructu obscure purpurascente. Clus.

[43]

Hairy Loopers.

Sect. b.

Having Tufts of Hair, partly round each Joint.

L. 1. Ch. 3.

I.

Cl. 2. S. b. 1.

The BRINDLE-MOTH. This Caterpillar, which is not common among the Loopers, was found by Mr. Dandridge on the Hasle, at the Beginning of June. It also feeds on Oak, &c. On the 14th of the same Month it went into the Ground and changed into a Chrysalis, and at the Beginning of April following the Moth came out. The Females have no Wings. I have had several of this Kind of Moth bred in February from the Chrysalis, which I got by digging with a Trowel at the Root of Oak Trees. The Moth is rarely taken in the Fly-state.

L. I. ch. III.

Cl. 2. S. b. 1.

(High Resolution Image)

Bladder-Sena, with Reddish-Seed Vessels.

Colutea vesicaria, vesiculis rubentibus. J. B.

(Decorative Design)

[44]

CHAP.  IV.

Caterpillars shaped like Wood-Lice.

Class I.

Sect. a.

L. 1. Ch. 4.

I.

Cl. 1. S. a. 1.

The SMALL OAK-EGGER-MOTH. This Caterpillar I took in Hornsey-Wood on an Oak-Tree, at the Beginning October, soon after which Time it chang’d to a Chrysalis, by fastening the Oak-Leaf close to the Bottom of the Box I kept it in with a Spinning. Thus it remained through the Winter, and the Moth was bred at the End of May. Both Caterpillar and Fly are very rare.

L. I. ch. IV.

Cl. 1. S. a. 1.

(High Resolution Image)

The Double Velvet-Rose.

Rosa holosericea, multiplex. Park. Parad.

(Decorative Design)

[45]

CHAP.  V.

Of Moths, whose Generation is not yet known.

Class I.

Sect. a.

L. 1. Ch. 5.

I.

Cl. 1. S. a. 1.

THE GLORY OF KENT, a Moth. This is the only Moth of the Kind that I have yet heard was ever taken in England or elsewhere. It was found about the Middle of April, 1741, flying in a Wood, in the Day-time, near Cookham, by Westram, in Kent. It was taken by Mr. William Constable, who lives near that Place; and the Moth is at present in the Collection of Mr. Charles Cabrier, of London.

L. I. ch. V.

Cl. 2. S. A. 1.

(High Resolution Image)

The Double-Flowering Peach.

Persica Africana nova, flore incarnato pleno. Tourn.

L. 1. Ch. 5.

II.

Cl. 1. S. a. 2.

THE CLEIFDEN NONPAREIL, a Moth. This curious Fly was found by Mr. Davenport, sticking against the Body of an Ash Tree, near Cleifden, in Buckinghamshire. It was taken in the Month of July: Is at present in the Possession of Charles Lockyer, Esq; and is the only one of the Sort that I have yet seen or heard of.

L. I. ch. V.

Cl. 1. S. A. 2.

(High Resolution Image)

The Ciphian Rose.

Rosa; pimpinella minor Scotica, floribus ex albo & corneo eleganter variegatis. Pluk. Alm.


[46]

(Decorative Header)

BOOK II.

CHAP.   I.

Caterpillars producing Flies, which resemble partly the Moth, and partly the Butterfly.

Class I.

Sect. a.

L. 2. Ch. 1.

I.

Cl. 1. S. a. 1.

(Decorative letter T)

The BURNET-MOTH. The Caterpillars are to be found feeding on Hay-Grass about the Middle of May, at which Time many of them go into the Chrysalis State, within such a Spinning as is expressed in the Plate, and which they make fast to the Stalks of Grass, about a Foot from the Ground. The Moths fly about the Middle of June, in the Day-time, and are easily taken.

See Albin, P. 82. Rosel, Cl. 2. Tab. 57. Vol. 1. Reaumur, Pl. 12. Pag. 284. Vol. 2. Pl. 2. Pag. 120.

L. II. ch. I.

Cl. 1. S. a. 1.

(High Resolution Image)

The Burnet Rose.

Rosa pumila, spinosissima, foliis pimpinellæ, glabris, Flore albo. J. B.


[47]

(Decorative Header)

BOOK III.

CHAP.  I.

Caterpillars, whose Bodies are Smooth, producing Butterflies.

