The Project Gutenberg eBook of I. Beówulf: an Anglo-Saxon poem. II. The fight at Finnsburh: a fragment.

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Title: I. Beówulf: an Anglo-Saxon poem. II. The fight at Finnsburh: a fragment.

Editor: James A. Harrison

Robert Sharp

Release date: January 1, 2006 [eBook #9700]
Most recently updated: April 11, 2021

Language: English, Old English

Credits: by Karl Hagen and PG Distributed Proofreaders

*** START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK I. BEÓWULF: AN ANGLO-SAXON POEM. II. THE FIGHT AT FINNSBURH: A FRAGMENT. ***

Contents

Preface to the Project Gutenberg Edition of Beowulf

This text is a corrected version of the fourth edition of Harrison and Sharp in its entirety. It comes in two basic versions. The base version (available in 8-bit (Latin-1) text and HTML) presents the original text as printed. This file contains the original version. It preserves the source-text's idiosyncratic use of accented vowels with the exception of y-circumflex (ŷ), which is replaced by y-acute (ý) to fit within the Latin-1 character set. Manifestly unintentional errors in the text have been corrected. In general, this has only been done when the text is internally inconsistent (e.g., a quotation in the glossary does not match the main text). Forms that represent deliberate editorial choice have not been altered, even where they appear wrong. (For example, some of the markings of vowel length do not reflect current scholarly consensus.) Where an uncorrected problem may confuse the reader, I have inserted a note explaining the difficulty, signed KTH. A complete list of the changes made is appended at the end of the file. In order to make the text more useful to modern readers, I have also produced a revised edition, available in Unicode (UTF-8) and HTML. Notes from the source text that indicate changes adopted in later editions have been incorporated directly into the text and apparatus. Further, long vowels are indicated with macrons, as is the common practice of most modern editions. Finally, the quantity of some words has been altered to the values currently accepted as correct. Quantities have not been changed when the difference is a matter of editorial interpretation (e.g., gäst vs. gæst in l. 102, etc.) A list of these altered quantities appears at the end of the list of corrections. Your browser must support the Unicode character set to use this file. To tell if your browser supports the necessary characters, check the table of vowel equivalents below. If you see any empty boxes or question marks in the "revised" columns, you should use the basic version.

Explanation of the Vowel Accenting

In general, Harrison and Sharp use circumflex accents over vowels to mark long vowels. For ash, however, the actual character 'æ' represents the long vowel. Short ash is rendered with a-umlaut (ä). The long diphthongs (ēo, ēa, etc.) are indicated with an acute accent over the second vowel (eó, eá, etc.).

Vowel Equivalents in Different Versions:

Orig.RevisedOrig.Revised
äæûū
ÄÆÛŪ
æǣýȳ
ÆǢÝȲ
âāēa
ÂĀĒa
êēēo
ÊĒĒo
îīīa
ÎĪĪa
ôōīo
ÔŌĪo

I. BEÓWULF:

AN ANGLO-SAXON POEM.

II. THE FIGHT AT FINNSBURH:

A FRAGMENT.

WITH TEXT AND GLOSSARY ON THE

BASIS OF M. HEYNE.

EDITED, CORRECTED, AND ENLARGED, BY

JAMES A. HARRISON, LL.D., LITT. D.,

PROFESSOR OF ENGLISH AND MODERN LANGUAGES,

WASHINGTON AND LEE UNIVERSITY,

AND

ROBERT SHARP (PH.D. LIPS.),

PROFESSOR OF GREEK AND ENGLISH,

TULANE UNIVERSITY OF LOUISIANA.

FOURTH EDITION. REVISED, WITH NOTES.

GINN & COMPANY

BOSTON—NEW YORK—CHICAGO—LONDON


Entered according to Act of Congress in the year 1883, by

JAMES ALBERT HARRISON AND ROBERT SHARP

in the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.


DEDICATED

TO

PROFESSOR F. A. MARCH,

OF LAFAYETTE COLLEGE, PA.,

AND

FREDERICK J. FURNIVALL, ESQ.

FOUNDER OF THE "NEW SHAKSPERE SOCIETY,"

THE "CHAUCER SOCIETY," ETC., ETC.


PREFACE TO THE FOURTH EDITION.

The favor with which the successive editions of "Beówulf" have been received during the past thirteen years emboldens the editors to continue the work of revision in a fourth issue, the most noticeable feature of which is a considerable body of explanatory Notes, now for the first time added. These Notes mainly concern themselves with new textual readings, with here and there grammatical, geographical, and archæological points that seemed worthy of explanation. Parallelisms and parallel passages are constantly compared, with the view of making the poem illustrate and explain itself. A few emendations and textual changes are suggested by the editors with all possible diffidence; numerous corrections have been made in the Glossary and List of Names; and the valuable parts of former Appendices have been embodied in the Notes.

For the Notes, the editors are much indebted to the various German periodicals mentioned on page 116, to the recent publications of Professors Earle and J. L. Hall, to Mr. S. A. Brooke, and to the Heyne-Socin edition of "Beówulf." No change has been made in the system of accentuation, though a few errors in quantity have been corrected. The editors are looking forward to an eventual fifth edition, in which an entirely new text will be presented.

October, 1893.

NOTE TO THE THIRD EDITION.

This third edition of the American issue of Beówulf will, the editors hope, be found more accurate and useful than either of the preceding editions. Further corrections in text and glossary have been made, and some additional new readings and suggestions will be found in two brief appendices at the back of the book. Students of the metrical system of Beówulf will find ample material for their studies in Sievers' exhaustive essay on that subject (Beiträge, X. 209-314).

Socin's edition of Heyne's Beówulf (called the fifth edition) has been utilized to some extent in this edition, though it unfortunately came too late to be freely used. While it repeats many of the omissions and inaccuracies of Heyne's fourth edition, it contains much that is valuable to the student, particularly in the notes and commentary. Students of the poem, which has been subjected to much searching criticism during the last decade, will also derive especial help from the contributions of Sievers and Kluge on difficult questions appertaining to it. Wülker's new edition (in the Grein Bibliothek) is of the highest value, however one may dissent from particular textual views laid down in the 'Berichtigter Text.' Paul and Braune's Beiträge contain a varied miscellany of hints, corrections, and suggestions principally embodying the views of Kluge, Cosijn, Sievers, and Bugge, some of the more important of which are found in the appendices to the present and the preceding edition. Holder and Zupitza, Sarrazin and Hermann Möller (Kiel, 1883), Heinzel (Anzeiger f.d. Alterthum, X.), Gering (Zacher's Zeitschrift, XII.), Brenner (Eng. Studien, IX.), and the contributors to Anglia, have assisted materially in the textual and metrical interpretation of the poem.

The subject of Anglo-Saxon quantity has been discussed in several able essays by Sievers, Sweet, Ten Brink (Anzeiger, f.d. Alterthum, V.), Kluge (Beiträge, XI.), and others; but so much is uncertain in this field that the editors have left undisturbed the marking of vowels found in the text of their original edition, while indicating in the appendices the now accepted views of scholars on the quantity of the personal pronouns (mê, wê, þû, þê, gê, hê); the adverb , etc. Perhaps it would be best to banish absolutely all attempts at marking quantities except in cases where the Ms. has them marked.

An approximately complete Bibliography of Beówulf literature will be found in Wülker's Grundriss and in Garnett's translation of the poem.

JAMES A. HARRISON,

ROBERT SHARP.

WASHINGTON AND LEE UNIVERSITY, LEXINGTON, VA., May, 1888.

NOTE TO THE SECOND REVISED EDITION.

The editors feel so encouraged at the kind reception accorded their edition of Beówulf (1883), that, in spite of its many shortcomings, they have determined to prepare a second revised edition of the book, and thus endeavor to extend its sphere of usefulness. About twenty errors had, notwithstanding a vigilant proof-reading, crept into the text,—errors in single letters, accents, and punctuation. These have been corrected, and it is hoped that the text has been rendered generally accurate and trustworthy. In the List of Names one or two corrections have been made, and in the Glossary numerous mistakes in gender, classification, and translation, apparently unavoidable in a first edition, have been rectified. Wherever these mistakes concern single letters, or occupy very small space, they have been corrected in the plates; where they are longer, and the expense of correcting them in the plates would have been very great, the editors have thought it best to include them in an Appendix of Corrections and Additions, which will be found at the back of the book. Students are accordingly referred to this Appendix for important longer corrections and additions. It is believed that the value of the book has been much enhanced by an Appendix of Recent Readings, based on late criticisms and essays from the pens of Sievers, Kluge, Cosijn, Holder, Wülker, and Sweet. A perplexed student, in turning to these suggested readings, will often find great help in unravelling obscure or corrupt passages.

The objectionable ä and æ, for the short and the long diphthong, have been retained in the revised edition, owing to the impossibility of removing them without entirely recasting the plates.

In conclusion, the editors would acknowledge their great indebtedness to the friends and critics whose remarks and criticisms have materially aided in the correction of the text,—particularly to Profs. C.P.G. Scott, Baskervill, Price, and J.M. Hart; to Prof. J.W. Bright; and to the authorities of Cornell University, for the loan of periodicals necessary to the completeness of the revision. While the second revised edition still contains much that might be improved, the editors cannot but hope that it is an advance on its predecessor, and that it will continue its work of extending the study of Old English throughout the land.

JUNE, 1885.

NOTE I.

The present work, carefully edited from Heyne's fourth edition, (Paderborn, 1879), is designed primarily for college classes in Anglo-Saxon, rather than for independent investigators or for seekers after a restored or ideal text. The need of an American edition of "Beówulf" has long been felt, as, hitherto, students have had either to send to Germany for a text, or secure, with great trouble, one of the scarce and expensive English editions. Heyne's first edition came out in 1863, and was followed in 1867 and 1873 by a second and a third edition, all three having essentially the same text.

So many important contributions to the "Beówulf" literature were, however, made between 1873 and 1879 that Heyne found it necessary to put forth a new edition (1879). In this new, last edition, the text was subjected to a careful revision, and was fortified by the views, contributions, and criticisms of other zealous scholars. In it the collation of the unique "Beówulf" Ms. (Vitellius A. 15: Cottonian Mss. of the British Museum), as made by E. Kölbing in Herrig's Archiv (Bd. 56; 1876), was followed wherever the present condition of the Ms. had to be discussed; and the researches of Bugge, Bieger, and others, on single passages, were made use of. The discussion of the metrical structure of the poem, as occurring in the second and third editions, was omitted in the fourth, owing to the many controversies in which the subject is still involved. The present editor has thought it best to do the same, though, happily, the subject of Old English Metrik is undergoing a steady illumination through the labors of Schipper and others.

Some errors and misplaced accents in Heyne's text have been corrected in the present edition, in which, as in the general revision of the text, the editor has been most kindly aided by Prof. J.M. Garnett, late Principal of St. John's College, Maryland.

In the preparation of the present school edition it has been thought best to omit Heyne's notes, as they concern themselves principally with conjectural emendations, substitutions of one reading for another, and discussions of the condition of the Ms. Until Wülker's text and the photographic fac-simile of the original Ms. are in the hands of all scholars, it will be better not to introduce such matters in the school room, where they would puzzle without instructing.

For convenience of reference, the editor has added a head-line to each "fit" of the poem, with a view to facilitate a knowledge of its episodes.

WASHINGTON AND LEE UNIVERSITY, LEXINGTON, VA., June, 1882.

NOTE II.

The editors now have the pleasure of presenting to the public a complete text and a tolerably complete glossary of "Beówulf." The edition is the first published in America, and the first of its special kind presented to the English public, and it is the initial volume of a "Library of Anglo-Saxon Poetry," to be edited under the same auspices and with the coöperation of distinguished scholars in this country. Among these scholars may be mentioned Professors F.A. March of Lafayette College, T.K. Price of Columbia College, and W.M. Baskervill of Vanderbilt University.

In the preparation of the Glossary the editors found it necessary to abandon a literal and exact translation of Heyne for several reasons, and among others from the fact that Heyne seems to be wrong in the translation of some of his illustrative quotations, and even translates the same passage in two or three different ways under different headings. The orthography of his glossary differs considerably from the orthography of his text. He fails to discriminate with due nicety the meanings of many of the words in his vocabulary, while criticism more recent than his latest edition (1879) has illustrated or overthrown several of his renderings. The references were found to be incorrect in innumerable instances, and had to be verified in every individual case so far as this was possible, a few only, which resisted all efforts at verification, having to be indicated by an interrogation point (?). The references are exceedingly numerous, and the labor of verifying them was naturally great. To many passages in the Glossary, where Heyne's translation could not be trusted with entire certainty, the editors have added other translations of phrases and sentences or of special words; and in this they have been aided by a careful study of the text and a comparison and utilization of the views of Kemble and Professor J.M. Garnett (who takes Grein for his foundation). Many new references have been added; and the various passages in which Heyne fails to indicate whether a given verb is weak or strong, or fails to point out the number, etc., of the illustrative form, have been corrected and made to harmonize with the general plan of the work. Numerous misprints in the glossary have also been corrected, and a brief glossary to the Finnsburh-fragment, prepared by Dr. Wm. Hand Browne, and supplemented and adapted by the editor-in-chief, has been added.

The editors think that they may without immodesty put forth for themselves something more than the claim of being re-translators of a translation: the present edition is, so far as they were able to make it so, an adaptation, correction, and extension of the work of the great German scholar to whose loving appreciation of the Anglo-Saxon epic all students of Old English owe a debt of gratitude. While following his usually sure and cautious guidance, and in the main appropriating his results, they have thought it best to deviate from him in the manner above indicated, whenever it seemed that he was wrong. The careful reader will notice at once the marks of interrogation which point out these deviations, or which introduce a point of view illustrative of, or supplementary to, the one given by the German editor. No doubt the editors are wrong themselves in many places,—"Beówulf" is a most difficult poem,—but their view may at least be defended by a reference to the original text, which they have faithfully and constantly consulted.

A good many cognate Modern English words have been introduced here and there in the Glossary with a view to illustration, and other addenda will be found between brackets and parenthetical marks.

It is hoped that the present edition of the most famous of Old English poems will do something to promote a valuable and interesting study.

JAMES A. HARRISON, Washington and Lee University, Lexington, Va.

ROBERT SHARP, University of Louisiana, New Orleans.

April, 1883.

The responsibility of the editors is as follows: H. is responsible for the Text, and for the Glossary from hrînan on; S. for the List of Names, and for the Glossary as far as hrînan.


ARGUMENT.

The only national [Anglo-Saxon] epic which has been preserved entire is Beówulf. Its argument is briefly as follows:—The poem opens with a few verses in praise of the Danish Kings, especially Scild, the son of Sceaf. His death is related, and his descendants briefly traced down to Hroðgar. Hroðgar, elated with his prosperity and success in war, builds a magnificent hall, which he calls Heorot. In this hall Hroðgar and his retainers live in joy and festivity, until a malignant fiend, called Grendel, jealous of their happiness, carries off by night thirty of Hroðgar's men, and devours them in his moorland retreat. These ravages go on for twelve years. Beówulf, a thane of Hygelac, King of the Goths, hearing of Hroðgar's calamities, sails from Sweden with fourteen warriors—to help him. They reach the Danish coast in safety; and, after an animated parley with Hroðgar's coastguard, who at first takes them for pirates, they are allowed to proceed to the royal hall, where they are well received by Hroðgar. A banquet ensues, during which Beówulf is taunted by the envious Hunferhð about his swimming-match with Breca, King of the Brondings. Beówulf gives the true account of the contest, and silences Hunferhð. At night-fall the King departs, leaving Beówulf in charge of the hall. Grendel soon breaks in, seizes and devours one of Beówulf's companions; is attacked by Beówulf, and, after losing an arm, which is torn off by Beówulf, escapes to the fens. The joy of Hroðgar and the Danes, and their festivities, are described, various episodes are introduced, and Beówulf and his companions receive splendid gifts. The next night Grendel's mother revenges her son by carrying off Æschere, the friend and councillor of Hroðgar, during the absence of Beówulf. Hroðgar appeals to Beówulf for vengeance, and describes the haunts of Grendel and his mother. They all proceed thither; the scenery of the lake, and the monsters that dwell in it, are described. Beówulf plunges into the water, and attacks Grendel's mother in her dwelling at the bottom of the lake. He at length overcomes her, and cuts off her head, together with that of Grendel, and brings the heads to Hroðgar. He then takes leave of Hroðgar, sails back to Sweden, and relates his adventures to Hygelac. Here the first half of the poem ends. The second begins with the accession of Beówulf to the throne, after the fall of Hygelac and his son Heardred. He rules prosperously for fifty years, till a dragon, brooding over a hidden treasure, begins to ravage the country, and destroys Beówulf's palace with fire. Beówulf sets out in quest of its hiding-place, with twelve men. Having a presentiment of his approaching end, he pauses and recalls to mind his past life and exploits. He then takes leave of his followers, one by one, and advances alone to attack the dragon. Unable, from the heat, to enter the cavern, he shouts aloud, and the dragon comes forth. The dragon's scaly hide is proof against Beówulf's sword, and he is reduced to great straits. Then Wiglaf, one of his followers, advances to help him. Wiglaf's shield is consumed by the dragon's fiery breath, and he is compelled to seek shelter under Beówulf's shield of iron. Beówulf's sword snaps asunder, and he is seized by the dragon. Wiglaf stabs the dragon from underneath, and Beówulf cuts it in two with his dagger. Feeling that his end is near, he bids Wiglaf bring out the treasures from the cavern, that he may see them before he dies. Wiglaf enters the dragon's den, which is described, returns to Beówulf, and receives his last commands. Beówulf dies, and Wiglaf bitterly reproaches his companions for their cowardice. The disastrous consequences of Beówulf's death are then foretold, and the poem ends with his funeral.—H. Sweet, in Warton's History of English Poetry, Vol. II. (ed. 1871). Cf. also Ten Brink's History of English Literature.

BEÓWULF.

I. THE PASSING OF SCYLD.

Hwät! we Gâr-Dena      in geâr-dagum
þeód-cyninga      þrym gefrunon,
hû þâ äðelingas      ellen fremedon.
Oft Scyld Scêfing      sceaðena þreátum,
5
monegum mægðum      meodo-setla ofteáh.
Egsode eorl,      syððan ærest wearð
feá-sceaft funden:      he þäs frôfre gebâd,
weôx under wolcnum,      weorð-myndum ðâh,
ôð þät him æghwylc      þâra ymb-sittendra
10
ofer hron-râde      hýran scolde,
gomban gyldan:      þät wäs gôd cyning!
þäm eafera wäs      äfter cenned
geong in geardum,      þone god sende
folce tô frôfre;      fyren-þearfe ongeat,
15
þät hie ær drugon      aldor-leáse
lange hwîle.      Him þäs lîf-freá,
wuldres wealdend,      worold-âre forgeaf;
Beówulf wäs breme      (blæd wîde sprang),
Scyldes eafera      Scede-landum in.
20
Swâ sceal geong guma,      gôde gewyrcean,
fromum feoh-giftum      on fäder wine,
þät hine on ylde      eft gewunigen
wil-gesîðas,      þonne wîg cume,
leóde gelæsten:      lof-dædum sceal
25
in mægða gehwære      man geþeón.
Him þâ Scyld gewât      tô gescäp-hwîle
fela-hrôr fêran      on freán wære;
hi hyne þâ ätbæron      tô brimes faroðe.
swæse gesîðas,      swâ he selfa bäd,
30
þenden wordum weóld      wine Scyldinga,
leóf land-fruma      lange âhte.
Þær ät hýðe stôd      hringed-stefna,
îsig and ûtfûs,      äðelinges fär;
â-lêdon þâ      leófne þeóden,
35
beága bryttan      on bearm scipes,
mærne be mäste.      Þær wäs mâdma fela,
of feor-wegum      frätwa gelæded:
ne hýrde ic cymlîcor      ceól gegyrwan
hilde-wæpnum      and heaðo-wædum,
40
billum and byrnum;      him on bearme läg
mâdma mänigo,      þâ him mid scoldon
on flôdes æht      feor gewîtan.
Nalas hi hine lässan      lâcum teódan,
þeód-gestreónum,      þonne þâ dydon,
45
þe hine ät frumsceafte      forð onsendon
ænne ofer ýðe      umbor wesende:
þâ gyt hie him âsetton      segen gyldenne
heáh ofer heáfod,      lêton holm beran,
geâfon on gâr-secg:      him wäs geômor sefa,
50
murnende môd.      Men ne cunnon
secgan tô soðe      sele-rædende,
häleð under heofenum,      hwâ þäm hläste onfêng.

II. THE HALL HEOROT.

Þâ wäs on burgum      Beówulf Scyldinga,
leóf leód-cyning,      longe þrage
55
folcum gefræge      (fäder ellor hwearf,
aldor of earde),      ôð þät him eft onwôc
heáh Healfdene;      heóld þenden lifde,
gamol and gûð-reów,      gläde Scyldingas.
Þäm feówer bearn      forð-gerîmed
60
in worold wôcun,      weoroda ræswan,
Heorogâr and Hrôðgâr      and Hâlga til;
hýrde ic, þat Elan cwên      Ongenþeówes wäs
Heaðoscilfinges      heals-gebedde.
Þâ wäs Hrôðgâre      here-spêd gyfen,
65
wîges weorð-mynd,      þät him his wine-mâgas
georne hýrdon,      ôð þät seó geogoð geweôx,
mago-driht micel.      Him on môd bearn,
þät heal-reced      hâtan wolde,
medo-ärn micel      men gewyrcean,
70
þone yldo bearn      æfre gefrunon,
and þær on innan      eall gedælan
geongum and ealdum,      swylc him god sealde,
bûton folc-scare      and feorum gumena.
Þâ ic wîde gefrägn      weorc gebannan
75
manigre mægðe      geond þisne middan-geard,
folc-stede frätwan.      Him on fyrste gelomp
ädre mid yldum,      þät hit wearð eal gearo,
heal-ärna mæst;      scôp him Heort naman,
se þe his wordes geweald      wîde häfde.
80
He beót ne âlêh,      beágas dælde,
sinc ät symle.      Sele hlifade
heáh and horn-geáp:      heaðo-wylma bâd,
lâðan lîges;      ne wäs hit lenge þâ gen
þät se ecg-hete      âðum-swerian
85
äfter wäl-nîðe      wäcnan scolde.
Þâ se ellen-gæst      earfoðlîce
þrage geþolode,      se þe in þýstrum bâd,
þät he dôgora gehwâm      dreám gehýrde
hlûdne in healle;      þær wäs hearpan swêg,
90
swutol sang scôpes.      Sägde se þe cûðe
frum-sceaft fira      feorran reccan,
cwäð þät se älmihtiga      eorðan worhte,
wlite-beorhtne wang,      swâ wäter bebûgeð,
gesette sige-hrêðig      sunnan and mônan
95
leóman tô leóhte      land-bûendum,
and gefrätwade      foldan sceátas
leomum and leáfum;      lîf eác gesceôp
cynna gehwylcum,      þâra þe cwice hwyrfað.
Swâ þâ driht-guman      dreámum lifdon
100
eádiglîce,      ôð þät ân ongan
fyrene fremman,      feónd on helle:
wäs se grimma gäst      Grendel hâten,
mære mearc-stapa,      se þe môras heóld,
fen and fästen;      fîfel-cynnes eard
105
won-sælig wer      weardode hwîle,
siððan him scyppend      forscrifen häfde.
In Caines cynne      þone cwealm gewräc,
êce drihten,      þäs þe he Abel slôg;
ne gefeah he þære fæhðe,      ac he hine feor forwräc,
110
metod for þý mâne      man-cynne fram.
Þanon untydras      ealle onwôcon,
eotenas and ylfe      and orcnêas,
swylce gigantas,      þâ wið gode wunnon
lange þrage;      he him þäs leán forgeald.

III. GRENDEL'S VISITS.

115
Gewât þâ neósian,      syððan niht becom,
heán hûses,      hû hit Hring-Dene
äfter beór-þege      gebûn häfdon.
Fand þâ þær inne      äðelinga gedriht
swefan äfter symble;      sorge ne cûðon,
120
won-sceaft wera.      Wiht unhælo
grim and grædig      gearo sôna wäs,
reóc and rêðe,      and on räste genam
þritig þegna:      þanon eft gewât
hûðe hrêmig      tô hâm faran,
125
mid þære wäl-fylle      wîca neósan.
Þâ wäs on uhtan      mid ær-däge
Grendles gûð-cräft      gumum undyrne:
þâ wäs äfter wiste      wôp up âhafen,
micel morgen-swêg.      Mære þeóden,
130
äðeling ær-gôd,      unblîðe sät,
þolode þrýð-swýð,      þegn-sorge dreáh,
syððan hie þäs lâðan      lâst sceáwedon,
wergan gâstes;      wäs þät gewin tô strang,
lâð and longsum.      Näs hit lengra fyrst,
135
ac ymb âne niht      eft gefremede
morð-beala mâre      and nô mearn fore
fæhðe and fyrene;      wäs tô fäst on þâm.
Þâ wäs eáð-fynde,      þe him elles hwær
gerûmlîcor      räste sôhte,
140
bed äfter bûrum,      þâ him gebeácnod wäs,
gesägd sôðlîce      sweotolan tâcne
heal-þegnes hete;      heóld hine syððan
fyr and fästor,      se þäm feónde ätwand.
Swâ rîxode      and wið rihte wan
145
âna wið eallum,      ôð þät îdel stôd
hûsa sêlest.      Wäs seó hwîl micel:
twelf wintra tîd      torn geþolode
wine Scyldinga,      weána gehwelcne,
sîdra sorga;      forþam syððan wearð
150
ylda bearnum      undyrne cûð,
gyddum geômore,      þätte Grendel wan,
hwîle wið Hrôðgâr;—      hete-nîðas wäg,
fyrene and fæhðe      fela missera,
singale säce,      sibbe ne wolde
155
wið manna hwone      mägenes Deniga
feorh-bealo feorran,      feó þingian,
ne þær nænig witena      wênan þorfte
beorhtre bôte      tô banan folmum;
atol äglæca      êhtende wäs,
160
deorc deáð-scûa      duguðe and geogoðe
seomade and syrede.      Sin-nihte heóld
mistige môras;      men ne cunnon,
hwyder hel-rûnan      hwyrftum scrîðað.
Swâ fela fyrena      feónd man-cynnes,
165
atol ân-gengea,      oft gefremede
heardra hýnða;      Heorot eardode,
sinc-fâge sel      sweartum nihtum
(nô he þone gif-stôl      grêtan môste,
mâððum for metode,      ne his myne wisse);
170
þät wäs wræc micel      wine Scyldinga,
môdes brecða.      Monig-oft gesät
rîce tô rûne;      ræd eahtedon,
hwät swîð-ferhðum      sêlest wære
wið fær-gryrum      tô gefremmanne.
175
Hwîlum hie gehêton      ät härg-trafum
wig-weorðunga,      wordum bædon,
þät him gâst-bona      geóce gefremede
wið þeód-þreáum.      Swylc wäs þeáw hyra,
hæðenra hyht;      helle gemundon
180
in môd-sefan,      metod hie ne cûðon,
dæda dêmend,      ne wiston hie drihten god,
ne hie hûru heofena helm      hêrian ne cûðon,
wuldres waldend.      Wâ bið þäm þe sceal
þurh slîðne nîð      sâwle bescûfan
185
in fýres fäðm,      frôfre ne wênan,
wihte gewendan;      wel bið þäm þe môt
äfter deáð-däge      drihten sêcean
and tô fäder fäðmum      freoðo wilnian.

IV. HYGELAC'S THANE.

Swâ þâ mæl-ceare      maga Healfdenes
190
singala seáð;      ne mihte snotor häleð
weán onwendan:      wäs þät gewin tô swýð,
lâð and longsum,      þe on þâ leóde becom,
nýd-wracu nîð-grim,      niht-bealwa mæst.
Þät fram hâm gefrägn      Higelâces þegn,
195
gôd mid Geátum,      Grendles dæda:
se wäs mon-cynnes      mägenes strengest
on þäm däge      þysses lîfes,
äðele and eácen.      Hêt him ýð-lidan
gôdne gegyrwan;      cwäð he gûð-cyning
200
ofer swan-râde      sêcean wolde,
mærne þeóden,      þâ him wäs manna þearf.
Þone sîð-fät him      snotere ceorlas
lyt-hwôn lôgon,      þeáh he him leóf wære;
hwetton higerôfne,      hæl sceáwedon.
205
Häfde se gôda      Geáta leóda
cempan gecorone,      þâra þe he cênoste
findan mihte;      fîftena sum
sund-wudu sôhte;      secg wîsade,
lagu-cräftig mon,      land-gemyrcu.
210
Fyrst forð gewât:      flota wäs on ýðum,
bât under beorge.      Beornas gearwe
on stefn stigon;      streámas wundon
sund wið sande;      secgas bæron
on bearm nacan      beorhte frätwe,
215
gûð-searo geatolîc;      guman ût scufon,
weras on wil-sîð      wudu bundenne.
Gewât þâ ofer wæg-holm      winde gefýsed
flota fâmig-heals      fugle gelîcost,
ôð þät ymb ân-tîd      ôðres dôgores
220
wunden-stefna      gewaden häfde,
þät þâ lîðende      land gesâwon,
brim-clifu blîcan,      beorgas steápe,
sîde sæ-nässas:      þâ wäs sund liden,
eoletes ät ende.      Þanon up hraðe
225
Wedera leóde      on wang stigon,
sæ-wudu sældon      (syrcan hrysedon,
gûð-gewædo);      gode þancedon,
þäs þe him ýð-lâde      eáðe wurdon.
Þâ of wealle geseah      weard Scildinga,
230
se þe holm-clifu      healdan scolde,
beran ofer bolcan      beorhte randas,
fyrd-searu fûslîcu;      hine fyrwyt bräc
môd-gehygdum,      hwät þâ men wæron.
Gewât him þâ tô waroðe      wicge rîdan
235
þegn Hrôðgâres,      þrymmum cwehte
mägen-wudu mundum,      meðel-wordum frägn:
"Hwät syndon ge      searo-häbbendra
"byrnum werede,      þe þus brontne ceól
"ofer lagu-stræte      lædan cwômon,
240
"hider ofer holmas      helmas bæron?
"Ic wäs ende-sæta,      æg-wearde heóld,
"þät on land Dena      lâðra nænig
"mid scip-herge      sceððan ne meahte.
"Nô her cûðlîcor      cuman ongunnon
245
"lind-häbbende;      ne ge leáfnes-word
"gûð-fremmendra      gearwe ne wisson,
"mâga gemêdu.      Næfre ic mâran geseah
"eorla ofer eorðan,      þonne is eówer sum,
"secg on searwum;      nis þät seld-guma
250
"wæpnum geweorðad,      näfne him his wlite leóge,
"ænlîc an-sýn.      Nu ic eówer sceal
"frum-cyn witan,      ær ge fyr heonan
"leáse sceáweras      on land Dena
"furður fêran.      Nu ge feor-bûend,
255
"mere-lîðende,      mînne gehýrað
"ân-fealdne geþôht:      ôfost is sêlest
"tô gecýðanne,      hwanan eówre cyme syndon."

V. THE ERRAND.

Him se yldesta      andswarode,
werodes wîsa,      word-hord onleác:
260
"We synt gum-cynnes      Geáta leóde
"and Higelâces      heorð-geneátas.
"Wäs mîn fäder      folcum gecýðed,
"äðele ord-fruma      Ecgþeów hâten;
"gebâd wintra worn,      ær he on weg hwurfe,
265
"gamol of geardum;      hine gearwe geman
"witena wel-hwylc      wîde geond eorðan.—
"We þurh holdne hige      hlâford þinne,
"sunu Healfdenes,      sêcean cwômon,
"leód-gebyrgean:      wes þu ûs lârena gôd!
270
"Habbað we tô þäm mæran      micel ærende
"Deniga freán;      ne sceal þær dyrne sum
"wesan, þäs ic wêne.      Þu wâst, gif hit is,
"swâ we sôðlice      secgan hýrdon,
"þät mid Scyldingum      sceaða ic nât hwylc,
275
"deógol dæd-hata,      deorcum nihtum
"eáweð þurh egsan      uncûðne nîð,
"hýnðu and hrâ-fyl.      Ic þäs Hrôðgâr mäg
"þurh rûmne sefan      ræd gelæran,
"hû he frôd and gôd      feónd oferswýðeð,
280
"gyf him ed-wendan      æfre scolde
"bealuwa bisigu,      bôt eft cuman
"and þâ cear-wylmas      côlran wurðað;
"oððe â syððan      earfoð-þrage,
"þreá-nýd þolað,      þenden þær wunað
285
"on heáh-stede      hûsa sêlest."
Weard maðelode,      þær on wicge sät
ombeht unforht:      "Æghwäðres sceal
"scearp scyld-wîga      gescâd witan,
"worda and worca,      se þe wel þenceð.
290
"Ic þät gehýre,      þät þis is hold weorod
"freán Scyldinga.      Gewîtað forð beran
"wæpen and gewædu,      ic eów wîsige:
"swylce ic magu-þegnas      mîne hâte
"wið feónda gehwone      flotan eówerne,
295
"niw-tyrwedne      nacan on sande
"ârum healdan,      ôð þät eft byreð
"ofer lagu-streámas      leófne mannan
"wudu wunden-hals      tô Weder-mearce.
"Gûð-fremmendra      swylcum gifeðe bið,
300
"þät þone hilde-ræs      hâl gedîgeð."
Gewiton him þâ fêran      (flota stille bâd,
seomode on sâle      sîd-fäðmed scyp,
on ancre fäst);      eofor-lîc scionon
ofer hleór-beran      gehroden golde
305
fâh and fýr-heard,      ferh wearde heóld.
Gûðmôde grummon,      guman onetton,
sigon ätsomne,      ôð þät hy säl timbred
geatolîc and gold-fâh      ongytan mihton;
þät wäs fore-mærost      fold-bûendum
310
receda under roderum,      on þäm se rîca bâd;
lixte se leóma      ofer landa fela.
Him þâ hilde-deór      hof môdigra
torht getæhte,      þät hie him tô mihton
gegnum gangan;      gûð-beorna sum
315
wicg gewende,      word äfter cwäð:
"Mæl is me tô fêran;      fäder alwalda
"mid âr-stafum      eówic gehealde
"sîða gesunde!      ic tô sæ wille,
"wið wrâð werod      wearde healdan."

VI. BEÓWULF'S SPEECH.

320
Stræt wäs stân-fâh,      stîg wîsode
gumum ätgädere.      Gûð-byrne scân
heard hond-locen,      hring-îren scîr
song in searwum,      þâ hie tô sele furðum
in hyra gryre-geatwum      gangan cwômon.
325
Setton sæ-mêðe      sîde scyldas,
rondas regn-hearde      wið þäs recedes weal,
bugon þâ tô bence;      byrnan hringdon,
gûð-searo gumena;      gâras stôdon,
sæ-manna searo,      samod ätgädere,
330
äsc-holt ufan græg:      wäs se îren-þreát
wæpnum gewurðad.      Þâ þær wlonc häleð
oret-mecgas      äfter äðelum frägn:
"Hwanon ferigeað ge      fätte scyldas,
"græge syrcan      and grîm-helmas,
335
"here-sceafta heáp?—      Ic eom Hrôðgâres
"âr and ombiht.      Ne seah ic el-þeódige
"þus manige men      môdiglîcran.
"Wên' ic þät ge for wlenco,      nalles for wräc-sîðum,
"ac for hige-þrymmum      Hrôðgâr sôhton."
340
Him þâ ellen-rôf      andswarode,
wlanc Wedera leód      word äfter spräc,
heard under helme:      "We synt Higelâces
"beód-geneátas;      Beówulf is mîn nama.
"Wille ic âsecgan      suna Healfdenes,
345
"mærum þeódne      mîn ærende,
"aldre þînum,      gif he ûs geunnan wile,
"þät we hine swâ gôdne      grêtan môton."
Wulfgâr maðelode      (þät wäs Wendla leód,
wäs his môd-sefa      manegum gecýðed,
350
wîg and wîs-dôm):      "ic þäs wine Deniga,
"freán Scildinga      frinan wille,
"beága bryttan,      swâ þu bêna eart,
"þeóden mærne      ymb þînne sîð ;
"and þe þâ andsware      ädre gecýðan,
355
"þe me se gôda      âgifan þenceð."
Hwearf þâ hrädlîce,      þær Hrôðgâr sät,
eald and unhâr      mid his eorla gedriht;
eode ellen-rôf,      þät he for eaxlum gestôd
Deniga freán,      cûðe he duguðe þeáw.
360
Wulfgâr maðelode      tô his wine-drihtne:
"Her syndon geferede      feorran cumene
"ofer geofenes begang      Geáta leóde:
"þone yldestan      oret-mecgas
"Beówulf nemnað.      Hy bênan synt,
365
"þät hie, þeóden mîn,      wið þe môton
"wordum wrixlan;      nô þu him wearne geteóh,
"þînra gegn-cwida      glädnian, Hrôðgâr!
"Hy on wîg-geatwum      wyrðe þinceað
"eorla geæhtlan;      hûru se aldor deáh,
370
"se þæm heaðo-rincum      hider wîsade."

VII. HROTHGAR'S WELCOME.

Hrôðgâr maðelode,      helm Scyldinga:
"Ic hine cûðe      cniht-wesende.
"Wäs his eald-fäder      Ecgþeó hâten,
"þäm tô hâm forgeaf      Hrêðel Geáta
375
"ângan dôhtor;      is his eafora nu
"heard her cumen,      sôhte holdne wine.
"þonne sägdon þät      sæ-lîðende,
"þâ þe gif-sceattas      Geáta fyredon
"þyder tô þance,      þät he þrittiges
380
"manna mägen-cräft      on his mund-grîpe
"heaðo-rôf häbbe.      Hine hâlig god
"for âr-stafum      us onsende,
"tô West-Denum,      þäs ic wên häbbe,
"wið Grendles gryre:      ic þäm gôdan sceal
385
"for his môd-þräce      mâdmas beódan.
"Beó þu on ôfeste,      hât hig in gân,
"seón sibbe-gedriht      samod ätgädere;
"gesaga him eác wordum,      þät hie sint wil-cuman
"Deniga leódum."      Þâ wið duru healle
390
Wulfgâr eode,      word inne âbeád:
"Eów hêt secgan      sige-drihten mîn,
"aldor Eást-Dena,      þät he eówer äðelu can
"and ge him syndon      ofer sæ-wylmas,
"heard-hicgende,      hider wil-cuman.
395
"Nu ge môton gangan      in eówrum guð-geatawum,
"under here-grîman,      Hrôðgâr geseón;
"lætað hilde-bord      her onbidian,
"wudu wäl-sceaftas,      worda geþinges."
Ârâs þâ se rîca,      ymb hine rinc manig,
400
þryðlîc þegna heáp;      sume þær bidon,
heaðo-reáf heóldon,      swâ him se hearda bebeád.
Snyredon ätsomne,      þâ secg wîsode
under Heorotes hrôf;      hyge-rôf eode,
heard under helme,      þät he on heoðe gestôd.
405
Beówulf maðelode      (on him byrne scân,
searo-net seówed      smiðes or-þancum):
"Wes þu Hrôðgâr hâl!      ic eom Higelâces
"mæg and mago-þegn;      häbbe ic mærða fela
"ongunnen on geogoðe.      Me wearð Grendles þing
410
"on mînre êðel-tyrf      undyrne cûð:
"secgað sæ-lîðend,      þät þes sele stande,
"reced sêlesta,      rinca gehwylcum
"îdel and unnyt,      siððan æfen-leóht
"under heofenes hâdor      beholen weorðeð.
415
"Þâ me þät gelærdon      leóde mîne,
"þâ sêlestan,      snotere ceorlas,
"þeóden Hrôðgâr,      þät ic þe sôhte;
"forþan hie mägenes cräft      mînne cûðon:
"selfe ofersâwon,      þâ ic of searwum cwom,
420
"fâh from feóndum,      þær ic fîfe geband,
"ýðde eotena cyn,      and on ýðum slôg
"niceras nihtes,      nearo-þearfe dreáh,
"wräc Wedera nîð      (weán âhsodon)
"forgrand gramum;      and nu wið Grendel sceal,
425
"wið þam aglæcan,      âna gehegan
"þing wið þyrse.      Ic þe nu þâ,
"brego Beorht-Dena,      biddan wille,
"eodor Scyldinga,      ânre bêne;
"þät þu me ne forwyrne,      wîgendra hleó,
430
"freó-wine folca,      nu ic þus feorran com,
"þät ic môte âna      and mînra eorla gedryht,
"þes hearda heáp,      Heorot fælsian.
"Häbbe ic eác geâhsod,      þät se äglæca
"for his won-hýdum      wæpna ne rêceð;
435
"ic þät þonne forhicge,      swâ me Higelâc sîe,
"mîn mon-drihten,      môdes blîðe,
"þät ic sweord bere      oððe sîdne scyld
"geolo-rand tô gûðe;      ac ic mid grâpe sceal
"fôn wið feónde      and ymb feorh sacan,
440
"lâð wið lâðum;      þær gelýfan sceal
"dryhtnes dôme      se þe hine deáð nimeð.
"Wên' ic þät he wille,      gif he wealdan môt,
"in þäm gûð-sele      Geátena leóde
"etan unforhte,      swâ he oft dyde
445
"mägen Hrêðmanna.      Nâ þu mînne þearft
"hafalan hýdan,      ac he me habban wile
"dreóre fâhne,      gif mec deáð nimeð;
"byreð blôdig wäl,      byrgean þenceð,
"eteð ân-genga      unmurnlîce,
450
"mearcað môr-hopu:      nô þu ymb mînes ne þearft
"lîces feorme      leng sorgian.
"Onsend Higelâce,      gif mec hild nime,
"beadu-scrûda betst,      þät mîne breóst wereð,
"hrägla sêlest;      þät is Hrêðlan lâf,
455
"Wêlandes geweorc.      Gæð â Wyrd swâ hió scel!"

VIII. HROTHGAR TELLS OF GRENDEL.

Hrôðgâr maðelode,      helm Scyldinga:
"for were-fyhtum þu,      wine mîn Beówulf,
"and for âr-stafum      ûsic sôhtest.
"Geslôh þin fäder      fæhðe mæste,
460
"wearð he Heaðolâfe      tô hand-bonan
"mid Wilfingum;      þâ hine Wedera cyn
"for here-brôgan      habban ne mihte.
"Þanon he gesôhte      Sûð-Dena folc
"ofer ýða gewealc,      Âr-Scyldinga;
465
"þâ ic furðum weóld      folce Deninga,
"and on geogoðe heóld      gimme-rîce
"hord-burh häleða:      þâ wäs Heregâr deád,
"mîn yldra mæg      unlifigende,
"bearn Healfdenes.      Se wäs betera þonne ic!
470
"Siððan þâ fæhðe      feó þingode;
"sende ic Wylfingum      ofer wäteres hrycg
"ealde mâdmas:      he me âðas swôr.
"Sorh is me tô secganne      on sefan mînum
"gumena ængum,      hwät me Grendel hafað
475
"hýnðo on Heorote      mid his hete-þancum,
"fær-nîða gefremed.      Is mîn flet-werod,
"wîg-heáp gewanod;      hie Wyrd forsweóp
"on Grendles gryre.      God eáðe mäg
"þone dol-scaðan      dæda getwæfan!
480
"Ful oft gebeótedon      beóre druncne
"ofer ealo-wæge      oret-mecgas,
"þät hie in beór-sele      bîdan woldon
"Grendles gûðe      mid gryrum ecga.
"Þonne wäs þeós medo-heal      on morgen-tîd,
485
"driht-sele dreór-fâh,      þonne däg lixte,
"eal benc-þelu      blôde bestýmed,
"heall heoru-dreóre:      âhte ic holdra þý läs,
"deórre duguðe,      þe þâ deáð fornam.
"Site nu tô symle      and onsæl meoto,
490
"sige-hrêð secgum,      swâ þîn sefa hwette!"
Þâ wäs Geát-mäcgum      geador ätsomne
on beór-sele      benc gerýmed;
þær swîð-ferhðe      sittan eodon
þryðum dealle.      Þegn nytte beheóld,
495
se þe on handa bär      hroden ealo-wæge,
scencte scîr wered.      Scôp hwîlum sang
hâdor on Heorote;      þær wäs häleða dreám,
duguð unlytel      Dena and Wedera.

IX. HUNFERTH OBJECTS TO BEÓWULF.

Ûnferð maðelode,      Ecglâfes bearn,
500
þe ät fôtum sät      freán Scyldinga;
onband beadu-rûne      (wäs him Beówulfes sîð,
môdges mere-faran,      micel äf-þunca,
forþon þe he ne ûðe,      þät ænig ôðer man
æfre mærða þon mâ      middan-geardes
505
gehêdde under heofenum      þonne he sylfa):
"Eart þu se Beówulf,      se þe wið Brecan wunne,
"on sîdne sæ      ymb sund flite,
"þær git for wlence      wada cunnedon
"and for dol-gilpe      on deóp wäter
510
"aldrum nêðdon?      Ne inc ænig mon,
"ne leóf ne lâð,      beleán mihte
"sorh-fullne sîð;      þâ git on sund reón,
"þær git eágor-streám      earmum þehton,
"mæton mere-stræta,      mundum brugdon,
515
"glidon ofer gâr-secg;      geofon ýðum weól,
"wintres wylme.      Git on wäteres æht
"seofon niht swuncon;      he þe ät sunde oferflât,
"häfde mâre mägen.      Þâ hine on morgen-tîd
"on Heaðo-ræmas      holm up ätbär,
520
"þonon he gesôhte      swæsne êðel
"leóf his leódum      lond Brondinga,
"freoðo-burh fägere,      þær he folc âhte,
"burg and beágas.      Beót eal wið þe
"sunu Beánstânes      sôðe gelæste.
525
"Þonne wêne ic tô þe      wyrsan geþinges,
"þeáh þu heaðo-ræsa      gehwær dohte,
"grimre gûðe,      gif þu Grendles dearst
"niht-longne fyrst      neán bîdan!"
Beówulf maðelode,      bearn Ecgþeówes:
530
"Hwät þu worn fela,      wine mîn Ûnferð,
"beóre druncen      ymb Brecan spræce,
"sägdest from his sîðe!      Sôð ic talige,
"þät ic mere-strengo      mâran âhte,
"earfeðo on ýðum,      þonne ænig ôðer man.
535
"Wit þät gecwædon      cniht-wesende
"and gebeótedon      (wæron begen þâ git
"on geogoð-feore)      þät wit on gâr-secg ût
"aldrum nêðdon;      and þät geäfndon swâ.
"Häfdon swurd nacod,      þâ wit on sund reón,
540
"heard on handa,      wit unc wið hron-fixas
"werian þôhton.      Nô he wiht fram me
"flôd-ýðum feor      fleótan meahte,
"hraðor on holme,      nô ic fram him wolde.
"Þâ wit ätsomne      on sæ wæron
545
"fîf nihta fyrst,      ôð þät unc flôd tôdrâf,
"wado weallende,      wedera cealdost,
"nîpende niht      and norðan wind
"heaðo-grim andhwearf;      hreó wæron ýða,
"Wäs mere-fixa      môd onhrêred:
550
"þær me wið lâðum      lîc-syrce mîn,
"heard hond-locen,      helpe gefremede;
"beado-hrägl broden      on breóstum läg,
"golde gegyrwed.      Me tô grunde teáh
"fâh feónd-scaða,      fäste häfde
555
"grim on grâpe:      hwäðre me gyfeðe wearð,
"þät ic aglæcan      orde geræhte,
"hilde-bille;      heaðo-ræs fornam
"mihtig mere-deór      þurh mîne hand.

X. BEÓWULF'S CONTEST WITH BRECA.—THE FEAST.

"Swâ mec gelôme      lâð-geteónan
560
"þreátedon þearle.      Ic him þênode
"deóran sweorde,      swâ hit gedêfe wäs;
"näs hie þære fylle      gefeán häfdon,
"mân-fordædlan,      þät hie me þêgon,
"symbel ymb-sæton      sæ-grunde neáh,
565
"ac on mergenne      mêcum wunde
"be ýð-lâfe      uppe lægon,
"sweordum âswefede,      þät syððan nâ
"ymb brontne ford      brim-lîðende
"lâde ne letton.      Leóht eástan com,
570
"beorht beácen godes;      brimu swaðredon,
"þät ic sæ-nässas      geseón mihte,
"windige weallas.      Wyrd oft nereð
"unfægne eorl,      ðonne his ellen deáh!
"Hwäðere me gesælde,      þät ic mid sweorde ofslôh
575
"niceras nigene.      Nô ic on niht gefrägn
"under heofones hwealf      heardran feohtan,
"ne on êg-streámum      earmran mannan;
"hwäðere ic fâra feng      feore gedîgde,
"siðes wêrig.      Þâ mec sæ ôðbär,
580
"flôd äfter faroðe,      on Finna land,
"wadu weallendu.      Nô ic wiht fram þe
"swylcra searo-nîða      secgan hýrde,
"billa brôgan:      Breca næfre git
"ät heaðo-lâce,      ne gehwäðer incer
585
"swâ deórlîce      dæd gefremede
"fâgum sweordum      . . . . . . .
". . . . . . .      nô ic þäs gylpe;
"þeáh þu þînum brôðrum      tô banan wurde,
"heáfod-mægum;      þäs þu in helle scealt
590
"werhðo dreógan,      þeáh þîn wit duge,
"Secge ic þe tô sôðe,      sunu Ecglâfes,
"þät næfre Grendel swâ fela      gryra gefremede,
"atol äglæca      ealdre þînum,
"hýnðo on Heorote,      gif þîn hige wære,
595
"sefa swâ searo-grim,      swâ þu self talast.
"Ac he hafað onfunden,      þät he þâ fæhðe ne þearf,
"atole ecg-þräce      eówer leóde
"swîðe onsittan,      Sige-Scyldinga;
"nymeð nýd-bâde,      nænegum ârað
600
"leóde Deniga,      ac he on lust wîgeð,
"swefeð ond sendeð,      secce ne wêneð
"tô Gâr-Denum.      Ac him Geáta sceal
"eafoð and ellen      ungeâra nu
"gûðe gebeódan.      Gæð eft se þe môt
605
"tô medo môdig,      siððan morgen-leóht
"ofer ylda bearn      ôðres dôgores,
"sunne swegl-wered      sûðan scîneð!"
Þâ wäs on sâlum      sinces brytta
gamol-feax and gûð-rôf,      geóce gelýfde
610
brego Beorht-Dena;      gehýrde on Beówulfe
folces hyrde      fäst-rædne geþôht.
Þær wäs häleða hleahtor;      hlyn swynsode,
word wæron wynsume.      Eode Wealhþeów forð,
cwên Hrôðgâres,      cynna gemyndig,
615
grêtte gold-hroden      guman on healle,
and þâ freólîc wîf      ful gesealde
ærest Eást-Dena      êðel-wearde,
bäd hine blîðne      ät þære beór-þege,
leódum leófne;      he on lust geþeah
620
symbel and sele-ful,      sige-rôf kyning.
Ymb-eode þâ      ides Helminga
duguðe and geogoðe      dæl æghwylcne;
sinc-fato sealde,      ôð þät sæl âlamp,
þät hió Beówulfe,      beág-hroden cwên,
625
môde geþungen,      medo-ful ätbär;
grêtte Geáta leód,      gode þancode
wîs-fäst wordum,      þäs þe hire se willa gelamp,
þät heó on ænigne      eorl gelýfde
fyrena frôfre.      He þät ful geþeah,
630
wäl-reów wîga      ät Wealhþeón,
and þâ gyddode      gûðe gefýsed,
Beówulf maðelode,      bearn Ecgþeówes:
"Ic þät hogode,      þâ ic on holm gestâh,
"sæ-bât gesät      mid mînra secga gedriht,
635
"þät ic ânunga      eówra leóda
"willan geworhte,      oððe on wäl crunge,
"feónd-grâpum fäst.      Ic gefremman sceal
"eorlîc ellen,      oððe ende-däg
"on þisse meodu-healle      mînne gebîdan."
640
Þam wîfe þâ word      wel lîcodon,
gilp-cwide Geátes;      eode gold-hroden
freólîcu folc-cwên      tô hire freán sittan.
Þâ wäs eft swâ ær      inne on healle
þryð-word sprecen,      þeód on sælum,
645
sige-folca swêg,      ôð þät semninga
sunu Healfdenes      sêcean wolde
æfen-räste;      wiste ät þäm ahlæcan
tô þäm heáh-sele      hilde geþinged,
siððan hie sunnan leóht      geseón ne meahton,
650
oððe nîpende      niht ofer ealle,
scadu-helma gesceapu      scrîðan cwôman,
wan under wolcnum.      Werod eall ârâs.
Grêtte þâ giddum      guma ôðerne,
Hrôðgâr Beówulf,      and him hæl âbeád,
655
wîn-ärnes geweald      and þät word âcwäð:
"Næfre ic ænegum men      ær âlýfde,
"siððan ic hond and rond      hebban mihte,
"þryð-ärn Dena      bûton þe nu þâ.
"Hafa nu and geheald      hûsa sêlest;
660
"gemyne mærðo,      mägen-ellen cýð,
"waca wið wrâðum!      Ne bið þe wilna gâd,
"gif þu þät ellen-weorc      aldre gedîgest."

XI. THE WATCH FOR GRENDEL.

Þâ him Hrôðgâr gewât      mid his häleða gedryht,
eodur Scyldinga      ût of healle;
665
wolde wîg-fruma      Wealhþeó sêcan,
cwên tô gebeddan      Häfde kyninga wuldor
Grendle tô-geánes,      swâ guman gefrungon,
sele-weard âseted,      sundor-nytte beheóld
ymb aldor Dena,      eoton weard âbeád;
670
hûru Geáta leód      georne trûwode
môdgan mägnes,      metodes hyldo.
Þâ he him of dyde      îsern-byrnan,
helm of hafelan,      sealde his hyrsted sweord,
îrena cyst      ombiht-þegne,
675
and gehealdan hêt      hilde-geatwe.
Gespräc þâ se gôda      gylp-worda sum
Beówulf Geáta,      ær he on bed stige:
"Nô ic me an here-wæsmum      hnâgran talige
"gûð-geweorca,      þonne Grendel hine;
680
"forþan ic hine sweorde      swebban nelle,
"aldre beneótan,      þeáh ic eal mæge.
"Nât he þâra gôda,      þät he me on-geán sleá,
"rand geheáwe,      þeáh þe he rôf sîe
"nîð-geweorca;      ac wit on niht sculon
685
"secge ofersittan,      gif he gesêcean dear
"wîg ofer wæpen,      and siððan witig god
"on swâ hwäðere hond      hâlig dryhten
"mærðo dême,      swâ him gemet þince."
Hylde hine þâ heaðo-deór,      hleór-bolster onfêng
690
eorles andwlitan;      and hine ymb monig
snellîc sæ-rinc      sele-reste gebeáh.
Nænig heora þôhte      þät he þanon scolde
eft eard-lufan      æfre gesêcean,
folc oððe freó-burh,      þær he âfêded wäs,
695
ac hie häfdon gefrunen,      þät hie ær tô fela micles
in þäm wîn-sele      wäl-deáð fornam,
Denigea leóde.      Ac him dryhten forgeaf
wîg-spêda gewiofu,      Wedera leódum
frôfor and fultum,      þät hie feónd heora
700
þurh ânes cräft      ealle ofercômon,
selfes mihtum:      sôð is gecýðed,
þät mihtig god      manna cynnes
weóld wîde-ferhð.      Com on wanre niht
scrîðan sceadu-genga.      Sceótend swæfon,
705
þâ þät horn-reced      healdan scoldon,
ealle bûton ânum.      Þät wäs yldum cûð,
þät hie ne môste,      þâ metod nolde,
se syn-scaða      under sceadu bregdan;
ac he wäccende      wrâðum on andan
710
bâd bolgen-môd      beadwa geþinges.

XII. GRENDEL'S RAID.

Þâ com of môre      under mist-hleoðum
Grendel gongan,      godes yrre bär.
Mynte se mân-scaða      manna cynnes
sumne besyrwan      in sele þam heán;
715
wôd under wolcnum,      tô þäs þe he wîn-reced,
gold-sele gumena,      gearwost wisse
fättum fâhne.      Ne wäs þät forma sîð,
þät he Hrôðgâres      hâm gesôhte:
næfre he on aldor-dagum      ær ne siððan
720
heardran häle,      heal-þegnas fand!
Com þâ tô recede      rinc sîðian
dreámum bedæled.      Duru sôna onarn
fýr-bendum fäst,      syððan he hire folmum hrân;
onbräd þâ bealo-hydig,      þâ he âbolgen wäs,
725
recedes mûðan.      Raðe äfter þon
on fâgne flôr      feónd treddode,
eode yrre-môd;      him of eágum stôd
lîge gelîcost      leóht unfäger.
Geseah he in recede      rinca manige,
730
swefan sibbe-gedriht      samod ätgädere,
mago-rinca heáp:      þâ his môd âhlôg,
mynte þät he gedælde,      ær þon däg cwôme,
atol aglæca,      ânra gehwylces
lîf wið lîce,      þâ him âlumpen wäs
735
wist-fylle wên.      Ne wäs þät wyrd þâ gen,
þät he mâ môste      manna cynnes
þicgean ofer þâ niht.      Þrýð-swýð beheóld
mæg Higelâces,      hû se mân-scaða
under fær-gripum      gefaran wolde.
740
Ne þät se aglæca      yldan þôhte,
ac he gefêng hraðe      forman siðe
slæpendne rinc,      slât unwearnum,
bât bân-locan,      blôd êdrum dranc,
syn-snædum swealh:      sôna häfde
745
unlyfigendes      eal gefeormod
fêt and folma.      Forð neár ätstôp,
nam þâ mid handa      hige-þihtigne
rinc on räste;      ræhte ongeán
feónd mid folme,      he onfêng hraðe
750
inwit-þancum      and wið earm gesät.
Sôna þät onfunde      fyrena hyrde,
þät he ne mêtte      middan-geardes
eorðan sceáta      on elran men
mund-gripe mâran:      he on môde wearð
755
forht on ferhðe,      nô þý ær fram meahte;
hyge wäs him hin-fûs,      wolde on heolster fleón,
sêcan deófla gedräg:      ne wäs his drohtoð þær,
swylce he on ealder-dagum      ær gemêtte.
Gemunde þâ se gôda      mæg Higelâces
760
æfen-spræce,      up-lang âstôd
and him fäste wiðfêng.      Fingras burston;
eoten wäs ût-weard,      eorl furður stôp.
Mynte se mæra,      þær he meahte swâ,
wîdre gewindan      and on weg þanon
765
fleón on fen-hopu;      wiste his fingra geweald
on grames grâpum.      Þät wäs geócor sîð,
þät se hearm-scaða      tô Heorute âteáh:
dryht-sele dynede,      Denum eallum wearð,
ceaster-bûendum,      cênra gehwylcum,
770
eorlum ealu-scerwen.      Yrre wæron begen,
rêðe rên-weardas.      Reced hlynsode;
þâ wäs wundor micel,      þät se wîn-sele
wiðhäfde heaðo-deórum,      þät he on hrusan ne feól,
fäger fold-bold;      ac he þäs fäste wäs
775
innan and ûtan      îren-bendum
searo-þoncum besmiðod.      Þær fram sylle âbeág
medu-benc monig      mîne gefræge,
golde geregnad,      þær þâ graman wunnon;
þäs ne wêndon ær      witan Scyldinga,
780
þät hit â mid gemete      manna ænig
betlîc and bân-fâg      tôbrecan meahte,
listum tôlûcan,      nymðe lîges fäðm
swulge on swaðule.      Swêg up âstâg
niwe geneahhe;      Norð-Denum stôd
785
atelîc egesa      ânra gehwylcum
þâra þe of wealle      wôp gehýrdon,
gryre-leóð galan      godes andsacan,
sige-leásne sang,      sâr wânigean
helle häftan.      Heóld hine tô fäste
790
se þe manna wäs      mägene strengest
on þäm däge      þysses lîfes.

XIII. BEÓWULF TEARS OFF GRENDEL'S ARM.

Nolde eorla hleó      ænige þinga
þone cwealm-cuman      cwicne forlætan,
ne his lîf-dagas      leóda ænigum
795
nytte tealde.      Þær genehost brägd
eorl Beówulfes      ealde lâfe,
wolde freá-drihtnes      feorh ealgian
mæres þeódnes,      þær hie meahton swâ;
hie þät ne wiston,      þâ hie gewin drugon,
800
heard-hicgende      hilde-mecgas,
and on healfa gehwone      heáwan þôhton,
sâwle sêcan,      þät þone syn-scaðan
ænig ofer eorðan      îrenna cyst,
gûð-billa nân      grêtan nolde;
805
ac he sige-wæpnum      forsworen häfde,
ecga gehwylcre.      Scolde his aldor-gedâl
on þäm däge      þysses lîfes
earmlîc wurðan      and se ellor-gâst
on feónda geweald      feor sîðian.
810
Þâ þät onfunde      se þe fela æror
môdes myrðe      manna cynne
fyrene gefremede      (he wäs fâg wið god)
þät him se lîc-homa      læstan nolde,
ac hine se môdega      mæg Hygelâces
815
häfde be honda;      wäs gehwäðer ôðrum
lifigende lâð.      Lîc-sâr gebâd
atol äglæca,      him on eaxle wearð
syn-dolh sweotol,      seonowe onsprungon
burston bân-locan.      Beówulfe wearð
820
gûð-hrêð gyfeðe;      scolde Grendel þonan
feorh-seóc fleón      under fen-hleoðu,
sêcean wyn-leás wîc;      wiste þê geornor,
þät his aldres wäs      ende gegongen,
dôgera däg-rîm.      Denum eallum wearð
825
äfter þam wäl-ræse      willa gelumpen.
Häfde þâ gefælsod,      se þe ær feorran com,
snotor and swýð-ferhð      sele Hrôðgâres,
genered wið nîðe.      Niht-weorce gefeh,
ellen-mærðum;      häfde Eást-Denum
830
Geát-mecga leód      gilp gelæsted,
swylce oncýððe      ealle gebêtte,
inwid-sorge,      þe hie ær drugon
and for þreá-nýdum      þolian scoldon,
torn unlytel.      Þät wäs tâcen sweotol,
835
syððan hilde-deór      hond âlegde,
earm and eaxle      (þær wäs eal geador
Grendles grâpe)      under geápne hrôf.

XIV. THE JOY AT HEOROT.

Þâ wäs on morgen      mîne gefræge
ymb þâ gif-healle      gûð-rinc monig:
840
fêrdon folc-togan      feorran and neán
geond wîd-wegas      wundor sceáwian,
lâðes lâstas.      Nô his lîf-gedâl
sârlîc þûhte      secga ænegum,
þâra þe tîr-leáses      trode sceáwode,
845
hû he wêrig-môd      on weg þanon,
nîða ofercumen,      on nicera mere
fæge and geflýmed      feorh-lâstas bär.
Þær wäs on blôde      brim weallende,
atol ýða geswing      eal gemenged
850
hâtan heolfre,      heoro-dreóre weól;
deáð-fæge deóg,      siððan dreáma leás
in fen-freoðo      feorh âlegde
hæðene sâwle,      þær him hel onfêng.
Þanon eft gewiton      eald-gesîðas,
855
swylce geong manig      of gomen-wâðe,
fram mere môdge,      mearum rîdan,
beornas on blancum.      Þær wäs Beówulfes
mærðo mæned;      monig oft gecwäð,
þätte sûð ne norð      be sæm tweonum
860
ofer eormen-grund      ôðer nænig
under swegles begong      sêlra nære
rond-häbbendra,      rîces wyrðra.
Ne hie hûru wine-drihten      wiht ne lôgon,
glädne Hrôðgâr,      ac þät wäs gôd cyning.
865
Hwîlum heaðo-rôfe      hleápan lêton,
on geflît faran      fealwe mearas,
þær him fold-wegas      fägere þûhton,
cystum cûðe;      hwîlum cyninges þegn,
guma gilp-hläden      gidda gemyndig,
870
se þe eal-fela      eald-gesegena
worn gemunde,      word ôðer fand
sôðe gebunden:      secg eft ongan
sîð Beówulfes      snyttrum styrian
and on spêd wrecan      spel gerâde,
875
wordum wrixlan,      wel-hwylc gecwäð,
þät he fram Sigemunde      secgan hýrde,
ellen-dædum,      uncûðes fela,
Wälsinges gewin,      wîde sîðas,
þâra þe gumena bearn      gearwe ne wiston,
880
fæhðe and fyrene,      bûton Fitela mid hine,
þonne he swylces hwät      secgan wolde
eám his nefan,      swâ hie â wæron
ät nîða gehwâm      nýd-gesteallan:
häfdon eal-fela      eotena cynnes
885
sweordum gesæged.      Sigemunde gesprong
äfter deáð-däge      dôm unlýtel,
syððan wîges heard      wyrm âcwealde,
hordes hyrde;      he under hârne stân,
äðelinges bearn,      âna genêðde
890
frêcne dæde;      ne wäs him Fitela mid.
Hwäðre him gesælde,      þät þät swurd þurhwôd
wrätlîcne wyrm,      þät hit on wealle ätstôd,
dryhtlîc îren;      draca morðre swealt.
Häfde aglæca      elne gegongen,
895
þät he beáh-hordes      brûcan môste
selfes dôme:      sæ-bât gehlôd,
bär on bearm scipes      beorhte frätwa,
Wälses eafera;      wyrm hât gemealt.
Se wäs wreccena      wîde mærost
900
ofer wer-þeóde,      wîgendra hleó
ellen-dædum:      he þäs âron þâh.
Siððan Heremôdes      hild sweðrode
eafoð and ellen.      He mid eotenum wearð
on feónda geweald      forð forlâcen,
905
snûde forsended.      Hine sorh-wylmas
lemede tô lange,      he his leódum wearð,
eallum äðelingum      tô aldor-ceare;
swylce oft bemearn      ærran mælum
swîð-ferhðes sîð      snotor ceorl monig,
910
se þe him bealwa tô      bôte gelýfde,
þät þät þeódnes bearn      geþeón scolde,
fäder-äðelum onfôn,      folc gehealdan,
hord and hleó-burh,      häleða rîce,
êðel Scyldinga.      He þær eallum wearð,
915
mæg Higelâces      manna cynne,
freóndum gefägra;      hine fyren onwôd.
Hwîlum flîtende      fealwe stræte
mearum mæton.      Þâ wäs morgen-leóht
scofen and scynded.      Eode scealc monig
920
swîð-hicgende      tô sele þam heán,
searo-wundor seón,      swylce self cyning,
of brýd-bûre      beáh-horda weard,
tryddode tîr-fäst      getrume micle,
cystum gecýðed,      and his cwên mid him
925
medo-stîg gemät      mägða hôse.

XV. HROTHGAR'S GRATULATION.

Hrôðgâr maðelode      (he tô healle geóng,
stôd on stapole,      geseah steápne hrôf
golde fâhne      and Grendles hond):
"þisse ansýne      al-wealdan þanc
930
"lungre gelimpe!      Fela ic lâðes gebâd,
"grynna ät Grendle:      â mäg god wyrcan
"wunder äfter wundre,      wuldres hyrde!
"Þät wäs ungeâra,      þät ic ænigra me
"weána ne wênde      tô wîdan feore
935
"bôte gebîdan      þonne blôde fâh
"hûsa sêlest      heoro-dreórig stôd;
"weá wîd-scofen      witena gehwylcne
"þâra þe ne wêndon,      þät hie wîde-ferhð
"leóda land-geweorc      lâðum beweredon
940
"scuccum and scinnum.      Nu scealc hafað
"þurh drihtnes miht      dæd gefremede,
"þe we ealle      ær ne meahton
"snyttrum besyrwan.      Hwät! þät secgan mäg
"efne swâ hwylc mägða,      swâ þone magan cende
945
"äfter gum-cynnum,      gyf heó gyt lyfað,
"þät hyre eald-metod      êste wære
"bearn-gebyrdo.      Nu ic Beówulf
"þec, secg betsta,      me for sunu wylle
"freógan on ferhðe;      heald forð tela
950
"niwe sibbe.      Ne bið þe nænigra gâd
"worolde wilna,      þe ic geweald häbbe.
"Ful-oft ic for lässan      leán teohhode
"hord-weorðunge      hnâhran rince,
"sæmran ät säcce.      Þu þe self hafast
955
"dædum gefremed,      þät þîn dôm lyfað
"âwâ tô aldre.      Alwalda þec
"gôde forgylde,      swâ he nu gyt dyde!"
Beówulf maðelode,      bearn Ecgþeówes:
"We þät ellen-weorc      êstum miclum,
960
"feohtan fremedon,      frêcne genêðdon
"eafoð uncûðes;      ûðe ic swîðor,
"þät þu hinc selfne      geseón môste,
"feónd on frätewum      fyl-wêrigne!
"Ic hine hrädlîce      heardan clammum
965
"on wäl-bedde      wrîðan þôhte,
"þät he for mund-gripe      mînum scolde
"licgean lîf-bysig,      bûtan his lîc swice;
"ic hine ne mihte,      þâ metod nolde,
"ganges getwæman,      nô ic him þäs georne ätfealh,
970
"feorh-genîðlan;      wäs tô fore-mihtig
"feónd on fêðe.      Hwäðere he his folme forlêt
"tô lîf-wraðe      lâst weardian,
"earm and eaxle;      nô þær ænige swâ þeáh
"feá-sceaft guma      frôfre gebohte:
975
"nô þý leng leofað      lâð-geteóna
"synnum geswenced,      ac hyne sâr hafað
"in nýd-gripe      nearwe befongen,
"balwon bendum:      þær âbîdan sceal
"maga mâne fâh      miclan dômes,
980
"hû him scîr metod      scrîfan wille."
Þâ wäs swîgra secg,      sunu Ecglâfes,
on gylp-spræce      gûð-geweorca,
siððan äðelingas      eorles cräfte
ofer heáhne hrôf      hand sceáwedon,
985
feóndes fingras,      foran æghwylc;
wäs stêde nägla gehwylc,      stýle gelîcost,
hæðenes hand-sporu      hilde-rinces
egle unheóru;      æg-hwylc gecwäð,
þät him heardra nân      hrînan wolde
990
îren ær-gôd,      þät þäs ahlæcan
blôdge beadu-folme      onberan wolde.

XVI. THE BANQUET AND THE GIFTS.

Þâ wäs hâten hreðe      Heort innan-weard
folmum gefrätwod:      fela þæra wäs
wera and wîfa,      þe þät wîn-reced,
995
gest-sele gyredon.      Gold-fâg scinon
web äfter wagum,      wundor-sióna fela
secga gehwylcum      þâra þe on swylc starað
Wäs þät beorhte bold      tôbrocen swîðe
eal inne-weard      îren-bendum fäst,
1000
heorras tôhlidene;      hrôf âna genäs
ealles ansund,      þâ se aglæca
fyren-dædum fâg      on fleám gewand,
aldres or-wêna.      Nô þät ýðe byð
tô befleónne      (fremme se þe wille!)
1005
ac gesacan sceal      sâwl-berendra
nýde genýdde      niðða bearna
grund-bûendra      gearwe stôwe,
þær his lîc-homa      leger-bedde fäst
swefeð äfter symle.      Þâ wäs sæl and mæl,
1010
þät tô healle gang      Healfdenes sunu;
wolde self cyning      symbel þicgan.
Ne gefrägen ic þâ mægðe      mâran weorode
ymb hyra sinc-gyfan      sêl gebæran.
Bugon þâ tô bence      blæd-âgende,
1015
fylle gefægon.      Fägere geþægon
medo-ful manig      mâgas † þâra
swîð-hicgende      on sele þam heán,
Hrôðgâr and Hrôðulf.      Heorot innan wäs
freóndum âfylled;      nalles fâcen-stafas
1020
Þeód-Scyldingas      þenden fremedon.
Forgeaf þâ Beówulfe      bearn Healfdenes
segen gyldenne      sigores tô leáne,
hroden hilte-cumbor,      helm and byrnan;
mære mâððum-sweord      manige gesâwon
1025
beforan beorn beran.      Beówulf geþah
ful on flette;      nô he þære feoh-gyfte
for sceótendum      scamigan þorfte,
ne gefrägn ic freóndlîcor      feówer mâdmas
golde gegyrede      gum-manna fela
1030
in ealo-bence      ôðrum gesellan.
Ymb þäs helmes hrôf      heáfod-beorge
wîrum bewunden      walan ûtan heóld,
þät him fêla lâfe      frêcne ne meahton
scûr-heard sceððan,      þonne scyld-freca
1035
ongeán gramum      gangan scolde.
Hêht þâ eorla hleó      eahta mearas,
fäted-hleóre,      on flet teón
in under eoderas;      þâra ânum stôd
sadol searwum fâh      since gewurðad,
1040
þät wäs hilde-setl      heáh-cyninges,
þonne sweorda gelâc      sunu Healfdenes
efnan wolde;      næfre on ôre läg
wîd-cûðes wîg,      þonne walu feóllon.
And þâ Beówulfe      bega gehwäðres
1045
eodor Ingwina      onweald geteáh,
wicga and wæpna;      hêt hine wel brûcan.
Swâ manlîce      mære þeóden,
hord-weard häleða      heaðo-ræsas geald
mearum and mâdmum,      swâ hý næfre man lyhð,
1050
se þe secgan wile      sôð äfter rihte.

XVII. SONG OF HROTHGAR'S POET—THE LAY OF HNAEF AND HENGEST.

Þâ gyt æghwylcum      eorla drihten
þâra þe mid Beówulfe      brim-lâde teáh,
on þære medu-bence      mâððum gesealde,
yrfe-lâfe,      and þone ænne hêht
1055
golde forgyldan,      þone þe Grendel ær
mâne âcwealde,      swâ he hyra mâ wolde,
nefne him witig god      wyrd forstôde
and þäs mannes môd:      metod eallum weóld
gumena cynnes,      swâ he nu git dêð;
1060
forþan bið andgit      æghwær sêlest,
ferhðes fore-þanc!      fela sceal gebîdan
leófes and lâðes,      se þe longe her
on þyssum win-dagum      worolde brûceð.
Þær wäs sang and swêg      samod ätgädere
1065
fore Healfdenes      hilde-wîsan,
gomen-wudu grêted,      gid oft wrecen,
þonne heal-gamen      Hrôðgâres scôp
äfter medo-bence      mænan scolde
Finnes eaferum,      þâ hie se fær begeat:
1070
"Häleð Healfdenes,      Hnäf Scyldinga,
"in Fr..es wäle      feallan scolde.
"Ne hûru Hildeburh      hêrian þorfte
"Eotena treówe:      unsynnum wearð
"beloren leófum      ät þam lind-plegan
1075
"bearnum and brôðrum;      hie on gebyrd hruron
"gâre wunde;      þät wäs geômuru ides.
"Nalles hôlinga      Hôces dôhtor
"meotod-sceaft bemearn,      syððan morgen com,
"þâ heó under swegle      geseón meahte
1080
"morðor-bealo mâga,      þær heó ær mæste heóld
"worolde wynne:      wîg ealle fornam
"Finnes þegnas,      nemne feáum ânum,
"þät he ne mehte      on þäm meðel-stede
"wîg Hengeste      wiht gefeohtan,
1085
"ne þâ weá-lâfe      wîge forþringan
"þeódnes þegne;       ac hig him geþingo budon,
"þät hie him ôðer flet      eal gerýmdon,
"healle and heáh-setl,      þät hie healfre geweald
"wið Eotena bearn      âgan môston,
1090
"and ät feoh-gyftum      Folcwaldan sunu
"dôgra gehwylce      Dene weorðode,
"Hengestes heáp      hringum wenede,
"efne swâ swîðe      sinc-gestreónum
"fättan goldes,      swâ he Fresena cyn
1095
"on beór-sele      byldan wolde.
"Þâ hie getrûwedon      on twâ healfa
"fäste frioðu-wære;      Fin Hengeste
"elne unflitme      âðum benemde,
"þät he þâ weá-lâfe      weotena dôme
1100
"ârum heolde,      þät þær ænig mon
"wordum ne worcum      wære ne bræce,
"ne þurh inwit-searo      æfre gemænden,
"þeáh hie hira beág-gyfan      banan folgedon
"þeóden-leáse,      þâ him swâ geþearfod wäs:
1105
"gyf þonne Frysna hwylc      frêcnan spræce
"þäs morðor-hetes      myndgiend wære,
"þonne hit sweordes ecg      syððan scolde.
"Âð wäs geäfned      and icge gold
"âhäfen of horde.      Here-Scyldinga
1110
"betst beado-rinca      wäs on bæl gearu;
"ät þäm âde wäs      êð-gesýne
"swât-fâh syrce,      swýn eal-gylden,
"eofer îren-heard,      äðeling manig
"wundum âwyrded;      sume on wäle crungon.
1115
"Hêt þâ Hildeburh      ät Hnäfes âde
"hire selfre sunu      sweoloðe befästan,
"bân-fatu bärnan      and on bæl dôn.
"Earme on eaxle      ides gnornode,
"geômrode giddum;      gûð-rinc âstâh.
1120
"Wand tô wolcnum      wäl-fýra mæst,
"hlynode for hlâwe;      hafelan multon,
"ben-geato burston,      þonne blôd ätspranc
"lâð-bite lîces.      Lîg ealle forswealg,
"gæsta gîfrost,      þâra þe þær gûð fornam
1125
"bega folces;      wäs hira blæd scacen.

XVIII. THE GLEEMAN'S TALE IS ENDED.

"Gewiton him þâ wîgend      wîca neósian,
"freóndum befeallen      Frysland geseón,
"hâmas and heá-burh.      Hengest þâ gyt
"wäl-fâgne winter      wunode mid Finne
1130
"ealles unhlitme;      eard gemunde,
"þeáh þe he ne meahte      on mere drîfan
"hringed-stefnan;      holm storme weól,
"won wið winde;      winter ýðe beleác
"îs-gebinde      ôð þät ôðer com
1135
"geâr in geardas,      swâ nu gyt dêð,
"þâ þe syngales      sêle bewitiað,
"wuldor-torhtan weder.      Þâ wäs winter scacen,
"fäger foldan bearm;      fundode wrecca,
"gist of geardum;      he tô gyrn-wräce
1140
"swîðor þôhte,      þonne tô sæ-lâde,
"gif he torn-gemôt      þurhteón mihte,
"þät he Eotena bearn      inne gemunde.
"Swâ he ne forwyrnde      worold-rædenne,
"þonne him Hûnlâfing      hilde-leóman,
1145
"billa sêlest,      on bearm dyde:
"þäs wæron mid Eotenum      ecge cûðe.
"Swylce ferhð-frecan      Fin eft begeat
"sweord-bealo slîðen      ät his selfes hâm,
"siððan grimne gripe      Gûðlaf ond Ôslâf
1150
"äfter sæ-siðe      sorge mændon,
"ätwiton weána dæl;      ne meahte wäfre môd
"forhabban in hreðre.      Þâ wäs heal hroden
"feónda feorum,      swilce Fin slägen,
"cyning on corðre,      and seó cwên numen.
1155
"Sceótend Scyldinga      tô scypum feredon
"eal in-gesteald      eorð-cyninges,
"swylce hie ät Finnes hâm      findan meahton
"sigla searo-gimma.      Hie on sæ-lâde
"drihtlîce wîf      tô Denum feredon,
1160
"læddon tô leódum."      Leóð wäs âsungen,
gleó-mannes gyd.      Gamen eft âstâh,
beorhtode benc-swêg,      byrelas sealdon
wîn of wunder-fatum.      Þâ cwom Wealhþeó forð
gân under gyldnum beáge,      þær þâ gôdan twegen
1165
sæton suhter-gefäderan;      þâ gyt wäs hiera sib ätgädere
æghwylc ôðrum trýwe.      Swylce þær Ûnferð þyle
ät fôtum sät freán Scyldinga:      gehwylc hiora his ferhðe treówde,
þät he häfde môd micel,      þeáh þe he his mâgum nære
ârfäst ät ecga gelâcum.      Spräc þâ ides Scyldinga:
1170
"Onfôh þissum fulle,      freó-drihten mîn,
"sinces brytta;      þu on sælum wes,
"gold-wine gumena,      and tô Geátum sprec
"mildum wordum!      Swâ sceal man dôn.
"Beó wið Geátas gläd,      geofena gemyndig;
1175
"neán and feorran      þu nu friðu hafast.
"Me man sägde,      þät þu þe for sunu wolde
"here-rinc habban.      Heorot is gefælsod,
"beáh-sele beorhta;      brûc þenden þu môte
"manigra mêda      and þînum mâgum læf
1180
"folc and rîce,      þonne þu forð scyle
"metod-sceaft seón.      Ic mînne can
"glädne Hrôðulf,      þät he þâ geogoðe wile
"ârum healdan,      gyf þu ær þonne he,
"wine Scildinga,      worold oflætest;
1185
"wêne ic, þät he mid gôde      gyldan wille
"uncran eaferan,      gif he þät eal gemon,
"hwät wit tô willan      and tô worð-myndum
"umbor wesendum ær      ârna gefremedon."
Hwearf þâ bî bence,      þær hyre byre wæron,
1190
Hrêðrîc and Hrôðmund,      and häleða bearn,
giogoð ätgädere;      þær se gôda sät
Beówulf Geáta      be þæm gebrôðrum twæm.

XIX. BEÓWULF'S JEWELLED COLLAR. THE HEROES REST.

Him wäs ful boren      and freónd-laðu
wordum bewägned      and wunden gold
1195
êstum geeáwed,      earm-hreáde twâ,
hrägl and hringas,      heals-beága mæst
þâra þe ic on foldan      gefrägen häbbe.
Nænigne ic under swegle      sêlran hýrde
hord-mâððum häleða,      syððan Hâma ätwäg
1200
tô þære byrhtan byrig      Brosinga mene,
sigle and sinc-fät,      searo-nîðas fealh
Eormenrîces,      geceás êcne ræd.
Þone hring häfde      Higelâc Geáta,
nefa Swertinges,      nýhstan sîðe,
1205
siððan he under segne      sinc ealgode,
wäl-reáf werede;      hyne Wyrd fornam,
syððan he for wlenco      weán âhsode,
fæhðe tô Frysum;      he þâ frätwe wäg,
eorclan-stânas      ofer ýða ful,
1210
rîce þeóden,      he under rande gecranc;
gehwearf þâ in Francna fäðm      feorh cyninges,
breóst-gewædu      and se beáh somod:
wyrsan wîg-frecan      wäl reáfedon
äfter gûð-sceare,      Geáta leóde
1215
hreâ-wîc heóldon.      Heal swêge onfêng.
Wealhþeó maðelode,      heó fore þäm werede spräc:
"Brûc þisses beáges,      Beówulf, leófa
"hyse, mid hæle,      and þisses hrägles neót
"þeód-gestreóna,      and geþeóh tela,
1220
"cen þec mid cräfte      and þyssum cnyhtum wes
"lâra lîðe!      ic þe þäs leán geman.
"Hafast þu gefêred,      þät þe feor and neáh
"ealne wîde-ferhð      weras ehtigað,
"efne swâ sîde      swâ sæ bebûgeð
1225
"windige weallas.      Wes, þenden þu lifige,
"äðeling eádig!      ic þe an tela
"sinc-gestreóna.      Beó þu suna mînum
"dædum gedêfe      dreám healdende!
"Her is æghwylc eorl      ôðrum getrýwe,
1230
"môdes milde,      man-drihtne hold,
"þegnas syndon geþwære,      þeód eal gearo:
"druncne dryht-guman,      dôð swâ ic bidde!"
Eode þâ tô setle.      Þær wäs symbla cyst,
druncon wîn weras:      wyrd ne cûðon,
1235
geó-sceaft grimme,      swâ hit âgangen wearð
eorla manegum,      syððan æfen cwom
and him Hrôðgâr gewât      tô hofe sînum,
rîce tô räste.      Reced weardode
unrîm eorla,      swâ hie oft ær dydon:
1240
benc-þelu beredon,      hit geond-bræded wearð
beddum and bolstrum.      Beór-scealca sum
fûs and fæge      flet-räste gebeág.
Setton him tô heáfdum      hilde-randas,
bord-wudu beorhtan;      þær on bence wäs
1245
ofer äðelinge      ýð-gesêne
heaðo-steápa helm,      hringed byrne,
þrec-wudu þrymlîc.      Wäs þeáw hyra,
þät hie oft wæron      an wîg gearwe,
ge ät hâm ge on herge,      ge gehwäðer þâra
1250
efne swylce mæla,      swylce hira man-dryhtne
þearf gesælde;      wäs seó þeód tilu.

XX. GRENDEL'S MOTHER ATTACKS THE RING-DANES.

Sigon þâ tô slæpe.      Sum sâre angeald
æfen-räste,      swâ him ful-oft gelamp,
siððan gold-sele      Grendel warode,
1255
unriht äfnde,      ôð þät ende becwom,
swylt äfter synnum.      Þät gesýne wearð,
wîd-cûð werum,      þätte wrecend þâ gyt
lifde äfter lâðum,      lange þrage
äfter gûð-ceare;      Grendles môdor,
1260
ides aglæc-wîf      yrmðe gemunde,
se þe wäter-egesan      wunian scolde,
cealde streámas,      siððan Cain wearð
tô ecg-banan      ângan brêðer,
fäderen-mæge;      he þâ fâg gewât,
1265
morðre gemearcod      man-dreám fleón,
wêsten warode.      Þanon wôc fela
geósceaft-gâsta;      wäs þæra Grendel sum,
heoro-wearh hetelîc,      se ät Heorote fand
wäccendne wer      wîges bîdan,
1270
þær him aglæca      ät-græpe wearð;
hwäðre he gemunde      mägenes strenge,
gim-fäste gife,      þe him god sealde,
and him tô anwaldan      âre gelýfde,
frôfre and fultum:      þý he þone feónd ofercwom,
1275
gehnægde helle gâst:      þâ he heán gewât,
dreáme bedæled      deáð-wîc seón,
man-cynnes feónd.      And his môdor þâ gyt
gîfre and galg-môd      gegân wolde
sorh-fulne sîð,      suna deáð wrecan.
1280
Com þâ tô Heorote,      þær Hring-Dene
geond þät säld swæfun.      Þâ þær sôna wearð
ed-hwyrft eorlum,      siððan inne fealh
Grendles môdor;      wäs se gryre lässa
efne swâ micle,      swâ bið mägða cräft,
1285
wîg-gryre wîfes      be wæpned-men,
þonne heoru bunden,      hamere geþuren,
sweord swâte fâh      swîn ofer helme,
ecgum dyhtig      andweard scireð.
Þâ wäs on healle      heard-ecg togen,
1290
sweord ofer setlum,      sîd-rand manig
hafen handa fäst;      helm ne gemunde,
byrnan sîde,      þe hine se brôga angeat.
Heó wäs on ôfste,      wolde ût þanon
feore beorgan,      þâ heó onfunden wäs;
1295
hraðe heó äðelinga      ânne häfde
fäste befangen,      þâ heó tô fenne gang;
se wäs Hrôðgâre      häleða leófost
on gesîðes hâd      be sæm tweonum,
rîce rand-wîga,      þone þe heó on räste âbreát,
1300
blæd-fästne beorn.      Näs Beówulf þær,
ac wäs ôðer in      ær geteohhod
äfter mâððum-gife      mærum Geáte.
Hreám wearð on Heorote.      Heó under heolfre genam
cûðe folme;      cearu wäs geniwod
1305
geworden in wîcum:      ne wäs þät gewrixle til,
þät hie on bâ healfa      bicgan scoldon
freónda feorum.      Þâ wäs frôd cyning,
hâr hilde-rinc,      on hreón môde,
syððan he aldor-þegn      unlyfigendne,
1310
þone deórestan      deádne wisse.
Hraðe wäs tô bûre      Beówulf fetod,
sigor-eádig secg.      Samod ær-däge
eode eorla sum,      äðele cempa
self mid gesîðum,      þær se snottra bâd,
1315
hwäðre him al-walda      æfre wille
äfter weá-spelle      wyrpe gefremman.
Gang þâ äfter flôre      fyrd-wyrðe man
mid his hand-scale      (heal-wudu dynede)
þät he þone wîsan      wordum hnægde
1320
freán Ingwina;      frägn gif him wære
äfter neód-laðu      niht getæse.

XXI. SORROW AT HEOROT: ÆSCHERE'S DEATH

Hrôðgâr maðelode,      helm Scildinga:
"Ne frin þu äfter sælum!      Sorh is geniwod
"Denigea leódum.      Deád is Äsc-here,
1325
"Yrmenlâfes      yldra brôðor,
"mîn rûn-wita      and mîn ræd-bora,
"eaxl-gestealla,      þonne we on orlege
"hafelan weredon,      þonne hniton fêðan,
"eoferas cnysedan;      swylc scolde eorl wesan
1330
"äðeling ær-gôd,      swylc Äsc-here wäs.
"Wearð him on Heorote      tô hand-banan
"wäl-gæst wäfre;      ic ne wât hwäder
"atol æse wlanc      eft-sîðas teáh,
"fylle gefrægnod.      Heó þâ fæhðe wräc,
1335
"þe þu gystran niht      Grendel cwealdest
"þurh hæstne hâd      heardum clammum,
"forþan he tô lange      leóde mîne
"wanode and wyrde.      He ät wîge gecrang
"ealdres scyldig,      and nu ôðer cwom
1340
"mihtig mân-scaða,      wolde hyre mæg wrecan,
"ge feor hafað      fæhðe gestæled,
"þäs þe þincean mäg      þegne monegum,
"se þe äfter sinc-gyfan      on sefan greóteð,
"hreðer-bealo hearde;      nu seó hand ligeð,
1345
"se þe eów wel-hwylcra      wilna dohte.
"Ic þät lond-bûend      leóde mîne
"sele-rædende      secgan hýrde,
"þät hie gesâwon      swylce twegen
"micle mearc-stapan      môras healdan,
1350
"ellor-gæstas:      þæra ôðer wäs,
"þäs þe hie gewislîcost      gewitan meahton,
"idese onlîcnes,      ôðer earm-sceapen
"on weres wästmum      wräc-lâstas träd,
"näfne he wäs mâra      þonne ænig man ôðer,
1355
"þone on geâr-dagum      Grendel nemdon
"fold-bûende:      nô hie fäder cunnon,
"hwäðer him ænig wäs      ær âcenned
"dyrnra gâsta.      Hie dýgel lond
"warigeað, wulf-hleoðu,      windige nässas,
1360
"frêcne fen-gelâd,      þær fyrgen-streám
"under nässa genipu      niðer gewîteð,
"flôd under foldan;      nis þät feor heonon
"mîl-gemearces,      þät se mere standeð,
"ofer þäm hongiað      hrîmge bearwas,
1365
"wudu wyrtum fäst,      wäter oferhelmað.
"Þær mäg nihta gehwæm      nîð-wundor seón,
"fýr on flôde;      nô þäs frôd leofað
"gumena bearna,      þät þone grund wite;
"þeáh þe hæð-stapa      hundum geswenced,
1370
"heorot hornum trum      holt-wudu sêce,
"feorran geflýmed,      ær he feorh seleð,
"aldor on ôfre,      ær he in wille,
"hafelan hýdan.      Nis þät heóru stôw:
"þonon ýð-geblond      up âstîgeð
1375
"won tô wolcnum,      þonne wind styreð
"lâð gewidru,      ôð þät lyft drysmað,
"roderas reótað.      Nu is ræd gelang
"eft ät þe ânum!      Eard git ne const,
"frêcne stôwe,      þær þu findan miht
1380
"sinnigne secg:      sêc gif þu dyrre!
"Ic þe þâ fæhðe      feó leánige,
"eald-gestreónum,      swâ ic ær dyde,
"wundnum golde,      gyf þu on weg cymest."

XXII. BEÓWULF SEEKS THE MONSTER IN THE HAUNTS OF THE NIXIES.

Beówulf maðelode,      bearn Ecgþeówes:
1385
"Ne sorga, snotor guma!      sêlre bið æghwæm,
"þät he his freónd wrece,      þonne he fela murne;
"ûre æghwylc sceal      ende gebîdan
"worolde lîfes;      wyrce se þe môte
"dômes ær deáðe!      þät bið driht-guman
1390
"unlifgendum      äfter sêlest.
"Ârîs, rîces weard;      uton hraðe fêran,
"Grendles mâgan      gang sceáwigan!
"Ic hit þe gehâte:      nô he on helm losað,
"ne on foldan fäðm,      ne on fyrgen-holt,
1395
"ne on gyfenes grund,      gâ þær he wille.
"Þys dôgor þu      geþyld hafa
"weána gehwylces,      swâ ic þe wêne tô!"
Âhleóp þâ se gomela,      gode þancode,
mihtigan drihtne,      þäs se man gespräc.
1400
Þâ wäs Hrôðgâre      hors gebæted,
wicg wunden-feax.      Wîsa fengel
geatolîc gengde;      gum-fêða stôp
lind-häbbendra.      Lâstas wæron
äfter wald-swaðum      wîde gesýne,
1405
gang ofer grundas;      gegnum fôr þâ
ofer myrcan môr,      mago-þegna bär
þone sêlestan      sâwol-leásne,
þâra þe mid Hrôðgâre      hâm eahtode.
Ofer-eode þâ      äðelinga bearn
1410
steáp stân-hliðo,      stîge nearwe,
enge ân-paðas,      un-cûð gelâd,
neowle nässas,      nicor-hûsa fela;
he feára sum      beforan gengde
wîsra monna,      wong sceáwian,
1415
ôð þät he færinga      fyrgen-beámas
ofer hârne stân      hleonian funde,
wyn-leásne wudu;      wäter under stôd
dreórig and gedrêfed.      Denum eallum wäs,
winum Scyldinga,      weorce on môde,
1420
tô geþolianne      þegne monegum,
oncýð eorla gehwæm,      syððan Äsc-heres
on þam holm-clife      hafelan mêtton.
Flôd blôde weól      (folc tô sægon)
hâtan heolfre.      Horn stundum song
1425
fûslîc fyrd-leóð.      Fêða eal gesät;
gesâwon þâ äfter wätere      wyrm-cynnes fela,
sellîce sæ-dracan      sund cunnian,
swylce on näs-hleoðum      nicras licgean,
þâ on undern-mæl      oft bewitigað
1430
sorh-fulne sîð      on segl-râde,
wyrmas and wil-deór;      hie on weg hruron
bitere and gebolgne,      bearhtm ongeâton,
gûð-horn galan.      Sumne Geáta leód
of flân-bogan      feores getwæfde,
1435
ýð-gewinnes,      þät him on aldre stôd
here-stræl hearda;      he on holme wäs
sundes þe sænra,      þe hyne swylt fornam.
Hräðe wearð on ýðum      mid eofer-spreótum
heoro-hôcyhtum      hearde genearwod,
1440
nîða genæged      and on näs togen
wundorlîc wæg-bora;      weras sceáwedon
gryrelîcne gist.      Gyrede hine Beówulf
eorl-gewædum,      nalles for ealdre mearn:
scolde here-byrne      hondum gebroden,
1445
sîd and searo-fâh,      sund cunnian,
seó þe bân-côfan      beorgan cûðe,
þät him hilde-grâp      hreðre ne mihte,
eorres inwit-feng,      aldre gesceððan;
ac se hwîta helm      hafelan werede,
1450
se þe mere-grundas      mengan scolde,
sêcan sund-gebland      since geweorðad,
befongen freá-wrâsnum,      swâ hine fyrn-dagum
worhte wæpna smið,      wundrum teóde,
besette swîn-lîcum,      þät hine syððan nô
1455
brond ne beado-mêcas      bîtan ne meahton.
Näs þät þonne mætost      mägen-fultuma,
þät him on þearfe lâh      þyle Hrôðgâres;
wäs þäm häft-mêce      Hrunting nama,
þät wäs ân foran      eald-gestreóna;
1460
ecg wäs îren      âter-teárum fâh,
âhyrded heaðo-swâte;      næfre hit ät hilde ne swâc
manna ængum      þâra þe hit mid mundum bewand,
se þe gryre-sîðas      gegân dorste,
folc-stede fâra;      näs þät forma sîð,
1465
þät hit ellen-weorc      äfnan scolde.
Hûru ne gemunde      mago Ecglâfes
eafoðes cräftig,      þät he ær gespräc
wîne druncen,      þâ he þäs wæpnes onlâh
sêlran sweord-frecan:      selfa ne dorste
1470
under ýða gewin      aldre genêðan,
driht-scype dreógan;      þær he dôme forleás,
ellen-mærðum.      Ne wäs þäm ôðrum swâ,
syððan he hine tô gûðe      gegyred häfde.

XXIII. THE BATTLE WITH THE WATER-DRAKE.

Beówulf maðelode,      bearn Ecgþeówes:
1475
"geþenc nu, se mæra      maga Healfdenes,
"snottra fengel,      nu ic eom sîðes fûs,
"gold-wine gumena,      hwät wit geó spræcon,
"gif ic ät þearfe      þînre scolde
"aldre linnan,      þät þu me â wære
1480
"forð-gewitenum      on fäder stäle;
"wes þu mund-bora mînum      mago-þegnum,
"hond-gesellum,      gif mec hild nime:
"swylce þu þâ mâdmas,      þe þu me sealdest,
"Hrôðgâr leófa,      Higelâce onsend.
1485
"Mäg þonne on þäm golde ongitan      Geáta dryhten,
"geseón sunu Hrêðles,      þonne he on þät sinc starað,
"þät ic gum-cystum      gôdne funde
"beága bryttan,      breác þonne môste.
"And þu Ûnferð læt      ealde lâfe,
1490
"wrätlîc wæg-sweord      wîd-cûðne man
"heard-ecg habban;      ic me mid Hruntinge
"dôm gewyrce,      oððe mec deáð nimeð."
Äfter þæm wordum      Weder-Geáta leód
êfste mid elne,      nalas andsware
1495
bîdan wolde;      brim-wylm onfêng
hilde-rince.      Þâ wäs hwîl däges,
ær he þone grund-wong      ongytan mehte.
Sôna þät onfunde,      se þe flôda begong
heoro-gîfre beheóld      hund missera,
1500
grim and grædig,      þät þær gumena sum
äl-wihta eard      ufan cunnode.
Grâp þâ tôgeánes,      gûð-rinc gefêng
atolan clommum;      nô þý ær in gescôd
hâlan lîce:      hring ûtan ymb-bearh,
1505
þät heó þone fyrd-hom      þurh-fôn ne mihte,
locene leoðo-syrcan      lâðan fingrum.
Bär þâ seó brim-wylf,      þâ heó tô botme com,
hringa þengel      tô hofe sînum,
swâ he ne mihte nô      (he þäs môdig wäs)
1510
wæpna gewealdan,      ac hine wundra þäs fela
swencte on sunde,      sæ-deór monig
hilde-tuxum      here-syrcan bräc,
êhton aglæcan.      Þâ se eorl ongeat,
þät he in nið-sele      nât-hwylcum wäs,
1515
þær him nænig wäter      wihte ne sceðede,
ne him for hrôf-sele      hrînan ne mehte
fær-gripe flôdes:      fýr-leóht geseah,
blâcne leóman      beorhte scînan.
Ongeat þâ se gôda      grund-wyrgenne,
1520
mere-wîf mihtig;      mägen-ræs forgeaf
hilde-bille,      hond swenge ne ofteáh,
þät hire on hafelan      hring-mæl âgôl
grædig gûð-leóð.      Þâ se gist onfand,
þät se beado-leóma      bîtan nolde,
1525
aldre sceððan,      ac seó ecg geswâc
þeódne ät þearfe:      þolode ær fela
hond-gemôta,      helm oft gescär,
fæges fyrd-hrägl:      þät wäs forma sîð
deórum mâðme,      þät his dôm âläg.
1530
Eft wäs ân-ræd,      nalas elnes lät,
mærða gemyndig      mæg Hygelâces;
wearp þâ wunden-mæl      wrättum gebunden
yrre oretta,      þät hit on eorðan läg,
stîð and stýl-ecg;      strenge getrûwode,
1535
mund-gripe mägenes.      Swâ sceal man dôn,
þonne he ät gûðe      gegân þenceð
longsumne lof,      nâ ymb his lîf cearað.
Gefêng þâ be eaxle      (nalas for fæhðe mearn)
Gûð-Geáta leód      Grendles môdor;
1540
brägd þâ beadwe heard,      þâ he gebolgen wäs,
feorh-genîðlan,      þät heó on flet gebeáh.
Heó him eft hraðe      and-leán forgeald
grimman grâpum      and him tôgeánes fêng;
oferwearp þâ wêrig-môd      wîgena strengest,
1545
fêðe-cempa,      þät he on fylle wearð.
Ofsät þâ þone sele-gyst      and hyre seaxe geteáh,
brâd and brûn-ecg      wolde hire bearn wrecan,
ângan eaferan.      Him on eaxle läg
breóst-net broden;      þät gebearh feore,
1550
wið ord and wið ecge      ingang forstôd.
Häfde þâ forsîðod      sunu Ecgþeówes
under gynne grund,      Geáta cempa,
nemne him heaðo-byrne      helpe gefremede,
here-net hearde,      and hâlig god
1555
geweóld wîg-sigor,      witig drihten;
rodera rædend      hit on ryht gescêd,
ýðelîce      syððan he eft âstôd.

XXIV. BEÓWULF SLAYS THE SPRITE.

Geseah þâ on searwum      sige-eádig bil,
eald sweord eotenisc      ecgum þyhtig,
1560
wîgena weorð-mynd:      þät wäs wæpna cyst,
bûton hit wäs mâre      þonne ænig mon ôðer
tô beadu-lâce      ätberan meahte
gôd and geatolîc      giganta geweorc.
He gefêng þâ fetel-hilt,      freca Scildinga,
1565
hreóh and heoro-grim      hring-mæl gebrägd,
aldres orwêna,      yrringa slôh,
þät hire wið halse      heard grâpode,
bân-hringas bräc,      bil eal þurh-wôd
fægne flæsc-homan,      heó on flet gecrong;
1570
sweord wäs swâtig,      secg weorce gefeh.
Lixte se leóma,      leóht inne stôd,
efne swâ of hefene      hâdre scîneð
rodores candel.      He äfter recede wlât,
hwearf þâ be wealle,      wæpen hafenade
1575
heard be hiltum      Higelâces þegn,
yrre and ân-ræd.      Näs seó ecg fracod
hilde-rince,      ac he hraðe wolde
Grendle forgyldan      gûð-ræsa fela
þâra þe he geworhte      tô West-Denum
1580
oftor micle      þonne on ænne sîð,
þonne he Hrôðgâres      heorð-geneátas
slôh on sweofote,      slæpende frät
folces Denigea      fýf-tyne men
and ôðer swylc      ût of-ferede,
1585
lâðlîcu lâc.      He him þäs leán forgeald,
rêðe cempa,      tô þäs þe he on räste geseah
gûð-wêrigne      Grendel licgan,
aldor-leásne,      swâ him ær gescôd
hild ät Heorote;      hrâ wîde sprong,
1590
syððan he äfter deáðe      drepe þrowade,
heoro-sweng heardne,      and hine þâ heáfde becearf,
Sôna þät gesâwon      snottre ceorlas,
þâ þe mid Hrôðgâre      on holm wliton,
þät wäs ýð-geblond      eal gemenged,
1595
brim blôde fâh:      blonden-feaxe
gomele ymb gôdne      ongeador spræcon,
þät hig þäs äðelinges      eft ne wêndon,
þät he sige-hrêðig      sêcean côme
mærne þeóden;      þâ þäs monige gewearð,
1600
þät hine seó brim-wylf      âbroten häfde.
Þâ com nôn däges.      Näs ofgeâfon
hwate Scyldingas; gewât him hâm þonon
gold-wine gumena.      Gistas sêtan,
môdes seóce,      and on mere staredon,
1605
wiston and ne wêndon,      þät hie heora wine-drihten
selfne gesâwon.      Þâ þät sweord ongan
äfter heaðo-swâte      hilde-gicelum
wîg-bil wanian;      þät wäs wundra sum,
þät hit eal gemealt      îse gelîcost,
1610
þonne forstes bend      fäder onlæteð,
onwindeð wäl-râpas,      se þe geweald hafað
sæla and mæla;      þät is sôð metod.
Ne nom he in þæm wîcum,      Weder-Geáta leód,
mâðm-æhta mâ,      þêh he þær monige geseah,
1615
bûton þone hafelan      and þâ hilt somod,
since fâge;      sweord ær gemealt,
forbarn broden mæl:      wäs þät blôd tô þäs hât,
ættren ellor-gæst,      se þær inne swealt.
Sôna wäs on sunde,      se þe ær ät säcce gebâd
1620
wîg-hryre wrâðra,      wäter up þurh-deáf;
wæron ýð-gebland      eal gefælsod,
eácne eardas,      þâ se ellor-gâst
oflêt lîf-dagas      and þâs lænan gesceaft.
Com þâ tô lande      lid-manna helm
1625
swîð-môd swymman,      sæ-lâce gefeah,
mägen-byrðenne      þâra þe he him mid häfde.
Eodon him þâ tôgeánes,      gode þancodon,
þryðlîc þegna heáp,      þeódnes gefêgon,
þäs þe hi hyne gesundne      geseón môston.
1630
Þâ wäs of þäm hrôran      helm and byrne
lungre âlýsed:      lagu drusade,
wäter under wolcnum,      wäl-dreóre fâg.
Fêrdon forð þonon      fêðe-lâstum
ferhðum fägne,      fold-weg mæton,
1635
cûðe stræte;      cyning-balde men
from þäm holm-clife      hafelan bæron
earfoðlîce      heora æghwäðrum
fela-môdigra:      feówer scoldon
on ðäm wäl-stenge      weorcum geferian
1640
tô þäm gold-sele      Grendles heáfod,
ôð þät semninga      tô sele cômon
frome fyrd-hwate      feówer-tyne
Geáta gongan;      gum-dryhten mid
môdig on gemonge      meodo-wongas träd.
1645
Þâ com in gân      ealdor þegna,
dæd-cêne mon      dôme gewurðad,
häle hilde-deór.      Hrôðgâr grêtan:
Þâ wäs be feaxe      on flet boren
Grendles heáfod,      þær guman druncon,
1650
egeslîc for eorlum      and þære idese mid:
wlite-seón wrätlîc      weras onsâwon.

XXV. HROTHGAR'S GRATITUDE: HE DISCOURSES.

Beówulf maðelode,      bearn Ecgþeówes:
"Hwät! we þe þâs sæ-lâc,      sunu Healfdenes,
"leód Scyldinga,      lustum brôhton,
1655
"tîres tô tâcne,      þe þu her tô lôcast.
"Ic þät unsôfte      ealdre gedîgde:
"wîge under wätere      weorc genêðde
"earfoðlîce,      ät-rihte wäs
"gûð getwæfed,      nymðe mec god scylde.
1660
"Ne meahte ic ät hilde      mid Hruntinge
"wiht gewyrcan,      þeáh þät wæpen duge,
"ac me geûðe      ylda waldend,
"þät ic on wage geseah      wlitig hangian
"eald sweord eácen      (oftost wîsode
1665
"winigea leásum)      þät ic þý wæpne gebräd.
"Ofslôh þâ ät þære säcce      (þâ me sæl âgeald)
"hûses hyrdas.      Þâ þät hilde-bil
"forbarn, brogden mæl,      swâ þät blôd gesprang,
"hâtost heaðo-swâta:      ic þät hilt þanan
1670
"feóndum ätferede;      fyren-dæda wräc,
"deáð-cwealm Denigea,      swâ hit gedêfe wäs.
"Ic hit þe þonne gehâte,      þät þu on Heorote môst
"sorh-leás swefan      mid þînra secga gedryht,
"and þegna gehwylc      þînra leóda,
1675
"duguðe and iogoðe,      þät þu him ondrædan ne þearft,
"þeóden Scyldinga,      on þâ healfe,
"aldor-bealu eorlum,      swâ þu ær dydest."
Þâ wäs gylden hilt      gamelum rince.
hârum hild-fruman,      on hand gyfen,
1680
enta ær-geweorc,      hit on æht gehwearf
äfter deófla hryre      Denigea freán,
wundor-smiða geweorc,      and þâ þâs worold ofgeaf
grom-heort guma,      godes andsaca,
morðres scyldig,      and his môdor eác;
1685
on geweald gehwearf      worold-cyninga
þäm sêlestan      be sæm tweónum
þâra þe on Sceden-igge      sceattas dælde.
Hrôðgâr maðelode,      hylt sceáwode,
ealde lâfe,      on þäm wäs ôr writen
1690
fyrn-gewinnes:      syððan flôd ofslôh,
gifen geótende,      giganta cyn,
frêcne gefêrdon:      þät wäs fremde þeód
êcean dryhtne,      him þäs ende-leán
þurh wäteres wylm      waldend sealde.
1695
Swâ wäs on þæm scennum      scîran goldes
þurh rûn-stafas      rihte gemearcod,
geseted and gesæd,      hwâm þät sweord geworht,
îrena cyst      ærest wære,
wreoðen-hilt and wyrm-fâh.      þâ se wîsa spräc
1700
sunu Healfdenes      (swîgedon ealle):
"Þät lâ mäg secgan,      se þe sôð and riht
"fremeð on folce,      (feor eal gemon
"eald êðel-weard),      þät þes eorl wære
"geboren betera!      Blæd is âræred
1705
"geond wîd-wegas,      wine mîn Beówulf,
"þîn ofer þeóda gehwylce.      Eal þu hit geþyldum healdest,
"mägen mid môdes snyttrum.      Ic þe sceal mîne gelæstan
"freóde, swâ wit furðum spræcon;      þu scealt tô frôfre weorðan
"eal lang-twidig      leódum þînum,
1710
"häleðum tô helpe.      Ne wearð Heremôd swâ
"eaforum Ecgwelan,      Âr-Scyldingum;
"ne geweôx he him tô willan,      ac tô wäl-fealle
"and tô deáð-cwalum      Deniga leódum;
"breát bolgen-môd      beód-geneátas,
1715
"eaxl-gesteallan,      ôð þät he âna hwearf,
"mære þeóden.      mon-dreámum from:
"þeáh þe hine mihtig god      mägenes wynnum,
"eafeðum stêpte,      ofer ealle men
"forð gefremede,      hwäðere him on ferhðe greów
1720
"breóst-hord blôd-reów:      nallas beágas geaf
"Denum äfter dôme;      dreám-leás gebâd,
"þät he þäs gewinnes      weorc þrowade,
"leód-bealo longsum.      Þu þe lær be þon,
"gum-cyste ongit!      ic þis gid be þe
1725
"âwräc wintrum frôd.      Wundor is tô secganne,
"hû mihtig god      manna cynne
"þurh sîdne sefan      snyttru bryttað,
"eard and eorl-scipe,      he âh ealra geweald.
"Hwîlum he on lufan      læteð hworfan
1730
"monnes môd-geþonc      mæran cynnes,
"seleð him on êðle      eorðan wynne,
"tô healdanne      hleó-burh wera,
"gedêð him swâ gewealdene      worolde dælas,
"sîde rîce,      þät he his selfa ne mäg
1735
"for his un-snyttrum      ende geþencean;
"wunað he on wiste,      nô hine wiht dweleð,
"âdl ne yldo,      ne him inwit-sorh
"on sefan sweorceð,      ne gesacu ôhwær,
"ecg-hete eóweð,      ac him eal worold
1740
"wendeð on willan;      he þät wyrse ne con,
"ôð þät him on innan      ofer-hygda dæl
"weaxeð and wridað,      þonne se weard swefeð,
"sâwele hyrde:      bið se slæp tô fäst,
"bisgum gebunden,      bona swîðe neáh,
1745
"se þe of flân-bogan      fyrenum sceóteð.

XXVI. THE DISCOURSE IS ENDED.—BEÓWULF PREPARES TO LEAVE.

"Þonne bið on hreðre      under helm drepen
"biteran stræle:      him bebeorgan ne con
"wom wundor-bebodum      wergan gâstes;
"þinceð him tô lytel,      þät he tô lange heóld,
1750
"gýtsað grom-hydig,      nallas on gylp seleð
"fätte beágas      and he þâ forð-gesceaft
"forgyteð and forgýmeð,      þäs þe him ær god sealde
"wuldres waldend,      weorð-mynda dæl.
"Hit on ende-stäf      eft gelimpeð,
1755
"þät se lîc-homa      læne gedreóseð,
"fæge gefealleð;      fêhð ôðer tô,
"se þe unmurnlîce      mâdmas dæleð,
"eorles ær-gestreón,      egesan ne gýmeð.
"Bebeorh þe þone bealo-nîð,      Beówulf leófa,
1760
"secg se betsta,      and þe þät sêlre geceós,
"êce rædas;      oferhyda ne gým,
"mære cempa!      Nu is þînes mägnes blæd
"âne hwîle;      eft sôna bið,
"þät þec âdl oððe ecg      eafoðes getwæfeð,
1765
"oððe fýres feng      oððe flôdes wylm,
"oððe gripe mêces      oððe gâres fliht,
"oððe atol yldo,      oððe eágena bearhtm
"forsiteð and forsworceð;      semninga bið,
"þät þec, dryht-guma,      deáð oferswýðeð.
1770
"Swâ ic Hring-Dena      hund missera
"weóld under wolcnum,      and hig wîge beleác
"manigum mægða      geond þysne middan-geard,
"äscum and ecgum,      þät ic me ænigne
"under swegles begong      gesacan ne tealde.
1775
"Hwät! me þäs on êðle      edwenden cwom,
"gyrn äfter gomene,      seoððan Grendel wearð,
"eald-gewinna,      in-genga mîn:
"ic þære sôcne      singales wäg
"môd-ceare micle.      Þäs sig metode þanc,
1780
"êcean drihtne,      þäs þe ic on aldre gebâd,
"þät ic on þone hafelan      heoro-dreórigne
"ofer eald gewin      eágum starige!
"Gâ nu tô setle,      symbel-wynne dreóh
"wîgge weorðad:      unc sceal worn fela
1785
"mâðma gemænra,      siððan morgen bið."
Geát wäs gläd-môd,      geóng sôna tô,
setles neósan,      swâ se snottra hêht.
Þâ wäs eft swâ ær      ellen-rôfum,
flet-sittendum      fägere gereorded
1790
niówan stefne.      Niht-helm geswearc
deorc ofer dryht-gumum.      Duguð eal ârâs;
wolde blonden-feax      beddes neósan,
gamela Scylding.      Geát ungemetes wel,
rôfne rand-wîgan      restan lyste:
1795
sôna him sele-þegn      sîðes wêrgum,
feorran-cundum      forð wîsade,
se for andrysnum      ealle beweotede
þegnes þearfe,      swylce þý dôgore
heáðo-lîðende      habban scoldon.
1800
Reste hine þâ rûm-heort;      reced hlifade
geáp and gold-fâh,      gäst inne swäf,
ôð þät hrefn blaca      heofones wynne
blîð-heort bodode.      Þâ com beorht sunne
scacan ofer grundas;      scaðan onetton,
1805
wæron äðelingas      eft tô leódum
fûse tô farenne,      wolde feor þanon
cuma collen-ferhð      ceóles neósan.
Hêht þâ se hearda      Hrunting beran,
sunu Ecglâfes,      hêht his sweord niman,
1810
leóflîc îren;      sägde him þäs leánes þanc,
cwäð he þone gûð-wine      gôdne tealde,
wîg-cräftigne,      nales wordum lôg
mêces ecge:      þät wäs môdig secg.
And þâ sîð-frome      searwum gearwe
1815
wîgend wæron,      eode weorð Denum
äðeling tô yppan,      þær se ôðer wäs
häle hilde-deór,      Hrôðgâr grêtte.

XXVII. THE PARTING WORDS.

Beówulf maðelode,      bearn Ecgþeówes:
"Nu we sæ-lîðend      secgan wyllað
1820
"feorran cumene,      þät we fundiað
"Higelâc sêcan.      Wæron her tela
"willum bewenede;      þu ûs wel dohtest.
"Gif ic þonne on eorðan      ôwihte mäg
"þînre môd-lufan      mâran tilian,
1825
"gumena dryhten,      þonne ic gyt dyde,
"gûð-geweorca      ic beó gearo sôna.
"Gif ic þät gefricge      ofer flôda begang,
"þät þec ymbe-sittend      egesan þýwað,
"swâ þec hetende      hwîlum dydon,
1830
"ic þe þûsenda      þegna bringe,
"häleða tô helpe.      Ic on Higelâce wât,
"Geáta dryhten,      þeáh þe he geong sý,
"folces hyrde,      þät he mec fremman wile
"wordum and worcum,      þät ic þe wel herige,
1835
"and þe tô geóce      gâr-holt bere
"mägenes fultum,      þær þe bið manna þearf;
"gif him þonne Hrêðrîc      tô hofum Geáta
"geþingeð, þeódnes bearn,      he mäg þær fela
"freónda findan:      feor-cýððe beóð
1840
"sêlran gesôhte      þäm þe him selfa deáh."
Hrôðgâr maðelode      him on andsware:
"Þe þâ word-cwydas      wittig drihten
"on sefan sende!      ne hýrde ic snotorlîcor
"on swâ geongum feore      guman þingian:
1845
"þu eart mägenes strang      and on môde frôd,
"wîs word-cwida.      Wên ic talige,
"gif þät gegangeð,      þät þe gâr nymeð,
"hild heoru-grimme      Hrêðles eaferan,
"âdl oððe îren      ealdor þînne,
1850
"folces hyrde,      and þu þîn feorh hafast,
"þät þe Sæ-Geátas      sêlran näbben
"tô geceósenne      cyning ænigne,
"hord-weard häleða,      gif þu healdan wylt
"mâga rîce.      Me þîn môd-sefa
1855
"lîcað leng swâ wel,      leófa Beówulf:
"hafast þu gefêred,      þät þâm folcum sceal,
"Geáta leódum      and Gâr-Denum
"sib gemænum      and sacu restan,
"inwit-nîðas,      þe hie ær drugon;
1860
"wesan, þenden ic wealde      wîdan rîces,
"mâðmas gemæne,      manig ôðerne
"gôdum gegrêtan      ofer ganotes bäð;
"sceal hring-naca      ofer heáðu bringan
"lâc and luf-tâcen.      Ic þâ leóde wât
1865
"ge wið feónd ge wið freónd      fäste geworhte
"æghwäs untæle      ealde wîsan."
Þâ git him eorla hleó      inne gesealde,
mago Healfdenes      mâðmas twelfe,
hêt hine mid þæm lâcum      leóde swæse
1870
sêcean on gesyntum,      snûde eft cuman.
Gecyste þâ      cyning äðelum gôd,
þeóden Scildinga,      þegen betstan
and be healse genam;      hruron him teáras,
blonden-feaxum:      him wäs bega wên,
1875
ealdum infrôdum,      ôðres swîðor,
þät hî seoððan      geseón môston
môdige on meðle.      Wäs him se man tô þon leóf,
þät he þone breóst-wylm      forberan ne mehte,
ac him on hreðre      hyge-bendum fäst
1880
äfter deórum men      dyrne langað
beorn wið blôde.      Him Beówulf þanan,
gûð-rinc gold-wlanc      gräs-moldan träd,
since hrêmig:      sæ-genga bâd
âgend-freán,      se þe on ancre râd.
1885
Þâ wäs on gange      gifu Hrôðgâres
oft geæhted:      þät wäs ân cyning
æghwäs orleahtre,      ôð þät hine yldo benam
mägenes wynnum,      se þe oft manegum scôd.

XXVIII. BEÓWULF RETURNS TO GEATLAND.—THE QUEENS HYGD AND THRYTHO.

Cwom þâ tô flôde      fela-môdigra
1890
häg-stealdra heáp;      hring-net bæron,
locene leoðo-syrcan.      Land-weard onfand
eft-sîð eorla,      swâ he ær dyde;
nô he mid hearme      of hliðes nosan
gästas grêtte,      ac him tôgeánes râd;
1895
cwäð þät wilcuman      Wedera leódum
scawan scîr-hame      tô scipe fôron.
Þâ wäs on sande      sæ-geáp naca
hladen here-wædum,      hringed-stefna
mearum and mâðmum:      mäst hlifade
1900
ofer Hrôðgâres      hord-gestreónum.
He þäm bât-wearde      bunden golde
swurd gesealde,      þät he syððan wäs
on meodu-bence      mâðme þý weorðra,
yrfe-lâfe.      Gewât him on ýð-nacan,
1905
drêfan deóp wäter,      Dena land ofgeaf.
Þâ wäs be mäste      mere-hrägla sum,
segl sâle fäst.      Sund-wudu þunede,
nô þær wêg-flotan      wind ofer ýðum
sîðes getwæfde;      sæ-genga fôr,
1910
fleát fâmig-heals      forð ofer ýðe,
bunden-stefna      ofer brim-streámas,
þät hie Geáta clifu      ongitan meahton,
cûðe nässas.      Ceól up geþrang,
lyft-geswenced      on lande stôd.
1915
Hraðe wäs ät holme      hýð-weard gearo,
se þe ær lange tîd,      leófra manna
fûs, ät faroðe      feor wlâtode;
sælde tô sande      sîd-fäðme scip
oncer-bendum fäst,      þý läs hym ýða þrym
1920
wudu wynsuman      forwrecan meahte.
Hêt þâ up beran      äðelinga gestreón,
frätwe and fät-gold;      näs him feor þanon
tô gesêcanne      sinces bryttan:
Higelâc Hrêðling      þær ät hâm wunað,
1925
selfa mid gesîðum      sæ-wealle neáh;
bold wäs betlîc,      brego-rôf cyning,
heá on healle,      Hygd swîðe geong,
wîs, wel-þungen,      þeáh þe wintra lyt
under burh-locan      gebiden häbbe
1930
Häreðes dôhtor:      näs hió hnâh swâ þeáh,
ne tô gneáð gifa      Geáta leódum,
mâðm-gestreóna.      Mod Þryðo wäg,
fremu folces cwên,      firen ondrysne:
nænig þät dorste      deór genêðan
1935
swæsra gesîða,      nefne sin-freá,
þät hire an däges      eágum starede;
ac him wäl-bende      weotode tealde,
hand-gewriðene:      hraðe seoððan wäs
äfter mund-gripe      mêce geþinged,
1940
þät hit sceaðen-mæl      scyran môste,
cwealm-bealu cýðan.      Ne bið swylc cwênlîc þeáw
idese tô efnanne,      þeáh þe hió ænlîcu sý,
þätte freoðu-webbe      feores onsäce
äfter lîge-torne      leófne mannan.
1945
Hûru þät onhôhsnode      Heminges mæg;
ealo drincende      ôðer sædan,
þät hió leód-bealewa      läs gefremede,
inwit-nîða,      syððan ærest wearð
gyfen gold-hroden      geongum cempan,
1950
äðelum dióre,      syððan hió Offan flet
ofer fealone flôd      be fäder lâre
sîðe gesôhte,      þær hió syððan wel
in gum-stôle,      gôde mære,
lîf-gesceafta      lifigende breác,
1955
hióld heáh-lufan      wið häleða brego,
ealles mon-cynnes      mîne gefræge
þone sêlestan      bî sæm tweónum
eormen-cynnes;      forþam Offa wäs
geofum and gûðum      gâr-cêne man,
1960
wîde geweorðod;      wîsdôme heóld
êðel sînne,      þonon Eómær wôc
häleðum tô helpe,      Heminges mæg,
nefa Gârmundes,      nîða cräftig.

XXIX. HIS ARRIVAL. HYGELAC'S RECEPTION.

Gewât him þâ se hearda      mid his hond-scole
1965
sylf äfter sande      sæ-wong tredan,
wîde waroðas.      Woruld-candel scân,
sigel sûðan fûs:      hî sîð drugon,
elne geeodon,      tô þäs þe eorla hleó,
bonan Ongenþeówes      burgum on innan,
1970
geongne gûð-cyning      gôdne gefrunon
hringas dælan.      Higelâce wäs
sîð Beówulfes      snûde gecýðed,
þät þær on worðig      wîgendra hleó,
lind-gestealla      lifigende cwom,
1975
heaðo-lâces hâl      tô hofe gongan.
Hraðe wäs gerýmed,      swâ se rîca bebeád,
fêðe-gestum      flet innan-weard.
Gesät þâ wið sylfne,      se þâ säcce genäs,
mæg wið mæge,      syððan man-dryhten
1980
þurh hleóðor-cwyde      holdne gegrêtte
meaglum wordum.      Meodu-scencum
hwearf geond þät reced      Häreðes dôhtor:
lufode þâ leóde,      lîð-wæge bär
hælum tô handa.      Higelâc ongan
1985
sînne geseldan      in sele þam heán
fägre fricgean,      hyne fyrwet bräc,
hwylce Sæ-Geáta      sîðas wæron:
"Hû lomp eów on lâde,      leófa Biówulf,
"þâ þu færinga      feorr gehogodest,
1990
"säcce sêcean      ofer sealt wäter,
"hilde tô Hiorote?      Ac þu Hrôðgâre
"wîd-cûðne weán      wihte gebêttest,
"mærum þeódne?      Ic þäs môd-ceare
"sorh-wylmum seáð,      sîðe ne trûwode
1995
"leófes mannes;      ic þe lange bäd,
"þät þu þone wäl-gæst      wihte ne grêtte,
"lête Sûð-Dene      sylfe geweorðan
"gûðe wið Grendel.      Gode ic þanc secge,
"þäs þe ic þe gesundne      geseón môste."
2000
Biówulf maðelode,      bearn Ecgþiówes:
"Þät is undyrne,      dryhten Higelâc,
"mære gemêting      monegum fira,
"hwylc orleg-hwîl      uncer Grendles
"wearð on þam wange,      þær he worna fela
2005
"Sige-Scildingum      sorge gefremede,
"yrmðe tô aldre;      ic þät eal gewräc,
"swâ ne gylpan þearf      Grendeles mâga
"ænig ofer eorðan      uht-hlem þone,
"se þe lengest leofað      lâðan cynnes,
2010
"fenne bifongen.      Ic þær furðum cwom,
"tô þam hring-sele      Hrôðgâr grêtan:
"sôna me se mæra      mago Healfdenes,
"syððan he môd-sefan      mînne cûðe,
"wið his sylfes sunu      setl getæhte.
2015
"Weorod wäs on wynne;      ne seah ic wîdan feorh
"under heofenes hwealf      heal-sittendra
"medu-dreám mâran.      Hwîlum mæru cwên,
"friðu-sibb folca      flet eall geond-hwearf,
"bædde byre geonge;      oft hió beáh-wriðan
2020
"secge sealde,      ær hió tô setle geóng.
"Hwîlum for duguðe      dôhtor Hrôðgâres
"eorlum on ende      ealu-wæge bär,
"þâ ic Freáware      flet-sittende
"nemnan hýrde,      þær hió nägled sinc
2025
"häleðum sealde:      sió gehâten wäs,
"geong gold-hroden,      gladum suna Frôdan;
"hafað þäs geworden      wine Scyldinga
"rîces hyrde      and þät ræd talað,
"þät he mid þý wîfe      wäl-fæhða dæl,
2030
"säcca gesette.      Oft seldan hwær
"äfter leód-hryre      lytle hwîle
"bon-gâr bûgeð,      þeáh seó brýd duge!

XXX. BEÓWULF'S STORY OF THE SLAYINGS.

"Mäg þäs þonne ofþyncan      þeóden Heaðobeardna
"and þegna gehwâm      þâra leóda,
2035
"þonne he mid fæmnan      on flett gæð,
"dryht-bearn Dena      duguða biwenede:
"on him gladiað      gomelra lâfe
"heard and hring-mæl,      Heaðobeardna gestreón,
"þenden hie þâm wæpnum      wealdan môston,
2040
"ôð þät hie forlæddan      tô þam lind-plegan
"swæse gesîðas      ond hyra sylfra feorh.
"Þonne cwið ät beóre,      se þe beáh gesyhð,
"eald äsc-wîga,      se þe eall geman
"gâr-cwealm gumena      (him bið grim sefa),
2045
"onginneð geômor-môd      geongne cempan
"þurh hreðra gehygd      higes cunnian,
"wîg-bealu weccean      and þät word âcwyð:
"'Meaht þu, mîn wine,      mêce gecnâwan,
"'þone þin fäder      tô gefeohte bär
2050
"'under here-grîman      hindeman sîðe,
"'dýre îren,      þær hyne Dene slôgon,
"'weóldon wäl-stôwe,      syððan wiðer-gyld läg,
"'äfter häleða hryre,      hwate Scyldungas?
"'Nu her þâra banena      byre nât-hwylces,
2055
"'frätwum hrêmig      on flet gæð,
"'morðres gylpeð      and þone mâððum byreð,
"'þone þe þu mid rihte      rædan sceoldest!'"
"Manað swâ and myndgað      mæla gehwylce
"sârum wordum,      ôð þät sæl cymeð,
2060
"þät se fæmnan þegn      fore fäder dædum
"äfter billes bite      blôd-fâg swefeð,
"ealdres scyldig;      him se ôðer þonan
"losað lifigende,      con him land geare.
"Þonne bióð brocene      on bâ healfe
2065
"âð-sweord eorla;      syððan Ingelde
"weallað wäl-nîðas      and him wîf-lufan
"äfter cear-wälmum      côlran weorðað.
"Þý ic Heaðobeardna      hyldo ne telge,
"dryht-sibbe dæl      Denum unfæcne,
2070
"freónd-scipe fästne.      Ic sceal forð sprecan
"gen ymbe Grendel,      þät þu geare cunne,
"sinces brytta,      tô hwan syððan wearð
"hond-ræs häleða.      Syððan heofones gim
"glâd ofer grundas,      gäst yrre cwom,
2075
"eatol æfen-grom,      ûser neósan,
"þær we gesunde      säl weardodon;
"þær wäs Hondsció      hild onsæge,
"feorh-bealu fægum,      he fyrmest läg,
"gyrded cempa;      him Grendel wearð,
2080
"mærum magu-þegne      tô mûð-bonan,
"leófes mannes      lîc eall forswealg.
"Nô þý ær ût þâ gen      îdel-hende
"bona blôdig-tôð      bealewa gemyndig,
"of þam gold-sele      gongan wolde,
2085
"ac he mägnes rôf      mîn costode,
"grâpode gearo-folm.      Glôf hangode
"sîd and syllîc      searo-bendum fäst,
"sió wäs orþoncum      eall gegyrwed
"deófles cräftum      and dracan fellum:
2090
"he mec þær on innan      unsynnigne,
"diór dæd-fruma,      gedôn wolde,
"manigra sumne:      hyt ne mihte swâ,
"syððan ic on yrre      upp-riht âstôd.
"Tô lang ys tô reccenne,      hû ic þam leód-sceaðan
2095
"yfla gehwylces      ond-leán forgeald;
"þær ic, þeóden mîn,      þîne leóde
"weorðode weorcum.      He on weg losade,
"lytle hwîle      lîf-wynna breác;
"hwäðre him sió swîðre      swaðe weardade
2100
"hand on Hiorte      and he heán þonan,
"môdes geômor      mere-grund gefeóll.
"Me þone wäl-ræs      wine Scildunga
"fättan golde      fela leánode,
"manegum mâðmum,      syððan mergen com
2105
"and we tô symble      geseten häfdon.
"Þær wäs gidd and gleó;      gomela Scilding
"fela fricgende      feorran rehte;
"hwîlum hilde-deór      hearpan wynne,
"gomen-wudu grêtte;      hwîlum gyd âwräc
2110
"sôð and sârlîc;      hwîlum syllîc spell
"rehte äfter rihte      rûm-heort cyning.
"Hwîlum eft ongan      eldo gebunden,
"gomel gûð-wîga      gioguðe cwîðan
"hilde-strengo;      hreðer inne weóll,
2115
"þonne he wintrum frôd      worn gemunde.
"Swâ we þær inne      andlangne däg
"nióde nâman,      ôð þät niht becwom
"ôðer tô yldum.      Þâ wäs eft hraðe
"gearo gyrn-wräce      Grendeles môdor,
2120
"sîðode sorh-full;      sunu deáð fornam,
"wîg-hete Wedra.      Wîf unhýre
"hyre bearn gewräc,      beorn âcwealde
"ellenlîce;      þær wäs Äsc-here,
"frôdan fyrn-witan,      feorh ûðgenge;
2125
"nôðer hy hine ne môston,      syððan mergen cwom,
"deáð-wêrigne      Denia leóde
"bronde forbärnan,      ne on bæl hladan
"leófne mannan:      hió þät lîc ätbär
"feóndes fäðmum      under firgen-streám.
2130
"Þät wäs Hrôðgâre      hreówa tornost
"þâra þe leód-fruman      lange begeâte;
"þâ se þeóden mec      þîne lîfe
"healsode hreóh-môd,      þät ic on holma geþring
"eorl-scipe efnde,      ealdre genêðde,
2135
"mærðo fremede:      he me mêde gehêt.
"Ic þâ þäs wälmes,      þe is wîde cûð,
"grimne gryrelîcne      grund-hyrde fond.
"Þær unc hwîle wäs      hand gemæne;
"holm heolfre weóll      and ic heáfde becearf
2140
"in þam grund-sele      Grendeles môdor
"eácnum ecgum,      unsôfte þonan
"feorh ôðferede;      näs ic fæge þâ gyt,
"ac me eorla hleó      eft gesealde
"mâðma menigeo,      maga Healfdenes.

XXXI. HE GIVES PRESENTS TO HYGELAC. HYGELAC REWARDS HIM. HYGELAC'S DEATH. BEÓWULF REIGNS.

2145
"Swâ se þeód-kyning      þeáwum lyfde;
"nealles ic þâm leánum      forloren häfde,
"mägnes mêde,      ac he me mâðmas geaf,
"sunu Healfdenes,      on sînne sylfes dôm;
"þâ ic þe, beorn-cyning,      bringan wylle,
2150
"êstum geýwan.      Gen is eall ät þe
"lissa gelong:      ic lyt hafo
"heáfod-mâga,      nefne Hygelâc þec!"
Hêt þâ in beran      eafor, heáfod-segn,
heaðo-steápne helm,      hâre byrnan,
2155
gûð-sweord geatolîc,      gyd äfter wräc:
"Me þis hilde-sceorp      Hrôðgâr sealde,
"snotra fengel,      sume worde hêt,
"þät ic his ærest      þe eft gesägde,
"cwäð þät hyt häfde      Hiorogâr cyning,
2160
"leód Scyldunga      lange hwîle:
"nô þý ær suna sînum      syllan wolde,
"hwatum Heorowearde,      þeáh he him hold wære,
"breóst-gewædu.      Brûc ealles well!"
Hýrde ic þät þâm frätwum      feówer mearas
2165
lungre gelîce      lâst weardode,
äppel-fealuwe;      he him êst geteáh
meara and mâðma.      Swâ sceal mæg dôn,
nealles inwit-net      ôðrum bregdan,
dyrnum cräfte      deáð rênian
2170
hond-gesteallan.      Hygelâce wäs,
nîða heardum,      nefa swýðe hold
and gehwäðer ôðrum      hrôðra gemyndig.
Hýrde ic þät he þone heals-beáh      Hygde gesealde,
wrätlîcne wundur-mâððum,      þone þe him Wealhþeó geaf,
2175
þeódnes dôhtor,      þrió wicg somod
swancor and sadol-beorht;      hyre syððan wäs
äfter beáh-þege      breóst geweorðod.
Swâ bealdode      bearn Ecgþeówes,
guma gûðum cûð,      gôdum dædum,
2180
dreáh äfter dôme,      nealles druncne slôg
heorð-geneátas;      näs him hreóh sefa,
ac he man-cynnes      mæste cräfte
gin-fästan gife,      þe him god sealde,
heóld hilde-deór.      Heán wäs lange,
2185
swâ hyne Geáta bearn      gôdne ne tealdon,
ne hyne on medo-bence      micles wyrðne
drihten wereda      gedôn wolde;
swýðe oft sägdon,      þät he sleac wære,
äðeling unfrom:      edwenden cwom
2190
tîr-eádigum menn      torna gehwylces.
Hêt þâ eorla hleó      in gefetian,
heaðo-rôf cyning,      Hrêðles lâfe,
golde gegyrede;      näs mid Geátum þâ
sinc-mâððum sêlra      on sweordes hâd;
2195
þät he on Biówulfes      bearm âlegde,
and him gesealde      seofan þûsendo,
bold and brego-stôl.      Him wäs bâm samod
on þam leód-scipe      lond gecynde,
eard êðel-riht,      ôðrum swîðor
2200
sîde rîce,      þam þær sêlra wäs.
Eft þät geiode      ufaran dôgrum
hilde-hlämmum,      syððan Hygelâc läg
and Heardrêde      hilde-mêceas
under bord-hreóðan      tô bonan wurdon,
2205
þâ hyne gesôhtan      on sige-þeóde
hearde hilde-frecan,      Heaðo-Scilfingas,
nîða genægdan      nefan Hererîces.
Syððan Beówulfe      brâde rîce
on hand gehwearf:      he geheóld tela
2210
fîftig wintru      (wäs þâ frôd cyning,
eald êðel-weard),      ôð þät ân ongan
deorcum nihtum      draca rîcsian,
se þe on heáre hæðe      hord beweotode,
stân-beorh steápne:      stîg under läg,
2215
eldum uncûð.      Þær on innan gióng
niða nât-hwylces      neóde gefêng
hæðnum horde      hond . d . . geþ . . hwylc
since fâhne,      he þät syððan . . . . .
. . . þ . . . lð . þ . . l . g
2220
slæpende be fýre,      fyrena hyrde
þeófes cräfte,      þät sie . . . . ðioð . . . . .
. idh . folc-beorn,      þät he gebolgen wäs.

XXXII. THE FIRE-DRAKE. THE HOARD.

Nealles mid geweoldum      wyrm-horda . . . cräft
sôhte sylfes willum,      se þe him re gesceôd,
2225
ac for þreá-nêdlan      þeów nât-hwylces
häleða bearna      hete-swengeas fleáh,
for ofer-þearfe      and þær inne fealh
secg syn-bysig.      Sôna in þâ tîde
þät . . . . . þam gyste      . . . . br . g . stôd,
2230
hwäðre earm-sceapen . . . . . . .
. . ð . . . sceapen o . . . . i r . . e se fæs begeat,
sinc-fät geseah:      þær wäs swylcra fela
in þam eorð-scräfe      ær-gestreóna,
swâ hy on geâr-dagum      gumena nât-hwylc
2235
eormen-lâfe      äðelan cynnes
þanc-hycgende      þær gehýdde,
deóre mâðmas.      Ealle hie deáð fornam
ærran mælum,      and se ân þâ gen
leóda duguðe,      se þær lengest hwearf,
2240
weard wine-geômor      wîscte þäs yldan,
þät he lytel fäc      long-gestreóna
brûcan môste.      Beorh eal gearo
wunode on wonge      wäter-ýðum neáh,
niwe be nässe      nearo-cräftum fäst:
2245
þær on innan bär      eorl-gestreóna
hringa hyrde      hard-fyrdne dæl
fättan goldes,      feá worda cwäð:
"Heald þu nu, hruse,      nu häleð ne môston,
"eorla æhte.      Hwät! hit ær on þe
2250
"gôde begeâton;      gûð-deáð fornam,
"feorh-bealo frêcne      fyra gehwylcne,
"leóda mînra,      þâra þe þis lîf ofgeaf,
"gesâwon sele-dreám.      Nâh hwâ sweord wege
"oððe fetige      fäted wæge,
2255
"drync-fät deóre:      dug ellor scôc.
"Sceal se hearda helm      hyrsted golde
"fätum befeallen:      feormiend swefað,
"þâ þe beado-grîman      býwan sceoldon,
"ge swylce seó here-pâd,      sió ät hilde gebâd
2260
"ofer borda gebräc      bite îrena,
"brosnað äfter beorne.      Ne mäg byrnan hring
"äfter wîg-fruman      wîde fêran
"häleðum be healfe;      näs hearpan wyn,
"gomen gleó-beámes,      ne gôd hafoc
2265
"geond säl swingeð,      ne se swifta mearh
"burh-stede beáteð.      Bealo-cwealm hafað
"fela feorh-cynna      feorr onsended!"
Swâ giômor-môd      giohðo mænde,
ân äfter eallum      unblîðe hweóp,
2270
däges and nihtes,      ôð þät deáðes wylm
hrân ät heortan.      Hord-wynne fond
eald uht-sceaða      opene standan,
se þe byrnende      biorgas sêceð
nacod nîð-draca,      nihtes fleógeð
2275
fýre befangen;      hyne fold-bûend
wîde gesâwon.      He gewunian sceall
hlâw under hrusan,      þær he hæðen gold
warað wintrum frôd;      ne byð him wihte þê sêl.
Swâ se þeód-sceaða      þreó hund wintra
2280
heóld on hrusan      hord-ärna sum
eácen-cräftig,      ôð þät hyne ân âbealh
mon on môde:      man-dryhtne bär
fäted wæge,      frioðo-wære bäd
hlâford sînne.      Þâ wäs hord râsod,
2285
onboren beága hord,      bêne getîðad
feá-sceaftum men.      Freá sceáwode
fira fyrn-geweorc      forman sîðe.
Þâ se wyrm onwôc,      wrôht wäs geniwad;
stonc þâ äfter stâne,      stearc-heort onfand
2290
feóndes fôt-lâst;      he tô forð gestôp,
dyrnan cräfte,      dracan heáfde neáh.
Swâ mäg unfæge      eáðe gedîgan
weán and wräc-sîð,      se þe waldendes
hyldo gehealdeð.      Hord-weard sôhte
2295
georne äfter grunde,      wolde guman findan,
þone þe him on sweofote      sâre geteóde:
hât and hreóh-môd      hlæw oft ymbe hwearf,
ealne ûtan-weardne;      ne þær ænig mon
wäs on þære wêstenne.      Hwäðre hilde gefeh,
2300
beado-weorces:      hwîlum on beorh äthwearf,
sinc-fät sôhte;      he þät sôna onfand,
þät häfde gumena sum      goldes gefandod
heáh-gestreóna.      Hord-weard onbâd
earfoðlîce,      ôð þät æfen cwom;
2305
wäs þâ gebolgen      beorges hyrde,
wolde se lâða      lîge forgyldan
drinc-fät dýre.      Þâ wäs däg sceacen
wyrme on willan,      nô on wealle leng
bîdan wolde,      ac mid bæle fôr,
2310
fýre gefýsed.      Wäs se fruma egeslîc
leódum on lande,      swâ hyt lungre wearð
on hyra sinc-gifan      sâre geendod.

XXXIII. BEOWULF RESOLVES TO KILL THE FIRE-DRAKE.

Þâ se gäst ongan      glêdum spîwan,
beorht hofu bärnan;      bryne-leóma stôd
2315
eldum on andan;      nô þær âht cwices
lâð lyft-floga      læfan wolde.
Wäs þäs wyrmes wîg      wîde gesýne,
nearo-fâges nîð      neán and feorran,
hû se gûð-sceaða      Geáta leóde
2320
hatode and hýnde:      hord eft gesceát,
dryht-sele dyrnne      ær däges hwîle.
Häfde land-wara      lîge befangen,
bæle and bronde;      beorges getrûwode,
wîges and wealles:      him seó wên geleáh.
2325
Þâ wäs Biówulfe      brôga gecýðed
snûde tô sôðe,      þät his sylfes him
bolda sêlest      bryne-wylmum mealt,
gif-stôl Geáta.      Þät þam gôdan wäs
hreów on hreðre,      hyge-sorga mæst:
2330
wênde se wîsa,      þät he wealdende,
ofer ealde riht,      êcean dryhtne
bitre gebulge:      breóst innan weóll
þeóstrum geþoncum,      swâ him geþýwe ne wäs.
Häfde lîg-draca      leóda fästen,
2335
eá-lond ûtan,      eorð-weard þone
glêdum forgrunden.      Him þäs gûð-cyning,
Wedera þióden,      wräce leornode.
Hêht him þâ gewyrcean      wîgendra hleó
eall-îrenne,      eorla dryhten
2340
wîg-bord wrätlîc;      wisse he gearwe,
þät him holt-wudu      helpan ne meahte,
lind wið lîge.      Sceolde læn-daga
äðeling ær-gôd      ende gebîdan
worulde lîfes      and se wyrm somod;
2345
þeáh þe hord-welan      heólde lange.
Oferhogode þâ      hringa fengel,
þät he þone wîd-flogan      weorode gesôhte,
sîdan herge;      nô he him þâ säcce ondrêd,
ne him þäs wyrmes wîg      for wiht dyde,
2350
eafoð and ellen;      forþon he ær fela
nearo nêðende      nîða gedîgde,
hilde-hlemma,      syððan he Hrôðgâres,
sigor-eádig secg,      sele fælsode
and ät gûðe forgrâp      Grendeles mægum,
2355
lâðan cynnes.      Nô þät läsest wäs
hond-gemota,      þær mon Hygelâc slôh,
syððan Geáta cyning      gûðe ræsum,
freá-wine folces      Freslondum on,
Hrêðles eafora      hioro-dryncum swealt,
2360
bille gebeáten;      þonan Biówulf com
sylfes cräfte,      sund-nytte dreáh;
† häfde him on earme      ... XXX
hilde-geatwa,      þâ he tô holme stâg.
Nealles Hetware      hrêmge þorfton
2365
fêðe-wîges,      þe him foran ongeán
linde bæron:      lyt eft becwom
fram þam hild-frecan      hâmes niósan.
Oferswam þâ sióleða bigong      sunu Ecgþeówes,
earm ân-haga      eft tô leódum,
2370
þær him Hygd gebeád      hord and rîce,
beágas and brego-stôl:      bearne ne trûwode,
þät he wið äl-fylcum      êðel-stôlas
healdan cûðe,      þâ wäs Hygelâc deád.
Nô þý ær feá-sceafte      findan meahton
2375
ät þam äðelinge      ænige þinga,
þät he Heardrêde      hlâford wære,
oððe þone cyne-dôm      ciósan wolde;
hwäðre he him on folce      freónd-lârum heóld,
êstum mid âre,      ôð þät he yldra wearð,
2380
Weder-Geátum weóld.      Hyne wräc-mäcgas
ofer sæ sôhtan,      suna Ôhteres:
häfdon hy forhealden      helm Scylfinga,
þone sêlestan      sæ-cyninga,
þâra þe in Swió-rîce      sinc brytnade,
2385
mærne þeóden.      Him þät tô mearce wearð;
he þær orfeorme      feorh-wunde hleát
sweordes swengum,      sunu Hygelâces;
and him eft gewât      Ongenþiówes bearn
hâmes niósan,      syððan Heardrêd läg;
2390
lêt þone brego-stôl      Biówulf healdan,
Geátum wealdan:      þät wäs gôd cyning.