Class I.

Sect. a.

Caterpillars without any Protuberances, whose Chrysalis is fixed by the Tail, and hangs in an Horizontal Position, by Means of a Thread fastened round the Back and on each Side, and producing Swallow-Tail Butterflies.

L. 3. Ch. 1.

I.

Cl. 1. S. a. 1.

(Decorative letter T)

The SWALLOW-TAIL BUTTERFLY is produced twice a Year. The first Brood appears in May, the second towards the End of July. Being in a Meadow near Cookham, in Kent, on the 5th Day of August, 1748, I observed a Female Swallow-Tail hovering over certain Plants, which taking particular Notice of, I found to be the Meadow Saxifrage, and examining them carefully, I discovered four Eggs just laid by the Fly, wherewith I was highly pleased. On the 13th of the same Month these Eggs produced Caterpillars, of Size and Colour as expressed at Figure 1.[48] On the 19th one of the Caterpillars shifted its Skin, and appeared like Figure 2. On the 23d it changed again to the Likeness of Figure 3. On the 4th of September it became like Figure 4. On the 11th of the same Month it appeared in its fifth and last Skin, which was extreamly beautiful, as expressed at Figure 5. On the 22d the Caterpillar was full grown, and fixed itself in the Manner of Figure 6, in order to change into the Chrysalis 7, which was produced on the 26th of September; in which State it remains, January 20, 1748-9. I fed the Caterpillar from its being first hatched with the green Leaves of the common Carrot, which it eat plentifully. This fine Butterfly may be taken in the Meadows and Clover Fields about Cookham, near Westram, in Kent, at the Times above-mentioned. It flies so swiftly that it is in vain to follow it, you must therefore wait ’till it settles, and then, if you are near, be nimble, and you may catch it without much Difficulty. The Flies are represented in the next Plate numbered the same as this.

See Reaumur, Pl. 29. Pag. 486. Also Pl. 30. Vol. 1. Pag. 486.

L. III. ch. I.

Cl. 1. S. a. 1.

(High Resolution Image)

The Meadow Saxifrage.

Seseli pratense nostras. Park.

L. III. ch. I.

Cl. 1. S. a. 1.

(High Resolution Image)

L. 3. Ch. 3.

II.

Cl. 1. S. a. 2.

The BRIMSTONE-BUTTERFLY lives in the Fly State all the Winter Season, for very early in the Spring you will see them in the Woods flying about and seeking out their Mates. The Food of the Caterpillar is reported by Mr. Dandridge to be the Buck-Thorn, on which he fed it ’till the Middle of June, when it changed to a Chrysalis, and the Fly was bred at the Beginning of August. The Caterpillars are rare to be met with, although the Fly is common in Woods and Fields of Clover, in the Months of August and September.

L. III. ch. I.

Cl. I. S. a. 2.

(High Resolution Image)

The Buck-Thorn, with its Berries.

Rhamnus Catharticus. C. B. P.

[49]

Class II.

Sect. a.

Caterpillars having little or no Hair.

Fastening their Chrysalis as the last Sort, and producing Round-Winged Butterflies.

L. 3. Ch. 1.

I.

Cl. 2. S. a. 1.

The WHITE-BUTTERFLY, with Black Veins. The Caterpillars that produce this sort of Butterfly are sociable and feed together on the White-Thorn, till about the Middle of May, at which Time they are full fed and change to the Chrysalis. The Fly is bred in June, and is common among Hay-Grass.

See Merian, Vol. 2. Chap. 35. Moss. P. 103. Raii, Hist. Insect. P. 115, N. 5. Albin, Plate 2. Rosel, Cl. 2. Tab. 3. Reaumur, Vol. 2. Pl. 2. P. 120.

L. III. ch. I.

Cl. 2. S. a. 1.

(High Resolution Image)

The Mountain-Elder, and White-Thorn.

Sambucus, racemosa rubra. C. B. P.

L. 3. Ch. 1.

II.

Cl. 2. S. a. 2.

The LARGE WHITE GARDEN-BUTTERFLY breeds twice a Year. The Caterpillars thereof are well known in Gardens and other Places. Their first Brood is in May, and the second about two Months after. The Chrysalis that produces the second Brood is only fourteen Days in that State, and the Fly is bred in July. Those Caterpillars that go to Chrysalis about September remain in that State all the Winter, and produce their Flies in May. These Caterpillars are great Devourers of Cabbage and Colliflowers from June to September, which last Month is the Time of their changing into the Chrysalis State. In order to preserve your Cabbages, &c. ’tis worth while to destroy their Chrysalides in the Winter, when they may commonly be found under the Coping of Garden Walls, Pales, or any other Places a little shelter’d: Their Eggs likewise should be sought[50] after, and may be found in great Numbers together on the under Sides of the Leaves. Note, The Swallow-Tail Butterfly is always bred at the same Time as this Fly is.

See Godart, Sec. 1. Num. 7. Merian, Vol. 1. Chap. 45. Moufet, P. 103. Raii, Hist. Insect. p. 113. List. on God. P. 16. Fig. 7. Albin, Plate 1. Rosel, C. 2. Tab. 4.

L. III. ch. I.

Cl. 2. S. a. 2.

(High Resolution Image)

The Nasturtium Flower.

Acriviola. J. K. H.

L. 3. Ch. 1.

III.

Cl. 2. S. a. 3.

The SMALL WHITE GARDEN-BUTTERFLY breeds twice a Year: The first Brood is at the Beginning of May, and the second in July. The Caterpillar feeds on Cabbage, Horse-Radish, Cresses, &c. Towards the End of June they tie themselves up by the Tail with a Thread, which goes likewise cross their Middle. The Fly comes forth in July, and is very common.

See Albin, P. 51. Rosel, Cl. 2. Tab. 5. Lister on Godart, P. 12. N. 8. Reaumur, Vol. 1. Pl. 29. Pag. 486. Vol. 2. Pl. 2. Pag. 120.

L. III. ch. I.

Cl. 2. S. a. 3.

(High Resolution Image)

The Double-Flowering Almond.

Amygdalus sativa flore pleno. J. R. H.

L. 3. Ch. 1.

IV.

Cl. 2. S. a. 4.

The WHITE-BUTTERFLY with Green Veins. This also breeds twice a Year: Its first Brood is in May, the second in July. The Caterpillar feeds on Cabbage, &c. like the foregoing, ties itself up in the same Manner, and the Fly is bred in July. It is very common, and may be taken in most Gardens.

See Albin, P. 52. Merian, Vol. 2. Chap. 39.

L. III. ch. I.

Cl. 2. s. a. 4.

(High Resolution Image)

The Purple Auricula.

Auricula, ursi flore Purpureo. Lob.

[51]

L. 3. Ch. 1.

V.

Cl. 2. S. a. 5.

THE ORANGE-TIP, or Lady of the Woods, A BUTTERFLY. We are obliged to Mr. Rosel for the Discovery of the Progress of this and many other curious Flies. He says the Caterpillar feeds on the Brassica Sylvestris, or Wild Cole, whereon the Fly lays its Eggs. The Caterpillar is found in June and July, at which Time it changes into a Chrysalis. It remains in that State through the Winter, and the Fly is produced in May. It is very common in Fields and green Lanes, and breeds but once a Year.

See Rosel, Cl. 2. Tab. 8.

L. III. ch. I.

Cl. 2. S. a. 5.

(High Resolution Image)

The Mountain-Curran, and the Wild Cole.

Ribes Alpinus dulcis. J. B. Brassica Sylvestris.

(Decorative Design)

[52]

Caterpillars, having little or no Hair, producing Scallop-Winged Butterflies.

Sect. b.

L. 3. Ch. 1.

I.

Cl. 2. S. b. 1.

The MARMORIS, or MARBLE BUTTERFLY. On the 8th of July, 1748. I took with my Net several Females of this sort of Fly, which is very common amongst the Hay-Grass. I put them in a Box, taking Care to hurt them as little as possible, with full Hopes that some of them would lay their Eggs; and according to my Wishes the next Morning I had 160 Eggs, which, when first laid, were of a fine yellow Colour, but in less than a Minute’s Time they became perfectly white, and are not glutinous like many other Sorts. On the 27th and 28th of the same Month the young Caterpillars appeared, and were put on common Grass to feed: They continued extremely small for some Months, and, notwithstanding great Care was taken of them, only three Flies were produced, the rest all dying in the Caterpillar State.

The different Changes observed in these three were as follows.