XXXIV. RETROSPECT OF BEÓWULF.—STRIFE BETWEEN SWEONAS AND GEATAS.

Se þäs leód-hryres      leán gemunde
uferan dôgrum,      Eádgilse wearð
feá-sceaftum feónd.      Folce gestepte
2395
ofer sæ sîde      sunu Ôhteres
wîgum and wæpnum:      he gewräc syððan
cealdum cear-sîðum,      cyning ealdre bineát.
Swâ he nîða gehwane      genesen häfde,
slîðra geslyhta,      sunu Ecgþiówes,
2400
ellen-weorca,      ôð þone ânne däg,
þe he wið þam wyrme      gewegan sceolde.
Gewât þâ twelfa sum      torne gebolgen
dryhten Geáta      dracan sceáwian;
häfde þâ gefrunen,      hwanan sió fæhð ârâs,
2405
bealo-nîð biorna;      him tô bearme cwom
mâððum-fät mære      þurh þäs meldan hond,
Se wäs on þam þreáte      þreotteoða secg,
se þäs orleges      ôr onstealde,
häft hyge-giômor,      sceolde heán þonon
2410
wong wîsian:      he ofer willan gióng
tô þäs þe he eorð-sele      ânne wisse,
hlæw under hrusan      holm-wylme nêh,
ýð-gewinne,      se wäs innan full
wrätta and wîra:      weard unhióre,
2415
gearo gûð-freca,      gold-mâðmas heóld,
eald under eorðan;      näs þät ýðe ceáp,
tô gegangenne      gumena ænigum.
Gesät þâ on nässe      nîð-heard cyning,
þenden hælo âbeád      heorð-geneátum
2420
gold-wine Geáta:      him wäs geômor sefa,
wäfre and wäl-fûs,      Wyrd ungemete neáh,
se þone gomelan      grêtan sceolde,
sêcean sâwle hord,      sundur gedælan
lîf wið lîce:      nô þon lange wäs
2425
feorh äðelinges      flæsce bewunden.
Biówulf maðelade,      bearn Ecgþeówes:
"Fela ic on giogoðe      guð-ræsa genäs,
"orleg-hwîla:      ic þät eall gemon.
"Ic wäs syfan-wintre,      þâ mec sinca baldor,
2430
"freá-wine folca      ät mînum fäder genam,
"heóld mec and häfde      Hrêðel cyning,
"geaf me sinc and symbel,      sibbe gemunde;
"näs ic him tô lîfe      lâðra ôwihte
"beorn in burgum,      þonne his bearna hwylc,
2435
"Herebeald and Hæðcyn,      oððe Hygelâc mîn.
"Wäs þam yldestan      ungedêfelîce
"mæges dædum      morðor-bed strêd,
"syððan hyne Hæðcyn      of horn-bogan,
"his freá-wine      flâne geswencte,
2440
"miste mercelses      and his mæg ofscêt,
"brôðor ôðerne,      blôdigan gâre:
"þät wäs feoh-leás gefeoht,      fyrenum gesyngad
"hreðre hyge-mêðe;      sceolde hwäðre swâ þeáh
"äðeling unwrecen      ealdres linnan.
2445
"Swâ bið geômorlîc      gomelum ceorle
"tô gebîdanne,      þät his byre rîde
"giong on galgan,      þonne he gyd wrece,
"sârigne sang,      þonne his sunu hangað
"hrefne tô hrôðre      and he him helpe ne mäg,
2450
"eald and in-frôd,      ænige gefremman.
"Symble bið gemyndgad      morna gehwylce
"eaforan ellor-sîð;      ôðres ne gýmeð
"tô gebîdanne      burgum on innan
"yrfe-weardes,      þonne se ân hafað
2455
"þurh deáðes nýd      dæda gefondad.
"Gesyhð sorh-cearig      on his suna bûre
"wîn-sele wêstne,      wind-gereste,
"reóte berofene;      rîdend swefað
"häleð in hoðman;      nis þær hearpan swêg,
2460
"gomen in geardum,      swylce þær iú wæron.

XXXV. MEMORIES OF PAST TIME.—THE FEUD WITH THE FIRE-DRAKE.

"Gewîteð þonne on sealman,      sorh-leóð gäleð
"ân äfter ânum:      þûhte him eall tô rûm,
"wongas and wîc-stede.      Swâ Wedra helm
"äfter Herebealde      heortan sorge
2465
"weallende wäg,      wihte ne meahte
"on þam feorh-bonan      fæhðe gebêtan:
"nô þý ær he þone heaðo-rinc      hatian ne meahte
"lâðum dædum,      þeáh him leóf ne wäs.
"He þâ mid þære sorge,      þe him sió sâr belamp,
2470
"gum-dreám ofgeaf,      godes leóht geceás;
"eaferum læfde,      swâ dêð eádig mon,
"lond and leód-byrig,      þâ he of lîfe gewât.
"Þâ wäs synn and sacu      Sweona and Geáta,
"ofer wîd wäter      wrôht gemæne,
2475
"here-nîð hearda,      syððan Hrêðel swealt,
"oððe him Ongenþeówes      eaferan wæran
"frome fyrd-hwate,      freóde ne woldon
"ofer heafo healdan,      ac ymb Hreosna-beorh
"eatolne inwit-scear      oft gefremedon.
2480
"Þät mæg-wine      mîne gewræcan,
"fæhðe and fyrene,      swâ hyt gefræge wäs,
"þeáh þe ôðer hit      ealdre gebohte,
"heardan ceápe:      Hæðcynne wearð,
"Geáta dryhtne,      gûð onsæge.
2485
"Þâ ic on morgne gefrägn      mæg ôðerne
"billes ecgum      on bonan stælan,
"þær Ongenþeów      Eofores niósade:
"gûð-helm tôglâd,      gomela Scylfing
"hreás heoro-blâc;      hond gemunde
2490
"fæhðo genôge,      feorh-sweng ne ofteáh.
"Ic him þâ mâðmas,      þe he me sealde,
"geald ät gûðe,      swâ me gifeðe wäs,
"leóhtan sweorde:      he me lond forgeaf,
"eard êðel-wyn.      Näs him ænig þearf,
2495
"þät he tô Gifðum      oððe tô Gâr-Denum
"oððe in Swió-rîce      sêcean þurfe
"wyrsan wîg-frecan,      weorðe gecýpan;
"symle ic him on fêðan      beforan wolde,
"âna on orde,      and swâ tô aldre sceall
2500
"säcce fremman,      þenden þis sweord þolað,
"þät mec ær and sîð      oft gelæste,
"syððan ic for dugeðum      Däghrefne wearð
"tô hand-bonan,      Hûga cempan:
"nalles he þâ frätwe      Fres-cyninge,
2505
"breóst-weorðunge      bringan môste,
"ac in campe gecrong      cumbles hyrde,
"äðeling on elne.      Ne wäs ecg bona,
"ac him hilde-grâp      heortan wylmas,
"bân-hûs gebräc.      Nu sceall billes ecg,
2510
"hond and heard sweord      ymb hord wîgan."
Beówulf maðelode,      beót-wordum spräc
niéhstan sîðe:      "Ic genêðde fela
"gûða on geogoðe;      gyt ic wylle,
"frôd folces weard,      fæhðe sêcan,
2515
"mærðum fremman,      gif mec se mân-sceaða
"of eorð-sele      ût gesêceð!"
Gegrêtte þâ      gumena gehwylcne,
hwate helm-berend      hindeman sîðe,
swæse gesîðas:      "Nolde ic sweord beran,
2520
"wæpen tô wyrme,      gif ic wiste hû
"wið þam aglæcean      elles meahte
"gylpe wiðgrîpan,      swâ ic gió wið Grendle dyde;
"ac ic þær heaðu-fýres      hâtes wêne,
"rêðes and-hâttres:      forþon ic me on hafu
2525
"bord and byrnan.      Nelle ic beorges weard
"oferfleón fôtes trem,      feónd unhýre,
"ac unc sceal weorðan ät wealle,      swâ unc Wyrd geteóð,
"metod manna gehwäs.      Ic eom on môde from,
"þät ic wið þone gûð-flogan      gylp ofersitte.
2530
"Gebîde ge on beorge      byrnum werede,
"secgas on searwum,      hwäðer sêl mæge
"äfter wäl-ræse      wunde gedýgan
"uncer twega.      Nis þät eówer sîð,
"ne gemet mannes,      nefne mîn ânes,
2535
"þät he wið aglæcean      eofoðo dæle,
"eorl-scype efne.      Ic mid elne sceall
"gold gegangan      oððe gûð nimeð,
"feorh-bealu frêcne,      freán eówerne!"
Ârâs þâ bî ronde      rôf oretta,
2540
heard under helm,      hioro-sercean bär
under stân-cleofu,      strengo getrûwode
ânes mannes:      ne bið swylc earges sîð.
Geseah þâ be wealle,      se þe worna fela,
gum-cystum gôd,      gûða gedîgde,
2545
hilde-hlemma,      þonne hnitan fêðan,
(stôd on stân-bogan)      streám ût þonan
brecan of beorge;      wäs þære burnan wälm
heaðo-fýrum hât:      ne meahte horde neáh
unbyrnende      ænige hwîle
2550
deóp gedýgan      for dracan lêge.
Lêt þâ of breóstum,      þâ he gebolgen wäs,
Weder-Geáta leód      word ût faran,
stearc-heort styrmde;      stefn in becom
heaðo-torht hlynnan      under hârne stân.
2555
Hete wäs onhrêred,      hord-weard oncniów
mannes reorde;      näs þær mâra fyrst,
freóde tô friclan.      From ærest cwom
oruð aglæcean      ût of stâne,
hât hilde-swât;      hruse dynede.
2560
Biorn under beorge      bord-rand onswâf
wið þam gryre-gieste,      Geáta dryhten:
þâ wäs hring-bogan      heorte gefýsed
säcce tô sêceanne.      Sweord ær gebräd
gôd gûð-cyning      gomele lâfe,
2565
ecgum ungleáw,      æghwäðrum wäs
bealo-hycgendra      brôga fram ôðrum.
Stîð-môd gestôd      wið steápne rond
winia bealdor,      þâ se wyrm gebeáh
snûde tôsomne:      he on searwum bâd.
2570
Gewât þâ byrnende      gebogen scrîðan tô,
gescîfe scyndan.      Scyld wel gebearg
lîfe and lîce      lässan hwîle
mærum þeódne,      þonne his myne sôhte,
þær he þý fyrste      forman dôgore
2575
wealdan môste,      swâ him Wyrd ne gescrâf
hrêð ät hilde.      Hond up âbräd
Geáta dryhten,      gryre-fâhne slôh
incge lâfe,      þät sió ecg gewâc
brûn on bâne,      bât unswîðor,
2580
þonne his þiód-cyning      þearfe häfde,
bysigum gebæded.      Þâ wäs beorges weard
äfter heaðu-swenge      on hreóum môde,
wearp wäl-fýre,      wîde sprungon
hilde-leóman:      hrêð-sigora ne gealp
2585
gold-wine Geáta,      gûð-bill geswâc
nacod ät nîðe,      swâ hyt nô sceolde,
îren ær-gôd.      Ne wäs þät êðe sîð,
þät se mæra      maga Ecgþeówes
grund-wong þone      ofgyfan wolde;
2590
sceolde wyrmes willan      wîc eardian
elles hwergen,      swâ sceal æghwylc mon
âlætan læn-dagas.      Näs þâ long tô þon,
þät þâ aglæcean      hy eft gemêtton.
Hyrte hyne hord-weard,      hreðer æðme weóll,
2595
niwan stefne:      nearo þrowode
fýre befongen      se þe ær folce weóld.
Nealles him on heápe      hand-gesteallan,
äðelinga bearn      ymbe gestôdon
hilde-cystum,      ac hy on holt bugon,
2600
ealdre burgan.      Hiora in ânum weóll
sefa wið sorgum:      sibb æfre ne mäg
wiht onwendan,      þam þe wel þenceð.

XXXVI. WIGLAF HELPS BEÓWULF IN THE FEUD

Wîglâf wäs hâten      Weoxstânes sunu,
leóflîc lind-wiga,      leód Scylfinga,
2605
mæg Älfheres:      geseah his mon-dryhten
under here-grîman      hât þrowian.
Gemunde þâ þâ âre,      þe he him ær forgeaf
wîc-stede weligne      Wægmundinga,
folc-rihta gehwylc,      swâ his fäder âhte;
2610
ne mihte þâ forhabban,      hond rond gefêng,
geolwe linde,      gomel swyrd geteáh,
þät wäs mid eldum      Eánmundes lâf,
suna Ôhteres,      þam ät säcce wearð
wracu wine-leásum      Weohstânes bana
2615
mêces ecgum,      and his mâgum ätbär
brûn-fâgne helm,      hringde byrnan,
eald sweord eotonisc,      þät him Onela forgeaf,
his gädelinges      gûð-gewædu,
fyrd-searo fûslîc:      nô ymbe þâ fæhðe spräc,
2620
þeáh þe he his brôðor      bearn âbredwade.
He frätwe geheóld      fela missera,
bill and byrnan,      ôð þät his byre mihte
eorl-scipe efnan,      swâ his ær-fäder;
geaf him þâ mid Geátum      gûð-gewæda
2625
æghwäs unrîm;      þâ he of ealdre gewât,
frôd on forð-weg.      Þâ wäs forma sîð
geongan cempan,      þät he gûðe ræs
mid his freó-dryhtne      fremman sceolde;
ne gemealt him se môd-sefa,      ne his mæges lâf
2630
gewâc ät wîge:      þät se wyrm onfand,
syððan hie tôgädre      gegân häfdon.
Wîglâf maðelode      word-rihta fela,
sägde gesîðum,      him wäs sefa geômor:
"Ic þät mæl geman,      þær we medu þêgun,
2635
"þonne we gehêton      ûssum hlâforde
"in biór-sele,      þe ûs þâs beágas geaf,
"þät we him þâ gûð-geatwa      gyldan woldon,
"gif him þyslîcu      þearf gelumpe,
"helmas and heard sweord:      þê he ûsic on herge geceás
2640
"tô þyssum sîð-fate      sylfes willum,
"onmunde ûsic mærða      and me þâs mâðmas geaf,
"þê he ûsic gâr-wîgend      gôde tealde,
"hwate helm-berend,      þeáh þe hlâford ûs
"þis ellen-weorc      âna âþôhte
2645
"tô gefremmanne,      folces hyrde,
"forþam he manna mæst      mærða gefremede,
"dæda dollîcra.      Nu is se däg cumen,
"þät ûre man-dryhten      mägenes behôfað
"gôdra gûð-rinca:      wutun gangan tô,
2650
"helpan hild-fruman,      þenden hyt sý,
"glêd-egesa grim!      God wât on mec,
"þät me is micle leófre,      þät mînne lîc-haman
"mid mînne gold-gyfan      glêd fäðmie.
"Ne þynceð me gerysne,      þät we rondas beren
2655
"eft tô earde,      nemne we æror mægen
"fâne gefyllan,      feorh ealgian
"Wedra þiódnes.      Ic wât geare,
"þät næron eald-gewyrht,      þät he âna scyle
"Geáta duguðe      gnorn þrowian,
2660
"gesîgan ät säcce:      sceal ûrum þät sweord and helm,
"byrne and byrdu-scrûd      bâm gemæne."
Wôd þâ þurh þone wäl-rêc,      wîg-heafolan bär
freán on fultum,      feá worda cwäð:
"Leófa Biówulf,      læst eall tela,
2665
"swâ þu on geoguð-feore      geâra gecwæde,
"þät þu ne âlæte      be þe lifigendum
"dôm gedreósan:      scealt nu dædum rôf,
"äðeling ân-hydig,      ealle mägene
"feorh ealgian;      ic þe fullæstu!"
2670
Äfter þâm wordum      wyrm yrre cwom,
atol inwit-gäst      ôðre sîðe,
fýr-wylmum fâh      fiónda niósan,
lâðra manna;      lîg-ýðum forborn
bord wið ronde:      byrne ne meahte
2675
geongum gâr-wigan      geóce gefremman:
ac se maga geonga      under his mæges scyld
elne geeode,      þâ his âgen wäs
glêdum forgrunden.      Þâ gen gûð-cyning
mærða gemunde,      mägen-strengo,
2680
slôh hilde-bille,      þät hyt on heafolan stôd
nîðe genýded:      Nägling forbärst,
geswâc ät säcce      sweord Biówulfes
gomol and græg-mæl.      Him þät gifeðe ne wäs,
þät him îrenna      ecge mihton
2685
helpan ät hilde;      wäs sió hond tô strong,
se þe mêca gehwane      mîne gefræge
swenge ofersôhte,      þonne he tô säcce bär
wæpen wundrum heard,      näs him wihte þê sêl.
Þâ wäs þeód-sceaða      þriddan sîðe,
2690
frêcne fýr-draca      fæhða gemyndig,
ræsde on þone rôfan,      þâ him rûm âgeald,
hât and heaðo-grim,      heals ealne ymbefêng
biteran bânum;      he geblôdegod wearð
sâwul-drióre;      swât ýðum weóll.

XXXVII. BEÓWULF WOUNDED TO DEATH.

2695
Þâ ic ät þearfe gefrägn      þeód-cyninges
and-longne eorl      ellen cýðan,
cräft and cênðu,      swâ him gecynde wäs;
ne hêdde he þäs heafolan,      ac sió hand gebarn
môdiges mannes,      þær he his mæges healp,
2700
þät he þone nîð-gäst      nioðor hwêne slôh,
secg on searwum,      þät þät sweord gedeáf
fâh and fäted,      þät þät fýr ongon
sweðrian syððan.      Þâ gen sylf cyning
geweóld his gewitte,      wäll-seaxe gebräd,
2705
biter and beadu-scearp,      þät he on byrnan wäg:
forwrât Wedra helm       wyrm on middan.
Feónd gefyldan      (ferh ellen wräc),
and hi hyne þâ begen      âbroten häfdon,
sib-äðelingas:      swylc sceolde secg wesan,
2710
þegn ät þearfe.      Þät þam þeódne wäs
sîðast sîge-hwîle      sylfes dædum,
worlde geweorces.      Þâ sió wund ongon,
þe him se eorð-draca      ær geworhte,
swêlan and swellan.      He þät sôna onfand,
2715
þät him on breóstum      bealo-nîð weóll,
âttor on innan.      Þâ se äðeling gióng,
þät he bî wealle,      wîs-hycgende,
gesät on sesse;      seah on enta geweorc,
hû þâ stân-bogan      stapulum fäste
2720
êce eorð-reced      innan heóldon.
Hyne þâ mid handa      heoro-dreórigne
þeóden mærne      þegn ungemete till,
wine-dryhten his      wätere gelafede,
hilde-sädne      and his helm onspeón.
2725
Biówulf maðelode,      he ofer benne spräc,
wunde wäl-bleáte      (wisse he gearwe,
þät he däg-hwîla      gedrogen häfde
eorðan wynne;      þâ wäs eall sceacen
dôgor-gerîmes,      deáð ungemete neáh):
2730
"Nu ic suna mînum      syllan wolde
"gûð-gewædu,      þær me gifeðe swâ
"ænig yrfe-weard      äfter wurde,
"lîce gelenge.      Ic þâs leóde heóld
"fîftig wintra:      näs se folc-cyning
2735
"ymbe-sittendra      ænig þâra,
"þe mec gûð-winum      grêtan dorste,
"egesan þeón.      Ic on earde bâd
"mæl-gesceafta,      heóld mîn tela,
"ne sôhte searo-nîðas,      ne me swôr fela
2740
"âða on unriht.      Ic þäs ealles mäg,
"feorh-bennum seóc,      gefeán habban:
"forþam me wîtan ne þearf      waldend fira
"morðor-bealo mâga,      þonne mîn sceaceð
"lîf of lîce.      Nu þu lungre
2745
"geong, hord sceáwian      under hârne stân,
"Wîglâf leófa,      nu se wyrm ligeð,
"swefeð sâre wund,      since bereáfod.
"Bió nu on ôfoste,      þät ic ær-welan,
"gold-æht ongite,      gearo sceáwige
2750
"swegle searo-gimmas,      þät ic þý sêft mæge
"äfter mâððum-welan      mîn âlætan
"lîf and leód-scipe,      þone ic longe heóld."

XXXVIII. THE JEWEL-HOARD. THE PASSING OF BEOWULF.

Þâ ic snûde gefrägn      sunu Wihstânes
äfter word-cwydum      wundum dryhtne
2755
hýran heaðo-siócum,      hring-net beran,
brogdne beadu-sercean      under beorges hrôf.
Geseah þâ sige-hrêðig,      þâ he bî sesse geóng,
mago-þegn môdig      mâððum-sigla fela,
gold glitinian      grunde getenge,
2760
wundur on wealle      and þäs wyrmes denn,
ealdes uht-flogan,      orcas stondan,
fyrn-manna fatu      feormend-leáse,
hyrstum behrorene:      þær wäs helm monig,
eald and ômig,      earm-beága fela,
2765
searwum gesæled.      Sinc eáðe mäg,
gold on grunde,      gumena cynnes
gehwone ofer-higian,      hýde se þe wylle!
Swylce he siomian geseah      segn eall-gylden
heáh ofer horde,      hond-wundra mæst,
2770
gelocen leoðo-cräftum:      of þam leóma stôd,
þät he þone grund-wong      ongitan meahte,
wräte giond-wlîtan.      Näs þäs wyrmes þær
onsýn ænig,      ac hyne ecg fornam.
Þâ ic on hlæwe      gefrägn hord reáfian,
2775
eald enta geweorc      ânne mannan,
him on bearm hladan      bunan and discas
sylfes dôme,      segn eác genom,
beácna beorhtost;      bill ær-gescôd
(ecg wäs îren)      eald-hlâfordes
2780
þam þâra mâðma      mund-bora wäs
longe hwîle,      lîg-egesan wäg
hâtne for horde,      hioro-weallende,
middel-nihtum,      ôð þät he morðre swealt.
Âr wäs on ôfoste      eft-sîðes georn,
2785
frätwum gefyrðred:      hyne fyrwet bräc,
hwäðer collen-ferð      cwicne gemêtte
in þam wong-stede      Wedra þeóden,
ellen-siócne,      þær he hine ær forlêt.
He þâ mid þâm mâðmum      mærne þióden,
2790
dryhten sînne      driórigne fand
ealdres ät ende:      he hine eft ongon
wäteres weorpan,      ôð þät wordes ord
breóst-hord þurhbräc.      Beówulf maðelode,
gomel on giohðe      (gold sceáwode):
2795
"Ic þâra frätwa      freán ealles þanc
"wuldur-cyninge      wordum secge,
"êcum dryhtne,      þe ic her on starie,
"þäs þe ic môste      mînum leódum
"ær swylt-däge      swylc gestrýnan.
2800
"Nu ic on mâðma hord      mîne bebohte
"frôde feorh-lege,      fremmað ge nu
"leóda þearfe;      ne mäg ic her leng wesan.
"Hâtað heaðo-mære      hlæw gewyrcean,
"beorhtne äfter bæle      ät brimes nosan;
2805
"sê scel tô gemyndum      mînum leódum
"heáh hlifian      on Hrones nässe,
"þät hit sæ-lîðend      syððan hâtan
"Biówulfes biorh,      þâ þe brentingas
"ofer flôda genipu      feorran drîfað."
2810
Dyde him of healse      hring gyldenne
þióden þrîst-hydig,      þegne gesealde,
geongum gâr-wigan,      gold-fâhne helm,
beáh and byrnan,      hêt hyne brûcan well:
"Þu eart ende-lâf      ûsses cynnes,
2815
"Wægmundinga;      ealle Wyrd forsweóf,
"mîne mâgas      tô metod-sceafte,
"eorlas on elne:      ic him äfter sceal."
Þät wäs þam gomelan      gingeste word
breóst-gehygdum,      ær he bæl cure,
2820
hâte heaðo-wylmas:      him of hreðre gewât
sâwol sêcean      sôð-fästra dôm.

XXXIX. THE COWARD-THANES.

Þâ wäs gegongen      guman unfrôdum
earfoðlîce,      þät he on eorðan geseah
þone leófestan      lîfes ät ende
2825
bleáte gebæran.      Bona swylce läg,
egeslîc eorð-draca,      ealdre bereáfod,
bealwe gebæded:      beáh-hordum leng
wyrm woh-bogen      wealdan ne môste,
ac him îrenna      ecga fornâmon,
2830
hearde heaðo-scearpe      homera lâfe,
þät se wîd-floga      wundum stille
hreás on hrusan      hord-ärne neáh,
nalles äfter lyfte      lâcende hwearf
middel-nihtum,      mâðm-æhta wlonc
2835
ansýn ýwde:      ac he eorðan gefeóll
for þäs hild-fruman      hond-geweorce.
Hûru þät on lande      lyt manna þâh
mägen-âgendra      mîne gefræge,
þeáh þe he dæda gehwäs      dyrstig wære,
2840
þät he wið âttor-sceaðan      oreðe geræsde,
oððe hring-sele      hondum styrede,
gif he wäccende      weard onfunde
bûan on beorge.      Biówulfe wearð
dryht-mâðma dæl      deáðe forgolden;
2845
häfde æghwäðer      ende gefêred
lænan lîfes.      Näs þâ lang tô þon,
þät þâ hild-latan      holt ofgêfan,
tydre treów-logan      tyne ätsomne,
þâ ne dorston ær      dareðum lâcan
2850
on hyra man-dryhtnes      miclan þearfe;
ac hy scamiende      scyldas bæran,
gûð-gewædu,      þær se gomela läg:
wlitan on Wîglâf.      He gewêrgad sät,
fêðe-cempa      freán eaxlum neáh,
2855
wehte hyne wätre;      him wiht ne speów;
ne meahte he on eorðan,      þeáh he ûðe wel,
on þam frum-gâre      feorh gehealdan,
ne þäs wealdendes willan      wiht oncirran;
wolde dôm godes      dædum rædan
2860
gumena gehwylcum,      swâ he nu gen dêð.
Þâ wäs ät þam geongan      grim andswaru
êð-begête þâm þe ær      his elne forleás.
Wîglâf maðelode,      Weohstânes sunu,
secg sârig-ferð      seah on unleófe:
2865
"Þät lâ mäg secgan,      se þe wyle sôð sprecan,
"þät se mon-dryhten,      se eów þâ mâðmas geaf,
"eóred-geatwe,      þe ge þær on standað,
"þonne he on ealu-bence      oft gesealde
"heal-sittendum      helm and byrnan,
2870
"þeóden his þegnum,      swylce he þryðlîcost
"ôhwær feor oððe neáh      findan meahte,
"þät he genunga      gûð-gewædu
"wrâðe forwurpe.      Þâ hyne wîg beget,
"nealles folc-cyning      fyrd-gesteallum
2875
"gylpan þorfte;      hwäðre him god ûðe,
"sigora waldend,      þät he hyne sylfne gewräc
"âna mid ecge,      þâ him wäs elnes þearf,
"Ic him lîf-wraðe      lytle meahte
"ätgifan ät gûðe      and ongan swâ þeáh
2880
"ofer mîn gemet      mæges helpan:
"symle wäs þý sæmra,      þonne ic sweorde drep
"ferhð-genîðlan,      fýr unswîðor
"weóll of gewitte.      Wergendra tô lyt
"þrong ymbe þeóden,      þâ hyne sió þrag becwom.
2885
"Nu sceal sinc-þego      and swyrd-gifu
"eall êðel-wyn      eówrum cynne,
"lufen âlicgean:      lond-rihtes môt
"þære mæg-burge      monna æghwylc
"îdel hweorfan,      syððan äðelingas
2890
"feorran gefricgean      fleám eówerne,
"dôm-leásan dæd.      Deáð bið sêlla
"eorla gehwylcum      þonne edwît-lîf!"

XL. THE SOLDIER'S DIRGE AND PROPHECY.

Hêht þâ þät heaðo-weorc      tô hagan biódan
up ofer êg-clif,      þær þät eorl-weorod
2895
morgen-longne däg      môd-giômor sät,
bord-häbbende,      bega on wênum
ende-dôgores      and eft-cymes
leófes monnes.      Lyt swîgode
niwra spella,      se þe näs gerâd,
2900
ac he sôðlîce      sägde ofer ealle;
"Nu is wil-geofa      Wedra leóda,
"dryhten Geáta      deáð-bedde fäst,
"wunað wäl-reste      wyrmes dædum;
"him on efn ligeð      ealdor-gewinna,
2905
"siex-bennum seóc:      sweorde ne meahte
"on þam aglæcean      ænige þinga
"wunde gewyrcean.      Wîglâf siteð
"ofer Biówulfe,      byre Wihstânes,
"eorl ofer ôðrum      unlifigendum,
2910
"healdeð hige-mêðum      heáfod-wearde
"leófes and lâðes.      Nu ys leódum wên
"orleg-hwîle,      syððan underne
"Froncum and Frysum      fyll cyninges
"wîde weorðeð.      Wäs sió wrôht scepen
2915
"heard wið Hûgas,      syððan Higelâc cwom
"faran flot-herge      on Fresna land,
"þær hyne Hetware      hilde gehnægdon,
"elne geeodon      mid ofer-mägene,
"þät se byrn-wîga      bûgan sceolde,
2920
"feóll on fêðan:      nalles frätwe geaf
"ealdor dugoðe;      ûs wäs â syððan
"Merewioinga      milts ungyfeðe.
"Ne ic tô Sweó-þeóde      sibbe oððe treówe
"wihte ne wêne;      ac wäs wîde cûð,
2925
"þätte Ongenþió      ealdre besnyðede
"Hæðcyn Hrêðling      wið Hrefna-wudu,
"þâ for on-mêdlan      ærest gesôhton
"Geáta leóde      Gûð-scilfingas.
"Sôna him se frôda      fäder Ôhtheres,
2930
"eald and eges-full      ond-slyht âgeaf,
"âbreót brim-wîsan,      brýd âheórde,
"gomela ió-meowlan      golde berofene,
"Onelan môdor      and Ôhtheres,
"and þâ folgode      feorh-genîðlan
2935
"ôð þät hî ôðeodon      earfoðlîce
"in Hrefnes-holt      hlâford-leáse.
"Besät þâ sin-herge      sweorda lâfe
"wundum wêrge,      weán oft gehêt
"earmre teohhe      andlonge niht:
2940
"cwäð he on mergenne      mêces ecgum
"getan wolde,      sume on galg-treówum
"fuglum tô gamene.      Frôfor eft gelamp
"sârig-môdum      somod ær-däge,
"syððan hie Hygelâces      horn and býman
2945
"gealdor ongeâton.      Þâ se gôda com
"leóda dugoðe      on lâst faran.

XLI. HE TELLS OF THE SWEDES AND THE GEATAS

"Wäs sió swât-swaðu      Sweona and Geáta,
"wäl-ræs wera      wîde gesýne,
"hû þâ folc mid him      fæhðe tôwehton.
2950
"Gewât him þâ se gôda      mid his gädelingum,
"frôd fela geômor      fästen sêcean,
"eorl Ongenþió      ufor oncirde;
"häfde Higelâces      hilde gefrunen,
"wlonces wîg-cräft,      wiðres ne trûwode,
2955
"þät he sæ-mannum      onsacan mihte,
"heáðo-lîðendum      hord forstandan,
"bearn and brýde;      beáh eft þonan
"eald under eorð-weall.      Þâ wäs æht boden
"Sweona leódum,      segn Higelâce.
2960
"Freoðo-wong þone      forð ofereodon,
"syððan Hrêðlingas      tô hagan þrungon.
"Þær wearð Ongenþió      ecgum sweorda,
"blonden-fexa      on bîd wrecen,
"þät se þeód-cyning      þafian sceolde
2965
"Eofores ânne dôm:      hyne yrringa
"Wulf Wonrêding      wæpne geræhte,
"þät him for swenge      swât ædrum sprong
"forð under fexe.      Näs he forht swâ þêh,
"gomela Scilfing,      ac forgeald hraðe
2970
"wyrsan wrixle      wäl-hlem þone,
"syððan þeód-cyning      þyder oncirde:
"ne meahte se snella      sunu Wonrêdes
"ealdum ceorle      ond-slyht giofan,
"ac he him on heáfde      helm ær gescer,
2975
"þät he blôde fâh      bûgan sceolde,
"feóll on foldan;      näs he fæge þâ git,
"ac he hyne gewyrpte,      þeáh þe him wund hrîne,
"Lêt se hearda      Higelâces þegn
"brâdne mêce,      þâ his brôðor läg,
2980
"eald sweord eotonisc,      entiscne helm,
"brecan ofer bord-weal:      þâ gebeáh cyning,
"folces hyrde,      wäs in feorh dropen.
"Þâ wæron monige,      þe his mæg wriðon,
"ricone ârærdon,      þâ him gerýmed wearð,
2985
"þät hie wäl-stôwe      wealdan môston.
"Þenden reáfode      rinc ôðerne,
"nam on Ongenþió      îren-byrnan,
"heard swyrd hilted      and his helm somod;
"hâres hyrste      Higelâce bär.
2990
"He þâm frätwum fêng      and him fägre gehêt
"leána fore leódum      and gelæste swâ:
"geald þone gûð-ræs      Geáta dryhten,
"Hrêðles eafora,      þâ he tô hâm becom,
"Jofore and Wulfe      mid ofer-mâðmum,
2995
"sealde hiora gehwäðrum      hund þûsenda
"landes and locenra beága;      ne þorfte him þâ leán ôðwîtan
"mon on middan-gearde,      syððan hie þâ mærða geslôgon;
"and þâ Jofore forgeaf      ângan dôhtor,
"hâm-weorðunge,      hyldo tô wedde.
3000
"Þät ys sió fæhðo      and se feónd-scipe,
"wäl-nîð wera,      þäs þe ic wên hafo,
"þe ûs sêceað tô      Sweona leóde,
"syððan hie gefricgeað      freán ûserne
"ealdor-leásne,      þone þe ær geheóld
3005
"wið hettendum      hord and rîce,
"äfter häleða hryre      hwate Scylfingas,
"folc-ræd fremede      oððe furður gen
"eorl-scipe efnde.      Nu is ôfost betost,
"þät we þeód-cyning      þær sceáwian
3010
"and þone gebringan,      þe ûs beágas geaf,
"on âd-färe.      Ne scel ânes hwät
"meltan mid þam môdigan,      ac þær is mâðma hord.
"gold unrîme      grimme geceápod
"and nu ät sîðestan      sylfes feore
3015
"beágas gebohte;      þâ sceal brond fretan,
"äled þeccean,      nalles eorl wegan
"mâððum tô gemyndum,      ne mägð scýne
"habban on healse      hring-weorðunge,
"ac sceall geômor-môd      golde bereáfod
3020
"oft nalles æne      el-land tredan,
"nu se here-wîsa      hleahtor âlegde,
"gamen and gleó-dreám.      Forþon sceall gâr wesan
"monig morgen-ceald      mundum bewunden,
"häfen on handa,      nalles hearpan swêg
3025
"wîgend weccean,      ac se wonna hrefn
"fûs ofer fægum,      fela reordian,
"earne secgan,      hû him ät æte speów,
"þenden he wið wulf      wäl reáfode."
Swâ se secg hwata      secgende wäs
3030
lâðra spella;      he ne leág fela
wyrda ne worda.      Weorod eall ârâs,
eodon unblîðe      under Earna näs
wollen-teáre      wundur sceáwian.
Fundon þâ on sande      sâwul-leásne
3035
hlim-bed healdan,      þone þe him hringas geaf
ærran mælum:      þâ wäs ende-däg
gôdum gegongen,      þät se gûð-cyning,
Wedra þeóden,      wundor-deáðe swealt.
Ær hî gesêgan      syllîcran wiht,
3040
wyrm on wonge      wiðer-rähtes þær
lâðne licgean:      wäs se lêg-draca,
grimlîc gryre-gäst,      glêdum beswæled,
se wäs fîftiges      fôt-gemearces.
lang on legere,      lyft-wynne heóld
3045
nihtes hwîlum,      nyðer eft gewât
dennes niósian;      wäs þâ deáðe fäst,
häfde eorð-scrafa      ende genyttod.
Him big stôdan      bunan and orcas,
discas lâgon      and dýre swyrd,
3050
ômige þurh-etone,      swâ hie wið eorðan fäðm
þûsend wintra      þær eardodon:
þonne wäs þät yrfe      eácen-cräftig,
iú-monna gold      galdre bewunden,
þät þam hring-sele      hrînan ne môste
3055
gumena ænig,      nefne god sylfa,
sigora sôð-cyning,      sealde þam þe he wolde
(he is manna gehyld)      hord openian,
efne swâ hwylcum manna,      swâ him gemet þûhte.

XLII. WÎGLAF SPEAKS. THE BUILDING OF THE BALE-FIRE.

Þâ wäs gesýne,      þät se sîð ne þâh
3060
þam þe unrihte      inne gehýdde
wräte under wealle.      Weard ær ofslôh
feára sumne;      þâ sió fæhð gewearð
gewrecen wrâðlîce.      Wundur hwâr, þonne
eorl ellen-rôf      ende gefêre
3065
lîf-gesceafta,      þonne leng ne mäg
mon mid his gum      medu-seld bûan.
Swâ wäs Biówulfe,      þâ he biorges weard
sôhte, searo-nîðas:      seolfa ne cûðe,
þurh hwät his worulde gedâl      weorðan sceolde;
3070
swâ hit ôð dômes däg      diópe benemdon
þeódnas mære,      þâ þät þær dydon,
þät se secg wære      synnum scildig,
hergum geheaðerod,      hell-bendum fäst,
wommum gewitnad,      se þone wong strâde.
3075
Näs he gold-hwät:      gearwor häfde
âgendes êst      ær gesceáwod.
Wîglâf maðelode,      Wihstânes sunu:
"Oft sceall eorl monig      ânes willan
"wræc âdreógan,      swâ ûs geworden is.
3080
"Ne meahton we gelæran      leófne þeóden,
"rîces hyrde      ræd ænigne,
"þät he ne grêtte      gold-weard þone,
"lête hyne licgean,      þær he longe wäs,
"wîcum wunian      ôð woruld-ende.
3085
"Heóldon heáh gesceap:      hord ys gesceáwod,
"grimme gegongen;      wäs þät gifeðe tô swîð,
"þe þone þeóden      þyder ontyhte.
"Ic wäs þær inne      and þät eall geond-seh,
"recedes geatwa,      þâ me gerýmed wäs,
3090
"nealles swæslîce      sîð âlýfed
"inn under eorð-weall.      Ic on ôfoste gefêng
"micle mid mundum      mägen-byrðenne
"hord-gestreóna,      hider ût ätbär
"cyninge mînum:      cwico wäs þâ gena,
3095
"wîs and gewittig;      worn eall gespräc
"gomol on gehðo      and eówic grêtan hêt,
"bäd þät ge geworhton      äfter wines dædum
"in bæl-stede      beorh þone heán
"micelne and mærne,      swâ he manna wäs
3100
"wîgend weorð-fullost      wîde geond eorðan,
"þenden he burh-welan      brûcan môste.
"Uton nu êfstan      ôðre sîðe
"seón and sêcean      searo-geþräc,
"wundur under wealle!      ic eów wîsige,
3105
"þät ge genôge      neán sceáwiað
"beágas and brâd gold.      Sîe sió bær gearo
"ädre geäfned,      þonne we ût cymen,
"and þonne geferian      freán ûserne,
"leófne mannan,      þær he longe sceal
3110
"on þäs waldendes      wære geþolian."
Hêt þâ gebeódan      byre Wihstânes,
häle hilde-diór,      häleða monegum
bold-âgendra,      þät hie bæl-wudu
feorran feredon,      folc-âgende
3115
gôdum tôgênes:      "Nu sceal glêd fretan
"(weaxan wonna lêg)      wîgena strengel,
"þone þe oft gebâd      îsern-scûre,
"þonne stræla storm,      strengum gebæded,
"scôc ofer scild-weall,      sceft nytte heóld,
3120
"feðer-gearwum fûs      flâne full-eode."
Hûru se snotra      sunu Wihstânes
âcîgde of corðre      cyninges þegnas
syfone tôsomne      þâ sêlestan,
eode eahta sum      under inwit-hrôf;
3125
hilde-rinc sum      on handa bär
äled-leóman,      se þe on orde geóng.
Näs þâ on hlytme,      hwâ þät hord strude,
syððan or-wearde      ænigne dæl
secgas gesêgon      on sele wunian,
3130
læne licgan:      lyt ænig mearn,
þät hi ôfostlice      ût geferedon
dýre mâðmas;      dracan êc scufun,
wyrm ofer weall-clif,      lêton wæg niman,
flôd fäðmian      frätwa hyrde.
3135
Þær wäs wunden gold      on wæn hladen,
æghwäs unrîm,      äðeling boren,
hâr hilde-rinc      tô Hrones nässe.

XLIII. BEÓWULF'S FUNERAL PYRE.

Him þâ gegiredan      Geáta leóde
âd on eorðan      un-wâclîcne,
3140
helmum behongen,      hilde-bordum,
beorhtum byrnum,      swâ he bêna wäs;
âlegdon þâ tô-middes      mærne þeóden
häleð hiófende,      hlâford leófne.
Ongunnon þâ on beorge      bæl-fýra mæst
3145
wîgend weccan:      wudu-rêc âstâh
sweart ofer swioðole,      swôgende lêg,
wôpe bewunden      (wind-blond geläg)
ôð þät he þâ bân-hûs      gebrocen häfde,
hât on hreðre.      Higum unrôte
3150
môd-ceare mændon      mon-dryhtnes cwealm;
swylce giômor-gyd      † lat . con meowle
. . . . .      wunden heorde . . .
serg (?) cearig sælde      geneahhe
þät hio hyre . . . . gas hearde
3155
. . . . . ede      wälfylla wonn . .
hildes egesan      hyðo
haf mid      heofon rêce swealh (?)
Geworhton þâ      Wedra leóde
hlæw on hliðe,      se wäs heáh and brâd,
3160
wæg-lîðendum      wîde gesýne,
and betimbredon      on tyn dagum
beadu-rôfes bêcn:      bronda betost
wealle beworhton,      swâ hyt weorðlîcost
fore-snotre men      findan mihton.
3165
Hî on beorg dydon      bêg and siglu,
eall swylce hyrsta,      swylce on horde ær
nîð-hydige men      genumen häfdon;
forlêton eorla gestreón      eorðan healdan,
gold on greóte,      þær hit nu gen lifað
3170
eldum swâ unnyt,      swâ hit æror wäs.
Þâ ymbe hlæw riodan      hilde-deóre,
äðelinga bearn      ealra twelfa,
woldon ceare cwîðan,      kyning mænan,
word-gyd wrecan      and ymb wer sprecan,
3175
eahtodan eorl-scipe      and his ellen-weorc
duguðum dêmdon,      swâ hit ge-dêfe bið,
þät mon his wine-dryhten      wordum hêrge,
ferhðum freóge,      þonne he forð scile
of lîc-haman      læne weorðan.
3180
Swâ begnornodon      Geáta leóde
hlâfordes hryre,      heorð-geneátas,
cwædon þät he wære      woruld-cyning
mannum mildust      and mon-þwærust,
leódum lîðost      and lof-geornost.

APPENDIX

THE ATTACK IN FINNSBURG.

". . . . . . . . . . . näs byrnað næfre."
Hleoðrode þâ      heaðo-geong cyning:
"Ne þis ne dagað eástan,      ne her draca ne fleógeð,
"ne her þisse healle      hornas ne byrnað,
5
"ac fêr forð berað      fugelas singað,
"gylleð græg-hama,      gûð-wudu hlynneð,
"scyld scefte oncwyð.      Nu scýneð þes môna
"waðol under wolcnum;      nu ârîsað weá-dæda,
"þe þisne folces nîð      fremman willað.
10
"Ac onwacnigeað nu,      wîgend mîne,
"hebbað eówre handa,      hicgeað on ellen,
"winnað on orde,      wesað on môde!"
Þâ ârâs monig gold-hladen þegn,      gyrde hine his swurde;
þâ tô dura eodon      drihtlîce cempan,
15
Sigeferð and Eaha,      hyra sweord getugon,
and ät ôðrum durum      Ordlâf and Gûðlâf,
and Hengest sylf;      hwearf him on lâste.
Þâ git Gârulf      Gûðere styrode,
þät hie swâ freólîc feorh      forman sîðe
20
tô þære healle durum      hyrsta ne bæran,
nu hyt nîða heard      ânyman wolde:
ac he frägn ofer eal      undearninga,
deór-môd häleð,      hwâ þâ duru heólde.
"Sigeferð is mîn nama (cwäð he),      ic eom Secgena leód,
25
"wrecca wîde cûð.      Fela ic weána gebâd,
"heardra hilda;      þe is gyt her witod,
"swäðer þu sylf tô me      sêcean wylle."
Þâ wäs on wealle      wäl-slihta gehlyn,
sceolde cêlod bord      cênum on handa
30
bân-helm berstan.      Buruh-þelu dynede,
ôð þät ät þære gûðe      Gârulf gecrang,
ealra ærest      eorð-bûendra,
Gûðlâfes sunu;      ymbe hine gôdra fela.
Hwearf flacra hræw      hräfn, wandrode
35
sweart and sealo-brûn;      swurd-leóma stôd
swylce eal Finns-buruh      fýrenu wære.
Ne gefrägn ic næfre wurðlîcor      ät wera hilde
sixtig sige-beorna      sêl gebæran,
ne næfre swânas swêtne      medo sêl forgyldan,
40
þonne Hnäfe guldon      his häg-stealdas.
Hig fuhton fîf dagas,      swâ hyra nân ne feól
driht-gesîða,      ac hig þâ duru heóldon.
Þâ gewât him wund häleð      on wäg gangan,
sæde þät his byrne      âbrocen wære,
45
here-sceorpum hrôr,      and eác wäs his helm þyrl.
Þâ hine sôna frägn      folces hyrde,
hû þâ wîgend      hyra wunda genæson
oððe hwäðer þæra hyssa . . . . . . .

LIST OF NAMES; NOTES; AND GLOSSARY.

ABBREVIATIONS

m.:masculine.
f.:feminine.
n.:neuter.
nom., gen.:nominative, genitive, etc.
w.:weak.
w. v.:weak verb.
st.:strong.
st. v.:strong verb.
I., II., III.:first, second, third person.
comp.:compound.
imper.:imperative.
w.:with.
instr.:instrumental.
G. and Goth.:Gothic.
O.N.:Old Norse.
O.S.:Old Saxon.
O.H.G.:Old High German.
M.H.G.:Middle High German.
The vowelä = a in glad}
The diphthongæ = a in hair}approximately.

The names Leo, Bugge, Rieger, etc., refer to authors of emendations.

Words beginning with ge- will be found under their root-word.

Obvious abbreviations, like subj., etc., are not included in this list.

LIST OF NAMES.

Abel, Cain's brother, 108.

Älf-here (gen. Älf-heres, 2605), a kinsman of Wîglâf's, 2605.

Äsc-here, confidential adviser of King Hrôðgâr (1326), older brother of Yrmenlâf (1325), killed by Grendel's mother, 1295, 1324, 2123.

Bân-stân, father of Breca, 524.

Beó-wulf, son of Scyld, king of the Danes, 18, 19. After the death of his father, he succeeds to the throne of the Scyldings, 53. His son is Healfdene, 57.

Beó-wulf (Biówulf, 1988, 2390; gen. Beówulfes, 857, etc., Biówulfes, 2195, 2808, etc.; dat. Beówulfe, 610, etc., Biówulfe, 2325, 2843), of the race of the Geátas. His father is the Wægmunding Ecgþeów (263, etc.); his mother a daughter of Hrêðel, king of the Geátas (374), at whose court he is brought up after his seventh year with Hrêðel's sons, Herebeald, Hæðcyn, and Hygelâc, 2429 ff. In his youth lazy and unapt (2184 f., 2188 f.); as man he attains in the gripe of his hand the strength of thirty men, 379. Hence his victories in his combats with bare hands (711 ff., 2502 ff.), while fate denies him the victory in the battle with swords, 2683 f. His swimming-match with Breca in his youth, 506 ff. Goes with fourteen Geátas to the assistance of the Danish king, Hrôðgâr, against Grendel, 198 ff. His combat with Grendel, and his victory, 711 ff., 819 ff. He is, in consequence, presented with rich gifts by Hrôðgâr, 1021 ff. His combat with Grendel's mother, 1442 ff. Having again received gifts, he leaves Hrôðgâr (1818-1888), and returns to Hygelâc, 1964 ff.—After Hygelâc's last battle and death, he flees alone across the sea, 2360 f. In this battle he crushes Däghrefn, one of the Hûgas, to death, 2502 f. He rejects at the same time Hygelâc's kingdom and the hand of his widow (2370 ff.), but carries on the government as guardian of the young Heardrêd, son of Hygelâc, 2378 ff. After Heardrêd's death, the kingdom falls to Beówulf, 2208, 2390.—Afterwards, on an expedition to avenge the murdered Heardrêd, he kills the Scylfing, Eádgils (2397), and probably conquers his country. —His fight with the drake, 2539 ff. His death, 2818. His burial, 3135 ff.

Breca (acc. Brecan, 506, 531), son of Beánstân, 524. Chief of the Brondings, 521. His swimming-match with Beówulf, 506 ff.

Brondingas (gen. Brondinga, 521), Breca, their chief, 521.

Brosinga mene, corrupted from, or according to Müllenhoff, written by mistake for, Breosinga mene (O.N., Brisinga men, cf. Haupts Zeitschr. XII. 304), collar, which the Brisingas once possessed.

Cain (gen. Caines, 107): descended from him are Grendel and his kin, 107, 1262 ff.

Däg-hrefn (dat. Däghrefne, 2502), a warrior of the Hûgas, who, according to 2504-5, compared with 1203, and with 1208, seems to have been the slayer of King Hygelâc, in his battle against the allied Franks, Frisians, and Hûgas. Is crushed to death by Beówulf in a hand-to-hand combat, 2502 ff.

Dene (gen. Dena, 242, etc., Denia, 2126, Deniga, 271, etc.; dat. Denum, 768, etc.), as subjects of Scyld and his descendants, they are also called Scyldings; and after the first king of the East Danes, Ing (Runenlied, 22), Ing-wine, 1045, 1320. They are also once called Hrêðmen, 445. On account of their renowned warlike character, they bore the names Gâr-Dene, 1, 1857, Hring-Dene (Armor-Danes), 116, 1280, Beorht-Dene, 427, 610. The great extent of this people is indicated by their names from the four quarters of the heavens: Eást-Dene, 392, 617, etc., West-Dene, 383, 1579, Sûð-Dene, 463, Norð-Dene, 784.—Their dwelling-place "in Scedelandum," 19, "on Scedenigge," 1687, "be sæm tweónum," 1686.

Ecg-lâf (gen. Ecglâfes, 499), Hûnferð's father, 499.

Ecg-þeów (nom. Ecgþeów, 263, Ecgþeó, 373; gen. Ecgþeówes, 529, etc., Ecgþiówes, 2000), a far-famed hero of the Geátas, of the house of the Wægmundings. Beówulf is the son of Ecgþeów, by the only daughter of Hrêðel, king of the Geátas, 262, etc. Among the Wylfings, he has slain Heaðolâf (460), and in consequence he goes over the sea to the Danes (463), whose king, Hrôðgâr, by means of gold, finishes the strife for him, 470.

Ecg-wela (gen. Ecg-welan, 1711). The Scyldings are called his descendants, 1711. Grein considers him the founder of the older dynasty of Danish kings, which closes with Heremôd. See Heremôd.

Elan, daughter of Healfdene, king of the Danes, (?) 62. According to the restored text, she is the wife of Ongenþeów, the Scylfing, 62, 63.

Earna-näs, the Eagle Cape in the land of the Geátas, where occurred Beówulf's fight with the drake, 3032.

Eádgils (dat. Eádgilse, 2393), son of Ôhthere, and grandson of Ongenþeów, the Scylfing, 2393. His older brother is

Eánmund (gen. Eánmundes, 2612). What is said about both in our poem (2201-2207, 2380-2397, 2612-2620) is obscure, but the following may be conjectured:—

The sons of Ôhthere, Eánmund and Eádgils, have rebelled against their father (2382), and must, in consequence, depart with their followers from Swiórîce, 2205-6, 2380. They come into the country of the Geátas to Heardrêd (2380), but whether with friendly or hostile intent is not stated; but, according to 2203 f., we are to presume that they came against Heardrêd with designs of conquest. At a banquet (on feorme; or feorme, MS.) Heardrêd falls, probably through treachery, by the hand of one of the brothers, 2386, 2207. The murderer must have been Eánmund, to whom, according to 2613, "in battle the revenge of Weohstân brings death." Weohstân takes revenge for his murdered king, and exercises upon Eánmund's body the booty-right, and robs it of helm, breastplate, and sword (2616-17), which the slain man had received as gifts from his uncle, Onela, 2617-18. But Weohstân does not speak willingly of this fight, although he has slain Onela's brother's son, 2619-20.—After Heardrêd's and Eánmund's death, the descendant of Ongenþeów, Eádgils, returns to his home, 2388. He must give way before Beówulf, who has, since Heardrêd's death, ascended the throne of the Geátas, 2390. But Beówulf remembers it against him in after days, and the old feud breaks out anew, 2392-94. Eádgils makes an invasion into the land of the Geátas (2394-95), during which he falls at the hands of Beówulf, 2397. The latter must have then obtained the sovereignty over the Sweonas (3005-6, where only the version, Scylfingas, can give a satisfactory sense).

Eofor (gen. Eofores, 2487, 2965; dat. Jofore, 2994, 2998), one of the Geátas, son of Wonrêd and brother of Wulf (2965, 2979), kills the Swedish king, Ongenþeów (2487 ff., 2978-82), for which he receives from King Hygelâc, along with other gifts, his only daughter in marriage, 2994-99.

Eormen-rîc (gen. Eormenrîces, 1202), king of the Goths (cf. about him, W. Grimm, Deutsche Heldensage, p. 2, ff.). Hâma has wrested the Brosinga mene from him, 1202.

Eomær, son of Offa and Þryðo (cf. Þryðo), 1961.

Finn (gen. Finnes, 1069, etc.; dat. Finne, 1129), son of Folcwalda (1090), king of the North Frisians, i.e. of the Eotenas, husband of Hildeburg, a daughter of Hôc, 1072, 1077. He is the hero of the inserted poem on the Attack in Finnsburg, the obscure incidents of which are, perhaps, as follows: In Finn's castle, Finnsburg, situated in Jutland (1126-28), the Hôcing, Hnäf, a relative—perhaps a brother—of Hildeburg is spending some time as guest. Hnäf, who is a liegeman of the Danish king, Healfdene, has sixty men with him (Finnsburg, 38). These are treacherously attacked one night by Finn's men, 1073. For five days they hold the doors of their lodging-place without losing one of their number (Finnsburg, 41, 42). Then, however, Hnäf is slain (1071), and the Dane, Hengest, who was among Hnäf's followers, assumes the command of the beleaguered band. But on the attacking side the fight has brought terrible losses to Finn's men. Their numbers are diminished (1081 f.), and Hildeburg bemoans a son and a brother among the fallen (1074 f., cf. 1116, 1119). Therefore the Frisians offer the Danes peace (1086) under the conditions mentioned (1087-1095), and it is confirmed with oaths (1097), and money is given by Finn in propitiation (1108). Now all who have survived the battle go together to Friesland, the homo proper of Finn, and here Hengest remains during the winter, prevented by ice and storms from returning home (Grein). But in spring the feud breaks out anew. Gûðlâf and Oslâf avenge Hnäf's fall, probably after they have brought help from home (1150). In the battle, the hall is filled with the corpses of the enemy. Finn himself is killed, and the queen is captured and carried away, along with the booty, to the land of the Danes, 1147-1160.

Finna land. Beówulf reaches it in his swimming-race with Breca, 580.

Fitela, the son and nephew of the Wälsing, Sigemund, and his companion in arms, 876-890. (Sigemund had begotten Fitela by his sister, Signý. Cf. more at length Leo on Beówulf, p. 38 ff., where an extract from the legend of the Walsungs is given.)

Folc-walda (gen. Folc-waldan, 1090), Finn's father, 1090.

Francan (gen. Francna, 1211; dat. Froncum, 2913). King Hygelâc fell on an expedition against the allied Franks, Frisians, and Hûgas, 1211, 2917.

Fresan, Frisan, Frysan (gen. Fresena, 1094, Frysna, 1105, Fresna, 2916: dat. Frysum, 1208, 2913). To be distinguished, are: 1) North Frisians, whose king is Finn, 1069 ff.; 2) West Frisians, in alliance with the Franks and Hûgas, in the war against whom Hygelâc falls, 1208, 2916. The country of the former is called Frysland, 1127; that of the latter, Fresna land, 2916.

Fr..es wäl (in Fr..es wäle, 1071), mutilated proper name.

Freáwaru, daughter of the Danish king, Hrôðgâr; given in marriage to Ingeld, the son of the Heaðobeard king, Frôda, in order to end a war between the Danes and the Heaðobeardnas, 2023 ff., 2065.

Frôda (gen. Frôdan), father of Ingeld, the husband of Freáware, 2026.

Gârmund (gen. Gârmundes, 1963) father of Offa. His grandson is Eómær, 1961-63.

Geátas (gen. Geáta, 205, etc.; dat. Geátum, 195, etc.), a tribe in Southern Scandinavia, to which the hero of this poem belongs; also called Wedergeátas, 1493, 2552; or, Wederas, 225, 423, etc.; Gûðgeátas, 1539; Sægeátas, 1851, 1987. Their kings named in this poem are: Hrêðel; Hæðcyn, second son of Hrêðel; Hygelâc, the brother of Hæðcyn; Heardrêd, son of Hygelâc; then Beówulf.

Gifðas (dat. Gifðum, 2495), Gepidæ, mentioned in connection with Danes and Swedes, 2495.

Grendel, a fen-spirit (102-3) of Cain's race, 107, 111, 1262, 1267. He breaks every night into Hrôðgâr's hall and carries off thirty warriors, 115 ff., 1583ff. He continues this for twelve years, till Beówulf fights with him (147, 711 ff.), and gives him a mortal wound, in that he tears out one of his arms (817), which is hung up as a trophy in the roof of Heorot, 837. Grendel's mother wishes to avenge her son, and the following night breaks into the hall and carries off Äschere, 1295. Beówulf seeks for and finds her home in the fen-lake (1493 ff.), fights with her (1498 ff.), and kills her (1567); and cuts off the head of Grendel, who lay there dead (1589), and brings it to Hrôðgâr, 1648.

Gûð-lâf and Oslâf, Danish warriors under Hnäf, whose death they avenge on Finn, 1149.

Hâlga, with the surname, til, the younger brother of the Danish king, Hrôðgâr, 61. His son is Hrôðulf, 1018, 1165, 1182.

Hâma wrests the Brosinga mene from Eormenrîc, 1199.

Häreð (gen. Häreðes, 1982), father of Hygd, the wife of Hygelâc, 1930, 1982.

Hæðcyn (dat. Hæðcynne, 2483), second son of Hrêðel, king of the Geátas, 2435. Kills his oldest brother, Herebeald, accidentally, with an arrow, 2438 ff. After Hrêðel's death, he obtains the kingdom, 2475, 2483. He falls at Ravenswood, in the battle against the Swedish king, Ongenþeów, 2925. His successor is his younger brother, Hygelâc, 2944 ff., 2992.

Helmingas (gen. Helminga, 621). From them comes Wealhþeów, Hrôðgâr's wife, 621.

Heming (gen. Heminges, 1945, 1962). Offa is called Heminges mæg, 1945; Eómær, 1962. According to Bachlechner (Pfeiffer's Germania, I., p. 458), Heming is the son of the sister of Gârmund, Offa's father.

Hengest (gen. Hengestes, 1092; dat. Hengeste, 1084): about him and his relations to Hnäf and Finn, see Finn.

Here-beald (dat. Herebealde, 2464), the oldest son of Hrêðel, king of the Geátas (2435), accidentally killed with an arrow by his younger brother, Hæðcyn, 2440.

Here-môd (gen. Heremôdes, 902), king of the Danes, not belonging to the Scylding dynasty, but, according to Grein, immediately preceding it; is, on account of his unprecedented cruelty, driven out, 902 ff., 1710.

Here-rîc (gen. Hererîces, 2207) Heardrêd is called Hererîces nefa, 2207. Nothing further is known of him.

Het-ware or Franks, in alliance with the Frisians and the Hûgas, conquer Hygelâc, king of the Geátas, 2355, 2364 ff., 2917.

Healf-dene (gen. Healfdenes, 189, etc.), son of Beówulf, the Scylding (57); rules the Danes long and gloriously (57 f.); has three sons, Heorogâr, Hrôðgâr, and Hâlga (61), and a daughter, Elan, who, according to the renewed text of the passage, wäs married to the Scylfing, Ongenþeów, 62, 63.

Heard-rêd (dat. Heardrêde, 2203, 2376), son of Hygelâc, king of the Geátas, and Hygd. After his father's death, while still under age, he obtains the throne (2371, 2376, 2379); wherefore Beówulf, as nephew of Heardrêd's father, acts as guardian to the youth till he becomes older, 2378. He is slain by Ôhthere's sons, 2386. This murder Beówulf avenges on Eádgils, 2396-97.

Heaðo-beardnas (gen. -beardna, 2033, 2038, 2068), the tribe of the Lombards. Their king, Frôda, has fallen in a war with the Danes, 2029, 2051. In order to end the feud, King Hrôðgâr has given his daughter, Freáwaru, as wife to the young Ingeld, the son of Frôda, a marriage that does not result happily; for Ingeld, though he long defers it on account of his love for his wife, nevertheless takes revenge for his father, 2021-2070 (Wîdsîð, 45-49).

Heaðo-lâf (dat. Heaðo-lâfe, 460), a Wylfingish warrior. Ecgþeów, Beówulf's father, kills him, 460.

Heaðo-ræmas reached by B. in the swimming-race with Beówulf, 519.

Heoro-gâr (nom. 61; Heregâr, 467; Hiorogâr, 2159), son of Healfdene, and older brother of Hrôðgâr, 61. His death is mentioned, 467. He has a son, Heoroweard, 2162. His coat of mail Beówulf has received from Hrôðgâr (2156), and presents it to Hygelâc, 2158.

Heoro-weard (dat. Heorowearde, 2162), Heorogâr's son, 2161-62.

Heort, 78. Heorot, 166 (gen. Heorotes, 403; dat. Heorote, 475, Heorute, 767, Hiorte, 2100). Hrôðgâr's throne-room and banqueting hall and assembly-room for his liegemen, built by him with unusual splendor, 69, 78. In it occurs Beówulf's fight with Grendel, 720 ff. The hall receives its name from the stag's antlers, of which the one-half crowns the eastern gable, the other half the western.

Hildeburh, daughter of Hôc, relative of the Danish leader, Hnäf, consort of the Frisian king, Finn. After the fall of the latter, she becomes a captive of the Danes, 1072, 1077, 1159. See also under Finn.

Hnäf (gen. Hnäfes, 1115), a Hôcing (Wîdsîð, 29), the Danish King Healfdene's general, 1070 ff. For his fight with Finn, his death and burial, see under Finn.

Hond-sció, warrior of the Geátas: dat. 2077.

Hôc (gen. Hôces, 1077), father of Hildeburh, 1077; probably also of Hnäf (Wîdsîð, 29).

Hrêðel (gen. Hrêðles, 1486), son of Swerting, 1204. King of the Geátas, 374. He has, besides, a daughter, who is married to Ecgþeów, and has borne him Beówulf, (374), three sons, Herebeald, Hæðcyn, and Hygelâc, 2435. The eldest of these is accidentally killed by the second, 2440. On account of this inexpiable deed, Hrêðel becomes melancholy (2443), and dies, 2475.

Hrêðla (gen. Hrêðlan, MS. Hrædlan, 454), the same as Hrêðel (cf. Müllenhoff in Haupts Zeitschrift, 12, 260), the former owner of Beówulf's coat of mail, 454.

Hrêð-men (gen. Hrêð-manna, 445), the Danes are so called, 445.

Hrêð-rîc, son of Hrôðgâr, 1190, 1837.

Hrefna-wudu, 2926, or Hrefnes-holt, 2936, the thicket near which the Swedish king, Ongenþeów, slew Hæðcyn, king of the Geátas, in battle.

Hreosna-beorh, promontory in the land of the Geátas, near which Ongenþeów's sons, Ôhthere and Onela, had made repeated robbing incursions into the country after Hrêðel's death. These were the immediate cause of the war in which Hrêðel's son, King Hæðcyn, fell, 2478 ff.

Hrôð-gâr (gen. Hrôðgâres, 235, etc.; dat. Hrôðgâre, 64, etc.), of the dynasty of the Scyldings; the second of the three sons of King Healfdene, 61. After the death of his elder brother, Heorogâr, he assumes the government of the Danes, 465, 467 (yet it is not certain whether Heorogâr was king of the Danes before Hrôðgâr, or whether his death occurred while his father, Healfdene, was still alive). His consort is Wealhþeów (613), of the stock of the Helmings (621), who has borne him two sons, Hrêðrîc and Hrôðmund (1190), and a daughter, Freáware (2023), who has been given in marriage to the king of the Heaðobeardnas, Ingeld. His throne-room (78 ff.), which has been built at great cost (74 ff.), is visited every night by Grendel (102, 115), who, along with his mother, is slain by Beówulf (711 ff., 1493 ff). Hrôðgâr's rich gifts to Beówulf, in consequence, 1021, 1818; he is praised as being generous, 71 ff., 80, 1028 ff., 1868 ff.; as being brave, 1041 ff., 1771 ff.; and wise, 1699, 1725.—Other information about Hrôðgâr's reign for the most part only suggested: his expiation of the murder which Ecgþeów, Beówulf's father, committed upon Heaðolâf, 460, 470; his war with the Heaðobeardnas; his adjustment of it by giving his daughter, Freáware, in marriage to their king, Ingeld; evil results of this marriage, 2021-2070.—Treachery of his brother's son, Hrôðulf, intimated, 1165-1166.

Hrôð-mund, Hrôðgâr's son, 1190.

Hrôð-ulf, probably a son of Hâlga, the younger brother of King Hrôðgâr, 1018, 1182. Wealhþeów expresses the hope (1182) that, in case of the early death of Hrôðgâr, Hrôð-ulf would prove a good guardian to Hrôðgâr's young son, who would succeed to the government; a hope which seems not to have been accomplished, since it appears from 1165, 1166 that Hrôð-ulf has abused his trust towards Hrôðgâr.

Hrones-näs (dat. -nässe, 2806, 3137), a promontory on the coast of the country of the Geátas, visible from afar. Here is Beówulf's grave-mound, 2806, 3137.

Hrunting (dat. Hruntinge, 1660), Hûnferð's sword, is so called, 1458, 1660.

Hûgas (gen. Hûga, 2503), Hygelâc wars against them allied with the Franks and Frisians, and falls, 2195 ff. One of their heroes is called Däghrefn, whom Beówulf slays, 2503.

[H]ûn-ferð, the son of Ecglâf, þyle of King Hrôðgâr. As such, he has his place near the throne of the king, 499, 500, 1167. He lends his sword, Hrunting, to Beówulf for his battle with Grendel's mother, 1456 f. According to 588, 1168, he slew his brothers. Since his name is always alliterated with vowels, it is probable that the original form was, as Rieger (Zachers Ztschr., 3, 414) conjectures, Unferð.

Hûn-lâfing, name of a costly sword, which Finn presents to Hengest, 1144. See Note.

Hygd (dat. Hygde, 2173), daughter of Häreð, 1930; consort of Hygelâc, king of the Geátas, 1927; her son, Heardrêd, 2203, etc.—Her noble, womanly character is emphasized, 1927 ff.

Hyge-lâc (gen. Hige-lâces, 194, etc., Hygelâces, 2387; dat. Higelâce, 452, Hygelâce, 2170), king of the Geátas, 1203, etc. His grandfather is Swerting, 1204; his father, Hrêðel, 1486, 1848; his older brothers, Herebeald and Hæðcyn, 2435; his sister's son, Beówulf, 374, 375. After his brother, Hæðcyn, is killed by Ongenþeów, he undertakes the government (2992 in connection with the preceding from 2937 on). To Eofor he gives, as reward for slaying Ongenþeów, his only daughter in marriage, 2998. But much later, at the time of the return of Beówulf from his expedition to Hrôðgâr, we see him married to the very young Hygd, the daughter of Häreð, 1930. The latter seems, then, to have been his second wife. Their son is Heardrêd, 2203, 2376, 2387.—Hygelâc falls during an expedition against the Franks, Frisians, and Hûgas, 1206, 1211, 2356-59, 2916-17.

Ingeld (dat. Ingelde, 2065), son of Frôda, the Heaðobeard chief, who fell in a battle with the Danes, 2051 ff. in order to end the war, Ingeld is married to Freáwaru, daughter of the Danish king, Hrôðgâr, 2025-30. Yet his love for his young wife can make him forget only for a short while his desire to avenge his father. He finally carries it out, excited thereto by the repeated admonitions of an old warrior, 2042-70 (Wîdsîð, 45-59).

Ing-wine (gen. Ingwina, 1045, 1320), friends of Ing, the first king of the East Danes. The Danes are so called, 1045, 1320.

Mere-wioingas (gen. Mere-wioinga, 2922), as name of the Franks, 2922.

Nägling, the name of Beówulf's sword, 2681.

Offa (gen. Offan, 1950), king of the Angles (Wîdsîð, 35), the son of Gârmund, 1963; married (1950) to Þryðo (1932), a beautiful but cruel woman, of unfeminine spirit (1932 ff.), by whom he has a son, Eómær, 1961.

Ôht-here (gen. Ôhtheres, 2929, 2933; Ôhteres, 2381, 2393, 2395, 2613), son of Ongenþeów, king of the Swedes, 2929. His sons are Eánmund (2612) and Eádgils, 2393.

Onela (gen. Onelan, 2933), Ôhthere's brother, 2617, 2933.

Ongen-þeów (nom. -þeów, 2487, -þió, 2952; gen. -þeówes, 2476, -þiówes, 2388; dat. -þió, 2987), of the dynasty of the Scylfings; king of the Swedes, 2384. His wife is, perhaps, Elan, daughter of the Danish king, Healfdene (62), and mother of two sons, Onela and Ôhthere, 2933. She is taken prisoner by Hæðcyn, king of the Geátas, on an expedition into Sweden, which he undertakes on account of her sons' plundering raids into his country, 2480 ff. She is set free by Ongenþeów (2931), who kills Hæðcyn, 2925, and encloses the Geátas, now deprived of their leader, in the Ravenswood (2937 ff.), till they are freed by Hygelâc, 2944. A battle then follows, which is unfavorable to Ongenþeów's army. Ongenþeów himself, attacked by the brothers, Wulf and Eofor, is slain by the latter, 2487 ff., 2962 ff.

Ôs-lâf, a warrior of Hnäf's, who avenges on Finn his leader's death, 1149 f.

Scede-land, 19. Sceden-îg (dat. Sceden-îgge, 1687), O.N., Scân-ey, the most southern portion of the Scandinavian peninsula, belonging to the Danish kingdom, and, in the above-mentioned passages of our poem, a designation of the whole Danish kingdom.

Scêf or Sceáf. See Note.

Scyld (gen. Scyldes, 19), a Scêfing. 4. His son is Beówulf, 18, 53: his grandson, Healfdene, 57; his great-grandson, Hrôðgâr, who had two brothers and a sister, 59 ff.—Scyld dies, 26; his body, upon a decorated ship, is given over to the sea (32 ff.), just as he, when a child, drifted alone, upon a ship, to the land of the Danes, 43 ff. After him his descendants bear his name.

Scyldingas (Scyldungas, 2053; gen. Scyldinga, 53, etc., Scyldunga, 2102, 2160; dat. Scyldingum, 274, etc.), a name which is extended also to the Danes, who are ruled by the Scyldings, 53, etc. They are also called Âr-Scyldingas, 464; Sige-Scyldingas, 598, 2005; Þeód-Scyldingas, 1020; Here-Scyldingas, 1109.

Scylfingas, a Swedish royal family, whose relationship seems to extend to the Geátas, since Wîglâf, the son of Wihstân, who in another place, as a kinsman of Beówulf, is called a Wægmunding (2815), is also called leód Scylfinga, 2604. The family connections are perhaps as follows:—

              Scylf.
                |
     ------------------------
     Wægmund.         .......
        |                |
------------------  ----------
Ecgþeów.  Weohstân.  Ongenþeów.
   |         |           |
-------- -------- ---------------
Beówulf.  Wîglâf.  Onela. Ôhthere.
                             |
                 -----------------
                 Eáumund. Eádgils.

The Scylfings are also called Heaðo-Scilfingas, 63, Gûð-Scylfingas, 2928.

Sige-mund (dat. -munde, 876, 885), the son of Wäls, 878, 898. His (son and ) nephew is Fitela, 880, 882. His fight with the drake, 887 ff.

Swerting (gen. Swertinges, 1204), Hygelâc's grandfather, and Hrêðel's father, 1204.

Sweon (gen. Sweona, 2473, 2947, 3002), also Sweó-þeód, 2923. The dynasty of the Scylfings rules over them, 2382, 2925. Their realm is called Swiórice, 2384, 2496.

Þryðo, consort of the Angle king, Offa, 1932, 1950. Mother of Eómær, 1961, notorious on account of her cruel, unfeminine character, 1932 ff. She is mentioned as the opposite to the mild, dignified Hygd, the queen of the Geátas.