Caterpillars changed their Skins. Went to Chrysalis. The Flies were bred.
The {1st April,11 May 6 May 26 June — 14 July — 11} 1748
{2d April, 28 May 21 June 6 June — 30 July — 23}
{3d May, 1 May 21 June 9 July — 4 July — 27}

The Caterpillars that produced these Flies changed to Chrysalis on the Ground, without fastening themselves to any Thing, and were fed all the Time with common Grass, and it is presumed changed their Skins twice before the 11th of April.

L. III. ch. I.

Cl. 2. S. b. 1.

(High Resolution Image)

Figure 1. The Bent Grass. 2. Brown Millet-Grass. 3. Yellow Ladies Bedstraw. 4. The Great Fox-tail Grass.

1. Gramen segetum, panicula speciosa. Park. 2. Gramen miliaceum majus panicula spadicea. Petiv. 3. Gallium luteum, C. B. 4. Gramen Alopecuroides majus. Ger.

[53]

L. 3. Ch. 1.

II.

Cl. 2. S. b. 2.

The MEADOW BROWN-BUTTERFLY. The Caterpillar was found by Mr. Dandridge on the common Grass, with which he fed it ’till the 24th of May, when it fastened itself up by the Tail, and changed into a short thick green Chrysalis streaked with black, and on the 11th of June came out the Butterfly, which is one of the most common sorts the Fields afford, and yet the Caterpillar is rarely found.

See Albin, P. 53.

L. III. ch. I.

Cl. 2. s. b. 2.

(High Resolution Image)

The Water Elder.

Opulus Ruellii. Instit. R. Herb.

L. 3. Ch. 1.

III.

Cl. 2. S. b. 3.

The GREAT ARGUS-BUTTERFLY breeds twice a Year: The first Time is in May, the second in July. Merian says, the Caterpillar feeds on Grass, and that it changes to a small green Chrysalis, from which proceeds this elegant Fly, adorned with brown and black Spots, having two white Horns spotted with black, and Eyes of a beautiful Colour. This Butterfly is very common; its Flight is not swift: It delights to settle on dry Banks and Walls, and in Path-Ways, and is not difficult to take. Its Caterpillar is seldom found.

See Merian, Vol. 2. Chap. 4.

L. III. ch. I.

Cl. 2. S. b. 3.

(High Resolution Image)

The Passion-Flower.

Granadilla Pentaphyllos Flore cæruleo magno. Boerh.

L. 3. Ch. 1.

IV.

Cl. 2. S. b. 4.

The WOOD ARGUS-BUTTERFLY. This also breeds twice a Year: The first Brood appears at the Beginning of May, the second at the Beginning of July. It flies slowly, and is to be taken in Woods, green Lanes, &c. Reaumur informs us, that the Caterpillar feeds on Grass; that it changed to a Chrysalis on the 19th of June, and that ten Days after the Fly was bred.

See Reaumur, Plate 27. Pag. 431.

L. III. ch. I.

Cl. 2. S. b. 4.

(High Resolution Image)

The Spanish Broom.

Genista Iuncea, J. B.

[54]

Sect. c.

Caterpillars having little Hair, producing Butterflies, whose Head and Body are much larger (for their Size) than any other Butterflies: Of which there are several belonging to this Section, whose Caterpillars have not as yet been discovered.

L. 3. Ch. 1.

I.

Cl. 2. S. c. 1.

The GRIZZLED BUTTERFLY. Mr. Rosel tells us, that the Caterpillar of this Fly was found on the Mallow, with the Leaves of which he fed it till the End of June, when it spun a Web amongst the Leaves, and changed to a Chrysalis, the Butterfly of which was bred the May following. This Fly is to be taken in Woods and Meads, at the Beginning of May: and although small, it flies swiftly, so that you must be very quick to take it.

See Rosel, Cl. 2. Tab. 10. Merian, Vol. 1 Chap. 48.

L. III. ch. I.

Cl. 2. S. c. 1.

(High Resolution Image)

The common Mallow.

Malva vulgaris. Park.

(Decorative Design)

[55]

Class III.

Caterpillars armed with Spikes.

Sect. a.

Whose Chrysalis hangs by the Tail perpendicularly downwards.

L. 3. Ch. 1.

I.

Cl. 3. S. a. 1.