Wäls (gen. Wälses, 898), father of Sigemund, 878, 898.

Wæg-mundingas (gen. Wægmundinga, 2608, 2815). The Wægmundings are on one side, Wihstân and his son Wîglâf; on the other side, Ecgþeów and his son Beówulf (2608, 2815). See under Scylfingas.

Wederas (gen. Wedera, 225, 423, 498, etc.), or Weder-geátas. See Geátas.

Wêland (gen. Wêlandes, 455), the maker of Beówulf's coat of mail, 455.

Wendlas (gen. Wendla, 348): their chief is Wulfgâr. See Wulfgâr. The Wendlas are, according to Grundtvig and Bugge, the inhabitants of Vendill, the most northern part of Jutland, between Limfjord and the sea.

Wealh-þeów (613, Wealh-þeó, 665, 1163), the consort of King Hrôðgâr, of the stock of the Helmings, 621. Her sons are Hrêðrîc and Hrôðmund, 1190; her daughter, Freáwaru, 2023.

Weoh-stân (gen. Weox-stânes, 2603, Weoh-stânes, 2863, Wih-stânes, 2753, 2908, etc.), a Wægmunding (2608), father of Wîglâf, 2603. In what relationship to him Älfhere, mentioned 2605, stands, is not clear.—Weohstân is the slayer of Eánmund (2612), in that, as it seems, he takes revenge for his murdered king, Heardrêd. See Eánmund.

Wîg-lâf, Weohstân's son, 2603, etc., a Wægmunding, 2815, and so also a Scylfing, 2604; a kinsman of Älfhere, 2605. For his relationship to Beówulf, see the genealogical table under Scylfingas.—He supports Beówulf in his fight with the drake, 2605 ff., 2662 ff. The hero gives him, before his death, his ring, his helm, and his coat of mail, 2810 ff.

Won-rêd (gen. Wonrêdes, 2972), father of Wulf and Eofor, 2966, 2979.

Wulf (dat. Wulfe, 2994), one of the Geátas, Wonrêd's son. He fights in the battle between the armies of Hygelâc and Ongenþeów with Ongenþeów himself, and gives him a wound (2966), whereupon Ongenþeów, by a stroke of his sword, disables him, 2975. Eofor avenges his brother's fall by dealing Ongenþeów a mortal blow, 2978 ff.

Wulf-gâr, chief of the Wendlas, 348, lives at Hrôðgâr's court, and is his "âr and ombiht," 335.

Wylfingas (dat. Wylfingum, 461). Ecgþeów has slain Heoðolâf, a warrior of this tribe, 460.

Yrmen-lâf, younger brother of Äschere, 1325.

ADDITIONAL.

Eotenas (gen. pl. Eotena, 1073, 1089, 1142; dat. Eotenum, 1146), the subjects of Finn, the North Frisians: distinguished from eoton, giant. Vid eoton. Cf. Bugge, Beit., xii. 37; Earle, Beowulf in Prose, pp. 146, 198.

Hrêðling, son of Hrêðel, Hygelâc: nom. sg. 1924; nom. pl., the subjects of Hygelâc, the Geats, 2961.

Scêfing, the son (?) of Scêf, or Sceáf, reputed father of Scyld, 4. See Note.


ABBREVIATIONS.

B.: Bugge.
Br.: S.A. Brooke, Hist. of Early Eng. Lit.
C.: Cosijn.
E.: Earle, Deeds of Beowulf in Prose.
G.: Garnett, Translation of Beowulf
Gr.: Grein.
H.: Heyne.
Ha.: Hall, Translation of Beowulf.
H.-So.: Heyne-Socin, 5th ed.
Ho.: Holder.
K.: Kemble.
Kl.: Kluge.
Müllenh.: Müllenhoff.
R.: Rieger.
S.: Sievers.
Sw.: Sweet, Anglo-Saxon Reader, 6th ed.
Ten Br.: Ten Brink.
Th.: Thorpe.
Z.: Zupitza.

PERIODICALS.

Ang.: Anglia.
Beit.: Paul und Branne's Beiträge.
Eng. Stud.: Englische Studien.
Germ.: Germania.
Haupts Zeitschr.: Haupts Zeitschrift, etc.
Mod. Lang. Notes: Modern Language Notes.
Tidskr.: Tidskrift for Philologi.
Zachers Zeitschr.: Zachers Zeitschrift, etc.

NOTES.

l. 1. hwät: for this interjectional formula opening a poem, cf. Andreas, Daniel, Juliana, Exodus, Fata Apost., Dream of the Rood, and the "Listenith lordinges!" of mediaeval lays.—E. Cf. Chaucer, Prologue, ed. Morris, l. 853:

"Sin I shal beginne the game,
What, welcome be the cut, a Goddes name!"

we ... gefrunon is a variant on the usual epic formulæ ic gefrägn (l. 74) and mîne gefræge (l. 777). Exodus, Daniel, Phoenix, etc., open with the same formula.

l. 1. "Gâr was the javelin, armed with two of which the warrior went into battle, and which he threw over the 'shield-wall.' It was barbed."—Br. 124. Cf. Maldon, l. 296; Judith, l. 224; Gnom. Verses, l. 22; etc.

l. 4. "Scild of the Sheaf, not 'Scyld the son of Scaf'; for it is too inconsistent, even in myth, to give a patronymic to a foundling. According to the original form of the story, Sceáf was the foundling; he had come ashore with a sheaf of corn, and from that was named. This form of the story is preserved in Ethelwerd and in William of Malmesbury. But here the foundling is Scyld, and we must suppose he was picked up with the sheaf, and hence his cognomen."—E., p. 105. Cf. the accounts of Romulus and Remus, of Moses, of Cyrus, etc.

l. 6. egsian is also used in an active sense (not in the Gloss.), = to terrify.

l. 15. S. suggests þâ (which) for þät, as object of dreógan; and for aldor-leáse, Gr. suggested aldor-ceare.—Beit. ix. 136.

S. translates: "For God had seen the dire need which the rulerless ones before endured."

l. 18. "Beowulf (that is, Beaw of the Anglo-Saxon genealogists, not our Beowulf, who was a Geat, not a Dane), 'the son of Scyld in Scedeland.' This is our ancestral myth,—the story of the first culture-hero of the North; 'the patriarch,' as Rydberg calls him, 'of the royal families of Sweden, Denmark, Angeln, Saxland, and England.'"—Br., p. 78. Cf. A.-S. Chron. an. 855.

H.-So. omits parenthetic marks, and reads (after S., Beit. ix. 135) eaferan; cf. Fata Apost.: lof wîde sprang þeódnes þegna.

"The name Bēowulf means literally 'Bee-wolf,' wolf or ravager of the bees, = bear. Cf. beorn, 'hero,' originally 'bear,' and bēohata, 'warrior,' in Cædmon, literally 'bee-hater' or 'persecutor,' and hence identical in meaning with bēowulf."—Sw.

Cf.

"Arcite and Palamon,
That foughten breme, as it were bores two."
—Chaucer, Knightes Tale, l. 841, ed. Morris.

Cf. M. Müller, Science of Lang., Sec. Series, pp. 217, 218; and Hunt's Daniel, 104.

l. 19. Cf. l. 1866, where Scedenig is used, = Scania, in Sweden(?).

l. 21. wine is pl.; cf. its apposition wil-gesîðas below. H.-So. compares Héliand, 1017, for language almost identical with ll. 20, 21.

l. 22. on ylde: cf.

"In elde is bothe wisdom and usage."
—Chaucer, Knightes Tale, l. 1590, ed. Morris.

l. 26. Reflexive objects often pleonastically accompany verbs of motion; cf. ll. 234, 301, 1964, etc.

l. 28. faroð = shore, strand, edge. Add these to the meanings in the Gloss.

l. 31. The object of âhte is probably geweald, to be supplied from wordum weóld of l. 30.—H.-So.

R., Kl., and B. all hold conflicting views of this passage: Beit. xii. 80, ix. 188; Zachers Zeitschr. iii. 382, etc. Kl. suggests lændagas for lange.

l. 32. "hringed-stefna is sometimes translated 'with curved prow,' but it means, I think, that in the prow were fastened rings through which the cables were passed that tied it to the shore."—Br., p. 26. Cf. ll. 1132, 1898. Hring-horni was the mythic ship of the Edda. See Toller-Bosworth for three different views; and cf. wunden-stefna (l. 220), hring-naca (l. 1863).

ll. 34-52. Cf. the burial of Haki on a funeral-pyre ship, Inglinga Saga; the burial of Balder, Sinfiötli, Arthur, etc.

l. 35. "And this [their joy in the sea] is all the plainer from the number of names given to the ship-names which speak their pride and affection. It is the Ætheling's vessel, the Floater, the Wave-swimmer, the Ring-sterned, the Keel, the Well-bound wood, the Sea-wood, the Sea-ganger, the Sea-broad ship, the Wide-bosomed, the Prow-curved, the Wood of the curved neck, the Foam-throated floater that flew like a bird."—Br., p. 168.

l. 49. "We know from Scandinavian graves ... that the illustrious dead were buried ... in ships, with their bows to sea-ward; that they were however not sent to sea, but were either burnt in that position, or mounded over with earth."—E. See Du Chaillu, The Viking Age, xix.

l. 51. (1) sele-rædende (K., S., C.); (2) sêle-rædenne (H.); (3) sele-rædende (H.-So.). Cf. l. 1347; and see Ha.

l. 51. E. compares with this canto Tennyson's "Passing of Arthur" and the legendary burial-journey of St. James of Campostella, an. 800.

l. 53. The poem proper begins with this, "There was once upon a time," the first 52 lines being a prelude. Eleven of the "fitts," or cantos, begin with the monosyllable þâ, four with the verb gewîtan, nine with the formula Hrôðgâr (Beówulf, Unferð) maðelode, twenty-four with monosyllables in general (him, swâ, sê, hwät, þâ, hêht, wäs, mäg, cwôm, stræt).

l. 58. gamel. "The ... characteristics of the poetry are the use of archaic forms and words, such as mec for , the possessive sín, gamol, dógor, swát for eald, dæg, blód, etc., after they had become obsolete in the prose language, and the use of special compounds and phrases, such as hildenædre (war-adder) for 'arrow,' gold-gifa (gold-giver) for 'king,' ... goldwine gumena (goldfriend of men, distributor of gold to men) for 'king,'" etc.—Sw. Other poetic words are ides, ielde (men), etc.

l. 60. H.-So. reads ræswa (referring to Heorogâr alone), and places a point (with the Ms.) after Heorogâr instead of after ræswa. Cf. l. 469; see B., Zachers Zeitschr. iv. 193.

l. 62. Elan here (OHG. Elana, Ellena, Elena, Elina, Alyan) is thought by B. (Tidskr. viii. 43) to be a remnant of the masc. name Onela, and he reads: [On-]elan ewên, Heaðoscilfingas(=es) healsgebedda.

l. 68. For , omitted here, cf. l. 300. Pronouns are occasionally thus omitted in subord. clauses.—Sw.

l. 70. þone, here = þonne, than, and micel = mâre? The passage, by a slight change, might be made to read, medo-ärn micle      mâ gewyrcean,—þone = by much larger than,—in which þone (þonne) would come in naturally.

l. 73. folc-scare. Add folk-share to the meanings in the Gloss.; and cf. gûð-scearu.

l. 74. ic wide gefrägn: an epic formula very frequent in poetry, = men said. Cf. Judith, ll. 7, 246; Phoenix, l. 1; and the parallel (noun) formula, mîne gefræge, ll. 777, 838, 1956, etc.

ll. 78-83. "The hall was a rectangular, high-roofed, wooden building, its long sides facing north and south. The two gables, at either end, had stag-horns on their points, curving forwards, and these, as well as the ridge of the roof, were probably covered with shining metal, and glittered bravely in the sun."—Br., p. 32.

l. 84. Son-in-law and father-in-law; B., a so-called dvanda compound. Cf. l. 1164, where a similar compound means uncle and nephew; and Wîdsîð's suhtorfædran, used of the same persons.

l. 88. "The word dreám conveys the buzz and hum of social happiness, and more particularly the sound of music and singing."—E. Cf. l. 3021; and Judith, l. 350; Wanderer, l. 79, etc.

ll. 90-99. There is a suspicious similarity between this passage and the lines attributed by Bede to Cædmon:

Nû wê sculan herian heofonrices Weard, etc.
—Sw., p. 47.

ll. 90-98 are probably the interpolation of a Christian scribe.

ll. 92-97. "The first of these Christian elements [in Beówulf] is the sense of a fairer, softer world than that in which the Northern warriors lived.... Another Christian passage (ll. 107, 1262) derives all the demons, eotens, elves, and dreadful sea-beasts from the race of Cain. The folly of sacrificing to the heathen gods is spoken of (l. 175).... The other point is the belief in immortality (ll. 1202, 1761)."—Br. 71.

l. 100. Cf. l. 2211, where the third dragon of the poem is introduced in the same words. Beowulf is the forerunner of that other national dragon-slayer, St. George.

l. 100. onginnan in Beówulf is treated like verbs of motion and modal auxiliaries, and takes the object inf. without ; cf. ll. 872, 1606, 1984, 244. Cf. gan (= did) in Mid. Eng.: gan espye (Chaucer, Knightes Tale, l. 254, ed. Morris).

l. 101. B. and H.-So. read, feónd on healle; cf. l. 142.—Beit. xii.

ll. 101-151. "Grimm connects [Grendel] with the Anglo-Saxon grindel (a bolt or bar).... It carries with it the notion of the bolts and bars of hell, and hence a fiend. ... Ettmüller was the first ... to connect the name with grindan, to grind, to crush to pieces, to utterly destroy. Grendel is then the tearer, the destroyer."—Br., p. 83.

l. 102. gäst = stranger (Ha.); cf. ll. 1139, 1442, 2313, etc.

l. 103. See Ha., p. 4.

l. 106. "The perfect and pluperfect are often expressed, as in Modern English, by hæfð and hæfde with the past participle."—Sw. Cf. ll. 433, 408, 940, 205 (p. p. inflected in the last two cases), etc.

l. 106. S. destroys period here, reads in Caines, etc., and puts þone ... drihten in parenthesis.

l. 108. þäs þe = because, especially after verbs of thanking (cf. ll. 228, 627, 1780, 2798); according as (l. 1351).

l. 108. The def. article is omitted with Drihten (Lord) and Deofol (devil; cf. l. 2089), as it is, generally, sparingly employed in poetry; cf. tô sæ (l. 318), ofer sæ (l. 2381), on lande (l. 2311), tô räste (l. 1238), on wicge (l. 286), etc., etc.

l. 119. weras (S., H.-So.); wera (K., Th.).—Beit. ix. 137.

l. 120. unfælo = uncanny (R.).

l. 131. E. translates, majestic rage; adopting Gr.'s view that swyð is = Icel. sviði, a burn or burning. Cf. l. 737.

l. 142. B. supposes heal-þegnes to be corrupted from helþegnes; cf. l. 101.—Beit. xii. 80. See Gûðlâc, l. 1042.

l. 144. See Ha., p. 6, for S.'s rearrangement.

l. 146. S. destroys period after sêlest, puts wäs ... micel in parenthesis, and inserts a colon after tîd.

l. 149. B. reads sârcwidum for syððan.

l. 154. B. takes sibbe for accus. obj. of wolde, and places a comma after Deniga.—Beit. xii. 82.

l. 159. R. suggests ac se for atol.

l. 168. H.-So. plausibly conjectures this parenthesis to be a late insertion, as, at ll. 180-181, the Danes also are said to be heathen. Another commentator considers the throne under a "spell of enchantment," and therefore it could not be touched.

l. 169. ne ... wisse: nor had he desire to do so (W.). See Ha., p. 7, for other suggestions.

l. 169. myne wisse occurs in Wanderer, l. 27.

l. 174. The gerundial inf. with expresses purpose, defines a noun or adjective, or, with the verb be, expresses duty or necessity passively; cf. ll. 257, 473, 1004, 1420, 1806, etc. Cf. + inf. at ll. 316, 2557.

ll. 175-188. E. regards this passage as dating the time and place of the poem relatively to the times of heathenism. Cf. the opening lines, In days of yore, etc., as if the story, even then, were very old.

l. 177. gâst-bona is regarded by Ettmüller and G. Stephens (Thunor, p. 54) as an epithet of Thor (= giant-killer), a kenning for Thunor or Thor, meaning both man and monster.—E.

l. 189. Cf. l. 1993, where similar language is used. H.-So. takes both môd-ceare and mæl-ceare as accus., others as instr.

ll. 190, 1994. seáð: for this use of seóðan cf. Bede, Eccles. Hist., ed. Miller, p. 128, where p. p. soden is thus used.

l. 194. fram hâm = in his home (S., H.-So.); but fram hâm may be for fram him (from them, i.e. his people, or from Hrothgar's). Cf. Ha., p. 8.

l. 197. Cf. ll. 791, 807, for this fixed phrase.

l. 200. See Andreas, Elene, and Juliana for swan-râd (= sea). "The swan is said to breed wild now no further away than the North of Sweden." —E. Cf. ganotes bäð, l. 1862.

l. 203. Concessive clauses with þeáh, þeáh þe, þeáh ... eal, vary with subj. and ind., according as fact or contingency is dominant in the mind; cf. ll. 526, 1168, 2032, etc. (subj.), 1103, 1614 (ind.). Cf. gif, nefne.

l. 204. hæl, an OE. word found in Wülker's Glossaries in various forms, = augury, omen, divination, etc. Cf. hælsere, augur; hæl, omen; hælsung, augurium, hælsian, etc. Cf. Tac., Germania, 10.

l. 207. C. adds "= impetrare" to the other meanings of findan given in the Gloss.

l. 217. Cf. l. 1910; and Andreas, l. 993.—E. E. compares Byron's

"And fast and falcon-like the vessel flew,"
Corsair, i. 17.

and Scott's

"Merrily, merrily bounds the bark."
Lord of the Isles, iv. 7.

l. 218. Cf.

"The fomy stedes on the golden brydel
Gnawinge."
—Chaucer, Knightes Tale, l. 1648, ed. Morris.

l. 219. Does ân-tîd mean hour (Th.), or corresponding hour = ând-tîd (H.-So.), or in due time (E.), or after a time, when ôþres, etc., would be adv. gen.? See C., Beit. viii. 568.

l. 224. eoletes may = (1) voyage; (2) toil, labor; (3) hurried journey; but sea or fjord appears preferable.

ll. 229-257. "The scenery ... is laid on the coast of the North Sea and the Kattegat, the first act of the poem among the Danes in Seeland, the second among the Geats in South Sweden."—Br., p. 15.

l. 239. "A shoal of simple terms express in Beówulf the earliest sea-thoughts of the English.... The simplest term is .... To this they added Wæter, Flod, Stream, Lagu, Mere, Holm, Grund, Heathu, Sund, Brim, Garsecg, Eagor, Geofon, Fifel, Hron-rad, Swan-rad, Segl-rad, Ganotes-bæð."—Br., p. 163-166.

l. 239. "The infinitive is often used in poetry after a verb of motion where we should use the present participle."—Sw. Cf. ll. 711, 721, 1163 1803, 268, etc. Cf. German spazieren fahren reiten, etc., and similar constructions in French, etc.

l. 240, W. reads hringed-stefnan for helmas bæron. B. inserts (?) after holmas and begins a new line at the middle of the verse. S. omits B.'s "on the wall."

l. 245. Double and triple negatives strengthen each other and do not produce an affirmative in A.-S. or M. E. The neg. is often prefixed to several emphatic words in the sentence, and readily contracts with vowels, and h or w; cf. ll. 863, 182, 2125, 1509, 575, 583, 3016, etc.

l. 249. seld-guma = man-at-arms in another's house (Wood); = low-ranking fellow (Ha.); stubenhocker, stay-at-home (Gr.), Scott's "carpet knight," Marmion, i. 5.

l. 250. näfne (nefne, nemne) usually takes the subj., = unless; cf. ll. 1057, 3055, 1553. For ind., = except, see l. 1354. Cf. bûtan, gif, þeáh.

l. 250. For a remarkable account of armor and weapons in Beówulf, see S. A. Brooke, Hist. of Early Eng. Lit. For general "Old Teutonic Life in Beówulf," see J. A. Harrison, Overland Monthly.

l. 252. ær as a conj. generally has subj., as here; cf. ll. 264, 677, 2819, 732. For ind., cf. l. 2020.

l. 253. leás = loose, roving. Ettmüller corrected to leáse.

l. 256. This proverb (ôfest, etc.) occurs in Exod. (Hunt), l. 293.

l. 258. An "elder" may be a very young man; hence yldesta, = eminent, may be used of Beowulf. Cf. Laws of Ælfred, C. 17: Nâ þät ælc eald sý, ac þät he eald sý on wîsdôme.

l. 273. Verbs of hearing and seeing are often followed by acc. with inf.; cf. ll. 229, 1024, 729, 1517, etc. Cf. German construction with sehen, horen, etc., French construction with voir, entendre, etc., and the classical constructions.

l. 275. dæd-hata = instigator. Kl. reads dæd-hwata.

l. 280. ed-wendan, n. (B.; cf. 1775), = edwenden, limited by bisigu. So ten Br. = Tidskr. viii. 291.

l. 287. "Each is denoted ... also by the strengthened forms 'æghwæðer ('ægðer), éghwæðer, etc. This prefixed 'æ, óe corresponds to the Goth, aiw, OHG. eo, io, and is umlauted from á, ó by the i of the gi which originally followed."—Cook's Sievers' Gram., p. 190.

l. 292. "All through the middle ages suits of armour are called 'weeds.'"—E.

l. 303. "An English warrior went into battle with a boar-crested helmet, and a round linden shield, with a byrnie of ringmail ... with two javelins or a single ashen spear some eight or ten feet long, with a long two-edged sword naked or held in an ornamental scabbard.... In his belt was a short, heavy, one-edged sword, or rather a long knife, called the seax ... used for close quarters."—Br., p. 121.

l. 303. For other references to the boar-crest, cf. ll. 1112, 1287, 1454; Grimm, Myth. 195; Tacitus, Germania, 45. "It was the symbol of their [the Baltic Æstii's] goddess, and they had great faith in it as a preservative from hard knocks."—E. See the print in the illus. ed. of Green's Short History, Harper & Bros.

l. 303. "See Kemble, Saxons in England, chapter on heathendom, and Grimm's Teutonic Mythology, chapter on Freyr, for the connection these and other writers establish between the Boar-sign and the golden boar which Freyr rode, and his worship."—Br., p. 128. Cf. Elene, l. 50.

l. 304. Gering proposes hleór-bergan = cheek-protectors; cf. Beit. xii. 26. "A bronze disk found at Öland in Sweden represents two warriors in helmets with boars as their crests, and cheek-guards under; these are the hleór-bergan."—E. Cf. hauberk, with its diminutive habergeon, < A.-S. heals, neck + beorgan, to cover or protect; and harbor, < A.-S. here, army + beorgan, id.—Zachers Zeitschr. xii. 123. Cf. cinberge, Hunt's Exod. l. 175.

l. 305. For ferh wearde and gûðmôde grummon, B. and ten Br. read ferh-wearde (l. 305) and gûðmôdgum men (l. 306), = the boar-images ... guarded the lives of the warlike men.

l. 311. leóma: cf. Chaucer, Nonne Preestes Tale, l. 110, ed. Morris:

"To dremen in here dremes
Of armes, and of fyr with rede lemes."

l. 318. On the double gender of , cf. Cook's Sievers' Gram., p. 147; and note the omitted article at ll. 2381, 318, 544, with the peculiar tmesis of between at ll. 859, 1298, 1686, 1957. So Cædmon, l. 163 (Thorpe), Exod. l. 562 (Hunt), etc.

l. 320. Cf. l. 924; and Andreas, l. 987, where almost the same words occur. "Here we have manifestly before our eye one of those ancient causeways, which are among the oldest visible institutions of civilization." —E.

l. 322. S. inserts comma after scîr, and makes hring-îren (= ring-mail) parallel with gûð-byrne.

l. 325. Cf. l. 397. "The deposit of weapons outside before entering a house was the rule at all periods.... In provincial Swedish almost everywhere a church porch is called våkenhus,... i.e. weapon-house, because the worshippers deposited their arms there before they entered the house."—E., after G. Stephens.

l. 333. Cf. Dryden's "mingled metal damask'd o'er with gold."—E.

l. 336. "æl-, el-, kindred with Goth. aljis, other, e.g. in ælþéodig, elþéodig, foreign."—Cook's Sievers' Gram., p. 47.

l. 336. Cf. l. 673 for the functions of an ombiht-þegn.

l. 343. Cf. l. 1714 for the same beód-geneátas,—"the predecessor title to that of the Knights of the Table Round."—E. Cf. Andreas (K.), l. 2177.

l. 344. The future is sometimes expressed by willan + inf., generally with some idea of volition involved; cf. ll. 351, 427, etc. Cf. the use of willan as principal vb. (with omitted inf.) at ll. 318, 1372, 543, 1056; and sculan, ll. 1784, 2817.

l. 353. sîð here, and at l. 501, probably means arrival. E. translates the former by visit, the latter by adventure.

l. 357. unhâr = hairless, bald (Gr., etc.).

l. 358. eode is only one of four or five preterits of gân (gongan, gangan, gengan), viz. geóng (gióng: ll. 926, 2410, etc.), gang (l. 1296, etc.), gengde (ll. 1402, 1413). Sievers, p. 217, apparently remarks that eode is "probably used only in prose." (?!). Cf. geng, Gen. ll. 626, 834; Exod. (Hunt) l. 102.

l. 367. The MS. and H.-So. read with Gr. and B. glädman Hrôðgâr, abandoning Thorkelin's glädnian. There is a glass. hilaris glädman.Beit. xii. 84; same as gläd.

l. 369. dugan is a "preterit-present" verb, with new wk. preterit, like sculan, durran, magan, etc. For various inflections, see ll. 573, 590, 1822, 526. Cf. do in "that will do"; doughty, etc.

l. 372. Cf. l. 535 for a similar use; and l. 1220. Bede, Eccles. Hist., ed. Miller, uses the same expression several times. "Here, and in all other places where cniht occurs in this poem, it seems to carry that technical sense which it bore in the military hierarchy [of a noble youth placed out and learning the elements of the art of war in the service of a qualified warrior, to whom he is, in a military sense, a servant], before it bloomed out in the full sense of knight."—E.

l. 373. E. remarks of the hyphened eald-fäder, "hyphens are risky toys to play with in fixing texts of pre-hyphenial antiquity"; eald-fäder could only = grandfather. eald here can only mean honored, and the hyphen is unnecessary. Cf. "old fellow," "my old man," etc.; and Ger. alt-vater.

l. 378. Th. and B. propose Geátum, as presents from the Danish to the Geatish king.—Beit. xii.

l. 380. häbbe. The subj. is used in indirect narration and question, wish and command, purpose, result, and hypothetical comparison with swelce = as if.

ll. 386, 387. Ten Br. emends to read: "Hurry, bid the kinsman-throng go into the hall together."

l. 387. sibbe-gedriht, for Beowulf's friends, occurs also at l. 730. It is subject-acc. to seón. Cf. ll. 347, 365, and Hunt's Exod. l. 214.

l. 404. "Here, as in the later Icelandic halls, Beowulf saw Hrothgar enthroned on a high seat at the east end of the hall. The seat is sacred. It has a supernatural quality. Grendel, the fiend, cannot approach it."—Br., p. 34. Cf. l. 168.

l. 405. "At Benty Grange, in Derbyshire, an Anglo-Saxon barrow, opened in 1848, contained a coat of mail. 'The iron chain work consists of a large number of links of two kinds attached to each other by small rings half an inch in diameter; one kind flat and lozenge-shaped ... the others all of one kind, but of different lengths.'"—Br., p. 126.

l. 407. Wes ... hâl: this ancient Teutonic greeting afterwards grew into wassail. Cf. Skeat's Luke, i. 28; Andreas (K.), 1827; Layamon, l. 14309, etc.

l. 414. "The distinction between wesan and weorðan [in passive relations] is not very clearly defined, but wesan appears to indicate a state, weorðan generally an action."—Sw. Cf. Mod. German werden and sein in similar relations.

l. 414. Gr. translates hâdor by receptaculum; cf. Gering, Zachers Zeitschr. xii. 124. Toller-Bosw. ignores Gr.'s suggestion.

ll. 420, 421. B. reads: þær ic (on) fîfelgeban (= ocean) ýðde eotena cyn. Ten Br. reads: þær ic fîfelgeban ýðde, eotena hâm. Ha. suggests fîfelgeband = monster-band, without further changes.

l. 420. R. reads þæra = of them, for þær.—Zachers Zeitschr. iii. 399; Beit. xii. 367.

l. 420. "niht has a gen., nihtes, used for the most part only adverbially, and almost certainly to be regarded as masculine."—Cook's Sievers' Gram., p. 158.

l. 425. Cf. also ll. 435, 635, 2345, for other examples of Beowulf's determination to fight single-handed.

l. 441. þe hine = whom, as at l. 1292, etc. The indeclinable þe is often thus combined with personal pronouns, = relative, and is sometimes separated from them by a considerable interval.—Sw.

l. 443. The MS. has Geotena. B. and Fahlbeck, says H.-So., do not consider the Geátas, but the Jutes, as the inhabitants of Swedish West-Gothland. Alfred translates Juti by Geátas, but Jutland by Gotland. In the laws they are called Guti.—Beit. xii. 1, etc.

l. 444. B., Gr., and Ha. make unforhte an adv. = fearlessly, modifying etan. Kl. reads anforhte = timid.

l. 446. Cf. l. 2910. Th. translates: thou wilt not need my head to hide (i.e. bury). Simrock supposes a dead-watch or lyke-wake to be meant. Wood, thou wilt not have to bury so much as my head! H.-So. supposes heáfod-weard, a guard of honor, such as sovereigns or presumptive rulers had, to be meant by hafalan hýdan; hence, you need not give me any guard, etc. Cf. Schmid, Gesetze der A., 370-372.

l. 447. S. places a colon after nimeð.

l. 451. H.-So., Ha., and B. (Beit. xii. 87) agree essentially in translating feorme, food. R. translates consumption of my corpse. Maintenance, support, seems preferable to either.

l. 452. Rönning (after Grimm) personifies Hild.—Beovulfs Kvadet, l. 59. Hildr is the name of one of the Scandinavian Walkyries, or battle-maidens, who transport the spirits of the slain to Walhalla. Cf. Kent's Elene, l. 18, etc.

l. 455. "The war-smiths, especially as forgers of the sword, were garmented with legend, and made into divine personages. Of these Weland is the type, husband of a swan maiden, and afterwards almost a god."— Br., p. 120. Cf. A. J. C. Hare's account of "Wayland Smith's sword with which Henry II. was knighted," and which hung in Westminster Abbey to a late date.—Walks in London, ii. 228.

l. 455. This is the ælces mannes wyrd of Boethius (Sw., p. 44) and the wyrd bið swîðost of Gnomic Verses, 5. There are about a dozen references to it in Beówulf.

l. 455. E. compares the fatalism of this concluding hemistich with the Christian tone of l. 685 seq.

ll. 457, 458. B. reads wære-ryhtum ( = from the obligations of clientage).

l. 480. Cf. l. 1231, where the same sense, "flown with wine," occurs.

l. 488. "The duguð, the mature and ripe warriors, the aristocracy of the nation, are the support of the throne."—E. The M. E. form of the word, douth, occurs often. Associated with geogoð, ll. 160 and 622.

l. 489. Kl. omits comma after meoto and reads (with B.) sige-hrêð-secgum, = disclose thy thought to the victor-heroes. Others, as Körner, convert meoto into an imperative and divide on sæl = think upon happiness. But cf. onband beadu-rûne, l. 501. B. supposes onsæl meoto =speak courteous words. Tidskr. viii. 292; Haupts Zeitschr. xi. 411; Eng. Stud. ii. 251.

l. 489. Cf. the invitation at l. 1783.

l. 494. Cf. Grimm's Andreas, l. 1097, for deal, =proud, elated, exulting; Phoenix (Bright), l. 266.

l. 499. MS. has Hunferð, but the alliteration requires Ûnferð, as at ll. 499, 1166, 1489; and cf. ll. 1542, 2095, 2930. See List of Names.

l. 501. sîð = arrival (?); cf. l. 353.

l. 504. þon mâ = the more (?), may be added to the references under þon.

l. 506. E. compares the taunt of Eliab to David, I Sam. xvii. 28.

l. 509. dol-gilp = idle boasting. The second definition in the Gloss. is wrong.

l. 513. "Eagor-stream might possibly be translated the stream of Eagor, the awful terror-striking stormy sea in which the terrible [Scandinavian] giant dwelt, and through which he acted."—Br., p. 164. He remarks, "The English term eagre still survives in provincial dialect for the tide-wave or bore on rivers. Dryden uses it in his Threnod. Angust. 'But like an eagre rode in triumph o'er the tide.' Yet we must be cautious," etc. Cf. Fox's Boethius, ll. 20, 236; Thorpe's Cædmon, 69, etc.

l. 524. Krüger and B. read Bânstânes.—Beit. ix. 573.

l. 525. R. reads wyrsan (= wyrses: cf. Mod. Gr. guten Muthes) geþinges; but H.-So. shows that the MS. wyrsan ... þingea = wyrsena þinga, can stand; cf. gen. pl. banan, Christ, l. 66, etc.

l. 534. Insert, under eard-lufa (in Gloss.), earfoð, st. n., trouble, difficulty, struggle; acc. pl. earfeðo, 534.

l. 545 seq. "Five nights Beowulf and Breca kept together, not swimming, but sailing in open boats (to swim the seas is to sail the seas), then storm drove them asunder ... Breca is afterwards chief of the Brondings, a tribe mentioned in Wîdsíth. The story seems legendary, not mythical."—Br., pp. 60, 61.

ll. 574-578. B. suggests swâ þær for hwäðere, = so there it befell me. But the word at l. 574 seems = however, and at l. 578 = yet; cf. l. 891; see S.; Beit. ix. 138; Tidskr. viii. 48; Zacher, iii. 387, etc.

l. 586. Gr. and Grundt. read fâgum sweordum (no ic þäs fela gylpe!), supplying fela and blending the broken half-lines into one. Ho. and Kl. supply geflites.

l. 599. E. translates nýd-bâde by blackmail; adding "nêd bâd, toll; nêd bâdere, tolltaker."—Land Charters, Gloss, v.

l. 601. MS. has ond = and in three places only (601, 1149, 2041); elsewhere it uses the symbol 7 = and.

l. 612. seq. Cf. the drinking ceremony at l. 1025. "The royal lady offers the cup to Beowulf, not in his turn where he sate among the rest, but after it has gone the round; her approach to Beowulf is an act apart."—E.

l. 620. "The [loving] cup which went the round of the company and was tasted by all," like the Oriel and other college anniversary cups.—E.

l. 622. Cf. ll. 160, 1191, for the respective places of young and old.

l. 623. Cf. the circlet of gold worn by Wealhþeów at l. 1164.

l. 631. gyddode. Cf. Chaucer, Prol. l. 237 (ed. Morris):

"Of yeddynges he bar utterly the prys."

Cf. giddy.

l. 648. Kl. suggests a period after geþinged, especially as B. (Tidskr. viii. 57) has shown that oþþe is sometimes = ond. Th. supplies ne.

l. 650. oþþe here and at ll. 2476, 3007, probably = and.

l. 651. Cf. 704, where sceadu-genga (the night-ganger of Leechdoms, ii. 344) is applied to the demon.—E.

l. 659. Cf. l. 2431 for same formula, "to have and to hold" of the Marriage Service.—E.

l. 681. B. considers þeáh ... eal a precursor of Mod. Eng. although.

l. 682. gôdra = advantages in battle (Gr.), battle-skill (Ha.), skill in war (H.-So.). Might not nât be changed to nah = ne + âh (cf. l. 2253), thus justifying the translation ability (?) —he has not the ability to, etc.

l. 695. Kl. reads hiera.—Beit. ix. 189. B. omits hîe as occurring in the previous hemistich.—Beit. xii. 89.

l. 698. "Here Destiny is a web of cloth."—E., who compares the Greek Clotho, "spinster of fate." Women are also called "weavers of peace," as l. 1943. Cf. Kent's Elene, l. 88; Wîdsîð, l. 6, etc.

l. 711. B. translates þâ by when and connects with the preceding sentences, thus rejecting the ordinary canto-division at l. 711. He objects to the use of com as principal vb. at ll. 703, 711, and 721. (Beit, xii.)

l. 711. "Perhaps the Gnomic verse which tells of Thyrs, the giant, is written with Grendel in the writer's mind,—þyrs sceal on fenne gewunian âna inuan lande, the giant shall dwell in the fen, alone in the land (Sweet's Read., p. 187)."—Br. p. 36.

l. 717. Dietrich, in Haupt. xi. 419, quotes from Ælfric, Hom. ii. 498: hê beworhte þâ bigelsas mid gyldenum læfrum, he covered the arches with gold-leaf,—a Roman custom derived from Carthage. Cf. Mod. Eng. oriel = aureolum, a gilded room.—E. (quoting Skeat). Cf. ll. 2257, 1097, 2247, 2103, 2702, 2283, 333, 1751, for various uses of gold-sheets.

l. 720. B. and ten Br. suggest hell-thane (Grendel) for heal-þegnas, and make häle refer to Beowulf. Cf. l. 142.

l. 723. Z. reads [ge]hrân.

l. 727. For this use of standan, cf. ll. 2314, 2770; and Vergil, Ecl. ii. 26:

"Cum placidum ventis staret mare."

l. 757. gedräg. Tumult is one of the meanings of this word. Here, appar. = occupation, lair.

l. 759. R. reads môdega for gôda, "because the attribute cannot be separated from the word modified unless the two alliterate."

l. 762. Cf. Andreas, l. 1537, for a similar use of ût = off.—E.

l. 769. The foreign words in Beówulf (as ceaster-here) are not numerous; others are (aside from proper names like Cain, Abel, etc.) deófol (diabolus), candel (l. 1573), ancor (l. 303), scrîfan (for- ge-), segn (l. 47), gigant (l. 113), mîl- (l. 1363), stræt (l. 320), ombeht (l. 287), gim (l. 2073), etc.

l. 770. MS. reads cerwen, a word conceived by B. and others to be part of a fem. compd.: -scerwen like -wenden in ed-wenden, -ræden, etc. (cf. meodu-scerpen in Andreas, l. 1528); emended to -scerwen, a great scare under the figure of a mishap at a drinking-bout; one might compare bescerwan, to deprive, from bescyrian (Grein, i. 93), hence ealu-scerwen would = a sudden taking away, deprivation, of the beer.—H.-So., p. 93. See B., Tidskr. viii. 292.

l. 771. Ten Br. reads rêðe, rênhearde, = raging, exceeding bold.

l. 792. Instrumental adverbial phrases like ænige þinga, nænige þinga (not at all), hûru þinga (especially) are not infrequent. See Cook's Sievers' Gram., p. 178; March, A.-S. Gram., p. 182.

l. 811. myrðe. E. translates in wanton mood. Toller-Bosw. does not recognize sorrow as one of the meanings of this word.

ll. 850, 851. S. reads deóp for deóg and erases semicolon after weól, = the death-stained deep welled with sword-gore; cf. l. 1424. B. reads deáð-fæges deóp, etc., = the deep welled with the doomed one's gore.—Beit. xii. 89.

l. 857. The meaning of blaneum is partly explained by fealwe mearas below, l. 866. Cf. Layamon's "and leop on his blancke" = steed, l. 23900; Kent's Elene, l. 1185.

l. 859. Körner, Eng. Stud. i. 482, regards the oft-recurring be sæm tweónum as a mere formula = on earth; cf. ll. 1298, 1686. tweóne is part of the separable prep. between; see be-. Cf. Baskerville's Andreas, l. 558.

l. 865. Cf. Voyage of Ôhthere and Wulfstân for an account of funeral horse-racing, Sweet's Read., p. 22.

l. 868. See Ha., p. 31, for a variant translation.

l. 871 seq. R. considers this a technical description of improvised alliterative verse, suggested by and wrought out on the spur of the moment.

l. 872. R. and B. propose secg[an], = rehearse, for secg, which suits the verbs in the next two lines.

ll. 878-98. "It pleases me to think that it is in English literature we possess the first sketch of that mighty saga [the Volsunga Saga = Wälsinges gewin] which has for so many centuries engaged all the arts, and at last in the hands of Wagner the art of music."—Br., p. 63. Cf. Nibelung. Lied, l. 739.

l. 894. Intransitive verbs, as gân, weorðan, sometimes take habban, "to indicate independent action."—Sw. Cf. hafað ... geworden, l. 2027.

l. 895. "brûcan (enjoy) always has the genitive."—Sw.; cf. l. 895; acc., gen., instr., dat., according to March, A.-S. Gram., p. 151.

l. 898. Scherer proposes hâte, = from heat, instr. of hât, heat; cf. l. 2606.

l. 901. hê þäs âron þâh = he throve in honor (B.). Ten Br. inserts comma after þâh, making siððan introduce a depend. clause.—Beit. viii. 568. Cf. weorð-myndum þâh, l. 8; ll. 1155, 1243.—H.-So.

l. 902. Heremôdes is considered by Heinzel to be a mere epithet = the valiant; which would refer the whole passage to Sigmund (Sigfrid), the eotenas, l. 903, being the Nibelungen. This, says H.-So., gets rid of the contradiction between the good "Heremôd" here and the bad one, l. 1710 seq.—B. however holds fast to Heremôd.—Beit. xii. 41. on feónda geweald, l. 904,—into the hands of devils, says B.; cf. ll. 809, 1721, 2267; Christ, l. 1416; Andreas, l. 1621; for hine fyren onwôd, cf. Gen. l. 2579; Hunt's Dan. 17: hîe wlenco anwôd.

l. 902 seq. "Heremôd's shame is contrasted with the glory of Sigemund, and with the prudence, patience, generosity, and gentleness of Beowulf as a chieftain."—Br., p. 66.

l. 906. MS. has lemede. Toller-Bosw. corrects to lemedon.

l. 917. Cf. Hunt's Exod., l. 170, for similar language.

l. 925. hôs, G. hansa, company, "the word from which the mercantile association of the 'Hanseatic' towns took their designation."—E.

l. 927. on staþole = on the floor (B., Rask, ten Br.).—Beit. xii. 90.

l. 927. May not steápne here = bright, from its being immediately followed by golde fâhne? Cf. Chaucer's "his eyen stepe," Prol. l. 201 (ed. Morris); Cockayne's Ste. Marherete, pp. 9, 108; St. Kath., l. 1647.

l. 931. grynna may be for gyrnna (= sorrows), gen. plu. of gyrn, as suggested by one commentator.

l. 937. B. (Beit. xii. 90) makes gehwylcne object of wîd-scofen (häfde). Gr. makes weá nom. absolute.

l. 940. scuccum: cf. G. scheuche, scheusal; Prov. Eng. old-shock; perhaps the pop. interjection O shucks! (!)

l. 959. H. explains we as a "plur. of majesty," which Beówulf throws off at l. 964.

l. 963. feónd þone frätgan (B. Beit. xii. 90).

l. 976. synnum. "Most abstract words in the poetry have a very wide range of meanings, diverging widely from the prose usage, synn, for instance, means simply injury, mischief, hatred, and the prose meaning sin is only a secondary one; hata in poetry is not only hater, but persecutor, enemy, just as nîð is both hatred and violence, strength; heard is sharp as well as hard."—Sw.

l. 986. S. places wäs at end of l. 985 and reads stîðra nägla, omitting gehwylc and the commas after that and after sceáwedon. Beit. ix. 138; stêdra (H.-So.); hand-sporu (H.-So.) at l. 987.

l. 986. Miller (Anglia, xii. 3) corrects to æghwylene, in apposition to fingras.

l. 987. hand-sporu. See Anglia, vii. 176, for a discussion of the intrusion of u into the nom. of n-stems.

l. 988. Cf. ll. 2121, 2414, for similar use of unheóru = ungeheuer.

l. 992. B. suggests heátimbred for hâten, and gefrätwon for -od; Kl., hroden (Beit. ix. 189).

l. 995, 996. Gold-embroidered tapestries seem to be meant by web = aurifrisium.

l. 997. After þâra þe = of those that, the depend, vb. often takes sg. for pl.; cf. ll. 844, 1462, 2384, 2736.—Sw.; Dietrich.

l. 998. "Metathesis of l takes place in seld for setl, bold for botl," etc.—Cook's Sievers' Gram., p. 96. Cf. Eng. proper names, Bootle, Battlefield, etc.—Skeat, Principles, i. 250.

l. 1000. heorras: cf. Chaucer, Prol. (ed. Morris) l. 550:

"Ther was no dore that he nolde heve of harre."

ll. 1005-1007. See Zachers Zeitschr. iii. 391, and Beit. xii. 368, for R.'s and B.'s views of this difficult passage.

l. 1009. Cf. l. 1612 for sæl and mæl, surviving still in E. Anglia in "mind your seals and meals," = times and occasions, i.e. have your wits about you.—E.

ll. 1012, 1013. Cf. ll. 753, 754 for two similar comparatives used in conjunction.

l. 1014. Cf. l. 327 for similar language.

ll. 1015, 1016. H.-So. puts these two lines in parentheses (fylle ... þâra). Cf. B., Beit. xii. 91.

l. 1024. One of the many famous swords spoken of in the poem. See Hrunting, ll. 1458, 1660; Hûnlâfing, l. 1144, etc. Cf. Excalibur, Roland's sword, the Nibelung Balmung, etc.

l. 1034. scûr-heard. For an ingenious explanation of this disputed word see Professor Pearce's article in Mod. Lang. Notes, Nov. 1, 1892, and ensuing discussion.

l. 1039. eoderas is of doubtful meaning. H. and Toller-Bosw. regard the word here = enclosure, palings of the court. Cf. Cædmon, ll. 2439, 2481. The passage throws interesting light on horses and their trappings

l. 1043. Grundt. emends wîg to wicg, = charger; and E. quotes Tacitus, Germania, 7.

l. 1044. "Power over each and both"; cf. "all and some," "one and all."

For Ingwin, see List of Names.

l. 1065. Gr. contends that fore here = de, concerning, about (Ebert's Jahrb., 1862, p. 269).

l. 1069. H.-So. supplies fram after eaferum, to govern it, = concerning (?). Cf. Fight at Finnsburg, Appendix.

l. 1070. For the numerous names of the Danes, "bright-" "spear-" "east-" "west-" "ring-" Danes, see these words.

l. 1073. Eotenas = Finn's people, the Frisians; cf. ll. 1089, 1142, 1146, etc., and Beit. xii. 37. Why they are so called is not known.

l. 1084. R. proposes wiht Hengeste wið gefeohtan (Zachers Zeitschr. iii. 394). Kl., wið H. wiht gefeohtan.

ll. 1085 and 1099. weá-lâf occurs in Wulfstan, Hom. 133, ed. Napier.—E. Cf. daroða lâf, Brunanb., l. 54; âdes lâfe, Phoenix, 272 (Bright), etc.

l. 1098. elne unflitme = so dass der eid (der inhalt des eides) nicht streitig war.—B., Beit. iii. 30. But cf. 1130, where Hengist and Finn are again brought into juxtaposition and the expression ealles (?) unhlitme occurs.

l. 1106. The pres. part. + be, as myndgiend wære here, is comparatively rare in original A.-S. literature, but occurs abundantly in translations from the Latin. The periphrasis is generally meaningless. Cf. l. 3029.

l. 1108. Körner suggests ecge, = sword, in reference to a supposed old German custom of placing ornaments, etc., on the point of a sword or spear (Eng. Stud. i. 495). Singer, ince-gold = bright gold; B., andiége = Goth, andaugjo, evidently. Cf. incge lâfe, l. 2578. Possibly: and inge (= young men) gold âhôfon of horde. For inge, cf. Hunt's Exod. l. 190.

ll. 1115-1120. R. proposes (hêt þâ ...) bânfatu bärnan ond on bæl dôn, earme on eaxe = to place the arms in the ashes, reading gûðrêc = battle-reek, for -rinc (Zachers Zeitschr. iii. 395). B., Sarrazin (Beit. xi. 530), Lichtenfeld (Haupts Zeitschr. xvi. 330), C., etc., propose various emendations. See H.-So., p. 97, and Beit. viii. 568. For gùðrinc âstâh, cf. Old Norse, stiga á bál, "ascend the bale-fire."

l. 1116. sweoloðe. "On Dartmoor the burning of the furze up the hillsides to let new grass grow, is called zwayling."—E. Cf. sultry, G. schwül, etc.

l. 1119. Cf. wudu-rêc âstâh, l. 3145; and Exod. (Hunt), l. 450: wælmist âstâh.

l. 1122. ätspranc = burst forth, arose (omitted from the Gloss.), < ät + springan.

l. 1130. R. and Gr. read elne unflitme, = loyally and without contest, as at l. 1098. Cf. Ha., p. 39; H.-So., p. 97.

l. 1137. scacen = gone; cf. ll. 1125, 2307, 2728.

l. 1142. "The sons of the Eotenas" (B., Beit. xii. 31, who conjectures a gap after 1142).

l. 1144. B. separates thus: Hûn Lâfing, = Hûn placed the sword Lâfing, etc.—Beit. xii. 32; cf. R., Zachers Zeitschr. iii. 396. Heinzel and Homburg make other conjectures (Herrig's Archiv, 72, 374, etc.).

l. 1143. B., H.-So., and Möller read: worod rædenne, þonne him Hûn Lâfing, = military brotherhood, when Hûn laid upon his breast (the sword) Lâfing. There is a sword Laufi, Lövi in the Norse sagas; but swords, armor, etc., are often called the leaving (lâf) of files, hammers, etc., especially a precious heirloom; cf. ll. 454, 1033, 2830, 2037, 2629, 796, etc., etc.

l. 1152. roden = reddened (B., Tidskr. viii. 295).

l. 1160. For ll. 1069-1160, containing the Finn episode, cf. Möller, Alteng. Volksepos, 69, 86, 94; Heinzel, Anz. f. dtsch. Altert., 10, 226; B., Beit. xii. 29-37. Cf. Wîdsîð, l. 33, etc.

ll. 1160, 1161. leóð (lied = song, lay) and gyd here appear synonyms.

ll. 1162-1165. "Behind the wars and tribal wanderings, behind the contentions of the great, we watch in this poem the steady, continuous life of home, the passions and thoughts of men, the way they talked and moved and sang and drank and lived and loved among one another and for one another."—Br., p. 18.

l. 1163. Cf. wonderwork. So wonder-death, wonder-bidding, wonder-treasure, -smith, -sight, etc. at ll. 1748, 3038, 2174, 1682, 996, etc. Cf. the German use of the same intensive, = wondrous, in wunder-schön, etc.

l. 1165. þâ gyt points to some future event when "each" was not "true to other," undeveloped in this poem, suhtor-gefäderan = Hrôðgâr and Hrôðulf, l. 1018. Cf. âðum-swerian, l. 84.

l. 1167 almost repeats l. 500, ät fôtum, etc., where Ûnferð is first introduced.

l. 1191. E. sees in this passage separate seats for youth and middle-aged men, as in English college halls, chapels, convocations, and churches still.

l. 1192. ymbutan, round about, is sometimes thus separated: ymb hie ûtan; cf. Voyage of Ôhthere, etc. (Sw.), p. 18, l. 34, etc.; Beówulf, ll. 859, 1686, etc.

l. 1194. bewägned, a ἃπαξ λεγόμενον, tr. offered by Th. Probably a p. p. wägen, made into a vb. by -ian, like own, drown, etc. Cf. hafenian ( < hafen, < hebban), etc.

l. 1196. E. takes the expression to mean "mantle and its rings or broaches." "Rail" long survived in Mid. Eng. (Piers Plow., etc.).

l. 1196. This necklace was afterwards given by Beowulf to Hygd, ll. 2173, 2174.

ll. 1199-1215. From the obscure hints in the passage, a part of the poem may be approximately dated,—if Hygelâc is the Chochi-laicus of Gregory of Tours, Hist. Francorum, iii. 3,—about A.D. 512-20.

l. 1200. The Breosinga men (Icel. Brisinga men) is the necklace of the goddess Freya; cf. Elder Edda, Hamarshemt. Hâma stole the necklace from the Gothic King Eormenrîc; cf. Traveller's Song, ll. 8, 18, 88, 111. The comparison of the two necklaces leads the poet to anticipate Hygelâc's history,—a suggestion of the poem's mosaic construction.

l. 1200. For Brôsinga mene, cf. B., Beit. xii. 72. C. suggests fleáh, = fled, for fealh, placing semicolon after byrig, and making subject of fleáh and geceás.

l. 1202. B. conjectures geceás êcne ræd to mean he became a pious man and at death went to heaven. Heime (Hâma) in the Thidrekssaga goes into a cloister = to choose the better part (?). Cf. H.-So., p. 98. But cf. Hrôðgâr's language to Beowulf, ll. 1760, 1761.

l. 1211. S. proposes feoh, = property, for feorh, which would be a parallel for breóst-gewædu ... beáh below.

l. 1213. E. remarks that in the Laws of Cnut, i. 26, the devil is called se wôdfreca werewulf, the ravening werwolf.

l. 1215. C. proposes heals-bêge onfêng. Beit. viii. 570. For hreâ- Kl. suggests hræ-.

l. 1227. The son referred to is, according to Ettmüller, the one that reigns after Hrôðgâr.

l. 1229. Kl. suggests , = be, for is.

l. 1232. S. gives wine-elated as the meaning of druncne.—Beit. ix. 139; Kl. ibid. 189, 194. But cf. Judith, ll. 67, 107.

l. 1235. Cf. l. 119 for similarity of language.

l. 1235. Kl. proposes gea-sceaft; but cf. l. 1267.

l. 1246. Ring armor was common in the Middle Ages. E. points out the numerous forms of byrne in cognate languages,—Gothic, Icelandic, OHG., Slavonic, O. Irish, Romance, etc. Du Chaillu, The Viking Age, i. 126. Cf. Murray's Dict. s. v.

l. 1248. ânwîg-gearwe = ready for single combat (C.); but cf. Ha. p. 43; Beit. ix. 210, 282.

l. 1252. Some consider this fitt the beginning of Part (or Lay) II. of the original epic, if not a separate work in itself.

l. 1254. K., W., and Ho. read farode = wasted; Kolbing reads furode; but cf. wêsten warode, l. 1266. MS. has warode.

ll. 1255-1258. This passage is a good illustration of the constant parallelism of word and phrase characteristic of A.-S. poetry, and is quoted by Sw. The changes are rung on ende and swylt, on gesýne and wîdcûð, etc.

l. 1259. "That this story of Grendel's mother was originally a separate lay from the first seems to be suggested by the fact that the monsters are described over again, and many new details added, such as would be inserted by a new singer who wished to enhance and adorn the original tale."—Br., p. 41.

l. 1259. Cf. l. 107, which also points to the ancestry of murderers and monsters and their descent from "Cain."

l. 1261. The MS. has se þe, m.; changed by some to seo þe. At ll. 1393, 1395, 1498, Grendel's mother is referred to as m.; at ll. 1293, 1505, 1541-1546, etc., as f., the uncertain pronoun designating a creature female in certain aspects, but masculine in demonic strength and savageness.—H.-So.; Sw. p. 202. Cf. the masc. epithets at ll. 1380, 2137, etc.

l. 1270. âglæca = Grendel, though possibly referring to Beowulf, as at l. 1513.—Sw.

l. 1273. "It is not certain whether anwalda stands for onwealda, or whether it should be read ânwealda, = only ruler.—Sw.

l. 1279. The MS. has sunu þeod wrecan, which R. changes to sunu þeód-wrecan, þeód- = monstrous; but why not regard þeód as opposition to sunu, = her son, the prince? See Sweet's Reader, and Körner's discussion, Eng. Stud. i. 500.

l. 1281. Ten Br. suggests (for sôna) sâra = return of sorrows.

l. 1286. "geþuren (twice so written in MSS.) stands for geþrúen, forged, and is an isolated p. p."—Cook's Sievers' Gram., 209. But see Toller-Bosw. for examples; Sw., Gloss.; March, p. 100, etc.

ll. 1292. þe hine = whom; cf. ll. 441, 1437, 1292; Hêliand, l. 1308.

l. 1298. be sæm tweonum; cf. l. 1192; Hunt's Exod. l. 442; and Mod. Eng. "to us-ward, etc.—Earle's Philol., p. 449. Cf. note, l. 1192.

l. 1301. C. proposes ôðer him ärn = another apartment was assigned him.

l. 1303. B. conjectures under hrôf genam; but Ha., p. 45, shows this to be unnecessary, under also meaning in, as in (or under) these circumstances.

l. 1319. E. and Sw. suggest nægde or nêgde, accosted, nêgan = Mid. Ger. nêhwian, pr. p. nêhwiandans, approach. For hnægan, press down, vanquish, see ll. 1275, 1440, etc.

l. 1321. C. suggests neád-lâðum for neód-laðu, after crushing hostility; but cf. freónd-laðu, l. 1193.

l. 1334. K. and ten Br. conjecture gefägnod = rejoicing in her fill, a parallel to æse wlanc, l. 1333.

l. 1340. B. translates: "and she has executed a deed of blood-vengeance of far-reaching consequence."—Beit. xii. 93.

l. 1345. B. reads geó for eów (Zachers Zeitschr. iv. 205).

ll. 1346-1377. "This is a fine piece of folk-lore in the oldest extant form.... The authorities for the story are the rustics (ll. 1346, 1356)." —E.

l. 1347. Cf. sele-rædende at l. 51.

l. 1351. "The ge [of gewitan] may be merely a scribal error,—a repetition (dittography) of the preceding ge of gewislîcost."—Sw.

l. 1352. ides, like firas, men, etc., is a poetic word supposed by Grimm to have been applied, like Gr. νύμφη, to superhuman or semi-divine women.

ll. 1360-1495 seq. E. compares this Dantesque tarn and scenery with the poetical accounts of Æneid, vii. 563; Lucretius, vi. 739, etc.

l. 1360. firgenstreám occurs also in the Phoenix (Bright, p. 168) l. 100; Andreas, ll. 779, 3144 (K.); Gnomic Verses, l. 47, etc.

l. 1363. The genitive is often thus used to denote measure = by or in miles; cf. l. 3043; and contrast with partitive gen. at l. 207.

l. 1364. The MS. reads hrinde = hrînende (?), which Gr. adopts; K. and Th. read hrinde-bearwas; hringde, encircling (Sarrazin, Beit. xi. 163); hrîmge = frosty (Sw.); with frost-whiting covered (Ha.). See Morris, Blickling Hom., Preface, vi., vii.

l. 1364. Cf. Ruin, hrîmige edoras behrofene, rimy, roofless halls.

l. 1366. nîðwundor may = nið- (as in nið-sele, q. v.) wundor, wonder of the deep.

l. 1368. The personal pronoun is sometimes omitted in subordinate and even independent clauses; cf. wite here; and Hunt's Exod., l. 319.

l. 1370. hornum. Such "datives of manner or respect" are not infrequent with adj.

l. 1371. "seleð is not dependent on ær, for in that case it would be in the subjunctive, but ær is simply an adverb, correlative with the conjunction ær in the next line: 'he will (sooner) give up his life, before he will,' etc."—Sw.

l. 1372. Cf. ll. 318 and 543 for willan with similar omitted inf.

l. 1373. heafola is found only in poetry.—Sw. It occurs thirteen or fourteen times in this poem. Cf. the poetic gamol, swât (l. 2694), etc., for eald, blôd.

l. 1391. uton: hortatory subj. of wîtan, go, = let us go; cf. French allons, Lat. eamus, Ital. andiamo, etc. + inf. Cf. ll. 2649, 3102.

l. 1400. H. is dat. of person indirectly affected, = advantage.

l. 1402. geatolîc probably = in his equipments, as B. suggests (Beit. xii. 83), comparing searolîc.

ll. 1402, 1413 reproduce the wk. form of the pret. of gân (Goth, gaggida). Cf. Andreas, l. 1096, etc.

l. 1405. S. (Beit. ix. 140) supplies [þær heó] gegnum fôr; B. (ibid. xii. 14) suggests hwær heó.

l. 1411. B., Gr., and E. take ân-paðas = paths wide enough for only one, like Norwegian einstig; cf. stîge nearwe, just above. Trail is the meaning. Cf. enge ânpaðas, uncûð gelâd, Exod. (Hunt), l. 58.

l. 1421. Cf. oncýð, l. 831. The whole passage (ll. 1411-1442) is replete with suggestions of walrus-hunting, seal-fishing, harpooning of sea-animals (l. 1438), etc.

l. 1425. E. quotes from the 8th cent. Corpus Gloss., "Falanx foeða."

l. 1428. For other mention of nicors, cf. ll. 422, 575, 846. E. remarks, "it survives in the phrase 'Old Nick' ... a word of high authority ... Icel. nykr, water-goblin, Dan. nök, nisse, Swed. näcken, G. nix, nixe, etc." See Skeat, Nick.

l. 1440. Sw. reads gehnæged, prostrated, and regards nîða as gen. pl. "used instrumentally," = by force.

l. 1441. -bora = bearer, stirrer; occurs in other compds., as mund-, ræd-, wæg-bora.

l. 1447. him = for him, a remoter dative of reference.—Sw.

l. 1455. Gr. reads brondne, = flaming.

l. 1457. león is the inf. of lâh; cf. onlâh (< onleón) at l. 1468. lîhan was formerly given as the inf.; cf. læne = læhne.

l. 1458. Cf. the similar dat. of possession as used in Latin.

l. 1458. H.-So. compares the Icelandic saga account of Grettir's battle with the giant in the cave. häft-mêce may be = Icel. heptisax (Anglia, iii. 83), "hip-knife."

l. 1459. "The sense seems to be 'pre-eminent among the old treasures.' ... But possibly foran is here a prep. with the gen.: 'one before the old treasures.'".—Sw. For other examples of foran, cf. ll. 985, 2365.

l. 1460. âter-teárum = poison-drops (C., Beit. viii. 571; S., ibid. xi. 359).

l. 1467. þät, comp. relative, = that which; "we testify that we do know."

l. 1480. forð-gewitenum is in appos. to me, = mihi defuncto.—M. Callaway, Am. Journ. of Philol., October, 1889.

l. 1482. nime. Conditional clauses of doubt or future contingency take gif or bûton with subj.; cf. ll. 452, 594; of fact or certainty, the ind.; cf. ll. 442, 447, 527, 662, etc. For bûton, cf. ll. 967, 1561.

l. 1487. "findan sometimes has a preterit funde in W. S. after the manner of the weak preterits."—Cook's Sievers' Cram., p, 210.

l. 1490. Kl. reads wäl-sweord, = battle-sword.

l. 1507. "This cave under the sea seems to be another of those natural phenomena of which the writer had personal knowledge (ll. 2135, 2277), and which was introduced by him into the mythical tale to give it a local color. There are many places of this kind. Their entrance is under the lowest level of the tide."—Br., p. 45.

l. 1514. B. (Beit. xii. 362) explains niðsele, hrôfsele as roof-covered hall in the deep; cf. Grettir Saga (Anglia, iii. 83).

l. 1538. Sw., R., and ten Br. suggest feaxe for eaxle, = seized by the hair.

l. 1543. and-leán (R.); cf. l. 2095. The MS. has hand-leán.

l. 1546. Sw. and S. read seax.—Beit. ix. 140.

l. 1557. H.-So. omits comma and places semicolon after ýðelîce; Sw. and S. place comma after gescêd.

l. 1584. ôðer swylc = another fifteen (Sw.); = fully as many (Ha.).

ll. 1592-1613 seq. Cf. Anglia, iii; 84 (Grettir Saga).

l. 1595. blondenfeax = grizzly-haired (Bright, Reader, p. 258); cf. Brunanb., l. 45 (Bright).

l. 1599. gewearð, impers. vb., = agree, decide = many agreed upon this, that, etc. (Ha., p. 55; cf. ll. 2025-2027, 1997; B., Beit. xii. 97).

l. 1605. C. supposes wiston = wîscton = wished.—Beit. viii. 571.

l. 1607. broden mæl is now regarded as a comp. noun, = inlaid or damascened sword.—W., Ho.

l. 1611. wäl-râpas = water-ropes = bands of frost (l. 1610) (?). Possibly the Prov. Eng. weele, whirlpool. Cf. wæl, gurges, Wright, Voc., Gnom. Verses, l. 39.—E.

l. 1611. wægrâpas (Sw.) = wave-bands (Ha.).

l. 1622. B. suggests eatna = eotena, eardas, haunts of the giants (Northumbr. ea for eo).

l. 1635. cyning-holde (B., Beit. xii. 369); cf. l. 290.

l. 1650. H., Gr., and Ettmüller understand idese to refer to the queen.

l. 1651. Cf. Anglia, iii. 74, Beit. xi. 167, for coincidences with the Grettir Saga (13th cent.).

l. 1657. Restore MS. reading wigge in place of wîge.

l. 1664. B. proposes eotenise ... èste for eácen ... oftost, omitting brackets (Zackers Zeitschr. iv. 206). G. translates mighty ... often.

l. 1675. ondrædan. "In late texts the final n of the preposition on is frequently lost when it occurs in a compound word or stereotyped phrase, and the prefix then appears as a: abútan, amang, aweg, aright, adr'ædan."—Cook's Sievers' Gram., p. 98.

ll. 1680-1682. Giants and their work are also referred to at ll. 113, 455, 1563, 1691, etc.

l. 1680. Cf. ceastra ... orðanc enta geweorc, Gnomic Verses, l. 2; Sweet's Reader, p. 186.

ll. 1687-1697. "In this description of the writing on the sword, we see the process of transition from heathen magic to the notions of Christian times .... The history of the flood and of the giants ... were substitutes for names of heathen gods, and magic spells for victory."—E. Cf. Mohammedan usage.

ll. 1703, 1704. þät þê eorl nære geboren betera (B., Tidskr. 8, 52).

l. 1715. âna hwearf = he died solitary and alone (B., Beit. xii. 38); = lonely (Ha.); = alone (G.).

l. 1723. leód-bealo longsum = eternal hell-torment (B., Beit. xii. 38, who compares Ps. Cott. 57, lîf longsum).

l. 1729. E. translates on lufan, towards possession; Ha., to possessions.

l. 1730. môdgeþonc, like lig, sæ, segn, niht, etc., is of double gender (m., n. in the case of môdgeþ.).

l. 1741. The doctrine of nemesis following close on ὓβρις, or overweening pride, is here very clearly enunciated. The only protector against the things that "assault and hurt" the soul is the "Bishop and Shepherd of our souls" (l. 1743).

l. 1745 appears dimly to fore-shadow the office of the evil archer Loki, who in the Scandinavian mythology shoots Balder with a mistletoe twig. The language closely resembles that of Psalm 64.

l. 1748. Kl. regards wom = wô(u)m; cf. wôh-bogen, l. 2828. See Gloss., p. 295, under wam. Contrast the construction of bebeorgan a few lines below (l. 1759), where the dat. and acc. are associated.

l. 1748. See Cook's Sievers' Gram., p. 167, for declension of wôh, wrong = gen. wôs or wôges, dat. wô(u)m, etc.; pl. gen. wôra, dat. wô(u)m, etc.; and cf. declension of heáh, hreóh, rûh, etc.

l. 1748. wergan gâstes; cf. Blickl. Hom. vii.; Andreas, l. 1171. "Auld Wearie is used in Scotland, or was used a few years ago, ... to mean the devil."—E. Bede's Eccles. Hist. contains (naturally) many examples of the expression = devil.

l. 1750. on gyld = in reward (B. Beit. xii. 95); Ha. translates boastfully; G., for boasting; Gr., to incite to boastfulness. Cf. Christ, l. 818.

l. 1767. E. thinks this an allusion to the widespread superstition of the evil eye (mal occhio, mauvais æil). Cf. Vergil, Ecl. iii. 103. He remarks that Pius IX., Gambetta, and President Carnot were charged by their enemies with possessing this weapon.

l. 1784. wigge geweorðad (MS. wigge weorðad) is C.'s conjecture; cf. Elene, l. 150. So G., honored in war.

l. 1785. The future generally implied in the present of beón is plainly seen in this line; cf. ll. 1826, 661, 1830, 1763, etc.

l. 1794. Some impers. vbs. take acc. (as here, Geat) of the person affected; others (as þyncan) take the dat. of the person, as at ll. 688, 1749, etc. Cf. verbs of dreaming, being ashamed, desiring, etc.—March, A.-S. Gram., p. 145.

l. 1802. E. remarks that the blaca hrefn here is a bird of good omen, as opposed to se wonna hrefn of l. 3025. The raven, wolf, and eagle are the regular epic accompaniments of battle and carnage. Cf. ll. 3025-3028; Maldon, 106; Judith, 205-210, etc.

l. 1803. S. emends to read: "then came the light, going bright after darkness: the warriors," etc. Cf. Ho., p. 41, l. 23. G. puts period before "the warriors." For onettan, cf. Sw.'s Gloss, and Bright's Read., Gloss.

ll. 1808-1810. Müllenh. and Grundt. refer se hearda to Beowulf, correct sunu (MS.) to suna Ecglâfes (i.e. Unferth); [he] (Beo.) thanked him (Un.) for the loan. Cf. ll. 344, 581, 1915.

ll. 1823-1840. "Beowulf departing pledges his services to Hroðgar, to be what afterwards in the mature language of chivalry was called his 'true knight'"—E.

l. 1832. Kl. corrects to dryhtne, in appos. with Higelâce.

l. 1835 gâr-holt more properly means spear-shaft; cf. äsc-holt.

l. 1855. sêl = better (Grundt.; B., Beit. xii. 96), instead of MS. wel.

ll. 1855-1866. "An ideal picture of international amity according to the experience and doctrine of the eighth century."—E.

l. 1858. S. and Kl. correct to gemæne, agreeing with sib.—Beit. ix. 140, 190.

l. 1862. "The gannet is a great diver, plunging down into the sea from a considerable height, such as forty feet."—E.

l. 1863. Kl. suggests heafu, = seas.

l. 1865. B. proposes geþôhte, = with firm thought, for geworhte; cf. l. 611.

l. 1876. geseón = see again (Kl., Beit. ix. 190). S. and B. insert to modify geseón and explain Hrôðgâr's tears. Ha. and G. follow Heyne's text. Cf. l. 567.

l. 1881. Is beorn here = bearn (be-arn?) of l. 67? or more likely = born, barn, = burned?—S., Th.

l. 1887. orleahtre is a ἃπαξ λεγόμενον. E. compares Tennyson's "blameless" king. Cf. also ll. 2015, 2145; and the gôd cyning of l. 11.

l. 1896. scaðan = warriors (cf. l. 1804) has been proposed by C.; but cf. l. 253.

l. 1897. The boat had been left, at ll. 294-302, in the keeping of Hrôðgâr's men; at l. 1901 the bât-weard is specially honored by Beowulf with a sword and becomes a "sworded squire."—E. This circumstance appears to weld the poem together. Cf. also the speed of the journey home with ymb ân-tîd ôþres dôgores of l. 219, and the similarity of language in both passages (fâmig-heals, clifu, nässas, sælde, brim, etc.).—The nautical terms in Beowulf would form an interesting study.

l. 1904. R. proposes, gewât him on naca, = the vessel set out, on alliterating as at l. 2524 (Zachers Zeitschr. iii. 402). B. reads on nacan, but inserts irrelevant matter (Beit. xii. 97).

l. 1913. Cf. the same use of ceól, = ship, in the A.-S. Chron., ed. Earle-Plummer; Gnomic Verses, etc.

l. 1914. S. inserts þät hê before on lande.

l. 1916. B. makes leófra manna depend on wlâtode, = looked for the dear men ready at the coast (Beit. xii. 97).

l. 1924. Gr., W., and Ho. propose wunade, = remained; but cf. l. 1929. S. conceives ll. 1924, 1925 as "direct speech" (Beit. ix. 141).

l. 1927 seq. "The women of Beowulf are of the fine northern type; trusted and loved by their husbands and by the nobles and people; generous, gentle, and holding their place with dignity."—Br., p. 67. Thrytho is the exception, l. 1932 seq.

l. 1933. C. suggests frêcnu, = dangerous, bold, for Thrytho could not be called "excellent." G. writes "Modthrytho" as her name. The womanly Hygd seems purposely here contrasted with the terrible Thrytho, just as, at l. 902 seq., Sigemund and Heremôd are contrasted. For Thrytho, etc., cf. Gr., Jahrb. für rom. u. eng. Lit. iv. 279; Müllenhoff, Haupts Zeitschr. xiv. 216; Matthew Paris; Suchier, Beit. iv. 500-521; R. Zachers Zeitschr. iii. 402; B., ibid. iv. 206; Körner, Eng. Stud. i. 489-492; H.-So., p. 106.

l. 1932-1963. K. first pointed out the connection between the historical Offa, King of Mercia, and his wife Cwendrida, and the Offa and Þryðo (Gr.'s Drida of the Vita Offæ Secundi) of the present passage. The tale is told of her, not of Hygd.

l. 1936. Suchier proposes andæges, = eye to eye; Leo proposes ândæges, = the whole day; G., by day. No change is necessary if an be taken to govqern hire, = on her, and däges be explained (like nihtes, etc.) as a genitive of time, = by day.

l. 1943. R. and Suchier propose onsêce, = seek, require; but cf. 2955.

l. 1966. Cf. the heofoncandel of Exod. l. 115 (Hunt). Shak.'s 'night's candles.'