The ADMIRABLE BUTTERFLY. The great Stinging Nettle is the Food of this Caterpillar, which is to be found by observing where the Nettle-Leaves appear to be folded or spun together, for within such Leaves the Caterpillar feeds. It turns in August to a Chrysalis, hanging perpendicularly downwards by the Tail, fourteen Days after the Chrysalis is formed the Fly appears. The Caterpillars shelter themselves after this Manner, that they may be the better secured from the too great Heat of the Sun, from Rain, Birds, and a small Ichneumon Fly, which often hinders their coming to Perfection, by laying its Eggs therein, which Eggs are of such a glutenous Nature, that they stick fast as soon as laid. Some of the Chrysalides appear as if gilded with burnished Gold, but such usually produce not a Butterfly, but a Brood of small, though very beautiful Ichneumons. The Fly may be taken in Gardens and other Places, it feeds on Fruit that lies under Trees, &c. and is no uncommon Fly. It lives quite through the Winter.

See Goedart, Vol. 1. Tab. 26. Pag. 96. Fig. Opt. List. Fig. 4. Gr. V. 2. Pag. 81. Tab. 81. Fig. Opt. Moff. 100. Num. 6. An. Hoef. Tab. 12. Fig. 15. Raii, Hist. Insect. P. 126. Albin, Pl. 3. Reaumur, Pl. 10. Pag. 284, Vol. 1.

L. III. ch. I.

Cl. 3. S. a. 1.

(High Resolution Image)

The Great Stinging-Nettle.

Urtica major vulgaris. J. B.

L. 3. Ch. 1.

II.

Cl. 3. S. a. 2.

The PEACOCK-BUTTERFLY. You must look for the Caterpillar that produces this Fly in the great Stinging-Nettle. They are sociable and feed together, are very easy to find, and may be taken full fed towards the End of June, at which Time many of them change to the Chrysalis, and about fourteen Days after the Fly appears. It is very common, and may be taken on Thistles, Burdock, Clover, &c. The Chrysalis of[56] this Fly, as well as the preceding, sometimes looks as if gilt with Gold: but such fine outsides usually produce Ichneumons. This Fly likewise lives all the Winter.

See Reaumur, Pl. 25. Pag. 446. Vol. 1. Goed. Vol. 1. P. 23. Fig. opt. 1. List. Fig. 1. Graf. Vol. 1. Tab. 26. Pag. 53. Raii, Hist. Insect. Pag. 122. N. 14. Moufet, P. 99. N. 4. Hoef. Tab. 12. Fig. opt. 9. Johns. Inst. 40. n. 4. Tab. 5. Albin, Pl. 4. Rosel, Cl. 1. T. 3.

L. III. ch. I.

Cl. 3. S. a. 2.

(High Resolution Image)

Smith’s Newington Peach.

L. 3. Ch. 1.

III.

Cl. 3. S. a. 3

The PAINTED-LADY-BUTTERFLY. In this Plate two Butterflies are represented, the upper one of which is the Painted Lady. Its Caterpillar feeds on the great Stinging-Nettle, Thistles, &c. changes to a Chrysalis within the Leaves folded together in the Middle of June, is fourteen Days in that State, and then the Fly comes forth. It may be taken on the same Growths as the last, but is not so common.

Figure 4 represents, the SMALL TORTOISE-SHELL-BUTTERFLY, which is very common, and breeds twice a Year: The first Brood is towards the End of June, the second about the End of August. The Caterpillar feeds on Nettles, is open and sociable, and may be taken full fed about the Middle of June, and the Middle of August, and is about fourteen Days in Chrysalis. This Butterfly out-lives the Winter.

See Lister on Goedart, Pag. 7. N. 5. Albin, Pl. 56. Fig. 4. Goed. Vol. 1. Pag. 90, Fig. opt, 21. List. Fig. 2. Graf. Vol. 1. P. 89. Mouff, 101. N. 11, figured against N. 12. Hoef. Tab. 2. Fig. opt. 16. Raii, Hist. Insect. Pag. 117. N. 1. Albin, Pl. 4. Rosel, Cl. 1. Tab. 4. Reaumur, Pl. 26. Pag. 446. Vol. 1.

L. III. ch. I.

Cl. 3. S. a. 3.

(High Resolution Image)

The Great Stinging-Nettle.

Urtica major vulgaris. J. B.