l. 1969. Cf. l. 2487 seq. for the actual slayer of Ongenþeów, i.e. Eofor, to whom Hygelâc gave his only daughter as a reward, l. 2998.

l. 1981. meodu-scencum = with mead-pourers or mead-cups (G., Ha.); draught or cup of mead (Toller-Bosw.).

l. 1982. K., Th., W., H. supply [heal-]reced; Holler [heá-].

l. 1984. B. defends the MS., reading hæ nû (for hæðnû), which he regards as = Heinir, the inhabitants of the Jutish "heaths" (hæð). Cf. H.-So., p. 107; Beit. xii. 9.

l. 1985. sînne. "In poetry there is a reflexive possessive of the third person, sîn (declined like mîn). It is used not only as a true reflexive, but also as a non-reflexive (= Lat. ejus)"—Sw.; Cook's Sievers' Gram., p. 185. Cf. ll. 1508, 1961, 2284, 2790.

l. 1994. Cf. l. 190 for a similar use of seáð; cf. to "glow" with emotion, "boil" with indignation, "burn" with anger, etc. weallan is often so used; cf. ll. 2332, 2066, etc.

l. 2010. B. proposes fâcne, = in treachery, for fenne. Cf. Juliana, l. 350; Beit. xii. 97.

l. 2022. Food of specific sorts is rarely, if at all, mentioned in the poem. Drink, on the other hand, occurs in its primitive varieties,—ale (as here: ealu-wæg), mead, beer, wine, lîð (cider? Goth. leiþus, Prov. Ger. leit- in leit-haus, ale-house), etc.

l. 2025. Kl. proposes is for wäs.

l. 2027. Cf. l. 1599 for a similar use of weorðan, = agree, be pleased with (Ha.); appear (Sw., Reader, 6th ed.).

ll. 2030, 2031. Ten Br. proposes: oft seldan ( = gave) wære äfter leód-hryre: lytle hwîle bongâr bûgeð, þeáh seó brýd duge = oft has a treaty been given after the fall of a prince: but little while the murder-spear resteth, however excellent the bride be. Cf. Kl., Beit. ix. 190; B., Beit. xii. 369; R., Zachers Zeitschr. in. 404; Ha., p. 69; G., p. 62.

l. 2036. Cf. Kl, Beit. ix. 191; R., Zachers Zeitschr. iii. 404.

l. 2042. For beáh B. reads , = both, i.e. Freaware and the Dane.

l. 2063. Thorkelin and Conybeare propose wîgende, = fighting, for lifigende.

l. 2068. W.'s edition begins section xxx. (not marked in the MS.) with this line. Section xxxix. (xxxviii. in copies A and B, xxxix. in Thorkelin) is not so designated in the MS., though þâ (at l. 2822) is written with capitals and xl. begins at l. 2893.

l. 2095. Cf. l. 1542, and note.

l. 2115 seq. B. restores thus:

                  Þær on innan gióng
niðða nâthwylc,      neóde tô gefêng
hæðnum horde;      hond ätgenam
seleful since fâh;      nê hê þät syððan âgeaf,
þeáh þe hê slæpende      besyrede hyrde
þeófes cräfte:       þät se þióden onfand,
bý-folc beorna,       þät hê gebolgen wäs.
Beit. xii. 99; Zachers Zeitschr. iv. 210.

l. 2128. ätbär here = bear away, not given in the Gloss.

l. 2129. B. proposes færunga, = suddenly, for Gr.'s reading in the text.—Beit. xii. 98.

l. 2132. MS. has þine life, which Leo translates by thy leave (= ON. leyfi); B., by thy life.—Beit. xii. 369.

l. 2150. B. renders gen, etc., by "now I serve thee alone again as my gracious king" (Beit. xii. 99).

l. 2151. The forms hafu [hafo], hafast, hafað, are poetic archaisms.—Sw.

l. 2153. Kl. proposes ealdor, = prince, for eafor. W. proposes the compd. eafor-heáfodsegn, = helm; cf. l. 1245.

l. 2157. The wk. form of the adj. is frequent in the vocative, especially when postponed: "Beowulf leófa," l. 1759. So, often, in poetry in nom.: wudu selesta, etc.

l. 2158. ærest is possibly the verbal subs. from ârîsan, to arise, = arising, origin. R. suggested ærist, arising, origin. Cf. Bede, Eccles. Hist., ed. Miller, where the word is spelt as above, but = (as usual) resurrection. See Sweet, Reader, p. 211; E.-Plummer's Chronicle, p. 302, etc. The MS. has est. See Ha., p. 73; S., Beit. x. 222; and cf. l. 2166.

l. 2188. Gr., W., H. supply [wên]don, = weened, instead of Th.'s [oft säg]don.

l. 2188. The "slack" Beowulf, like the sluggish Brutus, ultimately reveals his true character, and is presented with a historic sword of honor. It is "laid on his breast" (l. 2195) as Hun laid Lâfing on Hengest's breast, l. 1145.

l. 2188. "The boy was at first slothful, and the Geats thought him an unwarlike prince, and long despised him. Then, like many a lazy third son in the folk tales, a change came, he suddenly showed wonderful daring and was passionate for adventure."—Br., p. 22.

l. 2196. "Seven of thousands, manor and lordship" (Ha.). Kl., Beit. ix. 191, thinks with Ettm. that þûsendo means a hide of land (see Schmid, Ges. der Angl, 610), Bede's familia = 1/2 sq. meter; seofan being used (like hund, l. 2995) only for the alliteration.

l. 2196. "A vast Honour of 7000 hides, a mansion, and a judgment-seat" [throne].—E.

l. 2210. MS. has the more correct wintra.

l. 2211. Cf. similar language about the dragon at l. 100. Beowulf's "jubilee" is fitly solemnized by his third and last dragon-fight.

l. 2213. B. proposes sê þe on hearge hæðen hord beweotode; cf. Ha., p. 75.

l. 2215. "The dragon lies round the treasures in a cave, as Fafnir, like a Python, lay coiled over his hoard. So constant was this habit among the dragons that gold is called Worms' bed, Fafnir's couch, Worms' bed-fire. Even in India, the cobras ... are guardians of treasure."—Br., p. 50.

l. 2216. neóde. E. translates deftly; Ha., with ardor. H.-So. reads neóde, = with desire, greedily, instr. of neód.

l. 2223. E. begins his "Part Third" at this point as he begins "Part Second" at l. 1252, each dragon-fight forming part of a trilogy.

ll. 2224, 2225. B. proposes: nealles mid gewealdum wyrmes weard gäst sylfes willum.Zachers Zeitschr. iv. 211; Beit. xii. 100.

l. 2225. For þeów read þegn.—K. and Z.

l. 2225. þeów, st. m., slave, serf (not in H.-So.).

l. 2227. For ofer-þearfe read ærnes þearfa.—Z.

ll. 2229-2231. B. proposes:

secg synbysig      sôna onwlâtode,
þeáh þâm gyste      gryrebrôga stôd,
hwäðre earmsceapen      innganges þearfa
. . . . . . . . . .
feásceapen,      þâ hyne se fær begeat.
Beit. xii. 101. Cf. Ha., p. 69.

l. 2232. W. suggests seah or seîr for geseah, and Gr. suggests searolîc.

l. 2233. Z. surmises eorð-hûse (for -scräfe).

l. 2241. B. proposes læn-gestreóna, = transitory, etc.; Th., R. propose leng (= longer) gestreóna; S. accepts the text but translates "the long accumulating treasure."

l. 2246. B. proposed (1) hard-fyndne, = hard to find; (2) hord-wynne dæl,—a deal of treasure-joy (cf. l. 2271).—Zachers Zeitschr. iv. 211; Beit. xii. 102.

l. 2247. fecword = banning words (?) MS. has fec.

l. 2254. Others read feor-[mie], = furbish, for fetige: I own not one who may, etc.

l. 2261. The Danes themselves were sometimes called the "Ring-Danes," = clad in ringed (or a ring of) armor, or possessing rings. Cf. ll. 116, 1280.

l. 2264. Note the early reference to hawking. Minstrelsy (hearpan wyn), saga-telling, racing, swimming, harpooning of sea-animals, feasting, and the bestowal of jewels, swords, and rings, are the other amusements most frequent in Beówulf.

l. 2264. Cf. Maldon, ll. 8, 9, for a reference to hawking.

l. 2276. Z. suggests swýðe ondrædað; Ho. puts gesêcean for Gr.'s gewunian.

l. 2277. Z. and K. read: hord on hrûsan. "Three hundred winters," at l. 2279, is probably conventional for "a long time," like hund missera, l. 1499; hund þûsenda, l. 2995; þritig (of Beowulf's strength), l. 379; þritig (of the men slain by Grendel), l. 123; seofan þûsendo, l. 2196, etc.

l. 2285. B. objects to hord as repeated in ll. 2284, 2285; but cf. Ha., p. 77. C. prefers sum to hord. onboren = inminutus; cf. B., Beit. xii. 102.

l. 2285. onberan is found also at line 991, = carry off, with on- = E. un—(un-bind, -loose, -tie, etc.), G. ent-. The negro still pronounces on-do, etc.

l. 2299. Cf. H.-So., p. 112, for a defense of the text as it stands. B. proposes "nor was there any man in that desert who rejoiced in conflict," etc. So ten Br.

l. 2326. B. and ten Br,. propose hâm, = home, for him.—Beit. xii. 103.

l. 2335. E. translates eálond utan by the sea-board front, the water-washed land on the (its) outside. See B., Beit. xii. 1, 5.

l. 2346. Cf. l. 425, where Beowulf resolves to fight the dragon single-handed. E. compares Guy of Warwick, ll. 49, 376.

l. 2355. Ten Br. proposes laðan cynne as apposition to mægum.

l. 2360. Cf. Beowulf's other swimming-feat with Breca, ll. 506 seq.

l. 2362. Gr. inserts âna, = lone-going, before xxx.: approved by B.; and Krüger, Beit. ix. 575. Cf. l. 379.

l. 2362. "Beowulf has the strength of thirty men in the original tale. Here, then, the new inventor makes him carry off thirty coats of mail."—Br., p. 48.

l. 2364. Hetware = Chattuarii, a nation allied against Hygelâc in his Frisian expedition; cf. ll. 1208 seq., 2917, etc.

l. 2368. B. proposes quiet sea as trans, of sióleða bigong, and compares Goth. anasilan, to be still; Swed. dial, sil, still water between waterfalls.—Zachers Zeitschr. iv. 214.

l. 2380. hyne—Heardrêd; so him, l. 2358.

l. 2384. E. calls attention to Swió-rîce as identical with the modern Sverige = Sweden; cf. l. 2496.

l. 2386. Gr. reads on feorme, = at the banquet; cf. Möller, Alteng. Volksepos, 111, who reads (f)or feorme. The MS. has or.

l. 2391. Cf. l. 11.

l. 2394. B., Gr., and Mûllenh. understand ll. 2393-2397 to mean that Eádgils, Ôhthere's son, driven from Sweden, returns later, supported by Beowulf, takes the life of his uncle Onela, and probably becomes himself O.'s successor and king of Sweden. For another view see H.-So., p. 115. MS. has freond (l. 2394), which Leo, etc., change to feónd. G. translates friend.—Beit. xii. 13; Anzeiger f. d. Altert. iii. 177.

l. 2395. Eádgils is Ôhthere's son; cf. l. 2381; Onela is Ôhthere's brother; cf. ll. 2933, 2617.

l. 2402. "Twelfsome"; cf. "fifteensome" at l. 207, etc. As Beówulf is essentially the Epic of Philanthropy, of the true love of man, as distinguished from the ordinary love-epic, the number twelve in this passage may be reminiscent of another Friend of Man and another Twelve. In each case all but one desert the hero.

l. 2437. R. proposes stýred, = ordered, decreed, for strêd.—Zachers Zeitschr. iii. 409.

l. 2439. B. corrects to freó-wine = noble friend, asking, "How can Herebeald be called Hæðcyn's freá-wine [MS.], lord?"

l. 2442. feohleás gefeoht, "a homicide which cannot be atoned for by money—in this case an unintentional fratricide."—Sw.

l. 2445. See Ha., pp. 82, 83, for a discussion of ll. 2445-2463. Cf. G., p. 75.

l. 2447. MS. reads wrece, justified by B. (Tidskr. viii. 56). W. conceives wrece as optative or hortative, and places a colon before þonne.

l. 2449. For helpan read helpe.—K., Th., S. (Zeitschr. f. D. Phil. xxi. 3, 357).

ll. 2454-2455. (1) Müllenh. (Haupts Zeitschr. xiv. 232) proposes:

                þonne se ân hafað
þurh dæda nýd     deáðes gefandod.

(2) B. proposes:

þurh dæda nîð      deáðes gefondad.
Zachers Zeitschr. iv. 215.

l. 2458. Cf. sceótend, pl., ll. 704, 1155, like rîdend. Cf. Judith, l. 305, etc.

l. 2474. Th. considers the "wide water" here as the Mälar lake, the boundary between Swedes and Goths.

l. 2477. On oþþe = and, cf. B., Tidskr. viii. 57. See Ha., p. 83.

l. 2489. B. proposes hreá-blâc for Gr.'s heoro-.—Tikskr. viii. 297.

l. 2494. S. suggests êðel-wynne.

l. 2502. E. translates for dugeðum, of my prowess; so Ettmüller.

ll. 2520-2522. Gr. and S. translate, "if I knew how else I might combat the monster's boastfulness."—Ha., p. 85.

l. 2524. and-hâttres is H.'s invention. Gr. reads oreðes and âttres, blast and venom. Cf. oruð, l. 2558, and l. 2840 (where âttor- also occurs).

l. 2526. E. quotes fleón fôtes trym from Maldon, l. 247.

l. 2546. Gr., H.-So., and Ho. read standan stân-bogan (for stôd on stân-bogan) depending on geseah.

l. 2550. Grundt. and B. propose deór, brave one, i.e. Beowulf, for deóp.

L. 2565. MS. has ungleaw (K., Th.), unglaw (Grundt.). B. proposes unslâw, = sharp.—Beit. xii. 104. So H.-So., Ha., p. 86.

ll. 2570, 2571. (1) May not gescîfe (MS. to gscipe) = German schief, "crooked," "bent," "aslant," and hence be a parallel to gebogen, bent, coiled? cf. l. 2568, þâ se wyrm gebeáh snûde tôsomne, and l. 2828. Coiled serpents spring more powerfully for the coiling. (2) Or perhaps destroy comma after and read gescäpe, = his fate; cf. l. 26: him þâ Scyld gewât tô gescäp-hwîle. G. appar. adopts this reading, p. 78.

l. 2589. grund-wong = the field, not the earth (so B.); H.-So., cave, as at l. 2771. So Ha., p. 87.

l. 2595. S. proposes colon after stefne.—Beit. ix. 141.

l. 2604. Müllenh. explains leód Scylfinga in Anzeiger f. d. Altert. iii. 176-178.

l. 2607. âre = possessions, holding (Kl., Beit. ix. 192; Ha., p. 88).

l. 2609. folcrihta. Add "folk-right" to the meanings in the Gloss.; and cf. êðel-, land-riht, word-riht.

l. 2614. H.-So. reads with Gr. wræccan wineleásum Weohstân bana, = whom, a friendless exile, W. had slain.

ll. 2635-61. E. quotes Tacitus, Germania, xiv.: "turpe comitatui virtutem principis non adaequare." Beowulf had been deserted by his comitatus.

l. 2643. B. proposes ûser.—Zachers Zeitschr. iv. 216.

l. 2649. wutun; l. 3102, uton = pres. subj. pl. 1st person of wîtan, to go, used like Mod. Eng. let us + inf., Lat. eamus, Ital. andiamo, Fr. allons; M. E. (Layamon) uten. Cf. Psa. ii. 3, etc. March, A.-S. Gram., pp. 104, 196.

l. 2650. B. suggests hât for hyt,.—Beit. xii. 105.

l. 2656. fâne = fâh-ne; cf. fâra = fâh-ra, l. 578; so heánne (MS.) = heáh-ne, etc., l. 984. See Cook's Sievers' Gram.

ll. 2660, 2661. Why not read beadu-scrûd, as at l. 453, = battle-shirt? B. and R. suppose two half-verses omitted between byrdu-scrûd and bâm gemæne. B. reads býwdu, = handsome, etc. Gr. suggests unc nû, = to us two now, for ûrum; and K. and Grundt. read beón gemæne for bâm, etc. This makes sense. Cf. Ha., p. 89.

l. 2666. Cf. the dat. absolute without preposition.

l. 2681. Nägling; cf. Hrunting, Lâfing, and other famous wundor-smiða geweorc of the poem.

l. 2687. B. changes þonne into þone (rel. pro.) = which.—Beit. xii. 105.

l. 2688. B. supports the MS. reading, wundum.

l. 2688. Cf. l. 2278 for similar language.

l. 2698. B. (Beit. xii. 105) renders: "he did not heed the head of the dragon (which Beowulf with his sword had struck without effect), but he struck the dragon somewhat further down." Cf. Saxo, vi. p. 272.

l. 2698. Cf. the language used at ll. 446 and 1373, where hafelan also occurs; and hýdan.

l. 2700. hwêne; cf. Lowl. Sc. wheen, a number; Chaucer's woon, number.

l. 2702. S. proposes þâ (for þät) þät fýr, etc., = when the fire began, etc.

l. 2704. "The (hup)-seax has often been found in Saxon graves on the hip of the skeleton."—E.

l. 2707. Kl. proposes: feorh ealne wräc, = drove out all the life; cf. Gen. l. 1385.—Beit. ix. 192. S. suggests gefylde,—he felled the foe, etc.—Ibid. Parentheses seem unnecessary.

l. 2727. däg-hwîl = time allotted, lifetime.

l. 2745, 2745. Ho. removes geong from the beginning of l. 2745 and places it at the end of l. 2744.

l. 2750. R. proposes sigle searogimmas, as at l. 1158.

l. 2767. (1) B. proposes doubtfully oferhîgean or oferhîgan, = Goth, ufarhauhjan, p. p. ufarhauhids (Gr. τυφωθείς) = exceed in value.—Tidskr. viii. 60. (2) Kl. proposes oferhýdian, = to make arrogant, infatuate; cf. oferhýd.—Beit. ix. 192.

l. 2770. gelocen leoðocräftum = (1) spell-bound (Th., Arnold, E.); (2) wrought with hand-craft (G.); (3) meshed, linked together (H., Ho.); cf. Elene, ll. 1251, 522.

l. 2778. B. considers bill ... ealdhlâfordes as Beowulf's short sword, with which he killed the dragon, l. 2704 (Tidskr. viii. 299). R. proposes ealdhlâforde. Müllenh. understands ealdhlâford to mean the former possessor of the hoard. W. agrees to this, but conceives ærgescôd as a compd. = ære calceatus, sheathed in brass. Ha. translates ærgescôd as vb. and adv.

l. 2791. Cf. l. 224, eoletes ät ende; landes ät ende, Exod. (Hunt).

l. 2792. MS. reads wäteres weorpan, which R. would change to wätere sweorfan.

l. 2806. "Men saw from its height the whales tumbling in the waves, and called it Whale's Ness (Hrones-næs)."—Br. p. 28. Cf. l. 3137.

l. 2815. Wîglâf was the next of kin, the last of the race, and hence the recipient of Beowulf's kingly insignia. There is a possible play on the word lâf (Wîg-lâf, ende-lâf).

l. 2818. gingeste word; cf. novissima verba, and Ger. jüngst, lately.

l. 2837. E. translates on lande, in the world, comparing on lîfe, on worulde.

l. 2840. geræsde = pret. of geræsan (omitted from the Gloss.), same as ræsan; cf. l. 2691.

l. 2859. B. proposes deáð ârædan, = determine death.—Beit. xii. 106.

l. 2861. Change geongum to geongan as a scribal error (?), but cf. Lichtenheld, Haupts Zeitschr. xvi. 353-355.

l. 2871. S. and W. propose ôwêr.—Beit. ix. 142.

l. 2873. S. punctuates: wrâðe forwurpe, þâ, etc.

l. 2874. H.-So. begins a new sentence with nealles, ending the preceding one with beget.

l. 2879. ätgifan = to render, to afford; omitted in Gloss.

ll. 2885-2892. "This passage ... equals the passage in Tacitus which describes the tie of chief to companion and companion to chief among the Germans, and which recounts the shame that fell on those who survived their lord."—Br., p. 56.

l. 2886. cyn thus has the meaning of gens or clan, just as in many Oriental towns all are of one blood. E. compares Tacitus, Germania, 7; and cf. "kith and kin."

l. 2892. Death is preferable to dishonor. Cf. Kemble, Saxons, i. 235.

l. 2901. The ἄγγελος begins his ἀγγελία here.

l. 2910. S. proposes higemêðe, sad of soul; cf. ll. 2853 and 2864 (Beit. ix. 142). B. considers higemêðum a dat. or instr. pl. of an abstract in -u (Beit. xii. 106). H. makes it a dat. pl. = for the dead. For heafod-wearde, etc., cf. note on l. 446.

l. 2920-2921. B. explains "he could not this time, as usual, give jewels to his followers."—Beit. xii. 106.

l. 2922. The Merovingian or Frankish race.

l. 2940 seq. B. conjectures:

cwäð hîe on mergenne      mêces ecgum
gêtan wolde,      sumon galgtreowu
âheáwan on holte      ond hîe âhôan on þâ
fuglum tô gamene.
Beit. xii. 107, 372.

Cf. S., Beit. ix. 143. gêtan = cause blood to be shed.

l. 2950. B. proposes gomela for gôda; "a surprising epithet for a Geat to apply to the 'terrible' Ongentheow."—Ha. p. 99. But "good" does not necessarily mean "morally excellent," as a "good" hater, a "good" fighter.

l. 2959. See H.-So. for an explanatory quotation from Paulus Diaconus, etc. B., K., and Th. read segn Higelâces, = H.'s banner uplifted began to pursue the Swede-men.—Beit. xii. 108. S. suggests sæce, = pursuit.

l. 2977. gewyrpton: this vb. is also used reflexively in Exod. (Hunt), l. 130: wyrpton hie wêrige.

l. 2989. bär is Grundt.'s reading, after the MS. "The surviving victor is the heir of the slaughtered foe."—H.-So. Cf. Hildebrands Lied, ll. 61, 62.

l. 2995. "A hundred of thousands in land and rings" (Ha., p. 100). Cf. ll. 2196, 3051. Cf. B., Beit. xii. 20, who quotes Saxo's bis senas gentes and remarks: "Hrolf Kraki, who rewards his follower, for the slaying of the foreign king, with jewels, rich lands, and his only daughter's hand, answers to the Jutish king Hygelâc, who rewards his liegeman, for the slaying of Ongentheów, with jewels, enormous estates, and his only daughter's hand."

l. 3006. H.-So. suggests Scilfingas for Scyldingas, because, at l. 2397, Beowulf kills the Scylfing Eádgils and probably acquires his lands. Thus ll. 3002, 3005, 3006, would indicate that, after Beowulf's death, the Swedes desired to shake off his hated yoke. Müllenh., however, regards l. 3006 as a thoughtless repetition of l. 2053.—Haupts Zeitschr. xiv. 239.

l. 3008. Cf. the same proverb at l. 256; and Exod. (Hunt.) l. 293.

l. 3022. E. quotes:

"Thai token an harp gle and game
And maked a lai and yaf it name."
Weber, l. 358.

and from Percy, "The word glee, which peculiarly denoted their art (the minstrels'), continues still in our own language ... it is to this day used in a musical sense, and applied to a peculiar piece of composition."

l. 3025. "This is a finer use than usual of the common poetic attendants of a battle, the wolf, the eagle, and the raven. The three are here like three Valkyrie, talking of all that they have done."—Br., p. 57.

l. 3033. Cf. Hunt's Dan. l. 731, for similar language.

l. 3039. B. supplies a supposed gap here:

[banan eác fundon      bennum seócne
(nê) ær hî þæm      gesêgan syllîcran wiht]
wyrm on wonge...
Beit. xii. 372.

Cf. Ha., p. 102. W. and Ho. insert [þær] before gesêgan.

l. 3042. Cf. l. 2561, where gryre-giest occurs as an epithet of the dragon. B. proposes gry[re-fâh].

l. 3044. lyft-wynne, in the pride of the air, E.; to rejoice in the air, Ha.

l. 3057. (1) He (God) is men's hope; (2) he is the heroes' hope; (3) gehyld = the secret place of enchanters; cf. hêlsmanna gehyld, Gr.'s reading, after A.-S. hælsere, haruspex, augur.

l. 3060. B. suggests gehýðde, = plundered (i.e. by the thief), for gehýdde.

ll. 3063-3066. (1) B. suggests wundur [deáðe] hwâr þonne eorl ellenrof ende gefêre = let a brave man then somewhere meet his end by wondrous venture, etc.—Zachers Zeitschr. iv. 241; cf. l. 3038. (2) S. supposes an indirect question introduced by hwâr and dependent upon wundur, = a mystery is it when it happens that the hero is to die, if he is no longer to linger among his people.—Beit. ix. 143. (3) Müllenh. suggests: is it to be wondered at that a man should die when he can no longer live?Zachers Zeitschr. xiv. 241. (4) Possibly thus:

                    Wundrað hwät þonne,
eorl ellen-rôf,      ende gefêre
lîf-gesceafta,      þonne leng ne mäg (etc.),

in which hwät would = þurh hwät at l. 3069, and eorl would be subject of the conjectural vb. wundrað: "the valiant earl wondereth then through what he shall attain his life's end, when he no longer may live. ... So Beówulf knew not (wondered how) through what his end should come," etc. W. and Ho. join þonne to the next line. Or, for hwâr read wære: Wundur wære þonne (= gif), etc., = "would it be any wonder if a brave man," etc., which is virtually Müllenhoff's.

l. 3053. galdre bewunden, spell-bound, throws light on l. 2770, gelocen leoðo-cräftum. The "accursed" gold of legend is often dragon-guarded and placed under a spell. Even human ashes (as Shakespeare's) are thus banned. ll. 3047-3058 recall the so-called "Treasury of Atreus."

l. 3073. herh, hearh, temple, is conjectured by E. to survive in Harrow. Temple, barrow, etc., have thus been raised to proper names. Cf. Biówulfes biorh of l. 2808.

l. 3074. H.-So. has strude, = ravage, and compares l. 3127. MS. has strade. S. suggests stride, = tread.

l. 3074. H.-So. omits strâdan, = tread, stride over, from the Gloss., referring ll. 3174 and 3074 to strûdan, q. v.

l. 3075. S. proposes: näs hê goldhwätes gearwor häfde, etc., = Beowulf had not before seen the greedy possessor's favor.—Beit. ix. 143. B. reads, goldhwäte gearwor häfde, etc., making goldhwäte modify êst, = golden favor; but see Beit. xii. 373, for B.'s later view.

l. 3086-3087. B. translates, "that which (i.e. the treasure) drew the king thither was granted indeed, but it overwhelmed us."—Beit. xii. 109.

l. 3097. B. and S. propose äfter wine deádum, = in memory of the dead friend.—Beit. ix. 144.

l. 3106. The brâd gold here possibly includes the iú-monna gold of l. 3053 and the wunden gold of l. 3135. E. translates brâd by bullion.

l. 3114. B. supposes folc-âgende to be dat. sg. to gôdum, referring to Beowulf.

l. 3116. C. considers weaxan, = Lat. vescor, to devour, as a parallel to fretan, and discards parentheses.—Beit. viii. 573.

l. 3120. fûs = furnished with; a meaning which must be added to those in the Gloss.

ll. 3124-3125. S. proposes:

eóde eahta sum      under inwit-hrôf
hilderinca:      sum on handa bär, etc.
Beit. ix. 144.

l. 3136. H.-So. corrects (after B.) to äðelingc, the MS. having e.

l. 3145. "It was their [the Icelanders'] belief that the higher the smoke rose in the air the more glorious would the burnt man be in heaven."— Ynglinga Saga, 10 (quoted by E.). Cf. the funeral pyre of Herakles.

l. 3146-3147. B. conjectures:

               ... swôgende lêc
wôpe bewunden      windblonda lêg

(lêc from lâcan, see Gloss.).—Beit. xii. 110. Why not windblonda lâc?

l. 3147. Müllenhoff rejected wind-blond geläg because a great fire raises rather than "lays" the wind; hence B., as above, = "swoughing sported the flame wound with the howling of wind-currents."

l. 3151 seq. B. restores conjecturally:

swylce giômor-gyd      sio geó-meowle
[äfter Beówulfe]      bunden-heorde
[song] sorg-cearig,      sæde geneahhe,
þät hió hyre [hearm-]dagas      hearde on [dr]êde,
wälfylla worn,      [w]îgendes egesan,
hý[n]ðo ond häftnýd,      heóf on rîce wealg.
Beit. xii. 100.

Here geó-meowle = old woman or widow; bunden-heorde = with bound locks; heóf = lamentation; cf. l. 3143. on rîce wealg is less preferable than the MS. reading, heofon rêce swealg = heaven swallowed the smoke.—H.-So. B. thinks Beowulf's widow (geómeowle) was probably Hygd; cf. ll. 2370, 3017-3021.

l. 3162. H.-So. reads (with MS.) bronda be lâfe, for betost, and omits colon after bêcn. So B., Zachers Zeitschr. iv. 224.

l. 3171. E. quotes Gibbon's accounts of the burial of Attila when the "chosen squadrons of the Hun, wheeling round in measured evolutions, chanted a funeral song to the memory of a hero."

ll. 3173-3174. B. proposes:

woldon gên cwîðan      [ond] kyning
wordgyd wrecan      ond ymb wel sprecan.
Beit. xii. 112.

l. 3183. Z., K., Th. read manna for mannum.

l. 3184. "It is the English ideal of a hero as it was conceived by an Englishman some twelve hundred years ago."—Br., p. 18.

NOTES TO THE FIGHT AT FINNSBURG.

The original MS. of this fragment has vanished, but a copy had been made and printed by Hickes in his Thesaurus Linguarum Septentrionalium, i. 192. The original was written on a single sheet attached to a codex of homilies in the Lambeth Library. Möller, Alteng. Epos, p. 65, places the fragment in the Finn episode, between ll. 1146 and 1147. Bugge (Beit. xii. 20) makes it illustrate the conflict in which Hnäf fell, i.e. as described in Beówulf as antecedent to the events there given. Heinzel (Anzeiger f. d. Altert.), however, calls attention to the fact that Hengest in the fragment is called cyning, whereas in Beówulf, l. 1086, he is called þegn. See H.-So., p. 125.

"The Fight at Finnsburg and the lays from which our Beówulf was composed were, as it seems to me, sung among the English who dwelt in the north of Denmark and the south of Sweden, and whose tribal name was the Jutes or Goths."—Br., p. 101.

l. 1. R. supposes [hor]nas, and conjectures such an introductory conversation as follows: "Is it dawning in the east, or is a fiery dragon flying about, or are the turrets of some castle burning?" questions which the king negatives in the same order. Then comes the positive declaration, "rather they are warriors marching whose armor gleams in the moonlight." —Alt- und Angels. Lesebuch, 1861. Heinzel and B. conjecture, [beorhtor hor]nas byrnað næfre. So. G.—Beit. xii. 22; Anzeiger f. d. Altert. x. 229.

l. 5. B. conjectures fugelas to mean arrows, and supplies:

ac hêr forð berað      [fyrdsearu rincas,
flacre flânbogan],      fugelas singað.

He compares Saxo, p. 95, cristatis galeis hastisque sonantibus instant, as explanatory of l. 6.—Beit. xii. 22. But see Brooke, Early Eng. Literature, who supposes fugelas = raven and eagle, while græg-hama is = wulf (the "grey-coated one"), the ordinary accompaniers of battle.

l. 11. hicgeað, etc.: cf. Maldon, l. 5; Exod. l. 218.

l. 15. Cf. B. (Beit. xii. 25), etc., and Saxo, p. 101, for l. 13.

ll. 18-21. H.-So. remarks: "If, according to Möller and Bugge, Gârulf is one of the attackers, one of Finn's men, this does not harmonize with his character as Gûðlâf's son (l. 33), who (l. 16, and Beówulf, l. 1149) is a Dane, therefore one of Finn's antagonists." B. (Beit. xii. 25) conjectures:

þâ gyt Gûðdene      Gârulf styrode,
þät hê swâ freólîc feorh      forman sîðe
tô þære healle durum      hyrsta ne bære,
nû hîe nîða heard      ânyman wolde;

in which Gûðdene is the same as Sigeferð, l. 24; (l. 22) refers to Gârulf; and hîe (l. 21) to hyrsta.

l. 27. swäðer = either (bad or good, life or death).—H.-So.

l. 29. cêlod: meaning doubtful; cf. Maldon, l. 283. G. renders "curved board"; Sw. suggests "round"? "hollow"?

l. 30. B. suggests bâr-helm, = boar-helm. Cf. Saxo, p. 96.—Beit. xii. 26.

l. 34. B. conjectures: (1) hwearf flacra hræw hräfen, wandrode; (2) hwearf flacra hræw hräfen fram ôðrum = flew from one corpse to another.—Beit. xii. 27.

l. 43. B. supposes wund häleð to be a Dane, folces hyrde to be Hnäf, in opposition to Holtzmann (Germania, viii. 494), who supposes the wounded man to be a Frisian, and folces hyrde to be their king, Finn.—Beit. xii. 28.

l. 45. B. adopts Th.'s reading heresceorp unhrôr = equipments useless.—Beit. xii. 28.

l. 47. "Though wounded, they had retained their strength and activity in battle."—B., Beit. xii. 28.

ADDENDA.

ll. 105 and 218. MS. and Ho. read won-sæli and fâmi-heals.

ll. 143, 183, 186, etc. Read þæm for þäm.

l. 299. MS. reads gôd-fremmendra. So H.-So.

l. 338. Ho. marks wräc- and its group long.

l. 530. Hwät should here probably be printed as an interj., hwät! Cf. ll. 1, 943, 2249.

l. 2263. Koeppel suggests nis for näs.

The editors are much indebted to E. Koeppel (in Eng. Stud. xiii. 3) for numerous corrections in text and glossary.

l. 3070. H.-So. begins a new line with swâ.

GLOSSARY

A

ac, conj. denoting contrariety: hence 1) but (like N.H.G. sondern), 109, 135, 339, etc.—2) but (N.H.G. aber), nevertheless, 602, 697, etc.—3) in direct questions: nonne, numquid, 1991.

aglæca, ahlæca, äglæca, -cea, w. m. (cf. Goth, aglo, trouble, O.N. agi, terror, + lâc, gift, sport: = misery, vexation, = bringer of trouble; hence): 1) evil spirit, demon, a demon-like being; of Grendel, 159, 433, 593, etc.; of the drake, 2535, 2906, etc.—2) great hero, mighty warrior; of Sigemund, 894; of Beówulf: gen. sg. aglæcan(?), 1513; of Beówulf and the drake: nom. pl. þâ aglæcean, 2593.

aglæc-wîf, st. n., demon, devil, in the form of a woman; of Grendel's mother, 1260.

aldor. See ealdor.

al-wealda. See eal-w.

am-biht (from and-b., Goth, and-baht-s), st. m., servant, man-servant: nom. sg. ombeht, of the coast-guard, 287; ombiht, of Wulfgâr, 336.

ambiht-þegn (from ambiht n. officium and þegn, which see), servant, man-servant: dat. sg. ombiht-þegne, of Beówulf's servant, 674.

an, prep, with the dat., on, in, with respect to, 678; with, among, at, upon (position after the governed word), 1936; with the acc., 1248. Elsewhere on, which see.

ancor, st. m., anchor: dat. sg. ancre, 303, 1884.

ancor-bend, m. (?) f. (?), anchor-cable: dat. pl. oncer-bendum, 1919.

and, conj. (ond is usual form; for example, 601, 1149, 2041), and 33, 39, 40, etc. (See Appendix.)

anda, w. m., excitement, vexation, horror: dat. wrâðum on andan, 709, 2315.

and-git, st. n., insight, understanding: nom. sg., 1060. See gitan.

and-hâtor, st. m. n., heat coming against one: gen. sg. rêðes and-hâttres, 2524.

and-lang, -long, adj., very long. hence 1) at whole length, raised up high: acc. andlongne eorl, 2696 (cf. Bugge upon this point, Zachers Ztschr., 4, 217).—2) continual, entire; andlangne däg, 2116, the whole day; andlonge niht, 2939.

and-leán, st. n., reward, payment in full: acc. sg., 1542, 2095 (hand-, hond-lean, MS.).

and-risno, st. f. (see rîsan, surgere, decere), that which is to be observed, that which is proper, etiquette: dat. pl. for andrysnum, according to etiquette, 1797.

and-saca, w. m., adversary: godes andsaca (Grendel), 787, 1683.

and-slyht, st. m., blow in return: acc. sg., 2930, 2973 (MS. both times hond-slyht).

and-swaru, st. f., act of accosting: 1) to persons coming up, an address, 2861.—2) in reply to something said, an answer, 354, 1494, 1841.

and-weard, adj., present, existing: acc. sg. n. swîn ofer helme and-weard (the image of the boar, which stands on his helm), 1288.

and-wlita, w. m., countenance: acc. sg. -an, 690.

an-sund, adj., entirely unharmed: nom. sg. m., 1001.

an-sýn, f., the state of being seen: hence 1) the exterior, the form, 251: ansýn ýwde, showed his form, i.e. appeared, 2835.—2) aspect, appearance, 929; on-sýn, 2773.

an-walda, w. m., He who rules over all, God, 1273. See Note.

atol, adj. (also eatol, 2075, etc.), hostile, frightful, cruel: of Grendel, 159, 165, 593, 2075, etc.; of Grendel's mother's hands (dat. pl. atolan), 1503; of the undulation of the waves, 849; of battle, 597, 2479.—cf. O.N. atall, fortis, strenuus.

atelîc, adj., terrible, dreadful: atelîc egesa, 785.

Â

â, adv. (Goth, áiv, acc. from aiv-s aevum), ever, always, 455, 882, 931, 1479: â syððan, ever afterwards, ever, ever after, 283, 2921.—ever, 780.—Comp. nâ.

âd st. m. funeral pile: acc. sg. âd, 3139; dat. sg. âde, 1111, 1115.

âd-faru, st. f., way to the funeral pile, dat. sg. on âd-färe, 3011.

âdl, st. f. sickness, 1737, 1764, 1849.

âð, st. m., oath in general, 2740; oath of allegiance, 472 (?); oath of reconciliation of two warring peoples, 1098, 1108.

âð-sweord, st. n., the solemn taking of an oath, the swearing of an oath: nom. pl., 2065. See sweord.

âðum-swerian, m. pl., son-in-law and father-in-law: dat. pl., 84.

âgan, verb, pret. and pres., to have, to possess, w. acc.: III. prs. sg. âh, 1728; inf. âgan, 1089; prt. âhte, 487, 522, 533; with object, geweald, to be supplied, 31. Form contracted with the negative: prs. sg. I. nâh hwâ sweord wege (I have no one to wield the sword), 2253.

âgen, adj., own, peculiar, 2677.

âgend (prs. part. of âgan), possessor, owner, lord: gen. sg. âgendes, of God, 3076.—Compounds: blæd-, bold-, folc-, mägen-âgend.

âgend-freá, w. m., owner, lord: gen. sg. âgend-freán, 1884.

âhsian, ge-âhsian, w. v.: 1) to examine, to find out by inquiring: pret. part. ge-âhsod, 433.—2) to experience, to endure: pret. âhsode, 1207; pl. âhsodon, 423.

âht, st. n. (contracted from â-wiht, which see), something, anything: âht cwices, 2315.

ân, num. The meaning of this word betrays its apparent demonstrative character: 1) this, that, 2411, of the hall in the earth mentioned before; similarly, 100 (of Grendel; already mentioned), cf. also 2775.—2) one, a particular one among many, a single one, in numerical sense: ymb âne niht (the next night), 135; þurh ânes cräft, 700; þâra ânum, 1038; ân äfter ânum, one for the other (Hrêðel for Herebeald), 2462: similarly, ân äfter eallum, 2269; ânes hwät, some single thing, a part, 3011; se ân leóda duguðe, the one of the heroes of the people, 2238; ânes willan, for the sake of a single one, 3078, etc.—Hence, again, 3) alone, distinguished, 1459, 1886.—4) a, in the sense of an indefinite article: ân ... feónd, 100; gen. sg. ânre bêne (or to No.2[?]), 428; ân ... draca, 2211—5) gen. pl. ânra, in connection with a pronoun, single; ânra gehwylces, every single one, 733; ânra gehwylcum, 785. Similarly, the dat. pl. in this sense: nemne feáum ânum, except a few single ones, 1082.—6) solus, alone: in the strong form, 1378, 2965; in the weak form, 145, 425, 431, 889, etc.; with the gen., âna Geáta duguðe, alone of the warriors of the Geátas, 2658.—7) solitarius, alone, lonely, see æn.—Comp. nân.

ân-feald, adj., simple, plain, without reserve: acc. sg. ânfealdne geþôht, simple opinion, 256.

ân-genga, -gengea, w. m., he who goes alone, of Grendel, 165, 449.

ân-haga, w. m., he who stands alone, solitarius, 2369.

ân-hydig, adj. (like the O.N. ein-râd-r, of one resolve, i.e. of firm resolve), of one opinion, i.e. firm, brave, decided, 2668.

ânga, adj. (only in the weak form), single, only: acc. sg. ângan dôhtor, 375, 2998; ângan eaferan, 1548; dat. sg. ângan brêðer, 1263.

ân-päð, st. m., lonely way, path: acc. pl. ânpaðas, 1411.

ân-ræd, adj. (cf. under ân-hydig), of firm resolution, resolved, 1530, 1576.

ân-tîd, st. f., one time, i.e. the same time, ymb ân-tîd ôðres dôgores, about the same time the second day (they sailed twenty-four hours), 219.—ân stands as in ân-mod, O.H.G. ein-muoti, harmonious, of the same disposition.

ânunga, adv., throughout, entirely, wholly, 635.

âr, st. m., ambassador, messenger, 336, 2784.

âr, st. f., 1) honor, dignity: ârum healdan, to hold in honor, 296; similarly, 1100, 1183.—2) favor, grace, support: acc. sg. âre, 1273, 2607; dat. sg. âre, 2379; gen. pl. hwät ... ârna, 1188.—Comp. worold-âr; also written ær.

âr-fäst, adj., honorable, upright, 1169; of Hûnferð (with reference to 588. See fäst.

ârian, w. v., (to be gracious), to spare: III. sg. prs. w. dat. nænegum ârað; of Grendel, 599.

âr-stäf, st. m.,(elementum honoris), grace, favor: dat. pl. mid ârstafum, 317.—Help, support: dat. pl. for âr-stafum, to the assistance, 382, 458. See stäf.

âter-teár, m., poisonous drop: dat. pl. îren âter-teárum fâh (steel which is dipped in poison or in poisonous sap of plants), 1460.

âttor, st. n., poison, here of the poison of the dragon's bite: nom., 2716.

âttor-sceaða, w. m., poisonous enemy, of the poisonous dragon: gen. sg. -sceaðan, 2840.

âwâ, adv. (certainly not the dative, but a reduplicated form of â, which see), ever: âwâ tô aldre, fôr ever and ever, 956.

Ä

ädre, adv., hastily, directly, immediately, 77, 354, 3107. [ædre.]

äðele, adj., noble: nom. sg., of Beówulf, 198, 1313; of Beówulf's father, 263, where it can be understood as well in a moral as in a genealogical sense; the latter prevails decidedly in the gen. sg. äðelan cynnes, 2235.

äðeling, st. m., nobleman, man of noble descent, especially the appellation of a man of royal birth; so of the kings of the Danes, 3; of Scyld, 33; of Hrôðgâr, 130; of Sigemund, 889; of Beówulf, 1226, 1245, 1597, 1816, 2189, 2343, 2375, 2425, 2716, 3136; perhaps also of Däghrefn, 2507;—then, in a broader sense, also denoting other noble-born men: Äschere, 1295; Hrôðgâr's courtiers, 118, 983; Heremôd's courtiers, 907; Hengest's warriors, 1113; Beówulf's retinue, 1805, 1921, 3172; noble-born in general, 2889. —Comp. sib-äðeling.

äðelu, st. n., only in the pl., noble descent, nobility, in the sense of noble lineage: acc. pl. äðelu, 392; dat. pl. cyning äðelum gôd, the king, of noble birth, 1871; äðelum dióre, worthy on account of noble lineage, 1950; äðelum (hæleþum, MS.), 332.—Comp. fäder-äðelu.

äfnan, w. v. w. acc., to perform, to carry out, to accomplish: inf. ellen-weorc äfnan, to do a heroic deed, 1465; pret. unriht äfnde, perpetrated wrong, 1255.

ge-äfnan, 1) to carry out, to do, to accomplish: pret. pl. þät geäfndon swâ, so carried that out, 538; pret. part. âð wäs geäfned, the oath was sworn, 1108.—2) get ready, prepare: pret. part. geäfned, 3107. See efnan.

äfter (comparative of af, Ags. of, which see; hence it expresses the idea of forth, away, from, back), a) adv., thereupon, afterwards, 12, 341, 1390, 2155.—ic him äfter sceal, I shall go after them, 2817; in word äfter cwäð, 315, the sense seems to be, spoke back, having turned; b) prep. w. dat., 1) (temporal) after, 119, 128, 187, 825, 1939, etc.; äfter beorne, after the (death of) the hero, 2261, so 2262; äfter mâððum-welan, after (obtaining) the treasure, 2751.—2) (causal) as proceeding from something, denoting result and purpose, hence, in consequence of, conformably to: äfter rihte, in accordance with right, 1050, 2111; äfter faroðe, with the current, 580; so 1321, 1721, 1944, 2180, etc., äfter heaðo-swâte, in consequence of the blood of battle, 1607; äfter wälnîðe, in consequence of mortal enmity, 85; in accordance with, on account of, after, about: äfter äðelum (hæleþum, MS.)frägn, asked about the descent, 332; ne frin þu äfter sælum, ask not after my welfare, 1323; äfter sincgyfan greóteð, weeps for the giver of treasure, 1343; him äfter deórum men dyrne langað, longs in secret for the dear man, 1880; ân äfter ânum, one for the other, 2462, etc.—3) (local), along: äfter gumcynnum, throughout the races of men, among men, 945; sôhte bed äfter bûrum, sought a bed among the rooms of the castle (the castle was fortified, the hall was not), 140; äfter recede wlât, looked along the hall, 1573; stone äfter stâne, smelt along the rocks, 2289; äfter lyfte, along the air through the air, 2833; similarly, 996, 1068, 1317, etc.

äf-þunca, w. m., anger, chagrin, vexatious affair: nom., 502.

äglæcea. See aglæcea.

äled (Old Sax. eld, O.N. edl-r), st. m., fire, 3016. [æled.]

äled-leóma, w. m., (fire-light), torch: acc. sg. leóman, 3126. See leóma.

äl-fylce (from äl-, Goth. ali-s, ἄλλος, and fylce, O.N. fylki, collective form from folc), st. n., other folk, hostile army: dat. pl. wið älfylcum, 2372.

äl-mihtig (for eal-m.), adj., almighty: nom. sg. m., of the weak form, se äl-mihtiga, 92.

äl-wiht, st. m., being of another species, monster: gen. pl. äl-wihta eard, of the dwelling-place of Grendel's kindred, 1501.

äppel-fealu, adj., dappled sorrel, or apple-yellow: nom. pl. äppel-fealuwe mearas, apple-yellow steeds, 2166.

ärn, st. n., house, in the compounds heal-, hord-, medo-, þryð-, win-ärn.

äsc, st. m., ash (does not occur in Beówulf in this sense), lance, spear, because the shaft consists of ash wood: dat. pl. (quâ instr.) äscum and ecgum, with spears and swords, 1773.

äsc-holt, st. n., ash wood, ashen shaft: nom. pl. äsc-holt ufan græg, the ashen shafts gray above (spears with iron points), 330.

äsc-wîga, w. m., spear-fighter, warrior armed with the spear: nom. sg., 2043.

ät, prep. w. dat., with the fundamental meaning of nearness to something, hence 1) local, a) with, near, at, on, in (rest): ät hýðe, in harbor, 32; ät symle, at the meal, 81, ät âde, on the funeral-pile, 1111, 1115; ät þe ânum, with thee alone, 1378; ät wîge, in the fight, 1338; ät hilde, 1660, 2682; ät æte, in eating, 3027, etc. b) to, towards, at, on (motion to): deáðes wylm hrân ät heortan, seized upon the heart, 2271; gehêton ät härgtrafum, vowed at (or to) the temples of the gods, 175. c) with verbs of taking away, away from (as starting from near an object): geþeah þät ful ät Wealhþeón, took the cup from W., 630; fela ic gebâd grynna ät Grendle, from Grendel, 931; ät mînum fäder genam, took me from my father to himself, 2430.—2) temporal, at, in, at the time of: ät frumsceafte, in the beginning, 45; ät ende, at an end, 224; fand sînne dryhten ealdres ät ende, at the end of life, dying, 2791; similarly, 2823; ät feohgyftum, in giving gifts, 1090; ät sîðestan, finally, 3014.

ät-græpe, adj., laying hold of, prehendens, 1270.

ät-rihte, adv., almost, 1658.

Æ

ædre, êdre, st. f., aqueduct, canal (not in Beów.), vein (not in Beów.), stream, violent pouring forth: dat. pl. swât ædrum sprong, the blood sprang in streams, 2967; blôd êdrum dranc, drank the blood in streams(?), 743.

æðm, st. m., breath, gasp, snort: instr. sg. hreðer æðme weóll, the breast (of the drake) heaved with snorting, 2594.

æfen, st. m., evening, 1236.

æfen-gram, adj., hostile at evening, night-enemy: nom. sg. m. æfen-grom, of Grendel, 2075.

æfen-leóht, st. n., evening-light: nom. sg., 413.

æfen-räst, st. f., evening-rest: acc. sg. -räste, 647, 1253.

æfen-spræc, st. f., evening-talk: acc. sg. gemunde ...æfen-spræce, thought about what he had spoken in the evening, 760.

æfre, adv., ever, at any time, 70, 280, 504, 693, etc.: in negative sentences, æfre ne, never, 2601.—Comp. næfre.

æg-hwâ (O.H.G. êo-ga-hwër), pron., every, each: dat. sg. æghwæm, 1385. The gen. sg. in adverbial sense, in all, throughout, thoroughly: æghwäs untæle, thoroughly blameless, 1866; æghwäs unrîm, entirely innumerable quantity, i.e. an enormous multitude, 2625, 3136.

æg-hwäðer (O.H.G. êo-ga-hwëdar): 1) each (of two): nom. sg. häfde æghwäðer ende gefêred, each of the two (Beówulf and the drake) had reached the end, 2845; dat. sg. æghwäðrum wäs brôga fram ôðrum, to each of the two (Beówulf and the drake) was fear of the other, 2565; gen. sg. æghwäðres ... worda and worca, 287.—2) each (of several): dat. sg. heora æghwäðrum, 1637.

æg-hwær, adv., everywhere, 1060.

æg-hwilc (O.H.G. êo-gi-hwëlih), pron., unusquisque, every (one): 1) used as an adj.: acc. sg. m. dæl æghwylcne, 622.—2) as substantive, a) with the partitive genitive: nom. sg. æg-hwylc, 9, 2888; dat. sg. æghwylcum, 1051. b) without gen.: nom. sg. æghwylc, 985, 988; (wäs) æghwylc ôðrum trýwe, each one (of two) true to the other, 1166.

æg-weard, st. f., watch on the sea shore: acc. sg. æg-wearde, 241.

æht (abstract form from âgan, denoting the state of possessing), st. f.: 1) possession, power: acc. sg. on flôdes æht, 42; on wäteres æht, into the power of the water, 516; on æht gehwearf Denigea freán, passed over into the possession of a Danish master, 1680.—2) property, possessions, goods: acc. pl. æhte, 2249.—Comp. mâðm-, gold-æht.

æht (O.H.G. âhta), st. f., pursuit: nom. þâ wäs æht boden Sweona leódum, segn Higelâce, then was pursuit offered to the people of the Sweonas, (their) banner to Hygelâc (i.e. the banner of the Swedes, taken during their flight, fell into the hands of Hygelâc), 2958.

ge-æhtan, w. v., to prize, to speak in praise of: pret. part. geæhted, 1866. [geähtan.]

ge-æhtla, w. m., or ge-æhtle, w. f., a speaking of with praise, high esteem: gen. sg. hy ... wyrðe þinceað eorla geæhtlan, seem worthy of the high esteem of the noble-born, 369. [geähtla.]

æn (oblique form of ân), num., one: acc. sg. m. þone ænne þone..., the one whom..., 1054; oftor micle þonne on ænne sîð, much oftener than one time, 1580; forð onsendon ænne, sent him forth alone, 46.

æne, adv., once: oft nalles æne, 3020.

ænig, pron., one, any one, 474, 503, 510, 534, etc.: instr. sg. nolde ... 0nige þinga, would in no way, not at all, 792; lyt ænig mearn, little did any one sorrow (i.e. no one), 3130.—With the article: näs se folccyning ... ænig, no people's king, 2735.—Comp. nænig.

æn-lîc, adj., alone, excellent, distinguished: ænlîc ansýn, distinguished appearance, 251; þeáh þe hió ænlîcu sý, though she be beautiful, 1942.

ær (comparative form, from â): 1) adv., sooner, before, beforehand, 15, 656, 695, 758, etc., for a long time, 2596; eft swâ ær, again as formerly, 643; ær ne siððan, neither sooner nor later, 719; ær and sîð, sooner and later (all times), 2501; nô þý ær (not so much the sooner), yet not, 755, 1503, 2082, 2161, 2467.—2) conjunct., before, ere: a) with the ind.: ær hió tô setle geóng, 2020. b) w. subjunc.: ær ge fyr fêran, before you travel farther, 252; ær he on hwurfe 164, so 677, 2819; ær þon däg cwôme, ere the day break, 732; ær correlative to ær adv.: ær he feorh seleð, aldor an ôfre, ær he wille ..., he will sooner (rather) leave his life upon the shore, before (than) he will ..., 1372.—3) prepos. with dat., before ær deáðe, before death, 1389; ær däges hwîle, before daybreak, 2321; ær swylt-däge, before the day of death, 2799.

æror, comp. adv., sooner, before-hand, 810; formerly, 2655.

ærra, comp. adj., earlier; instr. pl., ærran mælum, in former times, 908, 2238, 3036.

ærest, superl.: 1) adv., first of all, foremost, 6, 617, 1698, etc.—2) as subst. n., relation to, the beginning: acc. þät ic his ærest þe eft gesägde (to tell thee in what relation it stood at first to the coat of mail that has been presented), 2158. See Note.

ær-däg, st. m. (before-day), morning-twilight, gray of morning: dat. sg. mid ærdäge, 126; samod ærdäge, 1312, 2943.

ærende, st. n., errand, trust: acc. sg., 270, 345.

ær-fäder, st. m., late father, deceased father: nom sg. swâ his ærfäder, 2623.

ær-gestreón, st. n., old treasure, possessions dating from old times: acc sg., 1758; gen. sg. swylcra fela ærgestreóna, much of such old treasure, 2233. See gestreón.

ær-geweorc, st. n., work dating from old times: nom. sg. enta ær-geweorc, the old work of the giants (of the golden sword-hilt from Grendel's water-hall), 1680. See geweorc.

ær-gôd, adj., good since old times, long invested with dignity or advantages: äðeling ærgôd, 130; (eorl) ærgôd, 1330; îren ærgôd (excellent sword), 990, 2587.

ær-wela, w. m., old possessions, riches dating from old times: acc. sg. ærwelan, 2748. See wela.

æs, st. n., carcass, carrion: dat. (instr.) sg. æse, of Äschere's corpse, 1333.

æt, st. m., food, meat: dat, sg., hû him ät æte speów, how he fared well at meat, 3027.

ættren (see âttor), adj., poisonous: wäs þät blôd tô þäs hât, ættren ellorgâst, se ær inne swealt, so hot was the blood, (and) poisonous the demon (Grendel's mother) who died therein, 1618

B

bana, bona, w. m., murderer, 158, 588, 1103, etc.: acc. sg. bonan Ongenþeówes, of Hygelâc, although in reality his men slew Ongenþeów (2965 ff.), 1969. Figuratively of inanimate objects: ne wäs ecg bona, 2507; wearð wracu Weohstânes bana, 2614.—Comp.: ecg-, feorh-, gâst-, hand-, mûð-bana.

bon-gâr, st. m. murdering spear, 2032.

ge-bannan, st. v. w. acc. of the thing and dat. of the person, to command, to bid: inf., 74.

bâd, st. f., pledge, only in comp.: nýd-bâd.

bân, st. n., bone: dat. sg. on bâne (on the bony skin of the drake), 2579; dat. pl. heals ealne ymbefêng biteran bânum (here of the teeth of the drake), 2693.

bân-côfa, w. m., "cubile ossium" (Grimm) of the body: dat. sg. -côfan, 1446.

bân-fâg, adj., variegated with bones, either with ornaments made of bone-work, or adorned with bone, perhaps deer-antlers; of Hrôðgâr's hall, 781. The last meaning seems the more probable.

bân-fät, st. n., bone-vessel, i.e. the body: acc. pl. bân-fatu, 1117.

bân-hring, st. m., the bone-structure, joint, bone-joint: acc. pl. hire wið halse ... bânhringas bräc (broke her neck-joint), 1568.

bân-hûs, st. n., bone-house, i.e. the body: acc. sg. bânhûs gebräc, 2509; similarly, 3148.

bân-loca, w. m., the enclosure of the bones, i.e. the body: acc. sg. bât bânlocan, bit the body, 743; nom. pl. burston bânlocan, the body burst (of Grendel, because his arm was torn out), 819.

bât, st. m., boat, craft, ship, 211.—Comp. sæ-bât.

bât-weard, st. m., boat-watcher, he who keeps watch over the craft. dat. sg. -wearde, 1901.

bäð, st. n., bath: acc. sg. ofer ganotes bäð, over the diver's bath (i.e. the sea), 1862.

bärnan, w. v., to cause to burn, to burn: inf. hêt ... bânfatu bärnan, bade that the bodies be burned, 1117; ongan ... beorht hofu bärnan, began to consume the splendid country-seats (the dragon), 2314.

for-bärnan, w. v., consume with fire: inf. hy hine ne môston ... brondefor-bärnan, they (the Danes) could not burn him (the dead Äschere) upon the funeral-pile, 2127.

bædan (Goth, baidjan, O.N. beðia), to incite, to encourage: pret. bædde byre geonge, encouraged the youths (at the banquet), 2019.

ge-bædan, w. v., to press hard: pret. part. bysigum gebæded, distressed by trouble, difficulty, danger (of battle), 2581; to drive, to send forth: stræla storm strengum gebæded, the storm of arrows sent with strength, 3118; overcome: draca ... bealwe gebæded, the dragon ... overcome by the ills of battle, 2827.

bæl (O.N. bâl), st. n., fire, flames: (wyrm) mid bæle fôr, passed (through the air) with fire, 2309; häfde landwara lîge befangan, bæle and bronde, with fire and burning, 2323.—Especially, the fire of the funeral-pile, the funeral-pile, 1110, 1117, 2127; ær he bæl cure, ere he sought the burning (i.e. died), 2819; hâtað ... hlæw gewyrcean ... äfter bæle, after I am burned, let a burial mound be thrown up (Beówulf's words), 2804.

bæl-fýr, st. n., bale-fire, fire of the funeral-pile: gen. pl. bælfýra mæst, 3144.

bæl-stede, st. m., place for the funeral-pile: dat. sg. in bæl=stede, 3098.

bæl-wudu, st. m., wood for the funeral-pile, 3113.

bær, st. f., bier, 3106.

ge-bæran, w. v., to conduct one's self, behave: inf. w. adv., ne gefrägen ic þâ mægðe ... sêl gebæran, I did not hear that a troop bore itself better, maintained a nobler deportment, 1013; he on eorðan geseah þone leófestan lîfes ät ende bleáte gebæran, saw the best-beloved upon the earth, at the end of his life, struggling miserably (i.e. in a helpless situation), 2825.

ge-bætan (denominative from bæte, the bit), w. v., to place the bit in the mouth of an animal, to bridle: pret. part. þâ wäs Hrôðgâre hors gebæted, 1400.

be, prep. w. dat. (with the fundamental meaning near, "but not of one direction, as ät, but more general"): 1) local, near by, near, at, on (rest): be ýdlâfe uppe lægon, lay above, upon the deposit of the waves (upon the strand, of the slain nixies), 566; häfde be honda, held by the hand (Beówulf held Grendel), 815; be sæm tweonum, in the circuit of both the seas, 859, 1686; be mäste, on the mast, 1906; by fýre, by the fire, 2220; be nässe, at the promontory, 2244; sät be þæm gebrôðrum twæm, sat by the two brothers, 1192; wäs se gryre lässa efne swâ micle swâ bið mägða cräft be wæpnedmen, the terror was just so much less, as is the strength of woman to the warrior (i.e. is valued by), 1285, etc.—2) also local, but of motion from the subject in the direction of the object, on, upon, by: gefêng be eaxle, seized by the shoulder, 1538; âlêdon leófne þeóden be mäste, laid the dear lord near the mast, 36; be healse genam, took him by the neck, fell upon his neck, 1873; wæpen hafenade be hiltum, grasped the weapon by the hilt, 1757, etc.—3) with this is connected the causal force, on account of, for, according to: ic þis gid be þe âwräc, I spake this solemn speech for thee, for thy sake, 1724; þû þe lær be þon, learn according to this, from this, 1723; be fäder lâre, according to her father's direction, 1951.—4) temporal, while, during: be þe lifigendum, while thou livest, during thy life, 2666. See .

bed, st. n., bed, couch: acc. sg. bed, 140, 677; gen. sg. beddes, 1792; dat. pl. beddum, 1241.—Comp: deað-, hlin-, läger-, morðor-, wäl-bed.

ge-bedde, w. f., bed-fellow: dat. sg. wolde sêcan ewên tô gebeddan, wished to seek the queen as bed-fellow, to go to bed with her, 666.—Comp. heals-gebedde.

begen, fem. , both: nom. m., 536, 770, 2708; acc. fem. on bâ healfa, on two sides (i.e. Grendel and his mother), 1306; dat. m. bâm, 2197; and in connection with the possessive instead of the personal pronoun, ûrum bâm, 2661; gen. n. bega, 1874, 2896; bega gehwäðres, each one of the two, 1044; bega folces, of both peoples, 1125.

ge-belgan, st. v. (properly, to cause to swell, to swell), to irritate: w. dat. (pret. subj.) þät he êcean dryhtne bitre gebulge, that he had bitterly angered the eternal Lord, 2332; pret. part. gebolgen, 1540; (gebolge, MS.), 2222; pl. gebolgne, 1432; more according to the original meaning in torne gebolgen, 2402.

â-belgan, to anger: pret. sg. w. acc. ôð þät hyne ân âbealh mon on môde, till a man angered him in his heart, 2281; pret. part. âbolgen, 724.

ben, st. f., wound: acc. sg. benne, 2725.—Comp.: feorh-, seax-ben.

benc, st. f., bench: nom. sg. benc, 492; dat. sg. bence, 327, 1014, 1189, 1244.—Comp.: ealu-, medu-benc.

benc-swêg, st. m., (bench-rejoicing), rejoicing which resounds from the benches, 1162.

benc-þel, st. n., bench-board, the wainscotted space where the benches stand: nom. pl. benc-þelu, 486; acc. pl. bencþelu beredon, cleared the bench-boards (i.e. by taking away the benches, so as to prepare couches), 1240.

bend, st. m. f., bond, fetter: acc. sg. forstes bend, frost's bond, 1610; dat. pl. bendum, 978.—Comp.: fýr-, hell-, hyge-, îren-, oncer-, searo-, wäl-bend.

ben-geat, st. n., (wound-gate), wound-opening: nom. pl. ben-geato, 1122.

bera (O.N. beri), w. m., bearer: in comp. hleor-bera.

beran, st. v. w. acc., to carry; III. sg. pres. byreð, 296, 448; þone mâððum byreð, carries the treasure (upon his person), 2056; pres. subj. bere, 437; pl. beren, 2654; inf. beran, 48, 231, 291, etc.; hêht þâ se hearda Hrunting beran, to bring Hrunting, 1808; up beran, 1921; in beran, 2153; pret. bär, 495, 712, 847, etc.; mandryhtne bär fäted wæge, brought the lord the costly vessel, 2282; pl. bæron, 213, 1636, etc.; bæran, 2851; pret. part. boren, 1193, 1648, 3136.—The following expressions are poetic paraphrases of the forms go, come: þät we rondas beren eft tô earde, 2654; gewîtað forð beran wæpen and gewædu, 291; ic gefrägn sunu Wihstânes hringnet beran, 2755; wîgheafolan bär, 2662; helmas bæron, 240 (conjecture); scyldas bæran, 2851: they lay stress upon the connection of the man with his weapons.

ät-beran, to carry to: inf. tô beadulâce (battle) ätberan, 1562; pret. þâ hine on morgentîd on Heaðoræmas holm up ätbär, the sea bore him up to the Heaðoræmas, 519; hió Beówulfe medoful ätbär brought Beówulf the mead-cup, 625; mägenbyrðenne ... hider ût ätbär cyninge mînum, bore the great burden hither to my king, 3093; pl. hî hyne ätbæron tô brimes faroðe, 28.

for-beran, to hold, to suppress: inf. þät he þone breóstwylm forberan ne mehte, that he could not suppress the emotions of his breast, 1878.

ge-beran, to bring forth, to bear: pret. part. þät lâ mäg secgan se þe sôð and riht fremeð on folce ... þät þes eorl wære geboren betera (that may every just man of the people say, that this nobleman is better born), 1704.

ôð-beran, to bring hither: pret. þâ mec sæ ôðbär on Finna land, 579.

on-beran (O.H.G. in bëran, intpëran, but in the sense of carere), auferre, to carry off, to take away: inf. îren ærgôd þät þäs ahlæcan blôdge beadufolme onberan wolde, excellent sword which would sweep off the bloody hand of the demon, 991; pret. part. (wäs) onboren beága hord, the treasure of the rings had been carried off, 2285.—Compounds with the pres. part.: helm-, sâwl-berend.

berian (denominative from bär, naked), w. v., to make bare, to clear: pret. pl. bencþelu beredon, cleared the bench-place (by removing the benches), 1240.

berstan, st. v., to break, to burst: pret. pl. burston bânlocan, 819; bengeato burston, 1122.—to crack, to make the noise of breaking: fingras burston, the fingers cracked (from Beówulf's gripe), 761.

for-berstan, break, to fly asunder: pret. Nägling forbärst, Nägling (Beówulf's sword) broke in two, 2681.

betera, adj. (comp.), better: nom. sg. m. betera, 469, 1704.

bet-lîc, adj., excellent, splendid: nom. sg. n., of Hrôðgâr's hall, 781; of Hygelâc's residence, 1926.

betst, betost (superl.), best, the best: nom. sg. m. betst beadurinca, 1110; neut. nu is ôfost betost, þät we ..., now is haste the best, that we..., 3008; voc. m. secg betsta, 948; neut. acc. beaduscrûda betst, 453; acc. sg. m. þegn betstan, 1872.

bêcn, st. n., (beacon), token, mark, sign: acc. sg. betimbredon beadu-rôfes bêcn (of Beówulf's grave-mound), 3162. See beacen.

bêg. See beág.

bên, st. f., entreaty: gen. sg. bêne, 428, 2285.

bêna, w. m., suppliant, supplex: nom. sg. swâ þu bêna eart (as thou entreatest), 352; swâ he bêna wäs (as he had asked), 3141; nom. pl. hy bênan synt, 364.

ge-betan: 1) to make good, to remove: pret. ac þu Hrôðgâre wîdcûðne weán wihte gebêttest, hast thou in any way relieved Hrôðgâr of the evil known afar, 1992; pret. part. acc. sg. swylce oncýððe ealle gebêtte, removed all trouble, 831. —2) to avenge: inf. wihte ne meahte on þam feorhbonan fæhðe gebêtan, could in no way avenge the death upon the slayer, 2466.

beadu, st. f., battle, strife, combat: dat. sg. (as instr.) beadwe, in combat, 1540; gen. pl. bâd beadwa ge-þinges, waited for the combats (with Grendel) that were in store for him, 710.

beadu-folm, st. f., battle-hand: acc. sg. -folme, of Grendel's hand, 991.

beado-grîma, w. m., (battle-mask), helmet: acc. pl. -grîman, 2258.

beado-hrägl, st. n., (battle-garment), corselet, shirt of mail, 552.

beadu-lâc, st. n., (exercise in arms, tilting), combat, battle: dat. sg. tô beadu-lâce, 1562.

beado-leóma, w. m., (battle-light), sword: nom. sg., 1524.

beado-mêce, st. m., battle-sword: nom. pl. beado-mêcas, 1455.

beado-rinc, st. m., battle-hero, warrior: gen. pl. betst beadorinca, 1110.

beadu-rôf, adj., strong in battle: gen. sg. -rôfes, of Beówulf, 3162.

beadu-rûn, st. f., mystery of battle: acc. sg. onband beadu-rûne, solved the mystery of the combat, i.e. gave battle, commenced the fight, 501.

beadu-scearp, adj., battle-sharp, sharp for the battle, 2705.

beadu-scrûd, st. n., (battle-dress), corselet, shirt of mail: gen. pl. beaduscrûda betst, 453.

beadu-serce, w. f., (battle-garment), corselet, shirt of mail: acc. sg. brogdne beadu-sercean (because it consists of interlaced metal rings), 2756.

beado-weorc, st. n., (battle-work), battle: gen. sg. gefeh beado-weorces, rejoiced at the battle, 2300.

beald, adj., bold, brave: in comp. cyning-beald.

bealdian, w. v., to show one's self brave: pret. bealdode gôdum dædum (through brave deeds), 2178.

bealdor, st. m., lord, prince: nom. sg. sinca baldor, 2429; winia bealdor, 2568.

bealu, st. n., evil, ruin, destruction: instr. sg. bealwe, 2827; gen. pl. bealuwa, 281; bealewa, 2083; bealwa, 910.—Comp.: cwealm-, ealdor-, hreðer-, leód-, morðor-, niht-, sweord-, wîg-bealu.

bealu, adj., deadly, dangerous, bad: instr. sg. hyne sâr hafað befongen balwon bendum, pain has entwined him in deadly bands, 978.

bealo-cwealm, st. m., violent death, death by the sword(?), 2266.

bealo-hycgende, pres. part., thinking of death, meditating destruction: gen. pl. æghwäðrum bealo-hycgendra, 2566.

bealo-hydig, adj., thinking of death, meditating destruction: of Grendel, 724.

bealo-nîð, st. m., (zeal for destruction), deadly enmity: nom. sg., 2405; destructive struggle: acc. sg. bebeorh þe þone bealonîð, beware of destructive striving, 1759; death-bringing rage: nom. sg. him on breóstum bealo-nîð weóll, in his breast raged deadly fury (of the dragon's poison), 2715.

bearhtm (see beorht): 1) st. m., splendor, brightness, clearness: nom. sg. eágena bearhtm, 1767.—2) sound, tone: acc. sg. bearhtm ongeâton, gûðhorn galan, they heard the sound, (heard) the battle-horn sound, 1432.

bearm, m., gremium, sinus, lap, bosom: nom. sg. foldan bearm, 1138; acc. sg. on bearm scipes, 35, 897; on bearm nacan, 214; him on bearm hladan bunan and discas, 2776.—2) figuratively, possession, property, because things bestowed were placed in the lap of the receiver (1145 and 2195, on bearm licgan, âlecgan); dat. sg. him tô bearme cwom mâððumfät mære, came into his possession, 2405.

bearn, st. n., 1) child, son: nom. sg. bearn Healfdenes, 469, etc.; Ecglâfes bearn, 499, etc.; dat. sg. bearne, 2371; nom. pl. bearn, 59; dat. pl. bearnum, 1075.—2) in a broader sense, scion, offspring, descendant: nom. sg. Ongenþeów's bearn, of his grandson, 2388; nom. pl. yldo. bearn, 70; gumena bearn, children of men, 879; häleða bearn, 1190; äðelinga bearn, 3172; acc. pl. ofer ylda bearn, 606; dat. pl. ylda bearnum, 150; gen. pl. niðða bearna, 1006.—Comp.: brôðor-, dryht-bearn.

bearn-gebyrdu, f., birth, birth of a son: gen. sg. þät hyre ealdmetod êste wære bearn-gebyrdo, has been gracious through the birth of such a son (i.e. as Beówulf), 947.

bearu, st. m., (the bearer, hence properly only the fruit-tree, especially the oak and the beech), tree, collectively forest: nom. pl. hrîmge bearwas, rime-covered or ice-clad, 1364.

beácen, st. n., sign, banner, vexillum: nom. sg. beorht beácen godes, of the sun, 570; gen. pl. beácna beorhtost, 2778. See bêcn.

ge-beácnian, w. v., to mark, to indicate: pret. part. ge-beácnod, 140.

beág, st. m., ring, ornament: nom. sg. beáh (neck-ring), 1212; acc. sg. beáh (the collar of the murdered king of the Heaðobeardnas), 2042; bêg (collective for the acc. pl.), 3165; dat. sg. cwom Wealhþeó forð gân under gyldnum beáge, she walked along under a golden head-ring, wore a golden diadem, 1164; gen. sg. beáges (of a collar), 1217; acc. pl. beágas (rings in general), 80, 523, etc.; gen. pl. beága, 35, 352, 1488, 2285, etc.— Comp.: earm-, heals-beág.

beág-gyfa, w. m., ring-giver, designation of the prince: gen. sg. -gyfan, 1103.

beág-hroden, adj., adorned with rings, ornamented with clasps: nom. sg. beághroden, cwên, of Hrôðgâr's consort, perhaps with reference to her diadem (cf. 1164, 624.

beáh-hord, st. m. n., ring-hoard, treasure consisting of rings: gen. sg. beáh-hordes, 895; dat. pl. beáh-hordum, 2827; gen. pl. beáh-horda weard, of King Hrôðgâr, 922.

beáh-sele, st. m., ring-hall, hall in which the rings were distributed: nom. sg., of Heorot, 1178.

beáh-þegu, st. f., the receiving of the ring: dat. sg. äfter beáh-þege, 2177.

beáh-wriða, w. m. ring-band, ring with prominence given to its having the form of a band: acc. sg. beáh-wriðan, 2019.

beám, st. m., tree, only in the compounds fyrgen-, gleó-beám.

beátan, st. v., thrust, strike: pres. sg. mearh burhstede beáteð, the steed beats the castle-ground (place where the castle is built), i.e. with his hoofs, 2266; pret. part. swealt bille ge-beáten, died, struck by the battle-axe, 2360.

beorh, st. m.: 1) mountain, rock: dat. sg. beorge, 211; gen. sg. beorges, 2525, 2756; acc. pl. beorgas, 222.—2) grave-mound, tomb-hill: acc. sg. biorh, 2808; beorh, 3098, 3165. A grave-mound serves the drake as a retreat (cf. 2277, 2412): nom. sg. beorh, 2242; gen. sg. beorges, 2323.—Comp. stân-beorh.

beorh, st. f., veil, covering, cap; only in the comp. heáfod-beorh.

beorgan, st. v. (w. dat. of the interested person or thing), to save, to shield: inf. wolde feore beorgan, place her life in safety, 1294; here-byrne ... seó þe bâncôfan beorgan cûðe, which could protect his body, 1446; pret. pl. ealdre burgan, 2600.

be-beorgan (w. dat. refl. of pers. and acc. of the thing), to take care, to defend one's self from: inf. him be-beorgan ne con wom, cannot keep himself from stain (fault), 1747; imp. bebeorh þe þone bealontð, 1759.

ge-beorgan (w, dat. of person or thing to be saved), to save, to protect: pret. sg. þät gebearh feore, protected the life, 1549; scyld wel gebearg lîfe and lîce, 2571.

ymb-beorgan, to surround protectingly: pret. sg. bring ûtan ymb-bearh, 1504.

beorht, byrht, adj.: 1) gleaming, shining, radiant, shimmering: nom. sg. beorht, of the sun, 570, 1803; beorhta, of Heorot, 1178; þät beorhte bold, 998; acc. sg. beorhtne, of Beówulf's grave-mound, 2804; dat. sg. tô þære byrhtan (here-byrhtan, MS.) byrig, 1200; acc. pl. beorhte frätwe, 214, 897; beorhte randas, 231; bordwudu beorhtan, 1244; n. beorht hofu, 2314. Superl.: beácna beorhtost, 2778. —2) excellent, remarkable: gen. sg. beorhtre bôte, 158. —Comp.: sadol-, wlite-beorht.

beorhte, adv., brilliantly, brightly, radiantly, 1518.

beorhtian, w. v., to sound clearly: pret. sg. beorhtode benc-swêg, 1162.

beorn, st. m., hero, warrior, noble man: nom. sg. (Hrôðgâr), 1881, (Beówulf), 2434, etc.; acc. sg. (Beów.), 1025, (Äschere), 1300; dat. sg. beorne, 2261; nom. pl. beornas (Beówulf and his companions), 211, (Hrôðgâr's guests), 857; gen. pl. biorna (Beówulf's liege-men), 2405.—Comp.: folc-, gûð-beorn.

beornan, st. v., to burn: pres. part. byrnende (of the drake), 2273.—Comp. un-byrnende.

for-beornan, to be consumed, to burn: pret. sg. for-barn, 1617, 1668; for-born, 2673.

ge-beornan, to be burned: pret. gebarn, 2698.

beorn-cyning, st. m., king of warriors, king of heroes: nom. sg. (as voc.), 2149.

beódan, st. v.: 1) to announce, to inform, to make known: inf. biódan, 2893.—2) to offer, to proffer (as the notifying of a transaction in direct reference to the person concerned in it): pret. pl. him geþingo budon, offered them an agreement, 1086; pret. part. þâ wäs æht boden Sweona leódum, then was pursuit offered the Swedish people, 2958; inf. ic þäm gôdan sceal mâðmas beódan, I shall offer the excellent man treasures, 385.