L. 3. Ch. 1.

V.

Cl. 3. S. a. 5.

The GREAT TORTOISE-SHELL-BUTTERFLY. When the Caterpillars of this Fly are young, they feed together on the Leaves of the Elm-Tree, &c. About the Middle of June they are full fed, and usually tie themselves up by the Tail under the Copings of Walls, or some such Shelter; in the Beginning of July the Fly comes out,[57] and delights to settle in dry Path-ways, as also on the Bodies of Trees, &c. is swift in its Flight, and requires Nimbleness to take it. The Chrysalis is very apt to produce Ichneumons instead of its own Butterfly, those Creatures having laid their Eggs therein. This Fly lives all Winter.

See Reaumur, Pl. 23. Pag. 382. Vol. 1. List. on Goedart, Pag. 3. N. 3, Merian, Vol. 2. Tab. 2. Albin, Pl. 55. Rosel, Cl. 1. Tab. 2.

L. III. ch. I.

Cl. 3. s. a. 5.

(High Resolution Image)

The Common Elm-Tree.

Ulmus minor folio Angusto Scabro. Ger. Emac, 1480.

L. 3. Ch. 1.

VI.

Cl. 2. S. a. 6.

The COMMA-BUTTERFLY breeds twice a Year: The first Time towards the End of June, and the second about the Beginning of September. The Caterpillar feeds on Hop-Leaves, Nettles, &c. puts on the Chrysalis Form in June and August, and is about fourteen Days in that State, when the Fly appears, which may be taken in Gardens, on Blackberry Blossoms, by the Sides of Hedges, and in such like Places. The Colours of the first Brood of this Butterfly are considerably lighter than as here represented.

L. III. ch. I.

Cl. 3. S. a. 6.

(High Resolution Image)

The Double Wild Poppy, with a fiery-coloured Flower edged with white.

Papaver, erraticum, flore pleno igneo marginibus candidis. H. L.

L. 3. Ch. 1.

VII.

Cl. 2. S. a. 7.

The GREAT FRITILLARY-BUTTERFLY. Mr. Rosel says, the Caterpillar feeds on Nettles, in the private Recesses of Woods, that it changes into the Chrysalis State at the End of May, and that the Fly is produced in June. This Butterfly is very swift in Flight, and is best taken in the Forenoon, when it will settle and feed on Blackberry Blossoms, Thistles, &c. They are most commonly found in Woods, and the Fields adjacent to Woods.

See Rosel, Cl. 1. Tab. 7.

L. III. ch. I.

Cl. 3. S. a. 7.

(High Resolution Image)

The Bramble.

Rubus major, fructu nigro. J. B.

[58]

L. 3. Ch. 1.

VIII.

Cl. 2. S. a. 8.

The PLANTAIN FRITILLARY-BUTTERFLY. The Caterpillar hereof feeds on Plantain, Clover, and Grass, changes to a Chrysalis, within a Web of its own spinning, upon the Surface of the Ground, at the Beginning of May, and the Fly appears fourteen Days after. The Caterpillars are sociable, and feed together. They appear of a very timorous Nature, for if you move the Food on which they are, they immediately quit their Hold and fall to the Ground, and there remain in a curl’d up Form till such Time they think the Danger over. The Butterfly is swift in Flight, but may be taken if diligently attended to, in Fields of Hay-Grass, at the Time above-mentioned.

L. III. ch. I.

Cl. 3. S. a. 8.

(High Resolution Image)

Figure 1. Rough Grass. 2. Plantain. 3. Clover.

1. Gramen asperum. J. B. 2. Plantago major vulg. C. B.

L. 3. Ch. 1.

IX.

Cl. 2. S. a. 9.

The HEATH FRITILLARY-BUTTERFLY. I found the Caterpillars of this Fly feeding on common Heath in Tottenham-Wood, about the Middle of May, 1745, and they are of the same fearful Nature as the last-mentioned. Six or seven of them were feeding near each other, I observed their Manner of eating, which was extremely quick, and when they moved it was at a great Rate. I fed them with common Heath for three or four Days; at the End of which some of them changed into Chrysalis, in which State they remained about fourteen Days, and then the Flies came forth. This Butterfly is very common in most Woods, but its Caterpillar is very rarely found.

L. III. ch. I.

Cl. 3. S. a. 9.