â-beódan, to present, to announce: pret. word inne âbeád, made known the words within, 390; to offer, to tender, to wish: pret. him hæl âbeád, wished him health (greeted him), 654. Similarly, hælo âbeád, 2419; eoton weard âbeád, offered the giant a watcher, 669.

be-beódan, to command, to order: pret. swâ him se hearda bebeád, as the strong man commanded them, 401. Similarly, swâ se rîca bebeád, 1976.

ge-beódan: 1) to command, to order: inf. hêt þâ gebeódan byre Wihstânes häleða monegum, þät hie..., the son of Wihstan caused orders to be given to many of the men..., 3111.—2) to offer: him Hygd gebeád hord and rîce, offered him the treasure and the chief power, 2370; inf. gûðe gebeódan, to offer battle, 604.

beód-geneát, st. m., table-companion: nom. and acc. pl. geneátas, 343, 1714.

beón, verb, to be, generally in the future sense, will be: pres. sg. I. gûðgeweorca ic beó gearo sôna, I shall immediately be ready for warlike deeds, 1826; sg. III. wâ bið þäm þe sceal..., woe to him who...! 183; so, 186; gifeðe bið is given, 299; ne bið þe wilna gâd (no wish will be denied thee), 661; þær þe bið manna þearf, if thou shalt need the warriors, 1836; ne bið swylc cwênlîc þeáw, is not becoming, honorable to a woman, 1941; eft sôna bið will happen directly, 1763; similarly, 1768, etc.; pl. þonne bióð brocene, then are broken, 2064; feor cýððe beóð sêlran gesôhte þam þe..., "terrae longinquae meliores sunt visitatu ei qui..." (Grein), 1839; imp. beó (bió) þu on ôfeste, hasten! 386, 2748; beó wið Geátas gläd, be gracious to the Geátas, 1174.

beór, st. n., beer: dat. sg. ät beóre, at beer-drinking, 2042; instr. sg. beóre druncen, 531; beóre druncne, 480.

beór-scealc, st. m., keeper of the beer, cup-bearer: gen. pl. beór-scealca sum (one of Hrôðgâr's followers, because they served the Geátas at meals), 1241.

beór-sele, st. m., beer-hall, hall in which beer is drunk: dat. sg. in (on) beórsele, 482, 492, 1095; biórsele, 2636.

beór-þegu, st. f., beer-drinking, beer-banquet: dat. sg. äfter beórþege, 117; ät þære beórþege, 618.

beót, st. n., promise, binding agreement to something that is to be undertaken: acc. sg. he beót ne âlêh, did not break his pledge, 80; beót eal ... gelæste, performed all that he had pledged himself to, 523.

ge-beótian, w. v., to pledge one's self to an undertaking, to bind one's self: pret. gebeótedon, 480, 536.

beót-word, st. n., same as beót: dat. pl. beót-wordum spräc, 2511.

biddan, st. v., to beg, to ask, to pray: pres. sg. I. dôð swâ ic bidde! 1232; inf. (w. acc. of the pers. and gen. of the thing asked for) ic þe biddan wille ânre bêne, beg thee for one, 427; pret. swâ he selfa bäd, as he himself had requested, 29; bäd hine blîðne (supply wesan) ät þære beórþege, begged him to be cheerful at the beer-banquet, 618; ic þe lange bäd þät þu..., begged you a long time that you, 1995; frioðowære bäd hlâford sînne, begged his lord for protection (acc. of pers. and gen. of thing), 2283; bäd þät ge geworhton, asked that you..., 3097; pl. wordum bædon þät..., 176.

on-bidian, w. v., to await: inf. lætað hilde-bord her onbidian ... worda geþinges, let the shields await here the result of the conference (lay the shields aside here), 397.

bil, st. n. sword: nom. sg. bil, 1568; bill, 2778; acc. sg. bil, 1558; instr. sg. bille, 2360; gen. sg. billes, 2061, etc.; instr. pl. billum, 40; gen. pl. billa, 583, 1145.—Comp.: gûð-, hilde-, wîg-bil.

bindan, st. v., to bind, to tie: pret. part. acc. sg. wudu bundenne, the bound wood, i.e. the built ship, 216; bunden golde swurd, a sword bound with gold, i.e. either having its hilt inlaid with gold, or having gold chains upon the hilt (swords of both kinds have been found), 1901; nom. sg. heoru bunden, 1286, has probably a similar meaning.

ge-bindan, to bind: pret. sg. þær ic fîfe geband, where I had bound five(?), 420; pret. part. cyninges þegn word ôðer fand sôðe gebunden, the king's man found (after many had already praised Beówulf's deed) other words (also referring to Beówulf, but in connection with Sigemund) rightly bound together, i.e. in good alliterative verses, as are becoming to a gid, 872; wundenmæl wrättum gebunden, sword bound with ornaments, i.e. inlaid, 1532; bisgum gebunden, bound together by sorrow, 1744; gomel gûðwîga eldo gebunden, hoary hero bound by old age (fettered, oppressed), 2112.

on-bindan, to unbind, to untie, to loose: pret. onband, 501.

ge-bind, st. n. coll., that which binds, fetters: in comp. îs-gebind.

bite, st. m., bite, figuratively of the cut of the sword: acc. sg. bite îrena, the swords' bite, 2260; dat. sg. äfter billes bite, 2061.—Comp. lâð-bite.

biter (primary meaning that of biting), adj.: 1) sharp, cutting, cutting in: acc. sg. biter (of a short sword), 2705; instr. sg. biteran stræle, 1747; instr. pl. biteran bânum, with sharp teeth, 2693.—2) irritated, furious: nom. pl. bitere, 1432.

bitre, adv., bitterly (in a moral sense), 2332.

bî, big (fuller form of the prep. be, which see), prep. w. dat.: 1) near, at, on, about, by (as under be, No. 1): bî sæm tweónum, in the circuit of both seas, 1957; ârâs bî ronde, raised himself up by the shield, 2539; bî wealle gesät, sat by the wall, 2718. With a freer position: him big stôdan bunan and orcas, round about him, 3048.—2) to, towards (motion): hwearf þâ bî bence, turned then towards the bench, 1189; geóng bî sesse, went to the seat, 2757.

bîd (see bîdan), st. n., tarrying hesitation: þær wearð Ongenþió on bîd wrecen, forced to tarry, 2963.

bîdan, st. v.: 1) to delay, to stay, to remain, to wait: inf. nô on wealle leng bîdan wolde, would not stay longer within the wall (the drake), 2309; pret. in þýstrum bâd, remained in darkness, 87; flota stille bâd, the craft lay still, 301; receda ... on þäm se rîca bâd, where the mighty one dwelt, 310; þær se snottra bâd, where the wise man (Hrôðgâr) waited, 1314; he on searwum bâd, he (Beówulf) stood there armed, 2569; ic on earde bâd mælgesceafta, lived upon the paternal ground the time appointed me by fate, 2737; pret. pl. sume þær bidon, some remained, waited there, 400.—2) to await, to wait for, with the gen. of that which is awaited: inf. bîdan woldon Grendles gûðe, wished to await the combat with Grendel, to undertake it, 482; similarly, 528; wîges bîdan, await the combat, 1269; nalas andsware bîdan wolde, would await no answer, 1495; pret. bâd beadwa geþinges, awaited the event of the battle, 710; sægenga bâd âgend-freán, the sea-goer (boat) awaited its owner, 1883; sele ... heaðowylma bâd, lâðan lîges (the poet probably means to indicate by these words that the hall Heorot was destroyed later in a fight by fire; an occurrence, indeed, about which we know nothing, but which 1165 and 1166, and again 2068 ff. seem to indicate), 82.

â-bîdan, to await, with the gen.: inf., 978.

ge-bîdan: 1) to tarry, to wait: imp. gebîde ge on beorge, wait ye on the mountain, 2530; pret. part. þeáh þe wintra lyt under burhlocan gebiden häbbe Häreðes dôhtor although H's daughter had dwelt only a few years in the castle, 1929.—2) to live through, to experience, to expect (w. acc.): inf. sceal endedäg mînne gebîdan, shall live my last day, 639; ne wênde ... bôte gebîdan, did not hope ... to live to see reparation, 935; fela sceal gebîdan leófes and lâðes, experience much good and much affliction, 1061; ende gebîdan, 1387, 2343; pret. he þäs frôfre gebâd, received consolation (compensation) therefore, 7; gebâd wintra worn, lived a great number of years, 264; in a similar construction, 816, 930, 1619, 2259, 3117. With gen.: inf. tô gebîdanne ôðres yrfeweardes, to await another heir, 2453. With depend, clause: inf. tô gebîdanne þät his byre rîde on galgan, to live to see it, that his son hang upon the gallows, 2446; pret. dreám-leás gebâd þät he..., joyless he experienced it, that he..., 1721; þäs þe ic on aldre gebâd þät ic..., for this, that I, in my old age, lived to see that..., 1780.

on-bîdan, to wait, to await: pret. hordweard onbâd earfoðlîce ôð þät æfen cwom, scarcely waited, could scarcely delay till it was evening, 2303.

bîtan, st. v., to bite, of the cutting of swords: inf. bîtan, 1455, 1524; pret. bât bânlocan, bit into his body (Grendel), 743; bât unswîðor, cut with less force (Beówulf's sword), 2579.

blanca, w. m., properly that which shines here of the horse, not so much of the white horse as the dappled: dat. pl. on blancum, 857.

ge-bland, ge-blond, st. n., mixture, heaving mass, a turning.—Comp.: sund-, ýð-geblond, windblond.

blanden-feax, blonden-feax, adj., mixed, i.e. having gray hair, gray-headed, as epithet of an old man: nom. sg. blondenfeax, 1792; blondenfexa, 2963; dat. sg. blondenfeaxum, 1874; nom. pl. blondenfeaxe, 1595.

bläc, adj., dark, black: nom. sg, hrefn blaca, 1802.

blâc, adj.: 1) gleaming, shining: acc. sg. blâcne leóman, a brilliant gleam, 1518.—2) of the white death-color, pale; in comp. heoroblâc.

blæd, st. m.: 1) strength, force, vigor: nom. sg. wäs hira blæd scacen (of both tribes), strength was gone, i.e. the bravest of both tribes lay slain, 1125; nu is þînes mägnes blæd âne hwîle, now the fulness of thy strength lasts for a time, 1762.—2) reputation, renown, knowledge (with stress upon the idea of filling up, spreading out): nom. sg. blæd, 18; (þîn) blæd is âræred, thy renown is spread abroad, 1704.

blæd-âgend, pt., having renown, renowned: nom. pl. blæd-âgende, 1014.

blæd-fäst, adj., firm in renown, renowned, known afar: acc. sg. blædfästne beorn (of Äschere, with reference to 1329, 1300.

bleát, adj., miserable, helpless; only in comp. wäl-bleát.

bleáte, adv., miserably, helplessly, 2825.

blîcan, st. v., shine, gleam: inf., 222

blîðe, adj.: 1) blithe, joyous, happy acc. sg. blîðne, 618.—2) gracious, pleasing: nom. sg. blîðe, 436.—Comp. un-blîðe.

blîð-heort, adj., joyous in heart, happy: nom. sg., 1803.

blôd, st. n., blood: nom. sg., 1122; acc. sg., 743; dat. sg. blôde, 848; äfter deórum men him langað beorn wið blôde, the hero (Hrôðgâr) longs for the beloved man contrary to blood, i.e. he loves him although he is not related to him by blood, 1881; dat. as instr. blôde, 486, 935, 1595, etc.

blôd-fâg, adj., spotted with blood, bloody, 2061.

blôdig, adj., bloody: acc. sg. f. blôdge, 991; acc. sg. n. blôdig, 448; instr. sg. blôdigan gâre, 2441.

ge-blôdian, w. v., to make bloody, to sprinkle with blood: pret. part. ge-blôdegod, 2693.

blôdig-tôð, adj., with bloody teeth: nom. sg. bona blôdig-tôð (of Grendel, because he bites his victims to death), 2083.

blôd-reów, adj., bloodthirsty, bloody-minded: nom. sg. him on ferhðe greów breóst-hord blôd-reów, in his bosom there grew a bloodthirsty feeling, 1720.

be-bod, st. n., command, order; in comp. wundor-bebod.

bodian, w. v., (to be a messenger), to announce, to make known: pret. hrefn blaca heofones wynne blîð-heort bodode, the black raven announced joyfully heaven's delight (the rising sun), 1803.

boga, w. m., bow, of the bended form; here of the dragon, in comp. hring-boga; as an instrument for shooting, in the comp. flân-, horn-boga; bow of the arch, in comp. stân-boga.

bolca, w. m., "forus navis" (Grein), gangway; here probably the planks which at landing are laid from the ship to the shore: acc. sg. ofer bolcan, 231.

bold, st. n., building, house, edifice: nom. sg. (Heorot), 998; (Hygelâc's residence), 1926; (Beówulfs residence), 2197, 2327.—Comp. fold-bold.

bold-âgend, pt., house-owner, property-holder: gen. pl. monegum boldâgendra, 3113.

bolgen-môd, adj., angry at heart, angry, 710, 1714.

bolster, st. m., bolster, cushion, pillow: dat. pl. (reced) geond-bræded wearð beddum and bolstrum, was covered with beds and bolsters, 1241.—Comp. hleór-bolster.

bon-. See ban-.

bora, w. m., carrier, bringer, leader: in the comp. mund-, ræd-, wæg-bora.

bord, st. n., shield: nom. sg., 2674; acc. sg., 2525; gen. pl. ofer borda gebräc, over the crashing of the shields, 2260.—Comp.: hilde-, wîg-bord.

bord-häbbend, pt., one having a shield, shield-bearer: nom. pl. häbbende, 2896.

bord-hreóða, w. m., shield-cover, shield with particular reference to its cover (of hides or linden bark): dat. sg. -hreóðan, 2204.

bord-rand, st. m., shield: acc. sg., 2560.

bord-weall, st. m., shield-wall, wall of shields: acc. sg., 2981.

bord-wudu, st. m., shield-wood, shield: acc. pl. beorhtan beord-wudu, 1244.

botm, st. m., bottom: dat. sg. tô botme (here of the bottom of the fen-lake), 1507.

bôt , st. f.: 1) relief, remedy: nom. sg., 281; acc. sg. bôte, 935; acc. sg. bôte, 910.—2) a performance in expiation, a giving satisfaction, tribute: gen. sg. bôte, 158.

brand, brond, st. m.: 1) burning, fire: nom. sg. þâ sceal brond fretan (the burning of the body), 3015; instr. sg. by hine ne môston ... bronde forbärnan (could not bestow upon him the solemn burning), 2127; häfde landwara lîge befangen, bæle and bronde, with glow, fire, and flame, 2323.—2) in the passage, þät hine nô brond ne beadomêcas bîtan ne meahton, 1455, brond has been translated sword, brand (after the O.N. brand-r). The meaning fire may be justified as well, if we consider that the old helmets were generally made of leather, and only the principal parts were mounted with bronze. The poet wishes here to emphasize the fact that the helmet was made entirely of metal, a thing which was very unusual.—3) in the passage, forgeaf þâ Beówulfe brand Healfdenes segen gyldenne, 1021, our text, with other editions, has emendated, bearn, since brand, if it be intended as a designation of Hrôðgâr (perhaps son), has not up to this time been found in this sense in A.-S.

brant, bront, adj., raging, foaming, going-high, of ships and of waves: acc. sg. brontne, 238, 568.

brâd, adj.: 1) extended, wide: nom. pl. brâde rîce, 2208.—2) broad: nom. sg. heáh and brâd (of Beówulf's grave-mound), 3159; acc. sg. brâdne mêce, 2979; (seax) brâd [and] brûnecg, the broad, short sword with bright edge, 1547.—3) massive, in abundance. acc, sg. brâd gold, 3106.

ge-bräc, st. n., noise, crash: acc. sg. borda gebräc, 2260.

geond-brædan, w. v., to spread over, to cover entirely: pret. part. geond-bræded, 1240.

brecan, st. v.: 1) to break, to break to pieces: pret. bânhringas bräc, (the sword) broke the joints, 1568. In a moral sense: pret. subj. þät þær ænig mon wære ne bræce, that no one should break the agreement, 1101; pret. part. þonne bióð brocene ... âð-sweord eorla, then are the oaths of the men broken, 2064.—2) probably also simply to break in upon something, to press upon, w. acc.: pret. sg. sædeór monig hildetuxum heresyrcan bräc, many a sea-animal pressed with his battle-teeth upon the shirt of mail (did not break it, for, according to 1549 f., 1553 f., it was still unharmed). 1512.—3) to break out, to spring out: inf. geseah ... streám ût brecan of beorge, saw a stream break out from the rocks, 2547; lêt se hearda Higelâces þegn brâdne mêce ... brecan ofer bordweal, caused the broadsword to spring out over the wall of shields, 2981.—4) figuratively, to vex, not to let rest: pret. hine fyrwyt bräc, curiosity tormented (N.H.G. brachte die Neugier um), 232, 1986, 2785.

ge-brecan, to break to pieces: pret. bânhûs gebräc, broke in pieces his body (Beówulf in combat with Däghrefn), 2509.

tô-brecan, to break in pieces: inf., 781; pret. part. tô-brocen, 998.

þurh-brecan, to break through, pret. wordes ord breósthord þurh-bräc, the word's point broke through his closed breast, i.e. a word burst out from his breast, 2793.

brecð, st. f., condition of being broken, breach: nom. pl. môdes brecða (sorrow of heart), 171.

â-bredwian, w. v. w. acc., to fell to the ground, to kill (?): pret. âbredwade, 2620.

bregdan, st. v., properly to swing round, hence: 1) to swing: inf. under sceadu bregdan, swing among the shadows, to send into the realm of shadows, 708; pret. brägd ealde lâfe, swung the old weapon, 796; brägd feorh-genîðlan, swung his mortal enemy (Grendel's mother), threw her down, 1540; pl. git eágorstreám ... mundum brugdon, stirred the sea with your hands (of the movement of the hands in swimming), 514; pret. part. broden (brogden) mæl, the drawn sword, 1617, 1668.—2) to knit, to knot, to plait: inf., figuratively, inwitnet ôðrum bregdan, to weave a waylaying net for another (as we say in the same way, to lay a trap for another, to dig a pit for another), 2168; pret. part. beadohrägl broden, a woven shirt of mail (because it consisted of metal rings joined together), 552; similarly, 1549; brogdne beadusercean, 2756.

â-bregdan, to swing: pret. hond up â-bräd, swung, raised his hand, 2576.

ge-bregdan: 1) swing: pret. hring-mæl gebrägd, swung the ringed sword, 1565; eald sweord eácen ... þät ic þý wæpne gebrägd, an old heavy sword that I swung as my weapon, 1665; with interchanging instr. and acc. wällseaxe gebräd, biter and beadu-scearp, 2704; also, to draw out of the sheath: sweord ær gebräd, had drawn the sword before, 2563.—2) to knit, to knot, to plait: pret. part. bere-byrne hondum gebroden, 1444.

on-bregdan, to tear open, to throw open: pret. onbräd þâ recedes mûðan, had then thrown open the entrance of the hall (onbregdan is used because the opening door swings upon its hinges), 724.

brego, st. m., prince, ruler: nom. sg. 427, 610.

brego-rôf, adj., powerful, like a ruler, of heroic strength : nom. sg. m., 1926.

brego-stôl, st. m., throne, figuratively for rule: acc. sg. him gesealde seofon þûsendo, bold and brego-stôl, seven thousand see under sceat), a country-seat, and the dignity of a prince, 2197; þær him Hygd gebeád ... brego-stôl, where H. offered him the chief power, 2371; lêt þone bregostôl Beówulf healdan, gave over to Beówulf the chief power (did not prevent Beówulf from entering upon the government), 2390.

breme, adj., known afar, renowned. nom. sg., 18.

brenting (see brant), st. m., ship craft: nom. pl. brentingas, 2808.

â-breátan, st. v., to break, to break in pieces, to kill: pret. âbreót brimwîsan, killed the sea-king (King Hæðcyn), 2931. See breótan.

breóst, st. n.: 1) breast: nom. sg., 2177; often used in the pl., so acc. þät mîne breóst wereð, which protects my breast, 453; dat. pl. beadohrägl broden on breóstum läg. 552.—2) the inmost thoughts, the mind, the heart, the bosom: nom. sg. breóst innan weóll þeóstrum geþoncum, his breast heaved with troubled thoughts, 2332; dat. pl. lêt þâ of breóstum word ût faran, caused the words to come out from his bosom, 2551.

breóst-gehygd, st. n. f., breast-thought, secret thought: instr. pl. -gehygdum, 2819.

breóst-gewædu, st. n. pl., breast-clothing, garment covering the breast, of the coat of mail: nom., 1212; acc., 2163.

breóst-hord, st. m., breast-hoard, that which is locked in the breast, heart, mind, thought, soul: nom. sg., 1720; acc. sg., 2793.

breóst-net, st. n., breast-net, shirt of chain-mail, coat of mail: nom. sg. breóst-net broden, 1549.

breóst-weorðung, st. f., ornament that is worn upon the breast: acc. sg. breóst-weorðunge, 2505: here the collar is meant which Beówulf receives from Wealhþeów (1196, 2174) as a present, and which B., according to 2173, presents to Hygd, while, according to 1203, it is in the possession of her husband Hygelâc. In front the collar is trimmed with ornaments (frätwe), which hang down upon the breast, hence the name breóst-weorðung.

breóst-wylm, st. m., heaving of the breast, emotion of the bosom: acc. sg, 1878.

breótan, st. v., to break, to break in pieces, to kill: pret. breát beódgeneátas, killed his table-companions (courtiers), 1714.

â-breótan, same as above: pret. þone þe heó on räste âbreát, whom she killed upon his couch, 1299; pret. part. þâ þät monige gewearð, þät hine seó brimwylf âbroten häfde, many believed that the sea-wolf (Grendel's mother) had killed him, 1600; hî hyne ... âbroten häfdon, had killed him (the dragon), 2708.

brim, st. n., flood, the sea: nom. sg., 848, 1595; gen. sg. tô brimes faroðe, to the sea, 28; ät brimes nosan, at the sea's promontory, 2804; nom. pl. brimu swaðredon, the waves subsided, 570.

brim-clif, st. n., sea-cliff, cliff washed by the sea: acc. pl. -clifu, 222.

brim-lâd, st. f., flood-way, sea-way: acc. sg. þâra þe mid Beówulfe brimlâde teáh, who had travelled the sea-way with B., 1052.

brim-lîðend, pt, sea-farer, sailor acc. p. -lîðende, 568.

brim-streám, st. m., sea-stream, the flood of the sea: acc. pl. ofer brim-streámas, 1911.

brim-wîsa, w. m., sea-king: acc. sg. brimwîsan, of Hæðcyn, king of the Geátas, 2931.

brim-wylf, st. f., sea-wolf (designation of Grendel's mother): nom. sg. seó brimwylf, 1507, 1600.

brim-wylm, st. m., sea-wave: nom. sg., 1495.

bringan, anom. v., to bring, to bear: prs. sg. I. ic þe þûsenda þegna bringe tô helpe, bring to your assistance thousands of warriors, 1830; inf. sceal hringnaca ofer heáðu bringan lâc and luftâcen, shall bring gifts and love-tokens over the high sea, 1863; similarly, 2149, 2505; pret. pl. we þâs sælâc ... brôhton, brought this sea-offering (Grendel's head), 1654.

ge-bringan, to bring: pres. subj. pl. þat we þone gebringan ... on âdfäre, that we bring him upon the funeral-pile, 3010.

brosnian, w. v., to crumble, to become rotten, to fall to pieces: prs. sg. III. herepâd ... brosnað äfter beorne, the coat of mail falls to pieces after (the death of) the hero, 2261.

brôðor, st. m., brother: nom. sg., 1325, 2441; dat sg. brêðer, 1263; gen. sg. his brôðor bearn, 2620; dat. pl. brôðrum, 588, 1075.

ge-brôðru, pl., brethren, brothers: dat. pl. sät be þæm gebrôðrum twæm, sat by the two brothers, 1192.

brôga, w. m., terror, horror: nom. sg., 1292, 2325, 2566; acc. sg. billa brôgan, 583.—Comp.: gryre-, here-brôga.

brûcan, st. v. w. gen., to use, to make use of: prs. sg. III. se þe longe her worolde brûceð, who here long makes use of the world, i.e. lives long, 1063; imp. brûc manigra mêda, make use of many rewards, give good rewards, 1179; to enjoy: inf. þät he beáhhordes brûcan môste, could enjoy the ring-hoard, 895; similarly, 2242, 3101; pret. breác lîfgesceafta, enjoyed the appointed life, lived the appointed time, 1954. With the genitive to be supplied: breác þonne môste, 1488; imp. brûc þisses beáges, enjoy this ring, take this ring, 1217. Upon this meaning depends the form of the wish, wel brûcan (compare the German geniesze froh!): inf. hêt hine wel brûcan, 1046; hêt hine brûcan well, 2813; imp. brûc ealles well, 2163.

brûn, adj., having a brown lustre, shining: nom. sg. sió ecg brûn, 2579.

brûn-ecg, adj., having a gleaming blade: acc. sg. n. (hyre seaxe) brâd [and] brûnecg, her broad sword with gleaming blade, 1547.

brûn-fâg, adj., gleaming like metal: acc. sg. brûnfâgne helm, 2616.

bryne-leóma, w. m., light of a conflagration, gleam of fire : nom. sg., 2314.

bryne-wylm, st. m., wave of fire: dat. pl. -wylmum, 2327.

brytnian (properly to break in small pieces, cf. breótan), w. v., to bestow, to distribute: pret. sinc brytnade, distributed presents, i.e. ruled (since the giving of gifts belongs especially to rulers), 2384.

brytta, w. m., giver, distributer, always designating the king: nom. sg. sinces brytta, 608, 1171, 2072; acc. sg. beága bryttan, 35, 352, 1488; sinces bryttan, 1923.

bryttian (to be a dispenser), w. v., to distribute, to confer: prs. sg. III. god manna cynne snyttru bryttað, bestows wisdom upon the human race, 1727.

brýd, st. f.: 1) wife, consort: acc. sg. brýd, 2931; brýde, 2957, both times of the consort of Ongenþeów (?).—2) betrothed, bride: nom. sg., of Hrôðgâr's daughter, Freáware, 2032.

brýd-bûr, st. n., woman's apartment: dat. sg. eode ... cyning of brýdbûre, the king came out of the apartment of his wife (into which, according to 666, he had gone), 922.

bunden-stefna, w. m., (that which has a bound prow), the framed ship: nom. sg., 1911.

bune, w. f., can or cup, drinking-vessel: nom. pl. bunan, 3048; acc. pl. bunan, 2776.

burh, burg, st. f., castle, city, fortified house: acc. sg. burh, 523; dat. sg. byrig, 1200; dat. pl. burgum, 53, 1969, 2434.—Comp.: freó, freoðo-, heá-, hleó-, hord-, leód-, mæg-burg.

burh-loca, w. m., castle-bars: dat. sg. under burh-locan, under the castle-bars, i.e. in the castle (Hygelâc's), 1929.

burh-stede, st. m., castle-place, place where the castle or city stands: acc. sg. burhstede, 2266.

burh-wela, w. m., riches, treasure of a castle or city: gen. sg. þenden he burh-welan brûcan môste, 3101.

burne, w. f., spring, fountain: gen. þære burnan wälm, the bubbling of the spring, 2547.

bûan, st. v.: 1) to stay, to remain, to dwell: inf. gif he weard onfunde bûan on beorge, if he had found the watchman dwelling on the mountain, 2843.—2) to inhabit, w. acc.: meduseld bûan, to inhabit the mead-house, 3066.

ge-bûan, w. acc., to occupy a house, to take possession: pret. part. heán hûses, hû hit Hring Dene äfter beórþege gebûn häfdon, how the Danes, after their beer-carouse, had occupied it (had made their beds in it), 117.—With the pres. part. bûend are the compounds ceaster-, fold-, grund-, lond-bûend.

bûgan, st. v., to bend, to bow, to sink; to turn, to flee: prs. sg. III. bon-gâr bûgeð, the fatal spear sinks, i.e. its deadly point is turned down, it rests, 2032; inf. þät se byrnwîga bûgan sceolde, that the armed hero had to sink down (having received a deadly blow), 2919; similarly, 2975; pret. sg. beáh eft under eorðweall, turned, fled again behind the earth-wall, 2957; pret. pl. bugon tô bence, turned to the bench, 327, 1014; hy on holt bugon, fled to the wood, 2599.

â-bûgan, to bend off, to curve away from: pret. fram sylle âbeág medubenc monig, from the threshold curved away many a mead-bench, 776.

be-bûgan, w. acc., to surround, to encircle: prs. swâ (which) wäter bebûgeð, 93; efne swâ sîde swâ sæ bebûgeð windige weallas, as far as the sea encircles windy shores, 1224.

ge-bûgan, to bend, to bow, to sink: a) intrans.: heó on flet gebeáh, sank on the floor, 1541; þâ gebeáh cyning, then sank the king, 2981; þâ se wyrm gebeáh snûde tôsomne (when the drake at once coiled itself up), 2568; gewât þâ gebogen scrîðan tô, advanced with curved body (the drake), 2570.—b) w. acc. of the thing to which one bends or sinks: pret. selereste gebeáh, sank upon the couch in the hall, 691; similarly gebeág, 1242.

bûr, st. n., apartment, room: dat. sg. bûre, 1311, 2456; dat. pl. bûrum, 140.—Comp. brýd-bûr.

bûtan, bûton (from be and ûtan, hence in its meaning referring to what is without, excluded): 1) conj. with subjunctive following, lest: bûtan his lîc swice, lest his body escape, 967. With ind. following, but: bûton hit wäs mâre þonne ænig mon ôðer tô beadulâce ätberan meahte, but it (the sword) was greater than any other man could have carried to battle, 1561. After a preceding negative verb, except: þâra þe gumena bearn gearwe ne wiston bûton Fitela mid hine, which the children of men did not know at all, except Fitela, who was with him, 880; ne nom he mâðm-æhta mâ bûton þone hafelan, etc., he took no more of the rich treasure than the head alone, 1615.—2) prep, with dat., except: bûton folcscare, 73; bûton þe, 658; ealle bûton ânum, 706.

bycgan, w. v., to buy, to pay: inf. ne wäs þät gewrixle til þät hie on bâ healfa bicgan scoldon freónda feorum, that was no good transaction, that they, on both sides (as well to Grendel as to his mother), had to pay with the lives of their friends, 1306.

be-bycgan, to sell: pret. nu ic on mâðma hord mîne bebohte frôde feorhlege (now I, for the treasure-hoard, gave up my old life), 2800.

ge-bycgan, to buy, to acquire; to pay: pret. w. acc. nô þær ænige ... frôfre gebohte, obtained no sort of help, consolation, 974; hit (his, MS.) ealdre gebohte, paid it with his life, 2482; pret. part. sylfes feore beágas [geboh]te, bought rings with his own life, 3015.

byldan, w. v. (to make beald, which see), to excite, to encourage, to brave deeds: inf. w. acc. swâ he Fresena cyn on beórsele byldan wolde (by distributing gifts), 1095.

ge-byrd, st. n., "fatum destinatum" (Grein) (?): acc. sg. hie on gebyrd hruron gâre wunde, 1075.

ge-byrdu, st. f., birth; in compound, bearn-gebyrdu.

byrdu-scrûd, st. n., shield-ornament, design upon a shield(?): nom. sg., 2661.

byre, st. m., (born) son: nom. sg., 2054, 2446, 2622, etc.; nom. pl. byre, 1189. In a broader sense, young man, youth: acc. pl. bædde byre geonge, encouraged the youths (at the banquet), 2019.

byrðen, st. f., burden; in comp. mägen-byrðen.

byrele, st. m., steward, waiter, cupbearer: nom. pl. byrelas, 1162.

byrgan, w. v., to feast, to eat: inf., 448.

ge-byrgea, w. m., protector; in comp. leód-gebyrgea.

byrht. See beorht.

byrne, w. f., shirt of mail, mail: nom. sg. byrne, 405, 1630, etc.; hringed byrne, ring-shirt, consisting of interlaced rings, 1246; acc. sg. byrnan, 1023, etc.; sîde byrnan, large coat of mail, 1292; hringde byrnan, 2616; hâre byrnan, gray coat of mail (of iron), 2154; dat. sg. on byrnan, 2705; gen. sg. byrnan hring, the ring of the shirt of mail (i.e. the shirt of mail), 2261; dat. pl. byrnum, 40, 238, etc.; beorhtum byrnum, with gleaming mail, 3141.—Comp.: gûð-, here-, heaðo-, îren-, îsern-byrne.

byrnend. See beornan.

byrn-wîga, w. m., warrior dressed in a coat of mail: nom. sg., 2919.

bysgu, bisigu, st. f., trouble, difficulty, opposition: nom. sg. bisigu, 281; dat. pl. bisgum, 1744, bysigum, 2581.

bysig, adj., opposed, in need, in the compounds lîf-bysig, syn-bysig.

býme, w. f., a wind-instrument, a trumpet, a trombone: gen. sg. býman gealdor, the sound of the trumpet, 2944.

býwan, w. v., to ornament, to prepare: inf. þâ þe beado-grîman býwan sceoldon, who should prepare the helmets, 2258.

C

camp, st. m., combat, fight between two: dat. sg. in campe (Beówulf's with Däghrefn; cempan, MS.), 2506.

candel, st. f., light, candle: nom. sg. rodores candel, of the sun, 1573.—Comp. woruld-candel.

cempa, w. m., fighter, warrior, hero: nom. sg. äðele cempa, 1313; Geáta cempa, 1552; rêðe cempa, 1586; mære cempa (as voc.), 1762; gyrded cempa, 2079; dat. sg. geongum (geongan) cempan, 1949, 2045, 2627; Hûga cempan, 2503; acc. pl. cempan, 206.—Comp. fêðe-cempa.

cennan, w. v.: 1) to bear, w. acc.: efne swâ hwylc mägða swâ þone magan cende, who bore the son, 944; pret. part. þäm eafera wäs äfter cenned, to him was a son born, 12.—2) reflexive, to show one's self, to reveal one's self: imp. cen þec mid cräfte, prove yourself by your strength, 1220.

â-cennan, to bear: pret. part. nô hie fäder cunnon, hwäðer him ænig wäs ær âcenned dyrnra gâsta, they (the people of the country) do not know his (Grendel's) father, nor whether any evil spirit has been before born to him (whether he has begotten a son), 1357.

cênðu, st. f., boldness: acc. sg. cênðu, 2697.

cêne, adj., keen, warlike, bold: gen. p.. cênra gehwylcum, 769. Superl., acc. pl. cênoste, 206.—Comp.: dæd-, gâr-cêne.

ceald, adj., cold: acc. pl. cealde streámas, 1262; dat. pl. cealdum cearsîðum, with cold, sad journeys, 2397. Superl. nom. sg. wedera cealdost, 546;—Comp. morgen-ceald.

cearian, w. v., to have care, to take care, to trouble one's self: prs. sg. III. nâ ymb his lîf cearað, takes no care for his life, 1537.

cearig, adj., troubled, sad: in comp. sorh-cearig.

cear-sîð, st. m., sorrowful way, an undertaking that brings sorrow, i.e. a warlike expedition: dat. pl. cearsîðum (of Beówulf's expeditions against Eádgils), 2397.

cearu, st. f., care, sorrow, lamentation: nom. sg., 1304; acc. sg. [ceare], 3173.—Comp.: ealdor-, gûð-, mæl-, môd-cearu.

cear-wälm, st. m., care-agitation, waves of sorrow in the breast: dat. pl. äfter cear-wälmum, 2067.

cear-wylm, st. m., same as above; nom. pl. þâ cear-wylmas, 282.

ceaster-bûend, pt, inhabitant of a fortified place, inhabitant of a castle: dat. pl. ceaster-bûendum, of those established in Hrôðgâr's castle, 769.

ceáp, st. m., purchase, transaction: figuratively, nom. sg. näs þät ýðe ceáp, no easy transaction, 2416; instr. sg. þeáh þe ôðer hit ealdre gebohte, heardan ceápe, although the one paid it with his life, a dear purchase, 2483.

ge-ceápian, w. v., to purchase: pret. part. gold unrîme grimme geceápod, gold without measure, bitterly purchased (with Beówulf's life), 3013.

be-ceorfan, st. v., to separate, to cut off (with acc. of the pers. and instr. of the thing): pret. hine þâ heáfde becearf, cut off his head, 1591; similarly, 2139.

ceorl, st. m., man: nom. sg. snotor ceorl monig, many a wise man, 909; dat. sg. gomelum ceorle, the old man (of King Hrêðel), 2445; so, ealdum ceorle, of King Ongenþeów, 2973; nom. pl. snotere ceorlas, wise men, 202, 416, 1592.

ceól, st. m., keel, figuratively for the ship: nom. sg., 1913; acc. sg. ceól, 38, 238; gen. sg. ceóles, 1807.

ceósan, st. v., to choose, hence, to assume: inf. þone cynedôm ciósan wolde, would assume the royal dignity, 2377; to seek: pret. subj. ær he bæl cure, before he sought his funeral-pile (before he died), 2819.

ge-ceósan, to choose, to elect: gerund, tô geceósenne cyning ænigne (sêlran), to choose a better king, 1852; imp. þe þät sêlre ge-ceós, choose thee the better (of two: bealonîð and êce rædas), 1759; pret. he ûsic on herge geceás tô þyssum siðfate, selected us among the soldiers for this undertaking, 2639; geceás êcne ræd, chose the everlasting gain, i.e. died, 1202; similarly, godes leóht geceás, 2470; pret. part. acc. pl. häfde ... cempan gecorone, 206.

on-cirran, w. v., to turn, to change: inf. ne meahte ... þäs wealdendes [willan] wiht on-cirran, could not change the will of the Almighty, 2858; pret. ufor oncirde, turned higher, 2952; þyder oncirde, turned thither, 2971.

â-cîgan, w. v., to call hither: pret. âcîgde of corðre cyninges þegnas syfone, called from the retinue of the king seven men, 3122.

clam, clom, st. m., f. n.? fetter, figuratively of a strong gripe: dat. pl. heardan clammum, 964; heardum clammum, 1336; atolan clommum (horrible claws of the mother of Grendel), 1503.

clif, cleof, st. n., cliff, promontory: acc. pl. Geáta clifu, 1912.—Comp.: brim-, êg-, holm-, stân-clif.

ge-cnâwan, st. v., to know, to recognize: inf. meaht þu, mîn wine, mêce gecnâwan, mayst thou, my friend, recognize the sword, 2048.

on-cnâwan, to recognize, to distinguish: hordweard oncniów mannes reorde, distinguished the speech of a man, 2555.

cniht, st. m., boy, youth: dat. pl. þyssum cnyhtum, to these boys (Hrôðgâr's sons), 1220.

cniht-wesende, prs. part., being a boy or a youth: acc. sg. ic hine cûðe cniht-wesende, knew him while still a boy, 372; nom. pl. wit þät gecwædon cniht-wesende, we both as young men said that, 535.

cnyssan, w. v., to strike, to dash against each other: pret. pl. þonne ... eoferas cnysedan, when the bold warriors dashed against each other, stormed (in battle), 1329.

collen-ferhð, -ferð, adj., (properly, of swollen mind), of uncommon thoughts, in his way of thinking, standing higher than others, high-minded: nom. sg. cuma collen-ferhð, of Beówulf, 1807; collen-ferð, of Wîglâf, 2786.

corðer, st. n., troop, division of an army, retinue: dat. sg. þâ wäs ... Fin slägen, cyning on corðre, then was Fin slain, the king in the troop (of warriors), 1154; of corðre cyninges, out of the retinue of the king, 3122.

costian, w. v., to try; pret. (w. gen.) he mîn costode, tried me, 2085.

côfa, w. m., apartment, sleeping-room, couch: in comp. bân-côfa.

côl, adj., cool: compar. cearwylmas côlran wurðað, the waves of sorrow become cooler, i.e. the mind becomes quiet, 282; him wîflufan ... côlran weorðað, his love for his wife cools, 2067.

cräft, st. m., the condition of being able, hence: 1) physical strength: nom. sg. mägða cräft, 1284; acc. sg. mägenes cräft, 418; þurh ânes cräft, 700; cräft and cênðu, 2697; dat. (instr.) sg. cräfte, 983, 1220, 2182, 2361.—2) art, craft, skill: dat. sg. as instr. dyrnum cräfte, with secret (magic) art, 2169; dyrnan cräfte, 2291; þeófes cräfte, with thief's craft, 2221; dat. pl. deófles cräftum, by devil's art (sorcery), 2089.—3) great quantity (?): acc. sg. wyrm-horda cräft, 2223.—Comp.: leoðo-, mägen-, nearo-, wîg-cräft.

cräftig, adj.: 1) strong, stout: nom. sg. eafoðes cräftig, 1467; nîða cräftig, 1963. Comp. wîg-cräftig.—2) adroit, skilful: in comp. lagu-cräftig.—3) rich (of treasures); in comp. eácen-cräftig.

cringan, st. v., to fall in combat, to fall with the writhing movement of those mortally wounded: pret. subj. on wäl crunge, would sink into death, would fall, 636; pret. pl. for the pluperfect, sume on wäle crungon, 1114.

ge-cringan, same as above: pret. he under rande gecranc, fell under his shield, 1210; ät wîge gecrang, fell in battle, 1338; heó on flet gecrong, fell to the ground, 1569; in campe gecrong, fell in single combat, 2506.

cuma (he who comes), w. m., newcomer, guest: nom. sg. 1807.—Comp.: cwealm-, wil-cuma.

cuman, st. v., to come: pres. sg. II. gyf þu on weg cymest, if thou comest from there, 1383; III. cymeð, 2059; pres. subj. sg. III. cume, 23; pl. þonne we ût cymen, when we come out, 3107; inf. cuman, 244, 281, 1870; pret. sg. com, 430, 569, 826, 1134, 1507, 1601, etc.; cwom, 419, 2915; pret. subj. sg. cwôme, 732; pret. part. cumen, 376; pl. cumene, 361. Often with the inf. of a verb of motion, as, com gongan, 711; com sîðian, 721; com in gân, 1645; cwom gân, 1163; com scacan, 1803; cwômon lædan, 239; cwômon sêcean, 268; cwôman scrîðan, 651, etc. [pret. côm, etc.]

be-cuman, to come, to approach, to arrive: pret. syððan niht becom, after the night had come, 115; þe on þâ leóde becom, that had come over the people, 192; þâ he tô hâm becom, 2993. And with inf. following: stefn in becom ... hlynnan under hârne stân, 2553; lyt eft becwom ... hâmes niósan, 2366; ôð þät ende becwom, 1255; similarly, 2117. With acc. of pers.: þâ hyne sió þrag becwom, when this time of battle came over him, 2884.

ofer-cuman, to overcome, to compel: pret. þý he þone feónd ofercwom, thereby he overcame the foe, 1274: pl. hie feónd heora ... ofercômon, 700; pret. part. (w. gen.) nîða ofercumen, compelled by combats, 846.

cumbol, cumbor, st. m., banner: gen. sg. cumbles hyrde, 2506.—Comp. hilte-cumbor.

cund, adj., originating in, descended from: in comp. feorran-cund.

cunnan, verb pret. pres.: 1) to know, to be acquainted with (w. acc. or depend, clause): sg. pres. I. ic mînne can glädne Hrôðulf þät he ... wile, I know my gracious H., that he will..., 1181; II. eard git ne const, thou knowest not yet the land, 1378; III. he þät wyrse ne con, knows no worse, 1740. And reflexive: con him land geare, knows the land well, 2063; pl. men ne cunnon hwyder helrûnan scrîðað, men do not know whither..., 162; pret. sg. ic hine cûðe, knew him, 372; cûðe he duguð þeáw, knew the customs of the distinguished courtiers, 359; so with the acc., 2013; seolfa ne cûðe þurh hwät..., he himself did not know through what..., 3068; pl. sorge ne cûðon, 119; so with the acc., 180, 418, 1234. With both (acc. and depend. clause): nô hie fäder cunnon (scil. nô hie cunnon) hwäðer him ænig wäs ær âcenned dyrnra gâsta, 1356.—2) with inf. following, can, to be able: prs. sg. him bebeorgan ne con, cannot defend himself, 1747; prs. pl. men ne cunnon secgan, cannot say, 50; pret. sg. cûðe reccan, 90; beorgan cûðe, 1446; pret. pl. hêrian ne cûðon, could not praise, 182; pret. subj. healdan cûðe, 2373.

cunnian, w. v., to inquire into, to try, w. gen. or acc.: inf. sund cunnian (figurative for roam over the sea), 1427, 1445; geongne cempan higes cunnian, to try the young warrior's mind, 2046; pret. eard cunnode, tried the home, i.e. came to it, 1501; pl. wada cunnedon, tried the flood, i.e. swam through the sea, 508.

cûð, adj.: 1) known, well known; manifest, certain: nom. sg. undyrne cûð, 150, 410; wîde cûð, 2924; acc. sg. fern. cûðe folme, 1304; cûðe stræte, 1635; nom. pl. ecge cûðe, 1146; acc. pl. cûðe nässas, 1913.—2) renowned: nom. sg. gûðum cûð, 2179; nom. pl. cystum cûðe, 868.—3) also, friendly, dear, good (see un-cûð).—Comp.: un-, wîd-cûð.

cûð-lîce, adv., openly, publicly: comp. nô her cûðlîcor cuman ongunnon lind-häbbende, no shield-bearing men undertook more boldly to come hither (the coast-watchman means by this the secret landing of the Vikings), 244.

cwalu, st. f., murder, fall: in comp. deáð-cwalu.

cweccan (to make alive, see cwic), w. v., to move, to swing: pret. cwehte mägen-wudu, swung the wood of strength (= spear), 235.

cweðan, st. v., to say, to speak: a) absolutely: prs. sg. III. cwið ät beóre, speaks at beer-drinking, 2042.—b) w. acc.: pret. word äfter cwäð, 315; feá worda cwäð, 2247, 2663.—c) with þät following: pret. sg. cwäð, 92, 2159; pl. cwædon, 3182.—d) with þät omitted: pret. cwäð he gûð-cyning sêcean wolde, said he would seek out the war-king, 199; similarly, 1811, 2940.

â-cweðan, to say, to speak, w. acc.: prs. þät word âcwyð, speaks the word, 2047; pret. þät word âcwäð, 655.

ge-cweðan, to say, to speak: a) absolutely: pret. sg. II. swâ þu gecwæde, 2665.—b)w. acc.: pret. wel-hwylc gecwäð, spoke everything, 875; pl. wit þät gecwædon, 535.—c) w. þät following: pret. gecwäð, 858, 988.

cwellan, w. v., (to make die), to kill, to murder: pret. sg. II. þu Grendel cwealdest, 1335.

â-cwellan, to kill: pret. sg. (he) wyrm âcwealde, 887; þone þe Grendel ær mâne âcwealde, whom Grendel had before wickedly murdered, 1056; beorn âcwealde, 2122.

cwên, st. f.: 1) wife, consort (of noble birth): nom. sg. cwên, 62; (Hrôðgâr's), 614, 924; (Finn's), 1154.—2) particularly denoting the queen: nom. sg. beághroden cwên (Wealhþeów), 624; mæru cwên, 2017; fremu folces cwên (Þryðo), 1933; acc. sg. cwên (Wealhþeów), 666.-Comp. folc-cwên.

cwên-lîc, adj., feminine, womanly: nom. sg. ne bið swylc cwênlîc þeáw (such is not the custom of women, does not become a woman), 1941.

cwealm, st. m., violent death, murder, destruction: acc. sg. þone cwealm gewräc, avenged the death (of Abel by Cain), 107; mændon mondryhtnes cwealm, lamented the ruler's fall, 3150.—Comp.: bealo-, deáð-, gâr-cwealm.

cwealm-bealu, st. n., the evil of murder: acc. sg., 1941.

cwealm-cuma, w. m., one coming for murder, a new-comer who contemplates murder: acc. sg. þone cwealm-cuman (of Grendel), 793.

cwic and cwico, adj., quick, having life, alive: acc. sg. cwicne, 793, 2786; gen. sg. âht cwices, something living, 2315; nom. pl. cwice, 98; cwico wäs þâ gena, was still alive, 3094.

cwide, st. m., word, speech, saying: in comp. gegn-, gilp-, hleó-, ðor- [non-existant form—KTH], word-cwide.

cwîðan, st. v., to complain, to lament: inf. w. acc. ongan ... gioguðe cwîðan hilde-strengo, began to lament the (departed) battle-strength of his youth, 2113 [ceare] cwîðan, lament their cares, 3173.

cyme, st. m., coming, arrival: nom. pl. hwanan eówre cyme syndon, whence your coming is, i. e. whence ye are, 257.—Comp. eft-cyme.

cymlîce, adv., (convenienter), splendidly, grandly: comp. cymlîcor, 38.

cyn, st. n., race, both in the general sense, and denoting noble lineage: nom. sg. Fresena cyn, 1094; Wedera (gara, MS.) cyn, 461; acc. sg. eotena cyn, 421; giganta cyn, 1691; dat. sg. Caines cynne, 107; manna cynne, 811, 915, 1726; eówrum (of those who desert Beówulf in battle) cynne, 2886; gen. sg. manna (gumena) cynnes, 702, etc.; mæran cynnes, 1730; lâðan cynnes, 2009, 2355; ûsses cynnes Wægmundinga, 2814; gen. pl. cynna gehwylcum, 98.—Comp.: eormen-, feorh-, frum-, gum-, man-, wyrm-cyn.

cyn, st. n., that which is suitable or proper: gen. pl. cynna (of etiquette) gemyndig, 614.

ge-cynde, adj., innate, peculiar, natural: nom. sg., 2198, 2697.

cyne-dôm, st. m., kingdom, royal dignity: acc. sg., 2377.

cyning, st. m., king: nom. acc. sg. cyning, II, 864, 921, etc.; kyning, 620, 3173; dat. sg. cyninge, 3094; gen. sg. cyninges, 868, 1211; gen. pl. kyning[a] wuldor, of God, 666.—Comp. beorn-, eorð-, folc-, guð-, heáh-, leód-, sæ-, sôð-, þeód-, worold-, wuldor-cyning.

cyning-beald, adj., "nobly bold" (Thorpe), excellently brave (?): nom. pl. cyning-balde men, 1635.

ge-cyssan, w. v., to kiss: pret. gecyste þâ cyning ... þegen betstan, kissed the best thane (Beówulf), 1871.

cyst (choosing, see ceósan), st. f., the select, the best of a thing, good quality, excellence: nom. sg. îrenna cyst, of the swords, 803, 1698; wæpna cyst, 1560; symbla cyst, choice banquet, 1233; acc. sg. îrena cyst, 674; dat. pl. foldwegas ... cystum cûðe, known through excellent qualities, 868; (cyning) cystum gecýðed, 924.—Comp. gum-, hilde-cyst.

cýð. See on-cýð.

cýðan (see cûð), w. v., to make known, to manifest, to show: imp. sg. mägen-ellen cýð, show thy heroic strength, 660; inf. cwealmbealu cýðan, 1941; ellen cýðan, 2696.

ge-cýðan (to make known, hence): 1) to give information, to announce: inf. andsware gecýðan, to give answer, 354; gerund, tô gecýðanne hwanan eówre cyme syndon (to show whence ye come), 257; pret. part. sôð is gecýðed þät ... (the truth has become known, it has shown itself to be true), 701; Higelâce wäs sîð Beówulfes snûde gecýðed, the arrival of B. was quickly announced, 1972; similarly, 2325.—2) to make celebrated, in pret. part.: wäs mîn fäder folcum gecýðed (my father was known to warriors), 262; wäs his môdsefa manegum gecýðed, 349; cystum gecýðed, 924.

cýððu (properly, condition of being known, hence relationship), st. f., home, country, land: in comp. feor-cýððu.

[should be cýð, feor-cýð—KTH]

ge-cýpan, w. v., to purchase: inf. näs him ænig þearf þät he ... þurfe wyrsan wîgfrecan weorðe gecýpan, had need to buy with treasures no inferior warrior, 2497.

D

daroð, st. m., spear: dat. pl. dareðum lâcan (to fight), 2849.

ge-dâl, st. n., parting, separation: nom. sg. his worulde gedâl, his separation from the world (his death), 3069.—Comp. ealdor-, lîf-gedâl.

däg, st. m., day: nom. sg. däg, 485, 732, 2647; acc. sg. däg, 2400; andlangne däg, the whole day, 2116; morgenlongne däg (the whole morning), 2895; ôð dômes däg, till judgment-day, 3070; dat. sg. on þäm däge þysses lîfes (eo tempore, tunc), 197, 791, 807; gen. sg. däges, 1601, 2321; hwîl däges, a day's time, a whole day, 1496; däges and nihtes, day and night, 2270; däges, by day, 1936; dat. pl. on tyn dagum, in ten days, 3161.—Comp. ær-, deáð-, ende-, ealdor-, fyrn-, geâr-, læn-, lîf-, swylt-, win-däg, an-däges.

däg-hwîl, st. f., day-time: acc. pl. þät he däghwîla gedrogen häfde eorðan wynne, that he had enjoyed earth's pleasures during the days (appointed to him), i.e. that his life was finished, 2727.—(After Grein.)

däg-rîm, st. n., series of days, fixed number of days: nom. sg. dôgera dägrîm (number of the days of his life), 824.

dæd, st. f., deed, action: acc. sg. deórlîce dæd, 585; dômleásan dæd, 2891; frêcne dæde, 890; dæd, 941; acc. pl. Grendles dæda, 195; gen. pl. dæda, 181, 479, 2455, etc.; dat. pl. dædum, 1228, 2437, etc.—Comp. ellen-, fyren-, lof-dæd.

dæd-cêne, adj., bold in deed: nom. sg. dæd-cêne mon, 1646.

dæd-fruma, w. m., doer of deeds, doer: nom. sg., of Grendel, 2091.

dæd-bata, w. m., he who pursues with his deeds: nom. sg., of Grendel, 275.

dædla, w. m., doer: in comp. mân-for-dædla.

dæl, st. m., part, portion: acc. sg. dæl, 622, 2246, 3128; acc. pl. dælas, 1733.—Often dæl designates the portion of a thing or of a quality which belongs in general to an individual, as, ôð þät him on innan oferhygda dæl weaxeð, till in his bosom his portion of arrogance increases: i.e. whatever arrogance he has, his arrogance, 1741. Biówulfe wearð dryhtmâðma dæl deáðe, forgolden, to Beówulf his part of the splendid treasures was paid with death, i.e. whatever splendid treasures were allotted to him, whatever part of them he could win in the fight with the dragon, 2844; similarly, 1151, 1753, 2029, 2069, 3128.

dælan, w. v., to divide, to bestow, to share with, w. acc.: pres. sg. III. mâdmas dæleð, 1757; pres. subj. þät he wið aglæcean eofoðo dæle, that he bestow his strength upon (strive with) the bringer of misery the drake), 2535; inf. hringas dælan, 1971; pret. beágas dælde, 80; sceattas dælde, 1687.

be-dælan, w. instr., (to divide), to tear away from, to strip of: pret. part. dreámum (dreáme) bedæled, deprived of the heavenly joys (of Grendel), 722, 1276.

ge-dælan: 1) to distribute: inf. (w. acc. of the thing distributed); bær on innan eall gedælan geongum and ealdum swylc him god sealde, distribute therein to young and old all that God had given him, 71.—2) to divide, to separate, with acc.: inf. sundur gedælan lîf wið lîce, separate life from the body, 2423; so pret. subj. þät he gedælde ... ânra gehwylces lîf wið lîce, 732.

denn (cf. denu, dene, vallis), st. n., den, cave: acc. sg. þäs wyrmes denn, 2761; gen. sg. (draca) gewât dennes niósian, 3046.

ge-defe, adj.: 1) (impersonal) proper, appropriate: nom. sg. swâ hit gedêfe wäs (bið), as was appropriate, proper, 561, 1671, 3176.—2) good, kind, friendly; nom sg. beó þu suna mînum dædum gedêfe, be friendly to my son by deeds (support my son in deed, namely, when he shall have attained to the government), 1228.—Comp. un-ge-dêfelîce.

dêman (see dôm), w. v.: 1) to judge, to award justly: pres. subj. mærðo dême, 688.—2) to judge favorably, to praise, to glorify: pret. pl. his ellenweorc duguðum dêmdon, praised his heroic deed with all their might, 3176.

dêmend, judge: dæda dêmend (of God), 181.

deal, adj., "superbus, clarus, fretus" (Grimm): nom. pl. þryðum dealle, 494.

deád, adj., dead: nom. sg. 467, 1324, 2373; acc. sg. deádne, 1310.

deáð, st. m., death, dying: nom. sg, deáð, 441, 447, etc.; acc. sg. deáð, 2169; dat. sg. deáðe, 1389, 1590, (as instr.) 2844, 3046; gen. sg. deáðes wylm, 2270; deáðes nýd, 2455.—Comp. gûð-, wäl-, wundor-deáð.

deáð-bed, st. n., death-bed: dat. sg. deáð-bedde fäst, 2902.

deáð-cwalu, st. f., violent death, ruin and death: dat. pl. tô deáð-cwalum, 1713.

deáð-cwealm, st. m., violent death, murder: nom. sg. 1671.

deáð-däg, st. m., death-day, dying day: dat. sg. äfter deáð-däge (after his death), 187, 886.

deáð-fæge, adj., given over to death: nom. sg. (Grendel) deáð-fæge deóg, had hidden himself, being given over to death (mortally wounded), 851.

deáð-scûa, w. m., death-shadow, ghostly being, demon of death: nom. sg. deorc deáð-scûa (of Grendel), 160.

deáð-wêrig, adj., weakened by death, i.e. dead: acc. sg. deáð-wêrigne, 2126. See wêrig.

deáð-wîc, st. n. death's house, home of death: acc. sg. gewât deáðwîc seón (had died), 1276.

deágan (O.H.G. pret. part. tougan, hidden), to conceal one's self, to hide: pret. (for pluperf.) deóg, 851.—Leo.

deorc, adj., dark: of the night, nom. sg. (nihthelm) deorc, 1791; dat. pl. deorcum nihtum, 275, 2212; of the terrible Grendel, nom. sg. deorc deáð-scûa, 160.

deófol, st. m. n., devil: gen. sg. deófles, 2089; gen. pl. deófla, of Grendel and his troop, 757, 1681.

deógol, dýgol, adj., concealed, hidden, inaccessible, beyond information, unknown: nom. sg. deógol dædhata (of Grendel), 275; acc. sg. dýgel lond, inaccessible land, 1358.

deóp, st. n., deep, abyss: acc. sg., 2550.

deóp, adv. deeply: acc. sg. deóp wäter, 509, 1905.

diópe, adj., deep: hit ôð dômes däg diópe benemdon þeódnas mære, the illustrious rulers had charmed it deeply till the judgment-day, had laid a solemn spell upon it, 3070.

deór, st. n., animal, wild animal: in comp. mere-, sæ-deór.

deór, adj.: 1) wild, terrible: nom. sg. diór dæd-fruma (of Grendel), 2091.—2) bold, brave: nom. nænig ... deór, 1934.—Comp.: heaðu-, hilde-deór.

deóre, dýre, adj.: 1) dear, costly (high in price): acc. sg. dýre îren, 2051; drincfät dýre (deóre), 2307, 2255; instr. sg. deóran sweorde, 561; dat. sg. deórum mâðme, 1529; nom. pl. dýre swyrd, 3049; acc. pl. deóre (dýre) mâðmas, 2237, 3132.—2) dear, beloved, worthy: nom. sg. f., äðelum dióre, worthy by reason of origin, 1950; dat. sg. äfter deórum men, 1880; gen. sg. deórre duguðe, 488; superl. acc. sg. aldorþegn þone deórestan, 1310.

deór-lîc, adj., bold, brave: acc. sg. deórlîce dæd, 585. See deór.

disc, st. m., disc, plate, flat dish: nom. acc. pl. discas, 2776, 3049.

ge-dîgan. See ge-dýgan.

dol-gilp, st. m., mad boast, foolish pride, vain-glory, thoughtless audacity: dat. sg. for dolgilpe, 509.

dol-lîc, adj., audacious: gen. pl. mæst ... dæda dollîcra, 2647.

dol-sceaða, w. m., bold enemy: acc. sg. þone dol-scaðan (Grendel), 479.

dôgor, st. m. n., day; 1) day as a period of 24 hours: gen. sg. ymb ântîd ôðres dôgores, at the same time of the next day, 219; morgen-leóht ôðres dôgores, the morning-light of the second day, 606.—2) day in the usual sense: acc. sg. n. þys dôgor, during this day, 1396; instr. þý dôgore, 1798; forman dôgore, 2574; gen. pl. dôgora gehwâm, 88; dôgra gehwylce, 1091; dôgera dägrim, the number of his days (the days of his life), 824.—3) day in the wider sense of time: dat. pl. ufaran dôgrum, in later days, times, 2201, 2393.—Comp. ende-dôgor.

dôgor-gerîm, st. n., series of days: gen. sg. wäs eall sceacen dôgor-gerîmes, the whole number of his days (his life) was past, 2729.

dôhtor, st. f., daughter: nom. acc. sg. dôhtor, 375, 1077, 1930, 1982, etc.

dôm, st. m.: I., condition, state in general; in comp. cyne-, wis-dôm.—II., having reference to justice, hence: 1) judgment, judicial opinion: instr. sg. weotena dôme, according to the judgment of the Witan, 1099. 2) custom: äfter dôme, according to custom, 1721. 3) court, tribunal: gen. sg. miclan dômes, 979; ôð dômes däg, 3070, both times of the last judgment.—III., condition of freedom or superiority, hence: 4) choice, free will: acc. sg. on sînne sylfes dôm, according to his own choice, 2148; instr. sg. selfes dôme, 896, 2777. 5) might, power: nom. sg. dôm godes, 2859; acc. sg. Eofores ânne dôm, 2965; dat. sg. drihtnes dôme, 441. 6) glory, honor, renown: nom. sg. [dôm], 955; dôm unlytel, not a little glory, 886; þät wäs forma sîð deórum mâðme þät his dôm âläg, it was the first time to the dear treasure (the sword Hrunting) that its fame was not made good, 1529; acc. sg. ic me dôm gewyrce, make renown for myself, 1492; þät þu ne âlæte dôm gedreósan, that thou let not honor fall, 2667; dat. instr. sg. þær he dôme forleás, here he lost his reputation, 1471; dôme gewurðad, adorned with glory, 1646; gen. sg. wyrce se þe môte dômes, let him make himself reputation, whoever is able, 1389. 7) splendor (in heaven): acc. sôð-fästra dôm, the glory of the saints, 2821.

dôm-leás, adj., without reputation, inglorious: acc. sg. f. dômleásan dæd, 2891.

dôn, red. v., to do, to make, to treat: 1) absolutely: imp. dôð swâ ic bidde, do as I beg, 1232.—2) w. acc.: inf. hêt hire selfre sunu on bæl dôn, 1117; pret. þâ he him of dyde îsernbyrnan, took off the iron corselet, 672; (þonne) him Hûnlâfing, ... billa sêlest, on bearm dyde, when he made a present to him of Hûnlâfing, the best of swords, 1145; dyde him of healse hring gyldenne, took off the gold ring from his neck, 2810; ne him þäs wyrmes wîg for wiht dyde, eafoð and ellen, nor did he reckon as anything the drake's fighting, power, and strength, 2349; pl. hi on beorg dydon bêg and siglu, placed in the (grave-) mound rings and ornaments, 3165.—3) representing preceding verbs: inf. tô Geátum sprec mildum wordum! swâ sceal man dôn, as one should do, 1173; similarly, 1535, 2167; pres. metod eallum weóld, swâ he nu git dêð, the creator ruled over all, as he still does, 1059; similarly, 2471, 2860, and (sg. for pl.) 1135; pret. II. swâ þu ær dydest, 1677; III. swâ he nu gyt dyde, 957; similarly, 1382, 1892, 2522; pl. swâ hie oft ær dydon, 1239; similarly, 3071. With the case also which the preceding verb governs: wên' ic þät he wille ... Geátena leóde etan unforhte, swâ he oft dyde mägen Hrêðmanna, I believe he will wish to devour the Geát people, the fearless, as he often did (devoured) the bloom of the Hrêðmen, 444; gif ic þät gefricge ... þät þec ymbesittend egesan þýwað, swâ þec hetende hwîlum dydon, that the neighbors distress thee as once the enemy did thee (i.e. distressed), 1829; gif ic ôwihte mäg þînre môd-lufan mâran tilian þonne ic gyt dyde, if I can with anything obtain thy greater love than I have yet done, 1825; similarly, pl. þonne þâ dydon, 44.

ge-dôn, to do, to make, with the acc. and predicate adj.: prs. (god) gedêð him swâ gewealdene worolde dælas, makes the parts of the world (i.e. the whole world) so subject that ..., 1733; inf. ne hyne on medo-bence micles wyrðne drihten wereda gedôn wolde, nor would the leader of the people much honor him at the mead-banquet, 2187. With adv.: he mec þær on innan ... gedôn wolde, wished to place me in there, 2091.

draca, w. m., drake, dragon: nom. sg., 893, 2212; acc. sg. dracan, 2403, 3132; gen. sg., 2089, 2291, 2550.—Comp.: eorð-, fýr-, lêg-, lîg-, nîð-draca.

on-drædan, st. v., w. acc. of the thing and dat. of the pers., to fear, to be afraid of: inf. þät þu him on-drædan ne þearft ... aldorbealu, needest not fear death for them, 1675; pret. nô he him þâ säcce ondrêd, was not afraid of the combat, 2348.

ge-dräg (from dragan, in the sense se gerere), st. n., demeanor, actions: acc. sg. sêcan deófla gedräg, 757.

drepan, st. v., to hit, to strike: pret. sg. sweorde drep ferhð-genîðlan, 2881; pret. part. bið on hreðre ... drepen biteran stræle, struck in the breast with piercing arrow, 1746; wäs in feorh dropen (fatally hit), 2982.

drepe, st. m., blow, stroke: acc. sg. drepe, 1590.

drêfan, ge-drêfan, w. v., to move, to agitate, to stir up: inf. gewât ... drêfan deóp wäter (to navigate), 1905; pret. part. wäter under stôd dreórig and gedrêfed, 1418.

dreám, st. m., rejoicing, joyous actions, joy: nom. sg. häleða dreám, 497; acc. sg. dreám hlûdne, 88; þu ... dreám healdende, thou who livest in rejoicing (at the drinking-carouse), who art joyous, 1228: dat. instr. sg. dreáme bedæled, 1276; gen. pl. dreáma leás, 851; dat. pl. dreámum (here adverbial) lifdon, lived in rejoicing, joyously, 99; dreámum bedæled, 722; the last may refer also to heavenly joys.—Comp. gleó-, gum-, man-, sele-dreám.

dreám-leás, adj., without rejoicing, joyless: nom. sg. of King Heremôd, 1721.

dreógan, st. v.: 1) to lead a life, to be in a certain condition: pret. dreáh äfter dôme, lived in honor, honorably, 2180; pret. pl. fyren-þearfe ongeat, þät hie ær drugon aldorleáse lange hwile, (God) had seen the great distress, (had seen) that they had lived long without a ruler (?), 15.—2) to experience, to live through, to do, to make, to enjoy: imp. dreóh symbelwynne, pass through the pleasure of the meal, to enjoy the meal, 1783; inf. driht-scype dreógan (do a heroic deed), 1471; pret. sundnytte dreáh (had the occupation of swimming, i.e. swam through the sea), 2361; pret. pl. hie gewin drugon (fought), 799; hî sîð drugon, made the way, went, 1967.—3) to experience, to bear, to suffer: scealt werhðo dreógan, shall suffer damnation, 590; pret. þegn-sorge dreáh, bore sorrow for his heroes, 131; nearoþearfe dreáh, 422; pret. pl. inwidsorge þe hie ær drugon, 832; similarly, 1859.