(High Resolution Image)

Common Heath in Flower.

Erica Vulgaris. Park.

L. 3. Ch. 1.

X.

Cl. 2. S. a. 10.

The WILLOW-BUTTERFLY. About the Middle of August, 1748, two of this Species of Butterfly were taken near Camberwell, in Surry: But in all my Practice I have never seen any of them in the Fields; so that they were look’d upon as very great Rarities. They are very common in Germany, and Mr. Rosel tells us, the Caterpillar[59] feeds on Willow, and may be found all the Summer. The Caterpillar and Chrysalis, in the Plate, are taken from a Draught by Mr. Rosel.

See Rosel, Cl. 1, Tab. 1.

L. III. ch. I.

Cl. 3. S. a. 10.

(High Resolution Image)

The White Dog-Rose.

Rosa arvensis candida. C. B.

L. 3. Ch. 1.

XI.

Cl. 3. S. a. 11.

The SMALL FRITILLARY-BUTTERFLY. About the 10th of April, 1741, I took upon the Ground upwards of one Hundred of these Caterpillars, in Cain Wood. I gave them to eat a Variety of Growths (which I gathered on the Spot where I found the Caterpillars) but they were so restless and uneasy under Confinement, that they seemed in continual Motion, neither would they eat any of the Food I gave them. On the 18th of April ten of the Caterpillars fastened themselves up by the Tail, in order to their changing into the Chrysalis State, (the rest being dead or gone away) and on the 3d of May following the Flies were bred. This Butterfly is to be taken in Woods and Grass-Fields adjacent to Woods, in the Month of May.

L. III. ch. I.

Cl. 3. S. a. 11.

(High Resolution Image)

The Variegated Ketmia.

Ketmia Syrorum Flore variegato. J. R. H.

L. 3. Ch. 1.

XII.

Cl. 2. S. a. 12.

The GREAT FRITILLARY-BUTTERFLY, with Silver Spots. I take this Fly to be of the Class under Consideration. On the 15th of July, 1748, I had three Eggs laid by such a Fly as is represented in the Plate at Fig. 1, and on the 5th of August the young Caterpillars came forth; which, being examined with a Microscope, appeared to be of the Size represented. They were of a Flesh Colour, with Rows of Black Spots on each Joint like the Caterpillars of the Emperor Moth, and out of each Spot grew Hairs of a sandy Colour. The Eggs were beautifully fluted down the Sides, were flat at the Bottom, and had a glutenous Moisture upon them, which occasioned their sticking fast wherever the Fly chose to leave them. The Caterpillars on this present 10th of February, 1748-9, seem to be alive, but are very small, and, I believe, have eat nothing all the Winter, though they[60] have had Grass given them, which I take to be their proper Food. The Fly frequents Woods and Meads, and loves to settle on Blackberry Blossoms, Thistles, &c. At the Beginning of July they may be taken with your Net; but as no Butterfly is more swift in Flight, you must attend till they settle, then be nimble and you may catch them.

L. III. ch. I.

Cl. 3. S. a. 12.

(High Resolution Image)

The Scorpion Sena.

Emerus Cæsalpin.

(Decorative Design)

[61]

CHAP.  II.

Caterpillars shaped like Wood-Lice.

Class I.

Sect. a.

L. 3. Ch. 2.

I.

Cl. 1. S. a. 1.

The PURPLE HAIR-STREAK-BUTTERFLY. The Caterpillar feeds on Oak-Leaves, becomes a Chrysalis at the Beginning of June, and in a Month after the Fly appears. This Butterfly is not so easily taken as some others, for when it is not feeding it usually settles high. I have taken the greatest Numbers early in a Morning, when I have found them feeding on the Blossoms of the Blackberry.

See Albin, P. 57. Rosel, Cl. 2. Tab. 9.

L. III. ch. II.

Cl. 1. S. a. 1.

(High Resolution Image)

The Oak-Tree.

Quercus.

L. 3. Ch. 2.

II.

Cl. 1. S. a. 2.

The BROWN HAIR-STREAK-BUTTERFLY. The Caterpillar of this Butterfly is seldom found: which, I believe, is owing to the oddness of its Shape and Colour, which are exactly represented in the Plate. I took four of them by beating the Black-Thorn, and fed them on the same till the Middle of June, at which Time they changed into the Chrysalis, and the Fly was bred in the Middle of August. This Butterfly delights to settle on the Maple-Tree, &c. by beating the Branches whereof the Fly will rise, and may be taken in your Net.