â-dreógan, to suffer, to endure: inf. wræc âdreógan, 3079.

ge-dreógan, to live through, to enjoy, pret. part. þät he ... gedrogen häfde eorðan wynne, that he had now enjoyed the pleasures of earth (i.e. that he was at his death), 2727.

dreór, st. m., blood dropping or flowing from wounds: instr. sg. dreóre, 447.—Comp. heoru-, sâwul-, wäl-dreór.

dreór-fâh, adj., colored with blood, spotted with blood: nom. sg. 485.

dreórig, adj., bloody, bleeding: nom. sg. wäter stôd dreórig, 1418; acc. sg. dryhten sînne driórigne fand, 2790.—Comp. heoru-dreórig.

ge-dreósan, st. v., to fall down, to sink: pres. sg. III. lîc-homa læne gedreóseð, the body, belonging to death, sinks down, 1755; inf. þät þu ne âlæte dôm gedreósan, honor fall, sink, 2667.

drincan, st. v., to drink (with and without the acc.): pres. part. nom. pl. ealo drincende, 1946; pret. blôd êdrum dranc, drank the blood in streams(?), 743; pret. pl. druncon wîn weras, the men drank wine, 1234; þær guman druncon, where the men drank, 1649. The pret. part., when it stands absolutely, has an active sense: nom. pl. druncne dryhtguman, ye warriors who have drunk, are drinking, 1232; acc. pl. nealles druncne slôg heorð-geneátas, slew not his hearth-companions who had drunk with him, i.e. at the banquet, 2180. With the instr. it means drunken: nom. sg. beóre (wîne) druncen, 531, 1468; nom. pl. beóre druncne, 480.

drîfan, st. v., to drive: pres. pl. þâ þe brentingas ofer flôda genipu feorran drîfað, who drive their ships thither from afar over the darkness of the sea, 2809; inf. (w. acc.) þeáh þe he [ne] meahte on mere drîfan hringedstefnan, although he could not drive the ship on the sea, 1131.

to-drîfan, to drive apart, to disperse: pret. ôð þät unc flôd tôdrâf, 545.

drohtoð, st. m., mode of living or acting, calling, employment: nom. sg. ne wäs his drohtoð þær swylce he ær gemêtte, there was no employment for him (Grendel) there such as he had found formerly, 757.

drusian, w. v. (cf. dreósan, properly, to be ready to fall; here of water), to stagnate, to be putrid. pret. lagu drusade (through the blood of Grendel and his mother), 1631.

dryht, driht, st. f., company, troop, band of warriors; noble band: in comp. mago-driht.

ge-dryht, ge-driht, st. f., troop, band of noble warriors: nom. sg. mînra eorla gedryht, 431; acc. sg. äðelinga gedriht, 118; mid his eorla (häleða) gedriht (gedryht), 357, 663; similarly, 634, 1673.—Comp. sibbe-gedriht.

dryht-bearn, st. n., youth from a noble warrior band, noble young man: nom. sg. dryhtbearn Dena, 2036.

dryhten, drihten, st. m., commander, lord: a) temporal lord: nom. sg. dryhten, 1485, 2001, etc.; drihten, 1051; dat. dryhtne, 2483, etc.; dryhten, 1832.—b) God: nom. drihten, 108, etc.; dryhten, 687, etc.; dat. sg. dryhtne, 1693, etc.; drihtne, 1399, etc.; gen. sg. dryhtnes, 441; drihtnes, 941.—Comp.: freá-, freó-, gum-, man-, sige-, wine-dryhten.

dryht-guma, w. m., one of a troop of warriors, noble warrior: dat. sg. drihtguman, 1389; nom. pl. drihtguman, 99; dryhtguman, 1232; dat. pl. ofer dryhtgumum, 1791 (of Hrôðgâr's warriors).

dryht-lîc, adj., (that which befits a noble troop of warriors), noble, excellent: dryhtlîc îren, excellent sword, 893; acc. sg. f. (with an acc. sg. n.) drihtlîce wîf (of Hildeburh), 1159.

dryht-mâðum, st. m., excellent jewel, splendid treasure: gen. pl. dryhtmâðma, 2844.

dryht-scipe, st. m., (lord-ship) warlike virtue, bravery; heroic deed: acc. sg. drihtscype dreógan, to do a heroic deed, 1471.

dryht-sele, st. m., excellent, splendid hall: nom. sg. driht-sele, 485; dryhtsele, 768; acc. sg. dryhtsele, 2321.

dryht-sib, st. f., peace or friendship between troops of noble warriors: gen. sg. dryhtsibbe, 2069.

drync, st. m., drink: in comp. heoru-drync.

drync-fät, st. n., vessel for drink, to receive the drink: acc. sg., 2255; drinc-fät, 2307.

drysmian, w. v., to become obscure, gloomy (through the falling rain): pres. sg. III. lyft drysmað, 1376.

drysne, adj. See on-drysne.

dugan, v., to avail, to be capable, to be good: pres. sg. III. hûru se aldor deáh, especially is the prince capable, 369; ðonne his ellen deáh, if his strength avails, is good, 573; þe him selfa deáh, who is capable of himself, who can rely on himself, 1840; pres. subj. þeáh þîn wit duge, though, indeed, your understanding be good, avail, 590; similarly, 1661, 2032; pret. sg. þu ûs wel dohtest, you did us good, conducted yourself well towards us, 1822; similarly, nu seó hand ligeð se þe eów welhwylcra wilna dohte, which was helpful to each one of your desires, 1345; pret. subj. þeáh þu heaðoræsa gehwær dohte, though thou wast everywhere strong in battle, 526.

duguð (state of being fit, capable), st. f.: 1) capability, strength: dat. pl. for dugeðum, in ability(?), 2502; duguðum dêmdon, praised with all their might(?), 3176.—2) men capable of bearing arms, band of warriors, esp., noble warriors: nom. sg. duguð unlytel, 498; duguð, 1791, 2255; dat. sg. for duguðe, before the heroes, 2021; nalles frätwe geaf ealdor duguðe, gave the band of heroes no treasure (more), 2921; leóda duguðe on lâst, upon the track of the heroes of the people, i.e. after them, 2946; gen. sg. cûðe he duguðe þeáw, the custom of the noble warriors, 359; deórre duguðe, 488; similarly, 2239, 2659; acc. pl. duguða, 2036.—3) contrasted with geogoð, duguð designates the noted warriors of noble birth (as in the Middle Ages, knights in contrast with squires): so gen. sg. duguðe and geogoðe, 160; gehwylc ... duguðe and iogoðe, 1675; duguðe and geogoðe dæl æghwylcne, 622.

durran, v. pret. and pres. to dare; prs. sg. II. þu dearst bîdan, darest to await, 527; III. he gesêcean dear, 685; pres. subj. sêc gyf þu dyrre, seek (Grendel's mother), if thou dare, 1380; pret. dorste, 1463, 1469, etc.; pl. dorston, 2849.

duru, st. f., door, gate, wicket: nom. sg., 722; acc. sg. [duru], 389.

ge-dûfan, st. v., to dip in, to sink into: pret. þät sweord gedeáf (the sword sank into the drake, of a blow), 2701.

þurh-dûfan, to dive through; to swim through, diving: pret. wäter up þurh-deáf, swam through the water upwards (because he was before at the bottom), 1620.

dwellan, w. v., to mislead, to hinder: prs. III. nô hine wiht dweleð, âdl ne yldo, him nothing misleads, neither sickness nor age, 1736.

dyhtig, adj., useful, good for: nom. sg. n. sweord ... ecgum dyhtig, 1288.

dynnan, w. v., to sound, to groan, to roar: pret. dryhtsele (healwudu, hruse) dynede, 768, 1318, 2559.

dyrne, adj.: 1) concealed, secret, retired: nom. sg. dyrne, 271; acc. sg. dryhtsele dyrnne (of the drake's cave-hall), 2321.—2) secret, malicious, hidden by sorcery: dat. instr. sg. dyrnan cräfte, with secret magic art, 2291; dyrnum cräfte, 2169; gen. pl. dyrnra gâsta, of malicious spirits (of Grendel's kin), 1358.—Comp. un-dyrne.

dyrne, adv., in secret, secretly: him ...äfter deórum men dyrne langað, longs in secret for the dear man, 1880.

dyrstig, adj., bold, daring: þeáh þe he dæda gehwäs dyrstig wære, although he had been courageous for every deed, 2839.

ge-dýgan, ge-dîgan, w. v., to endure, to overcome, with the acc. of the thing endured: pres. sg. II. gif þu þät ellenweorc aldre gedîgest, if thou survivest the heroic work with thy life, 662; III. þät þone hilderæs hâl gedîgeð, that he survives the battle in safety, 300; similarly, inf. unfæge gedîgan weán and wräcsîð, 2293; hwäðer sêl mæge wunde gedýgan, which of the two can stand the wounds better (come off with life), 2532; ne meahte unbyrnende deóp gedýgan, could not endure the deep without burning (could not hold out in the deep), 2550; pret. sg. I. III. ge-dîgde, 578, 1656, 2351, 2544.

dýgol. See deógol.

dýre. See deóre.

E

ecg, st. f., edge of the sword, point: nom. sg. sweordes ecg, 1107; ecg, 1525, etc.; acc. sg. wið ord and wið ecge ingang forstôd, defended the entrance against point and edge (i.e. against spear and sword), 1550; mêces ecge, 1813; nom. pl. ecge, 1146.—Sword, battle-axe, any cutting weapon: nom. sg. ne wäs ecg bona (not the sword killed him), 2507; sió ecg brûn (Beówulf's sword Nägling), 2578; hyne ecg fornam, the sword snatched him away, 2773, etc.; nom. pl. ecga, 2829; dat. pl. äscum and ecgum, 1773; dat. pl. (but denoting only one sword) eácnum ecgum, 2141; gen. pl. ecga, 483, 806, 1169;—blade: ecg wäs îren, 1460.—Comp.: brûn-, heard-, stýl-ecg, adj.

ecg-bana, w. m., murderer by the sword: dat. sg. Cain wearð tô ecg-banan ângan brêðer, 1263.

ecg-hete, st. m., sword-hate, enmity which the sword carries out: nom. sg., 84, 1739.

ecg-þracu, st. f., sword-storm (of violent combat): acc. atole ecg-þräce, 597.

ed-hwyrft, st. m., return (of a former condition): þâ þær sôna wearð edhwyrft eorlum, siððan inne fealh Grendles môdor (i.e. after Grendel's mother had penetrated into the hall, the former perilous condition, of the time of the visits of Grendel, returned to the men), 1282.

ed-wendan, w. v., to turn back, to yield, to leave off: inf. gyf him edwendan æfre scolde bealuwa bisigu, if for him the affliction of evil should ever cease, 280.

ed-wenden, st. f., turning, change: nom. sg. edwenden, 1775; ed-wenden torna gehwylces (reparation for former neglect), 2189.

edwît-lîf, st. n., life in disgrace: nom. sg., 2892.

efn, adj., even, like, with preceding on, and with depend. dat., upon the same level, near: him on efn ligeð ealdorgewinna, lies near him, 2904.

efnan (see äfnan) w. v., to carry out, to perform, to accomplish: pres. subj. eorlscype efne (accomplish knightly deeds), 2536; inf. eorlscipe efnan, 2623; sweorda gelâc efnan (to battle), 1042; gerund. tô efnanne, 1942; pret. eorlscipe efnde, 2134, 3008.

efne, adv., even, exactly, precisely, just, united with swâ or swylc: efne swâ swîðe swâ, just so much as, 1093; efne swâ sîde swâ, 1224; wäs se gryre lässa efne swâ micle swâ, by so much the less as ..., 1284; leóht inne stôd efne swâ ... scîneð, a gleam stood therein (in the sword) just as when ... shines, 1572; efne swâ hwylc mägða swâ þone magan cende (a woman who has borne such a son), 944; efne swâ hwylcum manna swâ him gemet þûhte, to just such a man as seemed good to him, 3058; efne swylce mæla swylce ... þearf gesælde, just at the times at which necessity commanded it, 1250.

eft, adv.: l) thereupon, afterwards: 56, 1147, 2112, 3047, etc.; eft sôna bið, then it happens immediately, 1763; bôt eft cuman, help come again, 281.—2) again, on the other side: þät hine on ylde eft gewunigen wilgesîðas, that in old age again (also on their side) willing companions should be attached to him, 22;—anew, again: 135, 604, 693, 1557, etc.; eft swâ ær, again as formerly, 643.—3) retro, rursus, back: 123, 296, 854, etc.; þät hig äðelinges eft ne wêndon (did not believe that he would come back), 1597.

eft-cyme, st. m., return: gen. sg. eftcymes, 2897.

eft-sîð, st. m., journey back, return: acc. sg. 1892; gen. sg. eft-sîðes georn, 2784; acc. pl. eftsîðas teáh, went the road back, i.e. returned, 1333.

egesa, egsa (state of terror, active or passive): l) frightfulness: acc. sg. þurh egsan, 276; gen. egesan ne gýmeð, cares for nothing terrible, is not troubled about future terrors(?), 1758.—2) terror, horror, fear: nom. sg. egesa, 785; instr. sg. egesan, 1828, 2737.—Comp.: glêd-, lîg-, wäter-egesa.

eges-full, adj., horrible (full of fear, fearful), 2930.

eges-lîc, adj., terrible, bringing terror: of Grendel's head, 1650; of the beginning of the fight with the drake, 2310; of the drake, 2826.

egle, adj., causing aversion, hideous: nom. pl. neut., or, more probably, perhaps, adverbial, egle (MS. egl), 988.

egsian (denominative from egesa), w. v., to have terror, distress: pret. (as pluperf.) egsode eorl(?), 6.

ehtian, w. v., to esteem, to make prominent with praise: III. pl. pres. þät þe ... weras ehtigað, that thee men shall esteem, praise, 1223.

elde (those who generate, cf. O.N. al-a, generare), st. m. only in the pl., men: dat. pl. eldum, 2215; mid eldum, among men, 2612.—See ylde.

eldo, st. f., age: instr. sg. eldo gebunden, 2112.

el-land, st. n., foreign land, exile: acc. sg. sceall ... elland tredan, (shall be banished), 3020.

ellen, st. n., strength, heroic strength, bravery: nom. sg. ellen, 573; eafoð and ellen, 903; Geáta ... eafoð and ellen, 603; acc. sg. eafoð and ellen, 2350; ellen cýðan, show bravery, 2696; ellen fremedon, exercised heroic strength, did heroic deeds, 3; similarly, ic gefremman sceal eorlîc ellen, 638; ferh ellen wräc, life drove out the strength, i.e. with the departing life (of the dragon) his strength left him, 2707; dat. sg. on elne, 2507, 2817; as instr. þâ wäs ät þam geongum grim andswaru êðbegête þâm þe ær his elne forleás, then it was easy for (every one of) those who before had lost his hero-courage, to obtain rough words from the young man (Wîglâf), 2862; mid elne, 1494, 2536; elne, alone, in adverbial sense, strongly, zealously, and with the nearly related meaning, hurriedly, transiently, 894, 1098, 1968, 2677, 2918; gen. sg. elnes lät, 1530; þâ him wäs elnes þearf, 2877.—Comp. mägen-ellen.

ellen-dæd, st. f., heroic deed: dat. pl. -dædum, 877, 901.

ellen-gæst, st. m., strength-spirit, demon with heroic strength: nom. sg. of Grendel, 86.

ellen-lîce, adv., strongly, with heroic strength, 2123.

ellen-mærðu, st. f., renown of heroic strength, dat. pl. -mærðum, 829, 1472.

ellen-rôf, adj., renowned for strength: nom. sg. 340, 358, 3064; dat. pl. -rôfum, 1788.

ellen-seóc, adj., infirm in strength: acc. sg. þeóden ellensiócne (the mortally wounded king, Beówulf), 2788.

ellen-weorc, st. n., (strength-work), heroic deed, achievement in battle: acc. sg. 662, 959, 1465, etc.; gen. pl. ellen-weorca, 2400.

elles, adv., else, otherwise: a (modal), in another manner, 2521.—b (local), elles hwær, somewhere else, 138; elles hwergen, 2591.

ellor, adv., to some other place, 55, 2255.

ellor-gâst, -gæst, st. m., spirit living elsewhere (standing outside of the community of mankind): nom. sg. se ellorgâst (Grendel), 808; (Grendel's mother), 1622; ellorgæst (Grendel's mother), 1618; acc. pl. ellorgæstas, 1350.

ellor-sîð, st. m., departure, death: nom. sg. 2452.

elra, adj. (comparative of a not existing form, ele, Goth. aljis, alius), another: dat. sg. on elran men, 753.

el-þeódig, adj., of another people: foreign: acc. pl. el-þeódige men, 336.

ende, st. m., the extreme: hence, 1) end: nom. sg. aldres (lîfes) ende, 823, 2845; ôð þät ende becwom (scil. unrihtes), 1255; acc. sg. ende lîfgesceafta (lîfes, læn-daga), 3064, 1387, 2343; häfde eorðscrafa ende genyttod, had used the end of the earth-caves (had made use of the caves for the last time), 3047; dat. sg. ealdres (lîfes) ät ende, 2791, 2824; eoletes ät ende, 224.—2) boundary: acc. sg. sîde rîce þät he his selfa ne mäg ... ende geþencean, the wide realm, so that he himself cannot comprehend its boundaries, 1735.—3) summit, head: dat. sg. eorlum on ende, to the nobles at the end (the highest courtiers), 2022.—Comp. woruld-ende.

ende-däg, st. m., last day, day of death: nom. sg. 3036; acc. sg. 638.

ende-dôgor, st. m., last day, day of death: gen. sg. bega on wênum endedôgores and eftcymes leótes monnes (hesitating between the belief in the death and in the return of the dear man), 2897.

ende-lâf, st. f., last remnant: nom. sg. þu eart ende-lâf ûsses cynnes, art the last of our race, 2814.

ende-leán, st. n., final reparation: acc. sg. 1693.

ende-sæta, w. m., he who sits on the border, boundary-guard: nom. sg. (here of the strand-watchman), 241.

ende-stäf, st. m. (elementum finis), end: acc. sg. hit on endestäf eft gelimpeð, then it draws near to the end, 1754.

ge-endian, w. v., to end: pret. part. ge-endod, 2312.

enge, adj., narrow: acc. pl. enge ânpaðas, narrow paths, 1411.

ent, st. m., giant: gen. pl. enta ær-geweorc (the sword-hilt out of the dwelling-place of Grendel), 1680; enta geweorc (the dragon's cave), 2718; eald-enta ær-geweorc (the costly things in the dragon's cave), 2775.

entisc, adj., coming from giants: acc. sg. entiscne helm, 2980.

etan, st. v., to eat, to consume: pres. sg. III. blôdig wäl ... eteð ân-genga, he that goes alone (Grendel) will devour the bloody corpse, 448; inf. Geátena leóde ... etan, 444.

þurh-etan, to eat through: pret. part. pl. nom. swyrd ... þurhetone, swords eaten through (by rust), 3050.

Ê

êc. See eác.

êce, adj., everlasting; nom. êce drihten (God), 108; acc. sg. êce eorðreced, the everlasting earth-hall (the dragon's cave), 2720; geceás êcne ræd, chose the everlasting gain (died), 1202; dat. sg. êcean dryhtne, 1693, 1780, 2331; acc. pl. geceós êce rædas, 1761.

êdre. See ædre.

êð-begête, adj., easy to obtain, ready: nom. sg. þâ wäs ät þam geongum grim andswaru êð-begête, then from the young man (Wîglâf) it was an easy thing to get a gruff answer, 2862.

êðe. See eáðe.

êðel, st. m., hereditary possessions, hereditary estate: acc. sg. swæsne êðel, 520; dat. sg. on êðle, 1731.—In royal families the hereditary possession is the whole realm: hence, acc. sg. êðel Scyldinga, of the kingdom of the Scyldings, 914; (Offa) wîsdôme heóld êðel sînne, ruled with wisdom his inherited kingdom, 1961.

êðel-riht, st. n., hereditary privileges (rights that belong to a hereditary estate): nom. sg. eard êðel-riht, estate and inherited privileges, 2199.

êðel-stôl, st. m., hereditary seat, inherited throne: acc. pl. êðel-stôlas, 2372.

êðel-turf, st. f., inherited ground, hereditary estate: dat. sg. on mînre êðeltyrf, 410.

êðel-weard, st. m., lord of the hereditary estate (realm): nom. sg. êðelweard (king), 1703, 2211; dat. sg. Eást-Dena êðel wearde (King Hrôðgâr), 617.

êðel-wyn, st. f., joy in, or enjoyment of, hereditary possessions: nom. sg. nu sceal ... eall êðelwyn eówrum cynne, lufen âlicgean, now shall your race want all home-joy, and subsistence(?) (your race shall be banished from its hereditary abode), 2886; acc. sg. he me lond forgeaf, eard êðelwyn, presented me with land, abode, and the enjoyment of home, 2494.

êð-gesýne, ýð-gesêne, adj., easy to see, visible to all: nom. sg. 1111, 1245.

êfstan, w. v., to be in haste, to hasten: inf. uton nu êfstan, let us hurry now, 3102; pret. êfste mid elne, hastened with heroic strength, 1494.

êg-clif, st. n., sea-cliff: acc. sg. ofer êg-clif (ecg-clif, MS.), 2894.

êg-streám, st. m., sea-stream, sea-flood: dat. pl. on êg-streámum, in the sea-floods, 577. See eágor-streám.

êhtan (M.H.G. æchten; cf. æht and ge-æhtla), w. v. w. gen., to be a pursuer, to pursue: pres. part. äglæca êhtende wäs duguðe and geogoðe, 159; pret. pl. êhton aglæcan, they pursued the bringer of sorrow (Beówulf)(?), 1513.

êst, st. m. f., favor, grace, kindness: acc. sg. he him êst geteáh meara and mâðma (honored him with horses and jewels), 2166; gearwor häfde âgendes êst ær gesceáwod, would rather have seen the grace of the Lord (of God) sooner, 3076.—dat. pl., adverbial, libenter: him on folce heóld, êstum mid âre, 2379; êstum geýwan (to present), 2150; him wäs ... wunden gold êstum geeáwed (presented), 1195; we þät ellenweorc êstum miclum fremedon, 959.

êste, adj., gracious: w. gen. êste bearn-gebyrdo, gracious through the birth (of such a son as Beówulf), 946.

EA

eafoð, st. n., power, strength: nom, sg. eafoð and ellen, 603, 903; acc. sg. eafoð and ellen, 2350; we frêcne genêðdon eafoð uncûðes, we have boldly ventured against the strength of the enemy (Grendel) have withstood him, 961; gen. sg. eafoðes cräftig, 1467; þät þec âdl oððe ecg eafoðes getwæfed, shall rob of strength, 1764; acc. pl. eafeðo (MS. earfeðo), 534; dat. pl. hine mihtig god ... eafeðum stêpte, made him great through strength, 1718. See Note for l. 534.

eafor, st. m., boar; here the image of the boar as banner: acc. sg. eafor, 2153.

eafora (offspring), w. m.: 1) son: nom. sg. eafera, 12, 898; eafora, 375; acc. sg. eaferan, 1548, 1848; gen. sg. eafera, 19; nom. pl. eaferan, 2476; dat. pl. eaferum, 1069, 2471; uncran eaferan, 1186.—2) in broader sense, successor: dat. pl. eaforum, 1711.

eahta, num., eight: acc. pl. eahta mearas, 1036; eode eahta sum, went as one of eight, with seven others, 3124.

eahtian, w. v.: 1) to consider; to deliberate: pret. pl. w. acc. ræd eahtedon, consulted about help, 172; pret. sg. (for the plural) þone sêlestan þâra þe mid Hrôðgâre hâm eahtode, the best one of those who with Hrôðgâr deliberated about their home (ruled), 1408.—2) to speak with reflection of (along with the idea of praise): pret. pl. eahtodan eorlscipe, spoke of his noble character, 3175.

eal, eall, adj., all, whole: nom. sg. werod eall, 652; pl. eal bencþelu, 486; sg. eall êðelwyn, 2886; eal worold, 1739, etc.; þät hit wearð eal gearo, healärna mæst, 77; þät hit (wîgbil) eal gemealt, 1609. And with a following genitive: þær wäs eal geador Grendles grâpe, there was all together Grendel's hand, the whole hand of Grendel, 836; eall ... lissa, all favor, 2150; wäs eall sceacen dôgorgerîmes, 2728. With apposition: þûhte him eall tô rûm, wongas and wîcstede, 2462; acc. sg. beót eal, 523; similarly, 2018, 2081; oncýððe ealle, all distress, 831; heals ealne, 2692; hlæw ... ealne ûtan-weardne, 2298; gif he þät eal gemon, 1186, 2428; þät eall geondseh, recedes geatwa, 3089; ealne wîde-ferhð, through the whole wide life, through all time, 1223; instr. sg. ealle mägene, with all strength, 2668; dat. sg. eallum ... manna cynne, 914; gen. sg. ealles moncynnes, 1956. Subst. ic þäs ealles mäg ... gefeán habban, 2740; brûc ealles well, 2163; freán ealles þanc secge, give thanks to the Lord of all, 2795; nom. pl. untydras ealle, 111; sceótend ... ealle, 706; we ealle, 942; acc. pl. feónd ealle, 700; similarly, 1081, 1797, 2815; subst. ofer ealle, 650; ealle hie deáð fornam, 2237; lîg ealle forswealg þâra þe þær gûð fornam, all of those whom the war had snatched away, 1123; dat. pl. eallum ceaster-bûendum, 768; similarly, 824, 907, 1418; subst. âna wið eallum, one against all, 145; with gen. eallum gumena cynnes, 1058; gen. pl. äðelinga bearn ealra twelfa, the kinsmen of all twelve nobles (twelve nobles hold the highest positions of the court), 3172; subst. he âh ealra geweald, has power over all, 1728.

Uninflected: bil eal þurhwôd flæschoman, the battle-axe cleft the body through and through, 1568; häfde ... eal gefeormod fêt and folma, had devoured entirely feet and hands, 745; se þe eall geman gâr-cwealm gumena, who remembers thoroughly the death of the men by the spear, 2043, etc.

Adverbial: þeáh ic eal mæge, although I am entirely able, 681; hî on beorg dydon bêg and siglu eall swylce hyrsta, they placed in the grave-mound rings, and ornaments, all such adornments, 3165.—The gen. sg. ealles, adverbial in the sense of entirely, 1001, 1130.

eald, adj., old: a) of the age of living beings: nom. sg. eald, 357, 1703, 2211, etc.; dat. sg. ealdum, 2973; gen. sg. ealdes uhtflogan (dragon), 2761; dat. sg. ealdum, 1875; geongum and ealdum, 72.—b) of things and of institutions: nom. sg. helm monig eald and ômig, 2764; acc. sg. ealde lâfe (sword), 796, 1489; ealde wîsan, 1866; eald sweord, 1559, 1664, etc.; eald gewin, old (lasting years), distress, 1782; eald enta geweorc (the precious things in the drake's cave), 2775; acc. pl. ealde mâðmas, 472; ofer ealde riht, against the old laws (namely, the Ten Commandments; Beówulf believes that God has sent him the drake as a punishment, because he has unconsciously, at some time, violated one of the commandments), 2331.

yldra, compar. older: mîn yldra mæg, 468; yldra brôðor, 1325; ôð þät he (Heardrêd) yldra wearð, 2379.

yldesta, superl. oldest, in the usual sense; dat. sg. þam yldestan, 2436; in a moral sense, the most respected: nom. sg. se yldesta, 258; acc. sg. þone yldestan, 363, both times of Beówulf.

eald-fäder, st. m., old-father, grandfather, ancestor: nom. sg. 373.

eald-gesegen, st. f., traditions from old times: gen. pl. eal-fela eald-gesegena, very many of the old traditions, 870.

eald-gesîð, st. m., companion ever since old times, courtier for many years: nom. pl. eald-gesîðas, 854.

eald-gestreón, st. n., treasure out of the old times: dat. pl. eald-gestreónum, 1382; gen. pl. -gestreóna, 1459.

eald-gewinna, w. m., old-enemy, enemy for many years: nom. sg. of Grendel, 1777.

eald-gewyrht, st. n., merit on account of services rendered during many years: nom. pl. þät næron eald-gewyrht, þät he âna scyle gnorn þrowian, that has not been his desert ever since long ago, that he should bear the distress alone, 2658.

eald-hlâford, st. m., lord through many years: gen. sg. bill eald-hlâfordes (of the old Beówulf(?)), 2779.

eald-metod, st. m., God ruling ever since ancient times: nom. sg. 946.

ealdor, aldor, st. m., lord, chief (king or powerful noble): nom. sg. ealdor, 1645, 1849, 2921; aldor, 56, 369, 392; acc. sg. aldor, 669; dat. sg. ealdre, 593; aldre, 346.

ealdor, aldor, st. n., life: acc. sg. aldor, 1372; dat. sg. aldre, 1448, 1525; ealdre, 2600; him on aldre stôd herestræl hearda (in vitalibus), 1435; nalles for ealdre mearn, was not troubled about his life, 1443; of ealdre gewât, went out of life, died, 2625; as instr. aldre, 662, 681, etc.; ealdre, 1656, 2134, etc.; gen. sg. aldres, 823; ealdres, 2791, 2444; aldres orwêna, despairing of life, 1003, 1566; ealdres scyldig, having forfeited life, 1339, 2062; dat. pl. aldrum nêðdon, 510, 538.—Phrases: on aldre (in life), ever, 1780; tô aldre (for life), always, 2006, 2499; âwa tô aldre, for ever and ever, 956.

ealdor-bealu, st. n., life's evil: acc. sg. þu ... ondrædan ne þearft ... aldorbealu eorlum, thou needest not fear death for the courtiers, 1677.

ealdor-cearu, st. f., trouble that endangers life, great trouble: dat. sg. he his leódum wearð ... tô aldor-ceare, 907.

ealdor-dagas, st. m. pl., days of one's life: dat. pl. næfre on aldor-dagum (never in his life), 719; on ealder-dagum ær (in former days), 758.

ealdor-gedâl, st. n., severing of life, death, end: nom. sg. aldor-gedâl, 806.

ealdor-gewinna, w. m., life-enemy, one who strives to take his enemy's life (in N.H.G. the contrary conception, Tod-feind): nom. sg. ealdorgewinna (the dragon), 2904.

ealdor-leás, adj., without a ruler(?): nom. pl. aldor-leáse, 15.

ealdor-leás, adj., lifeless, dead: acc. sg. aldor-leásne, 1588; ealdor-leásne, 3004.

ealdor-þegn, st. m., nobleman at the court, distinguished courtier: acc. sg. aldor-þegn (Hrôðgâr's confidential adviser, Äschere), 1309.

eal-fela, adj., very much: with following gen., eal-fela eald-gesegena, very many old traditions, 870; eal-fela eotena cynnes, 884.

ealgian, w. v., to shield, to defend, to protect: inf. w. acc. feorh ealgian, 797, 2656, 2669; pret. siððan he (Hygelâc) under segne sinc eal-gode, wälreáf werede, while under his banner he protected the treasures, defended the spoil of battle (i.e. while he was upon the Viking expeditions), 1205.

eal-gylden, adj., all golden, entirely of gold: nom. sg. swýn ealgylden, 1112; acc. sg. segn eallgylden, 2768.

eal-îrenne, adj., entirely of iron: acc. sg. eall-îrenne wîgbord, a wholly iron battle-shield, 2339.

ealu, st. n., ale, beer: acc. sg. ealo drincende, 1946.

ealu-benc, st. f., ale-bench, bench for those drinking ale: dat. sg. in ealo-bence, 1030; on ealu-bence, 2868.

ealu-scerwen, st. f., terror, under the figure of a mishap at an ale-drinking, probably the sudden taking away of the ale: nom. sg. Denum eallum wearð ... ealuscerwen, 770.

ealu-wæge, st. n., ale-can, portable vessel out of which ale is poured into the cups: acc. sg. 2022; hroden ealowæge, 495; dat. sg. ofer ealowæge (at the ale-carouse), 481.

eal-wealda, w. adj., all ruling (God): nom. sg. fäder alwalda, 316; alwalda, 956, 1315; dat. sg. al-wealdan, 929.

eard, st. m., cultivated ground, estate, hereditary estate; in a broader sense, ground in general, abode, place of sojourn: nom. sg. him wäs bâm ... lond gecynde, eard êðel-riht, the land was bequeathed to them both, the land and the privileges attached to it. 2199; acc. sg. fîfel-cynnes eard, the ground of the giant race, place of sojourn, 104; similarly, älwihta eard, 1501; eard gemunde, thought of his native ground, his home, 1130; eard git ne const, thou knowest not yet the place of sojourn. 1378; eard and eorlscipe, prædium et nobilitatem, 1728; eard êðelwyn, land and the enjoyment of home, 2494; dat. sg. ellor hwearf of earde, went elsewhere from his place of abode, i.e. died, 56; þät we rondas beren eft tô earde, that we go again to our homes, 2655; on earde, 2737; nom. pl. eácne eardas, the broad expanses (in the fen-sea where Grendel's home was), 1622.

eardian, w. v.: 1) to have a dwelling-place, to live; to rest: pret. pl. dýre swyrd swâ hie wið eorðan fäðm þær eardodon, costly swords, as they had rested in the earth's bosom, 3051.—2) also transitively, to inhabit: pret. sg. Heorot eardode, 166; inf. wîc eardian elles hwergen, inhabit a place elsewhere (i.e. die), 2590.

eard-lufa, w. m., the living upon one's land, home-life: acc. sg. eard-lufan, 693.

earfoð-lîce, adv., with trouble, with difficulty, 1637, 1658; with vexation, angrily, 86; sorrowfully, 2823; with difficulty, scarcely, 2304, 2935.

earfoð-þrag, st. f., time full of troubles, sorrowful time: acc. sg. -þrage, 283.

earh, adj., cowardly: gen. sg. ne bið swylc earges sîð (no coward undertaken that), 2542.

earm, st. m., arm: acc. sg. earm, 836, 973; wið earm gesät, supported himself with his arm, 750; dat. pl. earmum, 513.

earm, adj., poor, miserable, unhappy: nom. sg. earm, 2369; earme ides, the unhappy woman, 1118; dat. sg. earmre teohhe, the unhappy band, 2939.—Comp. acc. sg. earmran mannan, a more wretched, more forsaken man, 577.

earm-beág, st. m., arm-ring, bracelet: gen. pl. earm-beága fela searwum gesæled, many arm-rings interlaced, 2764.

earm-hreád, st. f., arm-ornament. nom. pl. earm-hreáde twâ, 1195 (Grein's conjecture, MS. earm reade).

earm-lîc, adj., wretched, miserable: nom. sg. sceolde his ealdor-gedâl earmlîc wurðan, his end should be wretched, 808.

earm-sceapen, pret. part. as adj. (properly, wretched by the decree of fate), wretched: nom. sg. 1352.

earn, st. m., eagle: dat. sg. earne, 3027.

eatol. See atol.

eaxl, st. f., shoulder: acc. sg. eaxle, 836, 973; dat. sg. on eaxle, 817, 1548; be eaxle, 1538; on eaxle ides gnornode, the woman sobbed on the shoulder (of her son, who has fallen and is being burnt), 1118; dat. pl. sät freán eaxlum neáh, sat near the shoulders of his lord (Beówulf lies lifeless upon the earth, and Wîglâf sits by his side, near his shoulder, so as to sprinkle the face of his dead lord), 2854; he for eaxlum gestôd Deniga freán, he stood before the shoulders of the lord of the Danes (i.e. not directly before him, but somewhat to the side, as etiquette demanded), 358.

eaxl-gestealla, w. m., he who has his position at the shoulder (sc. of his lord), trusty courtier, counsellor of a prince: nom. sg. 1327; acc. pl. -gesteallan, 1715.

eác, conj., also: 97, 388, 433, etc.; êc, 3132.

eácen (pret. part. of a not existing eacan, augere), adj., wide-spread, large: nom. pl. eácne eardas, broad plains, 1622.—great, heavy: eald sweord eácen, 1664; dat. pl. eácnum ecgum, 2141, both times of the great sword in Grendel's habitation.—great, mighty, powerful: äðele and eácen, of Beówulf, 198.

eácen-cräftig, adj., immense (of riches), enormously great: acc. sg. hord-ärna sum eácen-cräftig, that enormous treasure-house, 2281; nom. sg. þät yrfe eácen-cräftig, iúmonna gold, 3052.

eádig, adj., blessed with possessions, rich, happy by reason of property: nom. sg. wes, þenden þu lifige, äðeling eádig, be, as long as thou livest, a prince blessed with riches, 1226; eádig mon, 2471.—Comp. sige-, sigor-, tîr-eádig.

eádig-lîce, adv., in abundance, in joyous plenty: dreámum lifdon eádiglîce, lived in rejoicing and plenty, 100.

eáðe, êðe, ýðe, adj., easy, pleasant: nom. pl. gode þancedon þäs þe him ýð-lâde eáðe wurdon, thanked God that the sea-ways (the navigation) had become easy to them, 228; ne wäs þät êðe sîð, no pleasant way, 2587; näs þät ýðe ceáp, no easy purchase, 2416; nô þät ýðe byð tô befleónne, not easy (as milder expression for in no way, not at all), 1003.

eáðe, ýðe, adv., easily. eáðe, 478, 2292, 2765.

eáð-fynde, adj., easy to find: nom. sg. 138.

eáge, w. n., eye: dat. pl. him of eágum stôd leóht unfäger, out of his eyes came a terrible gleam, 727; þät ic ... eágum starige, see with eyes, behold, 1782; similarly, 1936; gen. pl. eágena bearhtm, 1767.

eágor-streám, st. m., sea-stream sea: acc. sg. 513.

eá-land, st. n., land surrounded by water (of the land of the Geátas): acc. sg. eá-lond, 2335; island.

eám, st. m., uncle, mothers brother: nom. sg. 882.

eástan, adv., from the east, 569.

eáwan, w. v., to disclose, to show, to prove: pres. sg. III. eáweð ... uncûðne nîð, shows evil enmity, 276. See eówan, ýwan.

ge-eáwan, to show, to offer: pret. part. him wäs ... wunden gold êstum ge-eáwed, was graciously presented, 1195.

EO

eode. See gangan.

eodor, st. m., fence, hedge, railing. Among the old Germans, an estate was separated by a fence from the property of others. Inside of this fence the laws of peace and protection held good, as well as in the house itself. Hence eodor is sometimes used instead of house: acc. pl. hêht eahta mearas on flet teón, in under eoderas, gave orders to lead eight steeds into the hall, into the house, 1038.—2) figuratively, lord, prince, as protector: nom. sg. eodor, 428, 1045; eodur, 664.

eofoð, st. n., strength: acc. pl. eofoðo, 2535. See eafoð.

eofer, st. m.: 1) boar, here of the metal boar-image upon the helmet: nom. sg. eofer îrenheard, 1113.—2) figuratively, bold hero, brave fighter (O.N. iöfur): nom. pl. þonne ... eoferas cnysedan, when the heroes rushed upon each other, 1329, where eoferas and fêðan stand in the same relation to each other as cnysedan and hniton.

eofor-lîc, st. n. boar-image (on the helmet): nom. pl. eofor-lîc scionon, 303.

eofor-spreót, st. m., boar-spear: dat. pl. mid eofer-spreótum heóro-hôcyhtum, with hunting-spears which were provided with sharp hooks, 1438.

eoguð, ioguð. See geogoð.

eolet, st. m. n., sea(?): gen. sg. eoletes, 224.

eorclan-stân, st. m., precious stone: acc. pl. -stânas, 1209.

eorð-cyning, st. m., king of the land: gen. sg. eorð-cyninges (Finn), 1156.

eorð-draca, w. m., earth-drake, dragon that lives in the earth: nom. sg. 2713, 2826.

eorðe, w. f.: 1) earth (in contrast with heaven), world: acc. sg. älmihtiga eorðan worhte, 92; wîde geond eorðan, far over the earth, through the wide world, 266; dat. sg. ofer eorðan, 248, 803; on eorðan, 1823, 2856, 3139; gen. sg. eorðan, 753.—2) earth, ground: acc. sg. he eorðan gefeóll, fell to the ground, 2835; forlêton eorla gestreón eorðan healdan, let the earth hold the nobles' treasure, 3168; dat. sg. þät hit on eorðan läg, 1533; under eorðan, 2416; gen. sg. wið eorðan fäðm (in the bosom of the earth), 3050.

eorð-reced, st. n., hall in the earth, rock-hall: acc. sg. 2720.

eorð-scräf, st. n., earth-cavern, cave: dat. sg. eorð-[scräfe], 2233; gen. pl. eorð-scräfe, 3047.

eorð-sele, st. m., hall in the earth, cave: acc. sg. eorð-sele, 2411; dat sg. of eorðsele, 2516.

eorð-weall, st. m., earth-wall: acc. sg. (Ongenþeów) beáh eft under eorðweall, fled again under the earth-wall (into his fortified camp), 2958; þâ me wäs ... sîð âlýfed inn under eorðweall, then the way in, under the earth-wall was opened to me (into the dragon's cave), 3091.

eorð-weard, st. m., land-property, estate: acc. sg. 2335.

eorl, st. m., noble born man, a man of the high nobility: nom. sg. 762, 796, 1229, etc.; acc. sg. eorl, 573, 628, 2696; gen. sg. eorles, 690, 983, 1758, etc.; acc. pl. eorlas, 2817; dat. pl. eorlum, 770, 1282, 1650, etc.; gen. pl. eorla, 248, 357, 369, etc.—Since the king himself is from the stock of the eorlas, he is also called eorl, 6, 2952.

eorl-gestreón, st. n., wealth of the nobles: gen. pl. eorl-gestreóna ... hardfyrdne dæl, 2245.

eorl-gewæde, st. n., knightly dress, armor: dat. pl. -gewædum, 1443.

eorlîc (i.e. eorl-lîc), adj., what it becomes a noble born man to do, chivalrous: acc. sg. eorlîc ellen, 638.

eorl-scipe, st. m., condition of being noble born, chivalrous nature, nobility: acc. sg. eorl-scipe, 1728, 3175; eorl-scipe efnan, to do chivalrous deeds, 2134, 2536, 2623, 3008.

eorl-weorod, st. n., followers of nobles: nom. sg. 2894.

eormen-cyn, st. n., very extensive race, mankind: gen. sg. eormen-cynnes, 1958.

eormen-grund, st. m., immensely wide plains, the whole broad earth: acc. sg. ofer eormen-grund, 860.

eormen-lâf, st. f., enormous legacy: acc. sg. eormen-lâfe äðelan cynnes (the treasures of the dragon's cave) 2235.

eorre, adj., angry, enraged: gen. sg. eorres, 1448.

eoton, st. m.: 1) giant: nom. sg. eoten (Grendel), 762; dat. sg. uninflected, eoton (Grendel), 669; nom. pl. eotenas, 112.—2) Eotens, subjects of Finn, the N. Frisians: 1073, 1089, 1142; dat. pl. 1146. See List of Names, p. 114.

eotonisc, adj., gigantic, coming from giants: acc. sg. eald sweord eotenisc (eotonisc), 1559, 2980, (etonisc, MS.) 2617.

eóred-geatwe, st. f. pl., warlike adornments: acc. pl., 2867.

eówan, w. v., to show, to be seen: pres. sg. III. ne gesacu ôhwær, ecghete eóweð, nowhere shows itself strife, sword-hate, 1739. See eáwan, ýwan.

eówer: 1) gen. pl. pers. pron., vestrum: eówer sum, that one of you (namely, Beówulf), 248; fæhðe eówer leóde, the enmity of the people of you (of your people), 597; nis þät eówer sîð ... nefne mîn ânes, 2533.—2) poss. pron., your, 251, 257, 294, etc.

F

ge-fandian, -fondian, w. v., to try, to search for, to find out, to experience: w. gen. pret. part. þät häfde gumena sum goldes gefandod, that a man had discovered the gold, 2302; þonne se ân hafað þurh deâðes nýd dæda gefondad, now the one (Herebeald) has with death's pang experienced the deeds (the unhappy bow-shot of Hæðcyn), 2455.

fara, w. m., farer, traveller: in comp. mere-fara.

faran, st. v., to move from one place to another, to go, to wander: inf. tô hâm faran, to go home, 124; lêton on geflît faran fealwe mearas, let the fallow horses go in emulation, 865; cwom faran flotherge on Fresna land, had come to Friesland with a fleet, 2916; com leóda dugoðe on lâst faran, came to go upon the track of the heroes of his people, i.e. to follow them, 2946; gerund wæron äðelingas eft tô leódum fûse tô farenne, the nobles were ready to go again to their people, 1806; pret. sg. gegnum fôr [þâ] ofer myrcan môr, there had (Grendel's mother) gone away over the dark fen, 1405; sægenga fôr, the seafarer (the ship) drove along, 1909; (wyrm) mid bæle fôr, (the dragon) fled away with fire, 2309; pret. pl. þät ... scawan scîrhame tô scipe fôron, that the visitors in glittering attire betook themselves to the ship, 1896.

gefaran, to proceed, to act: inf. hû se mânsceaða under færgripum gefaran wolde, how he would act in his sudden attacks, 739.

ût faran, to go out: w. acc. lêt of breóstum ... word ût faran, let words go out of his breast, uttered words, 2552.

faroð, st. m., stream, flood of the sea: dat. sg. tô brimes faroðe, 28; äfter faroðe, with the stream, 580; ät faroðe, 1917.

faru, st. f., way, passage, expedition: in comp. âd-faru.

fâcen-stäf (elementum nequitiae), st. m., wickedness, treachery, deceit. acc. pl. fâcen-stafas, 1019.

fâh, fâg, adj., many-colored, variegated, of varying color (especially said of the color of gold, of bronze, and of blood, in which the beams of light are refracted): nom. sg. fâh (covered with blood), 420; blôde fâh, 935; âtertânum fâh (sc. îren) [This is the MS reading; emmended to âterteárum in text--KTH], 1460; sadol searwum fâh (saddle artistically ornamented with gold), 1039; sweord swâte fâh, 1287; brim blôde fâh, 1595; wäldreóre fâg, 1632; (draca) fýrwylmum fâh (because he spewed flame), 2672; sweord fâh and fäted, 2702; blôde fâh, 2975; acc. sg. dreóre fâhne, 447; goldsele fättum fâhne, 717; on fâgne flôr treddode, trod the shining floor (of Heorot), 726; hrôf golde fâhne, the roof shining with gold, 928; nom. pl. eoforlîc ... fâh and fýr-beard, 305; acc. pl. þâ hilt since fâge, 1616; dat. pl. fâgum sweordum, 586.—Comp. bân-, blôd-, brûn-, dreór-, gold-, gryre-, searo-, sinc-, stân-, swât-, wäl-, wyrm-fâh.

fâh, fâg, fâ, adj.: 1) hostile: nom. sg. fâh feónd-scaða, 554; he wäs fâg wið god (Grendel), 812; acc. sg. fâne (the dragon), 2656; gen. pl. fâra, 578, 1464.—2) liable to pursuit, without peace, outlawed: nom. sg. fâg, 1264; mâne fâh, outlawed through crime, 979; fyren-dædum fâg, 1002.—Comp. nearo-fâh.

fâmig-heals, adj., with foaming neck: nom. sg. flota fâmig-heals, 218; (sægenga) fâmig-heals, 1910.

fäc, st. n., period of time: acc. sg. lytel fäc, during a short time, 2241.

fäder, st. m., father: nom. sg. fäder, 55, 262, 459, 2609; of God, 1610; fäder alwalda, 316; acc. sg. fäder, 1356; dat. sg. fäder, 2430; gen. sg. fäder, 21, 1480; of God, 188—Comp.: ær, eald-fäder.

fädera, w. m., father's brother in comp. suhter-gefäderan.

fäder-äðelo, st. n. pl., paternus principatus (?): dat. pl. fäder-äðelum, 912.

fäderen-mæg, st. m., kinsman descended from the same father, co-descendant: dat. sg. fäderen-mæge, 1264.

fäðm, st. m.: 1) the outspread, encircling arms: instr. pl. feóndes fäð[mum], 2129.—2) embrace, encircling: nom. sg. lîges fäðm, 782; acc. sg. in fýres fäðm, 185.—3) bosom, lap: acc. sg. on foldan fäðm, 1394; wið eorðan fäðm, 3050; dat. pl. tô fäder (God's) fäðmum, 188.—4) power, property: acc. in Francna fäðm, 1211.—Cf. sîd-fäðmed, sîð-fäðme.

fäðmian, w. v., to embrace, to take up into itself: pres. subj. þät minne lîchaman ... glêd fäðmie, 2653; inf. lêton flôd fäðmian frätwa hyrde, 3134.

ge-fäg, adj., agreeable, desirable (Old Eng., fawe, willingly): comp. ge-fägra, 916.

fägen, adj., glad, joyous: nom. pl. ferhðum fägne, the glad at heart, 1634.

fäger, adj., beautiful, lovely: nom. sg. fäger fold-bold, 774; fäger foldan bearm, 1138; acc. sg. freoðoburh fägere, 522; nom. pl. þær him fold-wegas fägere þûhton, 867.—Comp. un-fäger.

fägere, fägre, adv., beautifully, well, becomingly, according to etiquette: fägere geþægon medoful manig, 1015; þâ wäs flet-sittendum fägere gereorded, becomingly the repast was served, 1789; Higelâc ongan ... fägre fricgean, 1986; similarly, 2990.

fär, st. n., craft, ship: nom. sg., 33.

fäst, adj., bound, fast: nom. sg. bið se slæp tô fäst, 1743; acc. sg. freóndscipe fästne, 2070; fäste frioðuwære, 1097.—The prep. on stands to denote the where or wherein: wäs tô fäst on þâm (sc. on fæhðe and fyrene), 137; on ancre fäst, 303. Or, oftener, the dative: feónd-grâpum fäst, (held) fast in his antagonist's clutch, 637; fýrbendum fäst, fast in the forged hinges, 723; handa fäst, 1291, etc.; hygebendum fäst (beorn him langað), fast (shut) in the bonds of his bosom, the man longs for (i.e. in secret), 1879.—Comp: âr-, blæd-, gin-, sôð-, tîr-, wîs-fäst.

fäste, adv., fäst 554, 761, 774, 789, 1296.—Comp. fästor, 143.

be-fästan, w. v., to give over: inf. hêt Hildeburh hire selfre sunu sweoloðe befästan, to give over to the flames her own son, 1116.

fästen, st. n., fortified place, or place difficult of access: acc. sg. leóda fästen, the fastness of the Geátas (with ref. to 2327, 2334; fästen (Ongenþeów's castle or fort), 2951; fästen (Grendel's house in the fen-sea), 104.

fäst-ræd, adj., firmly resolved: acc. sg. fäst-rædne geþôht, firm determination, 611.

fät, st. m., way, journey: in comp. sîð-fät.

fät, st. n., vessel; vase, cup: acc. pl. fyrn-manna fatu, the (drinking-) vessels of men of old times, 2762.—Comp.: bân-, drync-, mâððum-, sinc-, wundor-fät.

fät, st. n. (?), plate, sheet of metal, especially gold plate (Dietrich Hpt. Ztschr. XI. 420): dat. pl. gold sele ... fättum fâhne, shining with gold plates (the walls and the inner part of the roof were partly covered with gold), 717; sceal se hearda helm hyrsted golde fätum befeallen (sc. wesan), the gold ornaments shall fall away from it, 2257.

fäted, fätt, part., ornamented with gold beaten into plate-form: gen. sg. fättan goldes, 1094, 2247; instr. sg. fättan golde, 2103. Elsewhere, covered, ornamented with gold plate: nom. sg. sweord ... fäted, 2702; acc. sg. fäted wæge, 2254, 2283; acc. pl. fätte scyldas, 333; fätte beágas, 1751. [fæted, etc.]

fäted-hleór, adj., phaleratus gena (Dietr.): acc. pl. eahta mearas fäted-hleóre (eight horses with bridles covered with plates of gold), 1037.

fät-gold, st. n., gold in sheets or plates: acc. sg., 1922.

fæge, adj.: 1) forfeited to death, allotted to death by fate: nom. sg. fæge, 1756, 2142, 2976; fæge and ge-flýmed, 847; fûs and fæge, 1242; acc. sg. fægne flæsc-homan, 1569; dat. sg. fægum, 2078; gen. sg. fæges, 1528.—2) dead: dat. pl. ofer fægum (over the warriors fallen in the battle), 3026.—Comp.: deáð-, un-fæge.

fæhð (state of hostility, see fâh), st. f., hostile act, feud, battle: nom. sg. fæhð, 2404, 3062; acc. sg. fæhðe, 153, 459, 470, 596, 1334, etc.; also of the unhappy bowshot of the Hrêðling, Hæðcyn, by which he killed his brother, 2466; dat. sg. fore fæhðe and fyrene, 137; nalas for fæhðe mearn (did not recoil from the combat), 1538; gen. sg, ne gefeah he þære fæhðe, 109; gen. pl. fæhða gemyndig, 2690.—Comp. wäl-fæhð.

fæhðo, st. f., same as above: nom. sg. sió fæhðo, 3000; acc. fæhðo, 2490.

fælsian, w. v., to bring into a good condition, to cleanse: inf. þät ic môte ... Heorot fælsian (from the plague of Grendel), 432; pret. Hrôðgâres ... sele fælsode, 2353.

ge-fælsian, w. v., same as above: pret. part. häfde gefælsod ... sele Hrôðgâres, 826; Heorot is gefælsod, 1177; wæron ýð-gebland eal gefælsod, 1621.

fæmne, w. f., virgin, recens nupta: dat. sg. fæmnan, 2035; gen. sg. fæmnan, 2060, both times of Hrôðgâr's daughter Freáware.

fær, st. m., sudden, unexpected attack: nom. sg. (attack upon Hnäf's band by Finn's), 1069, 2231.

fær-gripe, st. m., sudden, treacherous gripe, attack: nom. sg. fær-gripe flôdes, 1517; dat. pl. under færgripum, 739.

fær-gryre, st. m., fright caused by a sudden attack: dat. pl. wið fær-gryrum (against the inroads of Grendel into Heorot), 174.

færinga, adv., suddenly, unexpectedly, 1415, 1989.

fær-nîð, st. m., hostility with sudden attacks: gen. pl. hwät me Grendel hafað ... færnîða gefremed, 476.

feðer-gearwe, st. f. pl. (feather-equipment), the feathers of the shaft of the arrow: dat. (instr.) pl. sceft feðer-gearwum fûs, 3120.

fel, st. n., skin, hide: dat. pl. glôf ... gegyrwed dracan fellum, made of the skins of dragons, 2089.

fela, I., adj. indecl., much, many: as subst.: acc. sg. fela fricgende, 2107. With worn placed before: hwät þu worn fela ... ymb Brecan spræce, how very much you spoke about Breca, 530.—With gen. sg.: acc. sg. fela fyrene, 810; wyrm-cynnes fela, 1426; worna fela sorge, 2004; tô fela micles ... Denigea leóde, too much of the race of the Danes, 695; uncûðes fela, 877; fela lâðes, 930; fela leófes and lâðes, 1061.—With gen. pl.: nom. sg. fela mâdma, 36; fela þæra wera and wîfa, 993, etc.; acc. sg. fela missera, 153; fela fyrena, 164; ofer landa fela, 311; mâððum-sigla fela (falo, MS.), 2758; ne me swôr fela âða on unriht, swore no false oaths, 2739, etc.; worn fela mâðma, 1784; worna fela gûða, 2543.—Comp. eal-fela.

II., adverbial, very, 1386, 2103, 2951.

fela-hrôr, adj., valde agitatus, very active against the enemy, very warlike, 27.

fela-môdig, adj., very courageous: gen. pl. -môdigra, 1638, 1889.

fela-synnig, adj., very criminal, very guilty: acc. sg. fela-sinnigne secg (in MS., on account of the alliteration, changed to simple sinnigne), 1380.

feólan, st. v., to betake one's self into a place, to conceal one's self: pret. siððan inne fealh Grendles môdor (in Heorot), 1282; þær inne fealh secg syn-bysig (in the dragon's cave), 2227.—to fall into, undergo, endure: searonîðas fealh, 1201.

ät-feólan, w. dat., insistere, adhærere: pret. nô ic him þäs georne ätfealh (held him not fast enough, 969.

fen, st. n., fen, moor: acc. sg. fen, 104; dat. sg. tô fenne, 1296; fenne, 2010.

fen-freoðo, st. f., refuge in the fen: dat. sg. in fen-freoðo, 852.

feng, st. m., gripe, embrace: nom. sg. fýres feng, 1765; acc. sg. fâra feng (of the hostile sea-monsters), 578.—Comp. inwit-feng.

fengel (probably he who takes possession, cf. tô fôn, 1756, and fôn tô rîce, to enter upon the government), st. m., lord, prince, king: nom. sg. wîsa fengel, 1401; snottra fengel, 1476, 2157; hringa fengel, 2346.

fen-ge-lâd, st. n., fen-paths, fen with paths: acc. pl. frêcne fengelâd (fens difficult of access), 1360.

fen-hlið, st. n., marshy precipice: acc. pl. under fen-hleoðu, 821.

fen-hop, st. n., refuge in the fen: acc. pl. on fen-hopu, 765.

ferh, st. m. n., life; see feorh.

ferh, st. m., hog, boar, here of the boar-image on the helmet: nom. sg., 305.

ferhð, st. m., heart, soul: dat. sg. on ferhðe, 755, 949, 1719; gehwylc hiora his ferhðe treówde, þät ..., each of them trusted to his (Hûnferð's) heart, that ..., 1167; gen. sg. ferhðes fore-þanc, 1061; dat. pl. (adverbial) ferhðum fägne, happy at heart, 1634; þät mon ... ferhðum freóge, that one ... heartily love, 3178.—Comp.: collen-, sarig-, swift-, wide-ferhð.

ferhð-frec, adj., having good courage, bold, brave: acc. sg. ferhð-frecan Fin, 1147.

ferhð-genîðla, w. m., mortal enemy: acc. sg. ferhð-genîðlan, of the drake, 2882.

ferian, w. v. w. acc., to bear, to bring, to conduct: pres. II. pl. hwanon ferigeað fätte scyldas, 333; pret. pl. tô scypum feredon eal ingesteald eorðcyninges, 1155; similarly, feredon, 1159, 3114.

ät-ferian, to carry away, to bear off: pret. ic þät hilt þanan feóndum ätferede, 1669.

ge-ferian, bear, to bring, to lead: pres. subj. I. pl. þonne (we) geferian freán ûserne, 3108; inf. geferian ... Grendles heáfod, 1639; pret. þät hi ût geferedon dýre mâðmas, 3131; pret. part. her syndon geferede feorran cumene ... Geáta leóde, men of the Geátas, come from afar, have been brought hither (by ship), 361.

ôð-ferian, to tear away, to take away: pret. sg. I. unsôfte þonan feorh ôð-ferede, 2142.

of-ferian, to carry off, to take away, to tear away: pret. ôðer swylc ût offerede, took away another such (sc. fifteen), 1584.

fetel-hilt, st. n., sword-hilt, with the gold chains fastened to it: acc. (sg. or pl.?), 1564. (See "Leitfaden f. nord. Altertumskunde," pp.45, 46.)

fetian, w. v., to bring near, bring: pres. subj. nâh hwâ ... fe[tige] fäted wæge, bring the gold-chased tankard, 2254; pret. part. hraðe wäs tô bûre Beówulf fetod, 1311.

ge-fetian, to bring: inf. hêt þâ eorla hleó in gefetian Hrêðles lâfe, caused Hrêðel's sword to be brought, 2191.

â-fêdan, w. v., to nourish, to bring up: pret. part. þær he âfêded wäs, 694.

fêða (O.H.G. fendo), w. m.: 1) foot-soldiers: nom. pl. fêðan, 1328, 2545.—2) collective in sing., band of foot-soldiers, troop of warriors: nom. fêða eal gesät, 1425; dat. on fêðan, 2498, 2920.—Comp. gum-fêða.

fêðe, st. n., gait, going, pace: dat. sg. wäs tô foremihtig feónd on fêðe, the enemy was too strong in going (i.e. could flee too fast), 971.

fêðe-cempa, w. m., foot-soldier: nom. sg., 1545, 2854.

fêðe-gäst, st. m., guest coming on foot: dat. pl. fêðe-gestum, 1977.

fêðe-lâst, st. m., signs of going, footprint: dat. pl. fêrdon forð þonon fêðe-lâstum, went forth from there upon their trail, i.e. by the same way that they had gone, 1633.

fêðe-wîg, st. m., battle on foot: gen. sg. nealles Hetware hrêmge þorfton (sc. wesan) fêðe-wîges, 2365.

fêl (= feól), st. f. file: gen. pl. fêla lâfe, what the files have left behind (that is, the swords), 1033.

fêran, w. v., iter (A.S. fôr) facere, to come, to go, to travel: pres. subj. II. pl. ær ge ... on land Dena furður fêran, ere you go farther into the land of the Danes, 254; inf. fêran on freán wære (to die), 27; gewiton him þâ fêran (set out upon their way), 301; mæl is me tô fêran, 316; fêran ... gang sceáwigan, go, so as to see the footprints, 1391; wîde fêran, 2262; pret. fêrdon folctogan ... wundor sceáwian, the princes came to see the wonder, 840; fêrdon forð, 1633.

ge-fêran: 1) adire, to arrive at: pres. subj. þonne eorl ende gefêre lîfgesceafta, reach the end of life, 3064; pret. part. häfde æghwäðer ende gefêred lænan lîfes, frail life's end had both reached, 2845.—2) to reach, to accomplish, to bring about: pret. hafast þu gefêred þät ..., 1222, 1856.—3) to behave one's self, to conduct one's self: pret. frêcne gefêrdon, had shown themselves daring, 1692.

feal, st. m., fall: in comp. wäl-feal.

feallan, st. v., to fall, to fall headlong: inf. feallan, 1071; pret. sg. þät he on hrusan ne feól, that it (the hall) did not fall to the ground, 773; similarly, feóll on foldan, 2976; feóll on fêðan (dat. sg.), fell in the band (of his warriors), 2920; pret. pl. þonne walu feóllon, 1043.

be-feallen, pret. part. w. dat. or instr., deprived of, robbed: freóndum befeallen, robbed of friends, 1127; sceal se hearda helm ... fätum befeallen (sc. wesan), be robbed of its gold mountings (the gold mounting will fall away from it moldering), 2257.

ge-feallan, to fall, to sink down: pres. sg. III. þät se lîc-homa ... fæge gefealleð, that the body doomed to die sinks down, 1756.—Also, with the acc. of the place whither: pret. meregrund gefeóll, 2101; he eorðan gefeóll, 2835.

fealu, adj., fallow, dun-colored, tawny: acc. sg. ofer fealone flôd (over the sea), 1951; fealwe stræte (with reference to 320, 917; acc. pl. lêton on geflît faran fealwe mearas, 866.—Comp. äppel-fealo.

feax, st. n., hair, hair of the head: dat. sg. wäs be feaxe on flet boren Grendles heáfod, was carried by the hair into the hall, 1648; him ... swât ... sprong forð under fexe, the blood sprang out under the hair of his head, 2968.—Comp.: blonden-, gamol-, wunden-feax.

ge-feá, w. m., joy: acc. sg. þære fylle gefeán, joy at the abundant repast, 562; ic þäs ealles mäg ... gefeán habban (can rejoice at all this), 2741.

feá, adj., few dat. pl. nemne feáum ânum, except some few, 1082; gen. pl. feára sum, as one of a few, with a few, 1413; feára sumne, one of a few (some few), 3062. With gen. following: acc. pl. feá worda cwäð, spoke few words, 2663, 2247.

feá-sceaft, adj., miserable, unhappy, helpless: nom. sg. syððan ærest wearð feásceaft funden, 7; feásceaft guma (Grendel), 974; dat. sg. feásceaftum men, 2286; Eádgilse ... feásceaftum, 2394; nom. pl. feásceafte (the Geátas robbed of their king, Hygelâc), 2374.

feoh, feó, st. n., (properly cattle, herd) here, possessions, property, treasure: instr. sg. ne wolde ... feorh-bealo feó þingian, would not allay life's evil for treasure (tribute), 156; similarly, þâ fæhðe feó þingode, 470; ic þe þâ fæhðe feó leánige, 1381.

ge-feohan, ge-feón, st. v. w. gen. and instr., to enjoy one's self, to rejoice at something: a) w. gen.: pret. sg. ne gefeah he þære fæhðe, 109; hilde gefeh, beado-weorces, 2299; pl. fylle gefægon, enjoyed themselves at the bounteous repast, 1015; þeódnes gefêgon, rejoiced at (the return of) the ruler, 1628.—b) w. instr.: niht-weorce gefeh, ellen-mærðum, 828; secg weorce gefeh, 1570; sælâce gefeah, mägen-byrðenne þâra þe he him mid häfde, rejoiced at the gift of the sea, and at the great burden of that (Grendel's head and the sword-hilt) which he had with him, 1625.

feoh-gift, -gyft, st. f., bestowing of gifts or treasures: gen. sg. þære feoh-gyfte, 1026; dat. pl. ät feohgyftum, 1090; fromum feohgiftum, with rich gifts, 21.

feoh-leás, adj., that cannot be atoned for through gifts: nom. sg. þät wäs feoh-leás gefeoht, a deed of arms that cannot be expiated (the killing of his brother by Hæðcyn), 2442.

ge-feoht, st. n., combat; warlike deed: nom. sg. (the killing of his brother by Hæðcyn), 2442; dat. sg. mêce þone þîn fader tô gefeohte bär, the sword which thy father bore to the combat, 2049.

ge-feohtan, st. v., to fight: inf. w. acc. ne mehte ... wîg Hengeste wiht gefeohtan (could by no means offer Hengest battle), 1084.

feohte, w. f., combat: acc. sg. feohtan, 576, 960. See were-fyhte.

feor, adj., far, remote: nom. sg. nis þät feor heonon, 1362; näs him feor þanon tô gesêcanne sinces bryttan, 1922; acc. sg. feor eal (all that is far, past), 1702.

feor, adv., far, far away: a) of space, 42, 109, 809, 1806, 1917; feor and (oððe) neáh, far and (or) near, 1222, 2871; feorr, 2267.—b) of time: ge feor hafað fæhðe gestæled (has placed us under her enmity henceforth), 1341.