L. III. ch. II.

Cl. 1. S. a. 2.

(High Resolution Image)

The Black-Thorn.

Prunus Sylvestris. Germ. Emac.

[62]

L. 3. Ch. 2.

III.

Cl. 1. S. a. 3.

The GREEN BUTTERFLY. Mr. Dandridge took the Caterpillar of this Fly at the Beginning of July, feeding on the inside of the Blackberry Buds, in which it made a small Hole, whereby it entered, and eating all the inward Part, left the Buds seemingly entire: It fed on them till the Middle of July, and then changed to a Chrysalis; and in the Middle of April, the Year following, the Fly was bred. This Butterfly is most common in and near Woods; it delights to settle on Boughs four or five Feet from the Ground, by moving which the Fly will rise, and if not much frighted will settle on or near the same Place again, by which Means you may take it with your Net. The best Time to catch this Butterfly is from the first to the fifteenth of May.

L. III. ch. II.

Cl. 1. S. a. 3.

(High Resolution Image)

The Blackberry, with its Fruit and Blossom.

Rubus, major, fructu nigro. J. B.

(Decorative Design)

[63]

CHAP.  III.

Of Butterflies whose Generation is not yet known.

Class I.

Sect. A.

L. 3. Ch. 3.

I.

Cl. 1. S. A. 1.

The BLUE ARGUS-BUTTERFLY breeds twice a Year: The first Brood appears in May, the second at the End of July and Beginning of August. This Fly is very common in most Hay-Fields at those Times, and is easily taken. As for the Caterpillar and Chrysalis, I have never yet heard that they have been discovered by any Body.

L. III. ch. III.

Cl. 1. S. A. 1.

(High Resolution Image)

The Green Gage-Plumb.

Prunus fructu rotundo e viridi flavescente, carne dura suavissima. Miller.

L. 3. Ch. 3.

II.

Cl. 1. S. A. 2.

The PURPLE HIGH-FLYER, or Emperor of the Woods. Neither the Caterpillar nor Chrysalis of this charming Fly has been yet discovered, although sought after with the utmost Diligence for several Years past. The Butterfly appears at the End of June and Beginning of July, and may be taken in Comb-Wood in Surry, about Westram in Kent, and in other Places. It flies like a Hawk, delighting to soar aloft and skim in the Air. When it settles it is usually on some extreme Part of the Oak, Hasle, or Ash-Tree: and what is very singular, I myself have seen twenty of them taken on the same Branch one after another, for although the Fly seems to be extremely wild whilst on the Wing, yet, when settled, you may lay your Net over it with little Trouble.

L. III. ch. III.

Cl. 1. S. A. 2.

(High Resolution Image)

The Oak with its Acorns.

Quercus.

FINIS.


INDEX to the FLIES.

(Decorative Design)

INDEX to the PLANTS.

(Decorative Design)

TRANSCRIBER’S NOTE

Plates in this eBook have been positioned to be adjacent to the content that references them.

Illustrations without captions have had a description added, this is denoted with parentheses.

The indexes were not checked for proper alphabetization or correct page references.

Obvious typographical errors and punctuation errors have been corrected after careful comparison with other occurrences within the text and consultation of external sources.

Some hyphens in words have been silently removed, some added, when a predominant preference was found in the original book.

Except for those changes noted below, all misspellings in the text, and inconsistent or archaic usage, have been retained.

Introduction: “Mohts” replaced with “Moths”
Table: “Sattin” replaced with “Satin”
Pg 24: “Vredenriek” replaced with “Vredenrick”
Pg 28: “Darnell” replaced with “Darnel”
Pg 29: “Arminiaca” replaced with “Armeniaca”
Pg 36: “Ichnemon” replaced with “Ichneumon”
Pg 36: Figure caption “Cl. 2. S. a. 3.” replaced with “Cl. 1. S. a. 3.”
Pg 43: Figure caption “Cl. 1. S. b. 1.” replaced with “Cl. 2. S. b. 1.”
Pg 53: “Archangle” replaced with “Archangel”
Pg 59: “FRITTILLARY” replaced with “FRITILLARY” twice.