Comparative, fyr, feorr, and feor: fyr and fästor, 143; fyr, 252; feorr, 1989; feor, 542.

feor-bûend, pt., dwelling far away: nom. pl. ge feor-bûend, 254.

feor-cýð, st. f., home of those living far away, distant land: nom, pl. feor-cýððe beóð sêlran gesôhte þäm þe him selfa deáh, foreign lands are better sought by him who trusts to his own ability, 1839.

feorh, ferh (Goth. fairhvu-s, world), st. m. and n., life, principle of life, soul: nom. sg. feorh, 2124; nô þon lange wäs feorh äðelinges flæsce bewunden, not for much longer was the soul of the prince enveloped in the body (he was near death), 2425; ferh ellen wräc, life expelled the strength (i.e. with the departing life the strength disappeared also), 2707; acc. sg. feorh ealgian, 797, 2656, 2669; feorh gehealdan, preserve his life, 2857; feorh âlegde, gave up his life, 852; similarly, ær he feorh seleð, 1371; feorh oðferede, tore away her life, 2142; ôð þät hie forlæddan tô þam lindplegan swæse gesîðas ond hyra sylfra feorh, till in an evil hour they carried into battle their dear companions and their lives (i.e. led them to their death), 2041; gif þu þîn feorh hafast, 1850; ymb feorh sacan (to fight for life), 439; wäs in feorh dropen, was wounded into his life, i.e. mortally, 2982; wîdan feorh, as temporal acc., through a wide life, i.e. always, 2015; dat. sg. feore, 1294, 1549; tô wîdan feore, for a wide life, i.e. at all times, 934; on swâ geongum feore (at a so youthful age), 1844; as instr., 578, 3014; gen. sg. feores, 1434, 1943; dat. pl. bûton ... feorum gumena, 73; freónda feorum, 1307.—Also, body, corpse: þâ wäs heal hroden feónda feorum (the hall was covered with the slain of the enemy), 1153; gehwearf þâ in Francna fäðm feorh cyninges, then the body of the king (Hygelâc) fell into the power of the Franks, 1211. —Comp. geogoð-feorh.

feorh-bana, w. m., (life-slayer), man-slayer, murderer: dat. sg. feorh-bonan, 2466.

feorh-ben, st. f., wound that takes away life, mortal wound: dat. (instr.) pl. feorh-bennum seóc, 2741.

feorh-bealu, st. n., evil destroying life, violent death: nom. sg., 2078, 2251, 2538; acc. sg., 156.

feorh-cyn, st. n., race of the living, mankind: gen. pl. fela feorh-cynna, 2267.

feorh-genîðla, w. m., he who seeks life, life's enemy (N.H.G. Tod-feind), mortal enemy: acc. sg. -genîðlan, 1541; dat. sg. -genîðlan, 970; acc. sg. brægd feorh-genîðlan, 1541; acc. pl. folgode feorh-genîðlan, (Ongenþeów) pursued his mortal enemies, 2934.

feorh-lagu, st. f., the life allotted to anyone, life determined by fate: acc. sg. on mâðma hord mine (mînne, MS.) bebohte frôde feorh-lege, for the treasure-hoard I sold my old life, 2801.

feorh-lâst, st. m., trace of (vanishing) life, sign of death : acc. pl. feorh-lâstas bär, 847.

feorh-seóc, adj., mortally wounded: nom. sg., 821.

feorh-sweng, st. m., (stroke robbing of life), fatal blow: acc. sg., 2490.

feorh-wund, st. f., mortal wound, fatal injury: acc. sg. feorh-wunde hleát, 2386.

feorm, st. f., subsistence, entertainment: acc. sg. nô þu ymb mînes ne þearft lîces feorme leng sorgian, thou needest no longer have care for the sustenance of my body, 451.—2) banquet: dat. on feorme (or feorme, MS.), 2386.

feormend-leás, adj., wanting the. cleanser: acc. pl. geseah ... fyrn-manna fatu feormend-leáse, 2762.

feormian, w. v., to clean, to cleanse, to polish: pres. part. nom pl. feormiend swefað (feormynd, MS.), 2257.

ge-feormian, w. v., to feast, to eat; pret. part. sôna häfde unlyfigendes eal gefeormod fêt and folma, 745.

feorran, w. v., w. acc., to remove: inf. sibbe ne wolde wið manna hwone mägenes Deniga feorh-bealo feorran, feó þingian, (Grendel) would not from friendship free any one of the men of the Danes of life's evil, nor allay it for tribute, 156.

feorran, adv., from afar: a) of space, 361, 430, 826, 1371, 1820, etc.; siððan äðelingas feorran gefricgean fleám eówerne, when noble men afar learn of your flight (when the news of your flight reaches distant lands), 2890; fêrdon folctogan feorran and neán, from far and from near, 840; similarly, neán and feorran þu nu [friðu] hafast, 1175; wäs þäs wyrmes wîg wîde gesýne ... neán and feorran, visible from afar, far and near, 2318.—b) temporal: se þe cûðe frumsceaft fira feorran reccan (since remote antiquity), 91; similarly, feorran rehte, 2107.

feorran-cund, adj., foreign-born: dat. sg. feorran-cundum, 1796.

feor-weg, st. m., far way: dat. pl. mâdma fela of feorwegum, many precious things from distant paths (from foreign lands), 37.

ge-feón. See feohan.

feónd, st. m., enemy: nom. sg., 164, 726, 749; feónd on helle (Grendel), 101; acc. sg., 279, 1865, 2707; dat. sg. feónde, 143, 439; gen. sg. feóndes, 985, 2129, 2290; acc, pl. feónd, 699; dat. pl. feóndum, 420, 1670; gen. pl. feonda 294, 809, 904.

feónd-grâp, st. f., foe's clutch: dat. (instr.) pl. feónd-grâpum fäst, 637.

feónd-sceaða, w. m., one who is an enemy and a robber: nom. sg. fâh feónd-scaða (a hostile sea-monster), 554.

feónd-scipe, st. m., hostility: nom. sg., 3000.

feówer, num., four: nom. feówer bearn, 59; feówer mearas, 2164; feówer, as substantive, 1638; acc. feówer mâðmas, 1028.

feówer-tyne, num., fourteen: nom. with following gen. pl. feówertyne Geáta, 1642.

findan, st. v., to find, to invent, to attain: a) with simple object in acc.: inf. þâra þe he cênoste findan mihte, 207; swylce hie at Finnes-hâm findan meahton sigla searo-gimma, 1157; similarly, 2871; mäg þær fela freónda findan, 1839; wolde guman findan, 2295; swâ hyt weorðlîcost fore-snotre men findan mihton, so splendidly as only very wise men could devise it, 3164; pret. sg. healþegnas fand, 720; word ôðer fand, found other words, i.e. went on to another narrative, 871; grimne gryrelîcne grund-hyrde fond, 2137; þät ic gôdne funde beága bryttan, 1487; pret. part. syððan ærest wearð feásceaft funden (discovered), 7.—b) with acc. and pred. adj.: pret. sg. dryhten sînne driórigne fand, 2790.—c) with acc. and inf.: pret. fand þâ þær inne äðelinga gedriht swefan, 118; fand wäccendne wer wîges bîdan, 1268; hord-wynne fond opene standan, 2271; ôð þät he fyrgen-beámas ... hleonian funde, 1416; pret. pl. fundon þâ sâwulleásne hlim-bed healdan, 3034.—d) with dependent clause: inf. nô þý ær feásceafte findan meahton ät þam äðelinge þät he Heardrêde hlâford wære (could by no means obtain it from the prince), 2374.

on-findan, to be sensible of, to perceive, to notice: a) w. acc.: pret. sg. landweard onfand eftsîð eorla, the coast-guard observed the return of the earls, 1892; pret. part. þâ heó onfunden wäs (was discovered), 1294.—b) w. depend, clause: pret. sg. þâ se gist onfand þät se beado-leóma bîtan nolde, the stranger (Beówulf) perceived that the sword would not cut, 1523; sôna þät onfunde, þät ..., immediately perceived that..., 751; similarly, 810, 1498.

finger, st. m., finger: nom. pl. fingras, 761; acc. pl. fingras, 985; dat. (instr.) pl. fingrum, 1506; gen. pl. fingra, 765.

firas, fyras (O.H.G. firahî, i.e. the living; cf. feorh), st. m., only in pl., men: gen. pl. fira, 91, 2742; monegum fira, 2002; fyra gehwylcne leóda mînra, 2251; fira fyrngeweorc, 2287.

firen, fyren, st. f., cunning waylaying, insidious hostility, malice, outrage: nom. sg. fyren, 916; acc. sg. fyrene and fæhðe, 153; fæhðe and fyrene, 880, 2481; firen' ondrysne, 1933; dat. sg. fore fæhðe and fyrene, 137; gen. pl. fyrena, 164, 629; and fyrene, 812; fyrena hyrde (of Grendel), 751. The dat. pl., fyrenum, is used adverbially in the sense of maliciously, 1745, or fallaciously, with reference to Hæðcyn's killing Herebeald, which was done unintentionally, 2442.

firen-dæd, st. f., wicked deed: acc. pl. fyren-dæda, 1670; instr. pl. fyren-dædum, 1002; both times of Grendel and his mother, with reference to their nocturnal inroads.

firen-þearf, st. f., misery through the malignity of enemies: acc. sg. fyren-þearfe, 14.

firgen-beám, st. m., tree of a mountain-forest: acc. pl. fyrgen-beámas, 1415.

firgen-holt, st. m., mountain-wood, mountain-forest: acc. sg. on fyrgen-holt, 1394.

firgen-streám, st. m., mountain-stream: nom. sg. fyrgen-streám, 1360; acc. sg. under fyrgen-streám (marks the place where the mountain-stream, according to 1360, empties into Grendel's sea), 2129.

fisc, st. m., fish: in comp. hron-, mere-fisc.

fîf, num., five: uninflect. gen. fîf nihta fyrst, 545; acc. fîfe (?), 420.

fîfel-cyn (O.N. fîfl, stultus and gigas), st. n., giant-race: gen. sg. fîfelcynnes eard, 104.

fîf-tene, fîf-tyne, num., fifteen: acc. fýftyne, 1583; gen. fîftena sum, 207.

fîf-tig, num., fifty: 1) as substantive with gen. following; acc. fîftig wintra, 2734; gen. se wäs fîftiges fôt-gemearces lang, 3043.—2) as adjective: acc. fîftig wintru, 2210.

flân, st. m., arrow: dat. sg. flâne, 3120; as instr., 2439.

flân-boga, w. m., bow which shoots the flân, bow: dat. sg. of flân-bogan, 1434, 1745.

flæsc, st. n., flesh, body in contrast with soul: instr. sg. nô þon lange wäs feorh äðelinges flæsce bewunden, not much longer was the son of the prince contained in his body, 2425.

flæsc-hama, w. m., clothing of flesh, i.e. the body: acc. sg. flæsc-homan, 1569.

flet, st. n.: 1) ground, floor of a hall: acc. sg. heó on flet gebeáh, fell to the ground, 1541; similarly, 1569.—2) hall, mansion: nom. sg. 1977; acc. sg. flet, 1037, 1648, 1950, 2018, etc.; flett, 2035; þät hie him ôðer flet eal gerýmdon, that they should give up entirely to them another hall, 1087; dat. sg. on flette, 1026.

flet-räst, st. f., resting-place in the hall: acc. sg. flet-räste gebeág, reclined upon the couch in the hall, 1242.

flet-sittend, pres. part., sitting in the hall: acc. pl -sittende, 2023; dat. pl. -sittendum, 1789.

flet-werod, st. n., troop from the hall: nom. sg., 476.

fleám, st. m., flight: acc. sg. on fleám gewand, had turned to flight, 1002; fleám eówerne, 2890.

fleógan, st. v., to fly: prs. sg. III. fleógeð, 2274.

fleón, st. v., to flee: inf. on heolster fleón, 756; fleón on fenhopu, 765; fleón under fen-hleoðu, 821; pret. hete-swengeas fleáh, 2226.

be-fleón, w. acc., to avoid, to escape: gerund nô þät ýðe byð tô befleónne, that is not easy (i.e. not at all) to be avoided, 1004.

ofer-fleón, w. acc., to flee from one, to yield: inf. nelle ic beorges weard oferfleón fôtes trem, will not yield to the warder of the mountain (the drake) a foot's breadth, 2526.

fleótan, st. v., to float upon the water, to swim: inf. nô he wiht fram me flôd-ýðum feor fleótan meahte. hraðor on helme, no whit, could he swim from me farther on the waves (regarded as instrumental, so that the waves marked the distance), more swiftly in the sea, 542; pret. sægenga fleát fâmigheals forð ofer ýðe, floated away over the waves, 1910.

fliht. See flyht.

flitme. See un-flitme.

flîtan, st. v., to exert one's self, to strive, to emulate: pres. part. flîtende fealwe stræte mearum mæton (rode a race), 917; pret. sg. II. eart þu se Beówulf, se þe wið Brecan ... ymb sund flite, art thou the Beówulf who once contended with Breca for the prize in swimming? 507.

ofer-flîtan, to surpass one in a contest, to conquer, to overcome: pret. w. acc. he þe ät sunde oferflât (overcome thee in a swimming-wager), 517.

ge-flît, st. n., emulation: acc. sg. lêton on geflît faran fealwe mearas, let the fallow horses go in emulation, 866.

floga, w. m., flyer; in the compounds: gûð-, lyft-, uht-, wîd-floga.

flota (see fleótan), w. m., float, ship, boat: nom. sg., 210, 218, 301; acc. sg. flotan eówerne, 294.—Comp. wæg-flota.

flot-here, st. m., fleet: instr. sg. cwom faran flotherge on Fresna land, 2916.

flôd, st. m., flood, stream, sea-current: nom. sg., 545, 580, 1362, etc.; acc. sg. flôd, 3134; ofer fealone flôd, 1951; dat. sg. tô flôde, 1889; gen. pl. flôda begong, the region of floods, i.e. the sea, 1498, 1827; flôda genipu, 2809.

flôd-ýð, st. f., flood-wave: instr. pl. flôd-ýðum, 542.

flôr, st. m., floor, stone-floor: acc. sg. on fâgne flôr (the floor was probably a kind of mosaic, made of colored flags), 726; dat. sg. gang þâ äfter flôre, along the floor (i.e. along the hall), 1317.

flyht, fliht, st. m., flight: nom. sg. gâres fliht, flight of the spear, 1766.

ge-flýman, w. v., to put to flight: pret. part. geflýmed, 847, 1371.

folc, st. n., troop, band of warriors; folk, in the sense of the whole body of the fighting men of a nation: acc. sg. folc, 522, 694, 912; Sûðdene folc, 464; folc and rîce, 1180; dat. sg. folce, 14, 2596; folce Deninga, 465; as instr. folce gestepte ofer sæ sîde, went with a band of warriors over the wide sea, 2394; gen. sg. folces, 1125; folces Denigea, 1583.—The king is called folces hyrde, 611, 1833, 2645, 2982; freáwine folces, 2358; or folces weard, 2514. The queen, folces cwên, 1933.—The pl., in the sense of warriors, fighting men: nom. pl. folc, 1423, 2949; dat. pl. folcum, 55, 262, 1856; gen. pl. freó- (freá-) wine folca, of the king, 430, 2430; friðu-sibb folca, of the queen, 2018.—Comp. sige-folc.

folc-âgend, pres. part., leader of a band of warriors: nom. pl. folc-âgende, 3114.

folc-beorn, st. m., man of the multitude, a common man: nom. sg. folc-beorn, 2222.

folc-cwên, st. f., queen of a warlike host: nom. sg., of Wealhþeów, 642.

folc-cyning, st. m., king of a warlike host: nom. sg., 2734, 2874.

folc-ræd, st. m, what best serves a warlike host: acc. sg., 3007.

folc-riht, st. n., the rights of the fighting men of a nation: gen. pl. him ær forgeaf ... folcrihta gehwylc, swâ his fäder âhte, 2609.

folc-scearu, st. f., part of a host of warriors, nation: dat. sg. folc-scare, 73.

folc-stede, st. m., position of a band of warriors, place where a band of warriors is quartered: acc. sg. folcstede, of the hall, Heorot, 76; folcstede fâra (the battle-field), 1464.

folc-toga, w. m., leader of a body of warriors, duke: nom. pl., powerful liege-men of Hrôðgâr are called folc-togan, 840.

fold-bold, st. n., earth-house (i.e. a house on earth in contrast with a dwelling in heaven): nom. sg. fäger fold-bold, of the hall, Heorot, 774.

fold-bûend, pres. part. dweller on earth, man: nom. pl. fold-bûend, 2275; fold-bûende, 1356; dat. pl. fold-bûendum, 309.

folde, w. f., earth, ground: acc. sg. under foldan, 1362; feóll on foldan, 2976; gen. sg. foldan bearm, the bosom of the earth, 1138; foldan sceátas, 96; foldan fäðm, 1394.—Also, earth, world: dat. sg. on foldan, 1197.

fold-weg, st. m., field-way, road through the country: acc. sg. fold-weg, 1634; acc. pl. fold-wegas, 867.

folgian, w. v.: 1) to perform vassal-duty, to serve, to follow: pret. pl. þeáh hie hira beággyfan banan folgedon, although they followed the murderer of their prince, 1103.—2) to pursue, to follow after: folgode feorh-genîðlan (acc. pl.) 2934.

folm, st. f, hand: acc. sg. folme, 971, 1304; dat. sg. mid folme, 743; acc. pl. fêt and folma, feet and hands, 746; dat. pl. tô banan folmum, 158; folmum (instr.), 723, 993.—Comp.: beado-, gearo-folm.

for, prep. w. dat., instr., and acc.: 1) w. dat. local, before, ante: þät he for eaxlum gestôd Deniga freán, 358; for hlâwe, 1121.—b) before, coram, in conspectu: no he þære feohgyfte for sceótendum scamigan þorfte, had no need to be ashamed of the gift before the warriors, 1027; for þäm werede, 1216; for eorlum, 1650; for duguðe, before the noble band of warriors, 2021.—Causal, a) to denote a subjective motive, on account of, through, from: for wlenco, from bravery, through warlike courage, 338, 1207; for wlence, 508; for his wonhýdum, 434; for onmêdlan, 2927, etc.—b) objective, partly denoting a cause, through, from, by reason of: for metode, for the creator, on account of the creator, 169; for þreánýdum, 833; for þreánêdlan, 2225; for dolgilpe, on account of, in accordance with the promise of bold deeds (because you claimed bold deeds for yourself), 509; him for hrôfsele hrînan ne mehte fær-gripe flôdes, on account of the roofed hall the malicious grasp of the flood could not reach him, 1516; lîg-egesan wäg for horde, on account of (the robbing of) the treasure, 2782; for mundgripe mînum, on account of, through the gripe of my hand, 966; for þäs hildfruman hondgeweorce, 2836; for swenge, through the stroke, 2967; ne meahte ... deóp gedýgan for dracan lêge, could not hold out in the deep on account of the heat of the drake, 2550. Here may be added such passages as ic þäm gôdan sceal for his môdþräce mâðmas beódan, will offer him treasures on account of his boldness of character, for his high courage, 385; ful-oft for lässan leán teohhode, gave often reward for what was inferior, 952; nalles for ealdre mearn, was not uneasy about his life, 1443; similarly, 1538. Also denoting purpose: for ârstafum, to the assistance, 382, 458.—2) w. instr. causal, because of, for: he hine feor forwräc for þý mane, 110.—3) w. acc., for, as, instead of: for sunu freógan, love as a son, 948; for sunu habban, 1176; ne him þäs wyrmes wîg for wiht dyde, held the drake's fighting as nothing, 2349.

foran, adv., before, among the first, forward: siððan ... sceáwedon feóndes fingras, foran æghwylc (each before himself), 985; þät wäs ân foran ealdgestreóna, that was one among the first of the old treasures, i.e. a splendid old treasure, 1459; þe him foran ongeán linde bæron, bore their shields forward against him (went out to fight against him), 2365.

be-foran: 1) adv., local, before: he ... beforan gengde, went before, 1413; temporal, before, earlier, 2498.—2) prep. w. acc. before, in conspectu: mære mâððum-sweord manige gesâwon beforan beorn beran, 1025.

ford, st. m., ford, water-way: acc. sg. ymb brontne ford, 568.

forð: 1) local, forth, hither, near: forð near ätstôp, approached nearer, 746; þâ cwom Wealhþeó forð gân, 1163; similarly, 613; him seleþegn forð wîsade, led him (Beówulf) forth (to the couch that had been prepared for him in Heorot), 1796; þät him swât sprong forð under fexe, forth under the hair of his head, 2968. Forward, further: gewîtað forð beran wæpen and gewædu, 291; he tô forð gestôp, 2290; freoðo-wong þone forð ofereodon, 2960. Away, forth, 45, 904; fyrst forð gewât, the time (of the way to the ship) was out, i.e. they had arrived at the ship, 210; me ... forð-gewitenum, to me the departed, 1480; fêrdon forð, went forth (from Grendel's sea), 1633; þonne he forð scile, when he must (go) forth, i.e. die, 3178; hine mihtig god ... ofer ealle men forð gefremede, carried him forth, over all men, 1719.—2) temporal, forth, from now on: heald forð tela niwe sibbe, 949; ic sceal forð sprecan gen ymbe Grendel, shall from now on speak again of Grendel, 2070. See furðum and furðor.

forð-gerîmed, pres. part., in unbroken succession, 59.

forð-gesceaft, st. f., that which is determined for farther on, future destiny: acc. sg. he þâ forð-gesceaft forgyteð and forgýmeð, 1751.

forð-weg, st. m., road that leads away, journey: he of ealdre gewât frôd on forð-weg (upon the way to the next world), 2626.

fore, prep. w. dat., local, before, coram, in conspectu: heó fore þäm werede spräc, 1216. Causal, through, for, because of: nô mearn fore fæhðe and fyrene, 136; fore fäder dædum, because of the father's deeds, 2060,—Allied to this is the meaning, about, de, super: þær wäs sang and swêg samod ätgädere fore Healfdenes hildewîsan, song and music about Healfdene's general (the song of Hnäf), 1065.

fore-mære, adj., renowned beyond (others), præclarus: superl. þät wäs fore-mærost foldbûendum receda under roderum, 309.

fore-mihtig, adj., able beyond (others), præpotens: nom. sg. wäs tô foremihtig feónd on fêðe, the enemy was too strong in going (could flee too rapidly), 970.

fore-snotor, adj., wise beyond (others), sapientissimus: nom. pl. foresnotre men, 3164.

fore-þanc, st. m., forethought, consideration, deliberation: nom. sg., 1061.

forht, adj., fearful, cowardly: nom. sg. forht, 2968; he on môde wearð forht on ferhðe, 755.—Comp. unforht.

forma, adj., foremost, first: nom. sg. forma sîð (the first time), 717, 1464, 1528, 2626; instr. sg. forman sîðe, 741, 2287; forman dôgore, 2574.

fyrmest, adv. superl., first of all, in the first place: he fyrmest läg, 2078.

forst, st. m., frost, cold: gen. sg. forstes bend, 1610.

for-þam, for-þan, for-þon, adv. and conj., therefore, on that account, then: forþam, 149; forþan, 418, 680, 1060; forþon þe, because, 503.

fôn, st. v., to catch, to grasp, to take hold, to take: prs. sg. III. fêhð ôðer tô, another lays hold (takes possession), 1756; inf. ic mid grâpe sceal fôn wið feónde, 439; pret. sg. him tôgeánes fêng, caught at him, grasped at him, 1543; w. dat. he þâm frätwum fêng, received the rich adornments (Ongenþeów's equipment), 2990.

be-fôn, to surround, to ensnare, to encompass, to embrace: pret. part. hyne sâr hafað ... nearwe befongen balwon bendum, 977; heó äðelinga ânne häfde fäste befangen (had seized him firmly), 1296; helm ... befongen freáwrâsnum (encircled by an ornament like a diadem), 1452; fenne bifongen, surrounded by the fen, 2010; (draca) fýre befongen, encircled by fire, 2275, 2596; häfde landwara lîge befangen, encompassed by fire, 2322.

ge-fôn, w. acc., to seize, to grasp: pret. he gefêng slæpendne rinc, 741; gûðrinc gefêng atolan clommum, 1502; gefêng þâ be eaxle ... Gûðgeáta leód Grendles môdor, 1538; gefêng þâ fetelhilt, 1564; hond rond gefêng, geolwe linde, 2610; ic on ôfoste gefêng micle mid mundum mägen-byrðenne, hastily I seized with my hands the enormous burden, 3091.

on-fôn, w. dat., to receive, to accept, to take: pres. imp. sg. onfôh þissum fulle, accept this cup, 1170; inf. þät þät þeódnes bearn ... scolde fäder-äðelum onfôn, receive the paternal rank, 912; pret. sg. hwâ þäm hläste onfêng, who received the ship's lading, 52; hleór-bolster onfêng eorles andwlitan, the pillow received the nobleman's face, 689; similarly, 853, 1495; heal swêge onfêng, the hall received the loud noise, 1215; he onfêng hraðe inwit-þancum, he (Beówulf) at once clutched him (Grendel) devising malice, 749.

þurh-fôn, w. acc., to break through with grasping, to destroy by grasping: inf. þät heó þone fyrd-hom þurh-fôn ne mihte, 1505.

wið-fôn, w. dat., (to grasp at), to seize, to lay hold of: pret. sg. him fäste wið-fêng, 761.

ymbe-fôn, w. acc., to encircle: pret. heals ealne ymbefêng biteran bânum, encircled his (Beówulf's) whole neck with sharp bones (teeth), 2692.

fôt, st. m., foot: gen. sg. fôtes trem (the measure of a foot, a foot broad), 2526; acc. pl. fêt, 746; dat. pl. ät fôtum, at the feet, 500, 1167.

fôt-gemearc, st. n., measure, determining by feet, number of feet: gen. sg. se wäs fîftiges fôtgemearces lang (fifty feet long), 3043.

fôt-lâst, st. m., foot-print: acc. sg. (draca) onfand feóndes fôt-lâst, 2290.

fracod, adj., objectionable, useless. nom. sg. näs seó ecg fracod hilde-rince, 1576.

fram, from, I. prep. w. dat. loc. away from something: þær fram sylle âbeág medubenc monig, 776, 1716; þanon eft gewiton ealdgesîðas ... fram mere, 856; cyning-balde men from þäm holmclife hafelan bæron, 1636; similarly, 541, 543, 2367. Standing after the dat.: he hine feor forwräc ... mancynne fram, 110; similarly, 1716. Also, hither from something: þâ ic cwom ... from feóndum, 420; æghwäðrum wäs ... brôga fram ôðrum, 2566.—Causal with verbs of saying and hearing, of, about, concerning: sägdest from his sîðe, 532; nô ic wiht fram þe swylcra searo-nîða secgan hýrde, 581; þät he fram Sigemunde secgan hyrde, 876. II adv., away, thence: nô þý ær fram meahte, 755; forth, out: from ærest cwom oruð aglæcean ût of stâne, the breath of the dragon came forth first from the rock 2557.

fram, from, adj.: 1) directed forwards, striving forwards; in comp. sîð-fram.—2) excellent, splendid, of a man with reference to his warlike qualities: nom. sg. ic eom on môde from, 2528; nom. pl. frome fyrd-hwate, 1642, 2477. Of things: instr. pl. fromum feoh-giftum, 21.—Comp. un-from; see freme, forma.

ge-frägen. See frignan.

frätwe, st. f. pl., ornament, anything costly, originally carved objects (cf. Dietrich in Hpts. Ztschr. X. 216 ff.), afterwards of any costly and artistic work: acc. pl. frätwe, 2920; beorhte frätwe, 214; beorhte frätwa, 897; frätwe.. eorclan-stânas, 1208; frätwe,... breóst-weorðunge, 2504, both times of Hygelâc's collar; frätwe and fät-gold, 1922; frätwe (Eanmund's sword and armor), 2621; dat. instr. pl. þâm frätwum, 2164; on frätewum, 963; frätwum (Heaðobeard sword) hrêmig, 2055; frätwum, of the drake's treasures, 2785; frätwum (Ongenþeów's armor), 2990; gen. pl. fela ... frätwa, 37; þâra frätwa (drake's treasure), 2795; frätwa hyrde (drake), 3134.

frätwan, w. v., to supply with ornaments, to adorn: inf. folc-stede frätwan, 76.

ge-frätwian, w. v., to adorn: pret. sg. gefrätwade foldan sceátas leomum and leáfum, 96; pret. part. þâ wäs hâten Heort innanweard folmum gefrätwod, 993.

ge-fræge, adj., known by reputation, renowned: nom. sg. leód-cyning ... folcum gefræge, 55; swâ hyt gefræge wäs, 2481.

ge-fræge, st. n., information through hearsay: instr. sg. mine gefræge (as I learned through the narrative of others), 777, 838, 1956, etc.

ge-frægnian, w. v., to become known through hearsay: pret. part. fylle gefrægnod (of Grendel's mother, who had become known through the carrying off of Äschere), 1334?

freca, w. m., properly a wolf, as one that breaks in, robs; here a designation of heroes: nom. sg. freca Scildinga, of Beówulf, 1564.—Comp.: gûð-, hilde-, scyld-, sweord-, wîg-freca; ferð-frec (adj.).

fremde, adj., properly distant, foreign; then estranged, hostile: nom sg. þät wäs fremde þeód êcean dryhtne, of the giants, 1692.

freme, adj., excellent, splendid: nom. sg. fem. fremu folces cwên, of Þryðo, 1933(?).

fremman, w. v., to press forward, to further, hence: 1) in general, to perform, to accomplish, to do, to make: pres. subj. without an object, fremme se þe wille, let him do (it) whoever will, 1004. With acc.: imp. pl. fremmað ge nu leóda þearfe, 2801; inf. fyrene fremman, 101; säcce fremman, 2500; fæhðe ... mærðum fremman, 2515, etc.; pret. sg. folcræd fremede (did what was best for his men, i.e. ruled wisely), 3007; pl. hû þâ äðelingas ellen fremedon, 3; feohtan fremedon, 960; nalles fâcenstafas ... þenden fremedon, 1020; pret. subj. þät ic ... mærðo fremede, 2135. —2) to help on, to support: inf. þät he mec fremman wile wordum and worcum (to an expedition), 1833.

ge-fremman, w. acc., to do, to make, to render: inf. gefremman eorlîc ellen, 637; helpan gefremman, to give help, 2450; äfter weáspelle wyrpe gefremman, to work a change after sorrow (to give joy after sorrow), 1316; gerund, tô gefremmanne, 174, 2645; pret. sg. gefremede, 135, 165, 551, 585, etc.; þeáh þe hine mihtig god ... ofer ealle men forð gefremede, placed him away, above all men, i.e. raised him, 1719; pret. pl. gefremedon, 1188, 2479; pret. subj. gefremede, 177; pret. part. gefremed, 476; fem, nu scealc hafað ... dæd gefremede, 941; absolutely, þu þe self hafast dædum gefremed, þät ..., hast brought it about by thy deeds that, 955.

fretan, st. v., to devour, to consume: inf. þâ (the precious things) sceal brond fretan, 3015; nu sceal glêd fretan wîgena strengel, 3115; pret. sg. (Grendel) slæpende frät folces Denigea fýftyne men, 1582.

frêcne, adj., dangerous, bold: nom. sg. frêcne fýr-draca, 2690; feorh-bealo frêcne, 2251, 2538; acc. sg. frêcne dæde, 890; frêcne fengelâd, 1360; frêcne stôwe, 1379; instr. sg. frêcnan spræce (through provoking words), 1105.

frêcne, adv., boldly, audaciously, 960, 1033, 1692.

freá, w. m., ruler, lord, of a temporal ruler: nom. sg. freá, 2286; acc. sg. freán, 351, 1320, 2538, 3003, 3108; gen. sg. freán, 359, 500, 1167, 1681; dat. sg. freán, 271, 291, 2663. Of a husband: dat. sg. eode ... tô hire freán sittan, 642. Of God: dat. sg. freán ealles, the Lord of all, 2795; gen. sg. freán, 27.— Comp.: âgend-, lîf-, sin-freá.

freá-dryhten, st. m., lord, ruling lord: gen. sg. freá-drihtnes, 797.

freá-wine, st. m., lord and friend, friendly ruler: nom. sg. freá-wine folces (folca), 2358, 2430; acc. sg. his freá-wine, 2439.

freá-wrâsn, st. f., encircling ornament like a diadem: instr. pl. helm ... befongen freáwrâsnum, 1452; see wrâsn.

freoðu, friðu, f., protection, asylum, peace: acc. sg. wel bið þäm þe môt ... tô fäder fäðmum freoðo wilnian, who may obtain an asylum in God's arms, 188; neán and feorran þu nu [friðu] hafast, 1175.—Comp. fen-freoðo.

freoðo-burh, st. f., castle, city affording protection: acc. sg. freoðoburh fägere, 522.

freoðo-wong, st. m., field of peace, field of protection: acc. sg., 2960; seems to have been the proper name of a field.

freoðo-wær, st. f., peace-alliance, security of peace: acc. sg. þâ hie getrûwedon on twâ healfa fäste frioðu-wære, 1097; gen. sg. frioðowære bäd hlâford sînne, entreated his lord for the protection of peace (i.e. full pardon for his delinquency), 2283.

freoðo-webbe, w. f., peace-weaver, designation of the royal consort (often one given in marriage as a confirmation of a peace between two nations): nom. sg., 1943.

freó-burh, st. f., = freá-burg (?), ruler's castle (?) (according to Grein, arx ingenua): acc. sg. freóburh, 694.

freód, st. f., friendship: acc. sg. freóde ne woldon ofer heafo healdan, 2477; gen. sg. näs þær mâra fyrst freóde tô friclan, was no longer time to seek for friendship, 2557; —favor, acknowledgement: acc. sg. ic þe sceal mîne gelæstan freóde (will show myself grateful, with reference to 1381 ff.), 1708.

freó-dryhten (= freá-dryhten), st. m., lord, ruler; according to Grein, dominus ingenuus vel nobilis: nom. sg. as voc. freó-drihten min! 1170; dat. sg. mid his freó-dryhtne, 2628.

freógan, w. v., to love; to think of lovingly: pres. subj. þät mon his wine-dryhten ... ferhðum freóge, 3178; inf. nu ic þec ... me for sunu wylle freógan on ferhðe, 949.

freó-lîc, adj., free, free-born (here of the lawful wife in contrast with the bond concubine): nom. sg. freólîc wîf, 616; freólîcu folc-cwên, 642.

freónd, st. m., friend: acc. sg. freónd, 1386, 1865; dat. pl. freóndum, 916, 1019, 1127; gen. pl. freónda, 1307, 1839.

freónd-laðu, st. f., friendly invitation: nom. sg. him wäs ful boren and freónd-laðu (friendly invitation to drink) wordum bewägned, 1193.

freónd-lâr, st. f., friendly counsel: dat. (instr.) pl. freónd-lârum, 2378.

freónd-lîce, adv., in a friendly manner, kindly: compar. freónd-lîcor, 1028.

freónd-scipe, st. m., friendship: acc. sg. freónd-scipe fästne, 2070.

freó-wine, st. m. (see freáwine), lord and friend, friendly ruler; according to Grein, amicus nobilis, princeps amicus: nom. sg. as voc. freó-wine folca! 430.

fricgean, w. v., to ask, to inquire into: inf. ongan sînne geseldan fägre fricgean hwylce Sæ-Geáta sîðas wæron, 1986; pres. part, gomela Scilding fela fricgende feorran rehte, the old Scilding, asking many questions (having many things related to him), told of old times (the conversation was alternate), 2107.

ge-fricgean, to learn, to learn by inquiry: pres. pl. syððan hie ge-fricgeað freán ûserne ealdorleásne, when they learn that our lord is dead, 3003; pres. subj. gif ic þät gefricge, þät..., 1827; pl. syððan äðelingas feorran gefricgean fleám eówerne, 2890.

friclan (see freca), w. v. w. gen., to seek, to desire, to strive for: inf. näs þær mâra fyrst freóde tô friclan, 2557.

friðo-sib, st. f., kin for the confirming of peace, designation of the queen (see freoðo-webbe), peace-bringer: nom. sg. friðu-sibb folca, 2018.

frignan, fringan, frinan, st. v., to ask, to inquire: imp. ne frin þu äfter sælum, ask not after the well-being! 1323; inf. ic þäs wine Deniga frinan wille ... ymb þînne sîð, 351; pret. sg. frägn, 236, 332; frägn gif ..., asked whether ..., 1320.

ge-frignan, ge-fringan, ge-frinan, to find out by inquiry, to learn by narration. pret. sg. (w. acc.) þät fram hâm gefrägn Higelâces þegn Grendles dæda, 194; nô ic gefrägn heardran feohtan, 575; (w. acc. and inf.) þâ ic wîde gefrägn weorc gebannan, 74; similarly, 2485, 2753, 2774; ne gefrägen ic þâ mægðe mâran weorode ymb hyra sincgyfan sêl gebæran, I never heard that any people, richer in warriors, conducted itself better about its chief, 1012; similarly, 1028; pret. pl. (w. acc.) we þeódcyninga þrym gefrunon, 2; (w. acc. and inf.) geongne gûðcyning gôdne gefrunon hringas dælan, 1970; (parenthetical) swâ guman gefrungon, 667, (after þonne) medo-ärn micel (greater) ... þone yldo bearn æfre gefrunon, 70; pret. part. häfde Higelâces hilde gefrunen, 2953; häfdon gefrunen þät..., had learned that ..., 695; häfde gefrunen hwanan sió fæhð ârâs, 2404; healsbeága mæst þâra þe ic on foldan gefrägen häbbe, 1197.

from, See fram.

frôd, adj.: 1) ætate provectus, old, gray: nom. sg. frôd, 2626, 2951; frôd cyning, 1307, 2210; frôd folces weard, 2514; wintrum frôd, 1725, 2115, 2278; se frôda, 2929; ac. sg. frôde feorhlege (the laying down of my old life), 2801; dat. sg. frôdan fyrnwitan (may also, from its meaning, belong under No. 2), 2124.—2) mente excellentior, intelligent, experienced, wise: nom. sg. frôd, 1367; frôd and gôd, 279; on môde frôd, 1845.—Comp.: in-, un-frôd.

frôfor, st. f., consolation, compensation, help: nom. sg. frôfor, 2942; acc. sg. frôfre, 7, 974; fyrena frôfre, 629; frôfre and fultum, 1274; frôfor and fultum, 699; dat. sg. tô frôfre, 14, 1708; gen. sg. frôfre, 185.

fruma (see forma), w. m., the foremost, hence: l) beginning: nom. sg. wäs se fruma egeslîc leódum on lande, swâ hyt lungre wearð on hyra sincgifan sâre geendod (the beginning of the dragon-combat was terrible, its end distressing through the death of Beówulf), 2310.—2) he who stands first, prince; in comp. dæd-, hild-, land-, leód-, ord-, wîg-fruma.

frum-cyn, st. n., (genus primitivum), descent, origin: acc. sg. nu ic eówer sceal frumcyn witan, 252.

frum-gâr, st. m., primipilus, duke, prince: dat. sg. frumgâre (of Beówulf), 2857.

frum-sceaft, st. f., prima creatio, beginning: acc. sg. se þe cûðe frumsceaft fira feorran reccan, who could tell of the beginning of mankind in old times, 91; dat. sg. frum-sceafte, in the beginning, i.e at his birth, 45.

fugol, st. m., bird: dat. sg. fugle gelîcost, 218; dat. pl. [fuglum] tô gamene, 2942.

ful, adj., full, filled: nom. sg. w. gen. pl. se wäs innan full wrätta and wîra, 2413.—Comp.: eges-, sorh-, weorð-ful.

ful, adv., plene, very: ful oft, 480; ful-oft, 952.

ful, st. n., cup, beaker: nom. sg., 1193; acc. sg. ful, 616, 629, 1026; ofer ýða ful, over the cup of the waves (the basin of the sea filled with waves), 1209; dat. sg. onfôh þissum fulle, 1170.—Comp.: medo-, sele-full.

fullæstian, w. v. w. dat, to give help: pres. sg. ic þe fullæstu, 2669.

fultum, st. m., help, support, protection: acc. sg. frôfor (frôfre) and fultum, 699, 1274; mägenes fultum, 1836; on fultum, 2663.—Comp. mägen-fultum.

fundian, w. v., to strive, to have in view: pres. pl. we fundiað Higelâc sêcan, 1820; pret. sg. fundode of geardum, 1138.

furðum, adv., primo, just, exactly; then first: þâ ic furðum weóld folce Deninga, then first governed the people of the Danes (had just assumed the government), 465; þâ hie tô sele furðum ... gangan cwômon, 323; ic þær furðum cwom tô þam hringsele, 2010;—before, previously: ic þe sceal mîne gelæstan freóde, swâ wit furðum spræcon, 1708.

furður, adv., further, forward, more distant, 254, 762, 3007.

fûs, adj., inclined to, favorable, ready: nom. sg. nu ic eom sîðes fûs, 1476; leófra manna fûs, prepared for the dear men, i.e. expecting them, 1917; sigel sûðan fûs, the sun inclined from the south (midday sun), 1967; se wonna hrefn fûs ofer fægum, eager over the slain, 3026; sceft ... feðer-gearwum fûs, 3120; nom. pl. wæron ... eft to leódum fûse tô farenne, 1806.—Sometimes fûs means ready for death, moribundus: fûs and fæge, 1242.—Comp.: hin-, ût-fûs.

fûs-lîc, adj., prepared, ready: acc. sg. fûs-lîc f[yrd]-leóð, 1425; fyrd-searo fûs-lîc, 2619; acc. pl. fyrd-searu fûs-lîcu, 232.

fyl, st. m., fall: nom. sg. fyll cyninges, the fall of the king (in the dragon-fight), 2913; dat. sg. þät he on fylle wearð, that he came to a fall, fell, 1545.—Comp. hrâ-fyl.

fylce (collective form from folc), st. n., troop, band of warriors: in comp. äl-fylce.

ge-fyllan (see feal), w. v., to fell, to slay in battle: inf. fâne gefyllan, to slay the enemy, 2656; pret. pl. feónd gefyldan, they had slain the enemy, 2707.

â-fyllan (see ful), w. v., to fill: pret. part. Heorot innan wäs freóndum âfylled (was filled with trusted men), 1019.

fyllo, st. f. (plenty, abundant meal: dat. (instr.) sg. fylle gefrægnod, 1334; gen. sg. näs hie þære fylle gefeán häfdon, 562; fylle gefægon, 1015.—Comp.: wäl-, wist-fyllo.

fyl-wêrig, adj., weary enough to fall, faint to death, moribundus: acc. sg. fyl-wêrigne, 963.

fyr. See feor.

fyrian, w. v. w. acc. (= ferian) to bear, to bring, carry: pret. pl. þâ þe gif-sceattas Geáta fyredon þyder tô þance, 378.

fyras. See firas.

fyren. See firen.

fyrde, adj., movable, that can be moved.—Comp. hard-fyrde.—Leo.

fyrd-gestealla, w. m., comrade on an expedition, companion in battle: dat. pl. fyrd-gesteallum, 2874

fyrd-ham, st. m., war-dress, coat of mail: acc. sg. þone fyrd-hom, 1505.

fyrd-hrägl, st. n., coat of mail, war-dress: acc. sg. fyrd-hrägl, 1528.

fyrd-hwät, adj., sharp, good in war, warlike: nom. pl. frome fyrd-hwate, 1642, 2477.

fyrd-leóð, st. n., war-song, warlike music: acc. sg. horn stundum song fûslîc f[yrd]leoð, 1425.

fyrd-searu, st. n., equipment for an expedition: acc. sg. fyrd-searu fûslîc, 2619; acc. pl. fyrd-searu fûslîcu, 232.

fyrd-wyrðe, adj., of worth in war, excellent in battle: nom. sg. fyrd-wyrðe man (Beówulf), 1317.

ge-fyrðran (see forð), w. v., to bring forward, to further: pret. part. âr wäs on ôfoste, eftsîðes georn, frätwum gefyrðred, he was hurried forward by the treasure (i.e. after he had gathered up the treasure, he hasted to return, so as to be able to show it to the mortally-wounded Beówulf), 2785.

fyrmest. See forma.

fyrn-dagas, st. m. pl., by-gone days: dat. pl. fyrndagum (in old times), 1452.

fyrn-geweorc, st. n., work, something done in old times: acc. sg. fira fyrn-geweorc (the drinking-cup mentioned in 2283, 2287.

fyrn-gewin, st. n., combat in ancient times: gen. sg. ôr fyrn-gewinnes (the origin of the battles of the giants), 1690.

fyrn-man, st. m., man of ancient times: gen. pl. fyrn-manna fatu, 2762.

fyrn-wita, w. m., counsellor ever since ancient times, adviser for many years: dat. sg. frôdan fyrnwitan, of Äschere, 2124.

fyrst, st. m., portion of time, definite time, time: nom. sg. näs hit lengra fyrst, ac ymb âne niht ..., 134; fyrst forð gewât, the time (of going to the harbor) was past, 210; näs þær mâra fyrst freóde tô friclan, 2556; acc. sg. niht-longne fyrst, 528; fîf nihta fyrst, 545; instr. sg. þý fyrste, 2574; dat. sg. him on fyrste gelomp ..., within the fixed time, 76.

fyr-wit, -wet, -wyt, st. n., prying spirit, curiosity: nom. sg. fyrwyt, 232; fyrwet, 1986, 2785.

ge-fýsan (fûs), w. v., to make ready, to prepare: part. winde gefýsed flota, the ship provided with wind (for the voyage), 217; (wyrm) fýre gefýsed, provided with fire, 2310; þâ wäs hringbogan (of the drake) heorte gefýsed säcce tô sêceanne, 2562; with gen., in answer to the question, for what? gûðe gefýsed, ready for battle, determined to fight, 631.

fýr, st. n., fire: nom. sg., 1367, 2702, 2882; dat. sg. fýre, 2220; as instr. fýre, 2275, 2596; gen. sg. fýres fäðm, 185; fýres feng, 1765.— Comp.: âd-, bæl-, heaðu-, wäl-fýr.

fýr-bend, st. m., band forged in fire: dat. pl. duru ... fýr-bendum fäst, 723.

fýr-draca, w. m., fire-drake, fire-spewing dragon: nom. sg., 2690.

fýr-heard, adj., hard through fire, hardened in fire: nom. pl. (eoforlîc) fâh and fýr-heard, 305.

fýr-leóht, st. n., fire-light: acc. sg., 1517.

fýr-wylm, st. m., wave of fire, flame-wave: dat. pl. wyrm ... fýrwylmum fâh, 2672.

G

galan, st. v., to sing, to sound: pres. sg. sorh-leóð gäleð, 2461; inf. gryre-leóð galan, 787; bearhtm ongeâton, gûðhorn galan, heard the clang, the battle-trumpet sound, 1433.

â-galan, to sing, to sound: pret. sg. þät hire on hafelan hringmæl âgôl grædig gûðleóð, that the sword caused a greedy battle-song to sound upon her head, 1522.

gamban, or, according to Bout., gambe, w. f., tribute, interest: acc. sg. gomban gyldan, 11.

gamen, st. n., social pleasure, rejoicing, joyous doings: nom. sg. gamen, 1161; gomen, 2460; gomen gleóbeámes, the pleasure of the harp, 2264; acc. sg. gamen and gleódreám, 3022; dat. sg. gamene, 2942; gomene, 1776.—Comp. heal-gamen.

gamen-wâð, st. f., way offering social enjoyment, journey in joyous society: dat. sg. of gomen-wâðe, 855.

gamen-wudu, st. m., wood of social enjoyment, i.e. harp: nom. sg. þær wäs ... gomenwudu grêted, 1066; acc. sg. gomenwudu grêtte, 2109.

gamol, gomol, gomel, adj., old; of persons, having lived many years, gray: gamol, 58, 265; gomol, 3096; gomel, 2113, 2794; se gomela, 1398; gamela (gomela) Scylding, 1793, 2106; gomela, 2932; acc. sg. þone gomelan, 2422; dat. sg. gamelum rince, 1678; gomelum ceorle, 2445; þam gomelan, 2818; nom. pl. blondenfeaxe gomele, 1596.—Also, late, belonging to former time: gen. pl. gomelra lâfe (legacy), 2037.—Of things, old, from old times: nom. sg. sweord ... gomol, 2683; acc. sg. gomele lâfe, 2564; gomel swyrd, 2611; gamol is a more respectful word than eald.

gamol-feax, adj., with gray hair: nom. sg., 609.

gang, st. m.: 1) gait, way: dat. sg. on gange, 1885; gen. sg. ic hine ne mihte ... ganges ge-twæman, could not keep him from going, 969.—2) step, foot-step: nom. sg. gang (the foot-print of the mother of Grendel), 1405; acc. sg. uton hraðe fêran Grendles mâgan gang sceáwigan, 1392.—Comp. in-gang.

be-gang, bi-gang, st. m., (so far as something goes), extent: acc. sg. ofer geofenes begang, over the extent of the sea, 362; ofer flôda begang, 1827; under swegles begong, 861, 1774; flôda begong, 1498; sioleða bigong, 2368.

gangan. See under gân.

ganot, st. m., diver, fulica marina: gen. sg. ofer ganotes bäð (i.e. the sea), 1862.

gâd, st. n., lack: nom. sg. ne bið þe wilna gâd (thou shalt have no lack of desirable [valuable] things), 661; similarly, 950.

gân, expanded = gangan, st. v., to go: pres. sg. III. gæð â Wyrd swâ hió scel, 455; gæð eft ... tô medo, 605; þonne he ... on flett gæð, 2035; similarly, 2055; pres. subj. III. sg. gâ þær he wille, let him go whither he will, 1395; imp. sg. II. gâ nu tô setle, 1783; nu þu lungre geong, hord sceáwian, under hârne stân, 2744; inf. in gân, to go in, 386, 1645 'forð gân, to go forth, to go thither, 1164; þat hie him tô mihton gegnum gangan, to go towards, to go to, 314; tô sele ... gangan cwômon, 324; in a similar construction, gongan, 1643; nu ge môton gangan ... Hrôðgâr geseón, 395; þâ com of môre ... Grendel gongan, there came Grendel (going) from the fen, 712; ongeán gramum gangan, to go to meet the enemy, to go to the war, 1035; cwom ... tô hofe gongan, 1975; wutun gangan tô, let us go thither, 2649.—As preterite, serve, 1) geóng or gióng: he tô healle geóng, 926; similarly, 2019; se þe on orde geóng, who went at the head, went in front, 3126; on innan gióng, went in, 2215; he ... gióng tô þäs þe he eorðsele ânne wisse, went thither, where he knew of that earth-hall, 2410; þâ se äðeling, gióng, þät he bî wealle gesät, then went the prince (Beówulf) that he might sit down by the wall, 2716.—2) gang: tô healle gang Healfdenes sunu, 1010; similarly, 1296; gang þâ äfter flôre, went along the floor, along the hall, 1317.—3) gengde (Goth. gaggida): he ... beforan gengde ..., wong sceáwian, went in front to inspect the fields, 1413; gengde, also of riding, 1402.—4) from another stem, eode (Goth. iddja): eode ellenrôf, þät he for eaxlum gestôd Deniga freán, 358; similarly, 403; [wið duru healle Wulfgâr eode], went towards the door of the hall, 390; eode Wealhþeów forð, went forth, 613; eode tô hire freán sittan, 641; eode yrremôd, went with angry feeling, 727; eode ... tô sele, 919; similarly, 1233; eode ... þær se snottra bâd, 1313; eode weorð Denum äðeling tô yppan, the prince (Beówulf), honored by the Danes, went to the high seat, 1815; eode ... under inwit-hrôf, 3124; pl. þær swîðferhðe sittan eodon, 493; eodon him þâ tôgeánes, went to meet him, 1627; eodon under Earna näs, 3032.

â-gangan, to go out, to go forth, to befall: pret. part. swâ bit âgangen wearð eorla manegum (as it befell many a one of the earls), 1235.

full-gangan, to emulate, to follow after: pret. sg. þonne ... sceft nytte heóld, feðer-gearwum fûs flâne full-eode, when the shaft had employment, furnished with feathers it followed the arrow, did as the arrow, 3120.

ge-gân, ge-gangan: 1) to go, to approach: inf. (w. acc.) his môdor ... gegân wolde sorhfulne sîð, 1278; se þe gryre-sîðas gegân dorste, who dared to go the ways of terror (to go into the combat), 1463; pret. sg. se maga geonga under his mæges scyld elne geeode, went quickly under his kinsman's shield, 2677; pl. elne geeodon tô þäs þe ..., went quickly thither where ..., 1968; pret. part. syððan hie tô-gädre gegân häfdon, when they (Wîglâf and the drake) had come together, 2631; þät his aldres wäs ende gegongen, that the end of his life had come, 823; þâ wäs endedäg gôdum gegongen, þät se gûðcyning ... swealt, 3037.—2) to obtain, to reach: inf. (w. acc.) þonne he ät gûðe gegân þenceð longsumne lof, 1536; ic mid elne sceall gold gegangan, 2537; gerund, näs þät ýðe ceáp tô gegangenne gumena ænigum, 2417; pret. pl. elne geeodon ... þät se byrnwîga bûgan sceolde, 2918; pret. part. häfde ... gegongen þät, had attained it, that ..., 894; hord ys gesceáwod, grimme gegongen, 3086.—3) to occur, to happen: pres. sg. III. gif þät gegangeð þät ..., if that happen, that ..., 1847; pret. sg. þät geiode ufaran dôgrum hilde-hlämmum, it happened in later times to the warriors (the Geátas), 2201; pret. part. þâ wäs gegongen guman unfrôdum earfoðlîce þät, then it had happened to the young man in sorrowful wise that ..., 2822.

ôð-gangan, to-go thither: pret. pl. oð þät hi ôðeodon ... in Hrefnesholt, 2935.

ofer-gangan, w. acc., to go over: pret. sg. ofereode þâ äðelinga bearn steáp stân-hliðo, went over steep, rocky precipices, 1409; pl. freoðo-wong þone forð ofereodon, 2960.

ymb-gangan, w. acc., to go around: pret. ymb-eode þâ ides Helminga duguðe and geogoðe dæl æghwylcne, went around in every part, among the superior and the inferior warriors, 621.

gâr, st. m., spear, javelin, missile: nom. sg., 1847, 3022; instr. sg. gâre, 1076; blôdigan gâre, 2441; gen. sg. gâres fliht, 1766; nom. pl. gâras, 328; gen. pl., 161(?).—Comp.: bon-, frum-gâr.

gâr-cêne, adj., spear-bold: nom. sg., 1959.

gâr-cwealm, st. m., murder, death by the spear: acc. sg. gâr-cwealm gumena, 2044.

gâr-holt, st. n., forest of spears, i.e. crowd of spears: acc. sg., 1835.

gâr-secg, st. m. (cf. Grimm, in Haupt l. 578), sea, ocean: acc. sg. on gâr-secg, 49, 537; ofer gâr-secg, 515.

gâr-wîga, w. m., one who fights with the spear: dat. sg. geongum gâr-wîgan, of Wîglâf, 2675, 2812.

gâr-wîgend, pres. part., fighting with spear, spear-fighter: acc. pl. gâr-wîgend, 2642.

gâst, gæst, st. m., ghost, demon: acc. sg. helle gâst (Grendel), 1275; gen. sg. wergan gâstes (of Grendel), 133; (of the tempter), 1748; gen. pl. dyrnra gâsta (Grendel's race), 1358; gæsta gîfrost (flames consuming corpses), 1124.—Comp.: ellor-, geó-sceaft-gâst; ellen-, wäl-gæst.

gâst-bana, w. m., slayer of the spirit, i.e. the devil: nom. sg. gâst-bona, 177.

gädeling, st. m., he who is connected with another, relation, companion: gen. sg. gädelinges, 2618; dat. pl. mid his gädelingum, 2950.

ät-gädere, adv., together, united: 321, 1165, 1191; samod ätgädere, 329, 387, 730, 1064.

tô-gadere, adv., together, 2631.

gäst, gist, gyst, st. m., stranger, guest: nom. sg. gäst, 1801; se gäst (the drake), 2313; se grimma gäst (Grendel), 102; gist, 1139, 1523; acc. sg. gryre-lîcne gist (the nixy slain by Beówulf), 1442; dat. sg. gyste, 2229; nom. pl. gistas, 1603; acc. pl. gäs[tas], 1894.—Comp.: fêðe-, gryre-, inwit-, nîð-, sele-gäst (-gyst).

gäst-sele, st. m., hall in which the guests spend their time, guest-hall: acc. sg., 995.

ge, conj., and, 1341; ge ... ge ..., as well ... as ..., 1865; ge ... ge ..., ge ..., 1249; ge swylce, and likewise, and moreover, 2259.

ge, pron., ye, you, plur. of þu, 237, 245, etc.

gegn-cwide, st. m., reply: gen. pl. þînra gegn-cwida, 367.

gegnum, adv., thither, towards, away, with the prep, tô, ofer, giving the direction: þät hie him tô mihton gegnum gangan (that they might go thither), 314; gegnum fôr [þâ] ofer myrcan môr, away over the dark moor, 1405.

gehðu, geohðu, st. f., sorrow, care: instr. sg. giohðo mænde, 2268; dat. sg. on gehðo, 3096; on giohðe, 2794.

gen (from gegn), adv., yet, again. ne wäs hit lenge þâ gen, þät ..., it was not then long before ..., 83; ic sceal forð sprecan gen ymb Grendel, shall from now on speak again of Grendel, 2071; nô þý ær ût þâ gen ... gongan wolde (still he would not yet go out), 2082; gen is eall ät þe lissa gelong (yet all my favor belongs to thee), 2150; þâ gen, then again, 2678, 2703; swâ he nu gen dêð, as he still does, 2860; furður gen, further still, besides, 3007; nu gen, now again, 3169; ne gen, no more, no farther: ne wäs þät wyrd þâ gen, that was no more fate (fate no longer willed that), 735.

gena, still: cwico wäs þâ gena, was still living, 3094.

genga, w. m., goer; in comp. in-, sæ-, sceadu-genga.

gengde. See gân(3).

genge. See ûð-genge.

genunga (from gegnunga), adv., precisely, completely, 2872.

gerwan, gyrwan, w. v.: 1) to prepare, to make ready, to put in condition: pret. pl. gestsele gyredon, 995.—2) to equip, to arm for battle: pret. sg. gyrede hine Beówulf eorl-gewædum (dressed himself in the armor), 1442.

ge-gyrwan: 1) to make, to prepare: pret. pl. him þâ gegiredan Geáta leóde âd ... unwâclîcne, 3138; pret. part. glôf ... eall gegyrwed deófles cräftum and dracan fellum, 2088.—2) to fit out, to make ready: inf. ceól gegyrwan hilde-wæpnum and heaðowædum, 38; hêt him ýðlidan gôdne gegyrwan, had (his) good ship fitted up for him, 199. Also, to provide warlike equipment: pret. part. syððan he hine tô gûðe gegyred häfde, 1473.—3) to endow, to provide, to adorn: pret. part. nom. sg. beado-hrägl ... golde gegyrwed, 553; acc. sg. lâfe ... golde gegyrede, 2193; acc. pl. mâdmas ... golde gegyrede, 1029.

getan, w. v., to injure, to slay: inf., 2941.

be-gête, adj., attainable; in comp. êð-begête.

geador, adv., unitedly, together, jointly, 836; geador ätsomne, 491.

on-geador, adv., unitedly, together, 1596.

gealdor, st. n.: 1) sound: acc. sg. býman gealdor, 2944.—2) magic song, incantation, spell: instr. sg. þonne wäs þät yrfe ... galdre bewunden (placed under a spell), 3053.

gealga, w. m., gallows: dat. sg. þät his byre rîde giong on galgan, 2447.

gealg-môd, adj., gloomy: nom. sg. gîfre and galgmôd, 1278.

gealg-treów, st. n., gallows: dat. pl. on galg-treówu[m], 2941.

geard, st. m., residence; in Beówulf corresponding to the house-complex of a prince's residence, used only in the plur.: acc. in geardas (in Finn's castle), 1135; dat. in geardum, 13, 2460; of geardum, 1139; ær he on weg hwurfe ... of geardum, before he went away from his dwelling-place, i.e. died, 265.—Comp. middan-geard.

gearo, adj., properly, made, prepared; hence, ready, finished, equipped: nom. sg. þät hit wearð eal gearo, heal-ärna mæst, 77; wiht unhælo ... gearo sôna wäs, the demon of destruction was quickly ready, did not delay long, 121; Here-Scyldinga betst beadorinca wäs on bæl gearu, was ready for the funeral-pile (for the solemn burning), 1110; þeód (is) eal gearo, the warriors are altogether ready, always prepared, 1231; hraðe wäs ät holme hýð-weard gearo (geara, MS.), 1915; gearo gûð-freca, 2415; sîe sió bær gearo ädre geäfned, let the bier be made ready at once, 3106. With gen.: gearo gyrnwräce, ready for revenge for harm done, 2119, acc. sg. gearwe stôwe, 1007; nom. pl. beornas gearwe, 211; similarly, 1814.

gearwe, gearo, geare, adv., completely, entirely: ne ge ... gearwe ne wisson, you do not know at all ..., 246; similarly, 879; hine gearwe geman witena welhwyle (remembers him very well), 265; wisse he gearwe þät ..., he knew very well that ..., 2340, 2726; þät ic ... gearo sceáwige swegle searogimmas (that I may see the treasures altogether, as many as they are), 2749; ic wât geare þät ..., 2657.—Comp. gearwor, more readily, rather, 3077.—Superl. gearwost, 716.

gearo-folm, adj., with ready hand, 2086.

gearwe, st. f., equipment, dress; in comp. feðer-gearwe.

geat, st. n., opening, door; in comp. ben-, hilde-geat.

geato-lîc, adj., well prepared, handsome, splendid: of sword and armor, 215, 1563, 2155; of Heorot, 308. Adv.: wîsa fengel geatolîc gengde, passed on in a stately manner, 1402.

geatwe, st. f. pl., equipment, adornment: acc. recedes geatwa, the ornaments of the dragon's cave (its treasures), 3089.—Comp.: eóred-, gryre-, gûð-, hilde-, wîg-geatwe.

geán (from gegn), adv. in

on-geán, adv. and prep., against, towards: þät he me ongeán sleá, 682; ræhte ongeán feónd mid folme, 748; foran ongeán, forward towards, 2365. With dat.: ongeán gramum, against the enemy, 1035.

tô-geánes, tô-genes, prep, against, towards: Grendle tôgeánes, towards Grendel, against Grendel, 667; grâp þâ tôgeánes, she grasped at (Beówulf), 1502; similarly, him tôgeánes fêng, 1543; eodon him þâ tôgeánes, went towards him, 1627; hêt þâ gebeódan ... þät hie bæl-wudu feorran feredon gôdum tôgênes, had it ordered that they should bring the wood from far for the funeral-pyre towards the good man (i.e. to the place where the dead Beówulf lay), 3115.

geáp, adj., roomy, extensive, wide: nom. sg. reced ... geáp, the roomy hall, 1801; acc. sg. under geápne hrôf, 837.—Comp.: horn-, sæ-geáp.

geâr, st. n., year: nom. sg., 1135; gen. pl. geâra, in adverbial sense, olim, in former times, 2665. See un-geâra.

geâr-dagas, st. m. pl., former days: dat. pl. in (on) geâr-dagum, 1, 1355.

geofe. See gifu.

geofon, gifen, gyfen (see Kuhn Zeitschr. I. 137), st. n., sea, flood: nom. sg. geofon, 515; gifen geótende, the streaming flood, 1691; gen. sg. geofenes begang, 362; gyfenes, 1395.

geogoð, st. f.: 1) youth, time of youth: dat. sg. on geogoðe, 409, 466, 2513; on giogoðe, 2427; gen. gioguðe, 2113.—2) contrasted with duguð, the younger warriors of lower rank (about as in the Middle Ages, the squires with the knights): nom. sg. geogoð, 66; giogoð, 1191; acc. sg. geogoðe, 1182; gen. duguðe and geogoðe, 160; duguðe and iogoðe (geogoðe), 1675, 622.

geoguð-feorh, st. n., age of youth, i.e. age in which one still belongs in the ranks of the geogoð: on geogoð- (geoguð-) feore, 537, 2665.

geohðo. See gehðo.

geolo, adj., yellow: acc. sg. geolwe linde (the shield of yellow linden bark), 2611.

geolo-rand, st. m., yellow shield (shield with a covering of interlaced yellow linden bark): acc. sg., 438.

geond, prep. w. acc., through, throughout, along, over: geond þisne middangeard, through the earth, over the earth, 75; wide geond eorðan, 266, 3100; fêrdon folctogan ... geond wîd-wegas, went along the ways coming from afar, 841; similarly, 1705; geond þät säld, through the hall, through the extent of the hall, 1281; similarly, 1982, 2265.

geong, adj., young, youthful: nom. sg., 13, 20, 855, etc.; giong, 2447; w. m. se maga geonga, 2676; acc. sg. geongne gûðcyning, 1970; dat. sg. geongum, 1949, 2045, 2675, etc.; on swâ geongum feore, at a so youthful age, 1844; geongan cempan, 2627; acc. pl. geonge, 2019; dat. pl. geongum and ealdum, 72.—Superl. gingest, the last: nom. sg. w. f. gingeste word, 2818.

georn, adj., striving, eager, w. gen. of the thing striven for: eft sîðes georn, 2784.—Comp. lof-georn.

georne, adv., readily, willingly: þät him wine-mâgas georne hýrdon, 66; georne trûwode, 670.—zealously, eagerly: sôhte georne äfter grunde, eagerly searched over the ground, 2295.—carefully, industriously: nô ic him þäs georne ätfealh (held him not fast enough), 969.—completely, exactly: comp. wiste þê geornor, 822.

geó, iú, adv., once, formerly, earlier, 1477; gió, 2522; iú, 2460.

geóc, st. f., help, support: acc. sg. geóce gefremman, 2675; þät him gâst-bona geóce gefremede wið þeód-þreáum, 177; geóce gelýfde, believed in the help (of Beówulf), 609; dat. sg. tô geóce, 1835.

geócor, adj., ill, bad: nom. sg., 766.—See Haupt's Zeitschrift 8, p. 7.

geó-man, iú-man, st. m., man of former times: gen. pl. iú-manna, 3053.

geó-meowle, w. f., (formerly a virgin), wife: acc. sg. ió-meowlan, 2932.

geômor, adj., with depressed feelings, sad, troubled: nom. sg. him wäs geômor sefa, 49, 2420, 2633, 2951; môdes geômor, 2101; fem. þät wäs geômuru ides, 1076.

geômore, adv., sadly, 151.

geômor-gid, st. n., dirge: acc. sg. giômor-gyd, 3151.

geômor-lîc, adj., sad, painful: swâ bið geômorlîc gomelum ceorle tô gebîdanne þät..., it is painful to an old man to experience it, that ..., 2445.

geômor-môd, adj., sad, sorrowful: nom. sg., 2045, 3019; giômor-môd, 2268.

geômrian, w. v., to complain, to lament: pret. sg. geômrode giddum, 1119.

geó-sceaft, st. f., (fixed in past times), fate: acc. sg. geósceaft grimme, 1235.

geósceaft-gâst, st. m., demon sent by fate: gen. pl. fela geósceaft-gâsta, of Grendel and his race, 1267.

geótan, st. v. intrans., to pour, to flow, to stream: pres. part. gifen geótende, 1691.

gicel, st. m., icicle: in comp. hilde-gicel.

gid, gyd, st. n., speech, solemn alliterative song: nom. sg. þær wäs ... gid oft wrecen, 1066; leóð wäs âsungen, gleómannes gyd, the song was sung, the gleeman's lay, 1161; þær wäs gidd and gleó, 2106; acc. sg. ic þis gid âwräc, 1724; gyd âwräc, 2109; gyd äfter wräc, 2155; þonne he gyd wrece, 2447; dat. pl. giddum, 151, 1119; gen. pl. gidda gemyndig, 869.—Comp.: geômor-, word-gid.

giddian, w. v., to speak, to speak in alliteration: pret. gyddode, 631.

gif, conj.: 1) if, w. ind., 442, 447, 527, 662, etc.; gyf, 945, etc. With subj., 452, 594, 1482, etc.; gyf, 280, 1105, etc.—2) whether, w. ind., 272; w. subj., 1141, 1320.

gifa, geofa, w. m., giver; in comp. gold-, sinc-, wil-gifa (-geofa).

gifan, st. v., to give: inf. giofan, 2973; pret. sg. nallas beágas geaf Denum, 1720; he me [mâðmas] geaf, 2147; and similarly, 2174, 2432, 2624, etc.; pret. pl. geâfon (hyne) on gârsecg, 49; pret. part. þâ wäs Hrôðgâre here-spêd gyfen, 64; þâ wäs gylden hilt gamelum rince ... on hand gyfen, 1679; syððan ærest wearð gyfen ... geongum cempan (given in marriage), 1949.

â-gifan, to give, to impart: inf. andsware ... âgifan, to give an answer, 355; pret. sg. sôna him se frôda fäder Ôhtheres ... ondslyht âgeaf (gave him a counter-blow), (hand-blow?), 2930.

for-gyfan, to give, to grant: pret. sg. him þäs lîf-freá ... worold-âre forgeaf, 17; þäm tô hâm forgeaf Hrêðel Geáta ângan dôhtor (gave in marriage), 374; similarly, 2998; he me lond forgeaf, granted me land, 2493; similarly, 697, 1021, 2607, 2617; mägen-ræs forgeaf hilde-bille, he gave with his battle-sword a mighty blow, i.e. he struck with full force, 1520.

of-gifan, (to give up), to leave: inf. þät se mæra maga Ecgþeówes grund-wong þone ofgyfan wolde (was fated to leave the earth-plain), 2589; pret. sg. þâs worold ofgeaf gromheort guma, 1682; similarly, gumdreám ofgeaf, 2470; Dena land ofgeaf, 1905; pret. pl. näs ofgeâfon hwate Scyldingas, left the promontory, 1601; þät þâ hildlatan holt ofgêfan, that the cowards left the wood (into which they had fled), 2847; sg. pret. for pl. þâra þe þis [lîf] ofgeaf, 2252.

gifeðe, adj., given, granted: Gûðfremmendra swylcum gifeðe bið þät..., to such a warrior is it granted that..., 299; similarly, 2682; swâ me gifeðe wäs, 2492; þær me gifeðe swâ ænig yrfeweard äfter wurde, if an heir, (living) after me, had been given me, 2731.—Neut. as subst.: wäs þät gifeðe tô swîð, þe þone [þeóden] þyder ontyhte, the fate was too harsh that has drawn hither the king, 3086; gyfeðe, 555, 820.—Comp. un-gifeðe.

gif-heal, st. f., hall in which fiefs were bestowed, throne-hall: acc. sg. ymb þâ gifhealle, 839.

gif-sceat, st. m., gift of value: acc. pl. gif-sceattas, 378.

gif-stôl, st. m., seat from which fiefs are granted, throne: nom. sg., 2328; acc. sg., 168.

gift, st. f., gift, present: in comp. feoh-gift.

gifu, geofu, st. f., gift, present, grant; fief: nom. sg. gifu, 1885 acc. sg. gimfäste gife þe him god sealde, the great gift that God had granted him (i.e. the enormous strength), 1272; ginfästan gife þe him god sealde, 2183; dat. pl. (as instr.) geofum, 1959; gen. pl. gifa, 1931; geofena, 1174.—Comp.: mâððum-, sinc-gifu.

gigant, st. m., giant: nom. pl. gigantas, 113; gen. pl. giganta, 1563, 1691.

gild, gyld, st. n., reparation: in comp. wiðer-gyld(?).

gildan, gyldan, st. v., to do something in return, to repay, to reward, to pay: inf. gomban gyldan, pay tribute, 11; he mid gôde gyldan wille uncran eaferan, 1185; we him þâ gûðgeatwa gyldan woldon, 2637; pret. sg. heaðoræsas geald mearum and mâðmum, repaid the battles with horses and treasures, 1048; similarly, 2492; geald þone gûðræs ... Jofore and Wulfe mid ofermâðmum, repaid Eofor and Wulf the battle with exceedingly great treasures, 2992.

an-gildan, to pay for: pret. sg. sum sâre angeald æfenräste, one (Äschere) paid for the evening-rest with death's pain, 1252.

â-gildan, to offer one's self: pret. sg. þâ me sæl âgeald, when the favorable opportunity offered itself, 1666; similarly, þâ him rûm âgeald, 2691.

for-gildan, to repay, to do something in return, to reward: pres. subj. sg. III. alwalda þec gôde forgylde, may the ruler of all reward thee with good, 957; inf. þone ænne hêht golde forgyldan, he ordered that the one (killed by Grendel) be paid for (atoned for) with gold, 1055; he ... wolde Grendle for-gyldan gûðræsa fela, wished to pay Grendel for many attacks, 1578; wolde se lâða lîge forgyldan drinc-fät dýre, the enemy wished to repay with fire the costly drinking vessel (the theft of it), 2306; pret. sg. he him þäs leán forgeald, he gave them the reward therefore, 114; similarly, 1542, 1585, 2095; forgeald hraðe wyrsan wrixle wälhlem þone, repaid the murderous blow with a worse exchange, 2969.

gilp, gylp, st. m., speech in which one promises great things for himself in a coming combat, defiant speech, boasting speech: acc. sg. häfde ... Geát-mecga leód gilp gelæsted (had fulfilled what he had claimed for himself before the battle), 830; nallas on gylp seleð fätte beágas, gives no chased gold rings for a boastful speech, 1750; þät ic wið þone gûðflogan gylp ofersitte, restrain myself from the speech of defiance, 2529; dat. sg. gylpe wiðgrîpan (fulfil my promise of battle), 2522.—Comp. dol-gilp.

gilpan, gylpan, st. v. w. gen., acc., and dat., to make a defiant speech, to boast, to exult insolently: pres. sg. I. nô ic þäs gilpe (after a break in the text), 587; sg. III. morðres gylpeð, boasts of the murder, 2056; inf. swâ ne gylpan þearf Grendles maga ænig ... uhthlem þone, 2007; nealles folc-cyning fyrdgesteallum gylpan þorfte, had no need to boast of his fellow-warrior, 2875; pret. sg. hrêðsigora ne gealp goldwine Geáta, did not exult at the glorious victory (could not gain the victory over the drake), 2584.

gilp-cwide, st. m., speech in which a man promises much for himself for a coming combat, speech of defiance: nom. sg., 641.

gilp-hläden, pret. part., laden with boasts of defiance (i.e. he who has made many such boasts, and consequently has been victorious in many combats), covered with glory: nom. sg. guma gilp-hläden, 869.

gilp-spræc, same as gilp-cwide, speech of defiance, boastful speech: dat. sg. on gylp-spræce, 982.

gilp-word, st. n., defiant word before the coming combat, vaunting word: gen. pl. gespräc ... gylp-worda sum, 676.

gim, st. m., gem, precious stone, jewel: nom. sg. heofones gim, heaven's jewel, i.e. the sun, 2073. Comp. searo-gim.

gimme-rîce, adj., rich in jewels: acc. sg. gimme-rîce hord-burh häleða, 466.

gin (according to Bout., ginne), adj., properly gaping, hence, wide, extended: acc. sg. gynne grund (the bottom of the sea), 1552.

gin-fäst, adj., extensive, rich: acc. sg. gim-fäste gife (gim-, on account of the following f), 1272; in weak form, gin-fästan gife, 2183.

ginnan, st. v., original meaning, to be open, ready; in

on-ginnan, to begin, to undertake: pret. ôð þät ân ongan fyrene fremman feónd on helle, 100; secg eft ongan sîð Beówulfes snyttrum styrian, 872; þâ þät sweord ongan ... wanian, the sword began to diminish, 1606; Higelâc ongan sînne geseldan ... fägre fricgean, began with propriety to question his companion, 1984, etc.; ongon, 2791; pret. pl. nô her cûðlîcor cuman ongunnon lindhäbbende, no shield-bearing men e'er undertook more openly to come hither, 244; pret. part. häbbe ic mærða fela ongunnen on geogoðe, have in my youth undertaken many deeds of renown, 409.

gist. See gäst.

gistran, adv., yesterday: gystran niht, yesterday night, 1335.

git, pron., ye two, dual of þu, 508, 512, 513, etc.

git, gyt, adv., yet; then still, 536, 1128, 1165, 2142; hitherto, 957; næfre git, never yet, 583; still, 945, 1059, 1135; once more, 2513; moreover, 47, 1051, 1867.

gitan (original meaning, to take hold of, to seize, to attain), in

be-gitan, w. acc., to grasp, to seize, to reach: pret. sg. begeat, 1147, 2231; þâ hine wîg beget, when war seized him, came upon him, 2873; similarly, begeat, 1069; pret. pl. hit ær on þe gôde be-geâton, good men received it formerly from thee, 2250; subj. sg. for pl. þät wäs Hrôðgâre hreówa tornost þâra þe leódfruman lange begeâte, the bitterest of the troubles that for a long time had befallen the people's chief, 2131.

for-gitan, w. acc., to forget: pres. sg. III. he þâ forðgesceaft forgyteð and forgýmeð, 1752.

an-gitan, on-gitan, w. acc.: 1) to take hold of, to grasp: imp. sg. gumcyste ongit, lay hold of manly virtue, of what becomes the man, 1724; pret. sg. þe hine se brôga angeat, whom terror seized, 1292.—2) to grasp intellectually, to comprehend, to perceive, to distinguish, to behold: pres. subj. I. þät ic ærwelan ... ongite, that I may behold the ancient wealth (the treasures of the drake's cave), 2749; inf. säl timbred ... ongytan, 308, 1497; Geáta clifu ongitan, 1912; pret. sg. fyren-þearfe ongeat, had perceived their distress from hostile snares, 14; ongeat ... grund-wyrgenne, beheld the she-wolf of the bottom, 1519; pret. pl. bearhtm ongeâton, gûðhorn galan, perceived the noise, (heard) the battle-trumpet sound, 1432; syððan hie Hygelâces horn and býman gealdor ongeâton, 2945.

gîfre, adj., greedy, eager: nom. sg. gîfre and galgmôd, of Grendel's mother, 1278.—Superl.: lîg..., gæsta gîfrost, 1124.—Comp. heoro-gîfre.

gîtsian, w. v., to be greedy: pres. sg. III. gýtsað, 1750.

gio-, gió-. see geo-, geó-.

gladian, w. v., to gleam, to shimmer: pres. pl. III. on him gladiað gomelra lâfe, upon him gleams the legacy of the men of ancient times (armor), 2037.

gläd, adj., gracious, friendly (as a form of address for princes): nom. sg. beó wið Geátas gläd, 1174; acc. sg. glädne Hrôðgâr, 864; glädne Hrôðulf, 1182; dat. sg. gladum suna Frôdan, 2026.

gläde, adv., in a gracious, friendly way, 58.

glädnian, w. v., to rejoice: inf. w. gen., 367.

gläd-môd, adj., joyous, glad, 1786.

glêd, st. f., fire, flame: nom. sg., 2653, 3115; dat. (instr.) pl. glêdum, 2313, 2336, 2678, 3042.

glêd-egesa, w. m., terror on account of fire, fire-terror: nom. sg. glêd-egesa grim (the fire-spewing of the drake), 2651.

gleáw (Goth, glaggwu-s), adj., considerate, well-bred, of social conduct; in comp. un-gleáw.

gleó, st. n., social entertainment, (especially by music, play, and jest): nom. sg. þær wäs gidd and gleó, 2106.

gleó-beám, st. m., (tree of social entertainment, of music), harp. gen. sg. gleó-beámes, 2264.

gleó-dreám, st. m., joyous carrying-on in social entertainment, mirth, social gaiety: acc. sg. gamen and gleó-dreám, 3022.

gleó-man, m., (gleeman, who enlivens the social entertainment, especially with music), harper: gen. sg. gleómannes gyd, 1161.

glitinian (O.H.G. glizinôn), w. v., to gleam, to light, to glitter: inf. geseah þâ ... gold glitinian, 2759.

glîdan, st. v., to glide: pret. sg. syððan heofones gim glâd ofer grundas, after heaven's gem had glided over the fields (after the sun had set), 2074; pret. pl. glidon ofer gârsecg, you glided over the ocean (swimming), 515.

tô-glîdan (to glide asunder), to separate, to fall asunder: pret. gûð-helm tô-glâd (Ongenþeów's helmet was split asunder by the blow of Eofor), 2488.

glôf, st. f., glove: nom. sg. glôf hangode, (on Grendel) a glove hung, 2086.

gneáð, adj., niggardly: nom. sg. f. näs hió ... tô gneáð gifa Geáta leódum, was not too niggardly with gifts to the people of the Geátas, 1931.

gnorn, st. m., sorrow, sadness: acc. sg. gnorn þrowian, 2659.

gnornian, w. v., to be sad, to complain: pret. sg. earme ... ides gnornode, 1118.

be-gnornian, w. acc., to bemoan, to mourn for: pret. pl. begnornodon ... hlâfordes [hry]re, bemoaned their lord's fall, 3180.

god, st. m., god: nom. sg., 13, 72, 478, etc.; hâlig god, 381, 1554; witig god, 686; mihtig god, 702; acc. sg. god, 812; ne wiston hie drihten god, did not know the Lord God, 181; dat. sg. gode, 113, 227, 626, etc.; gen. sg. godes, 570, 712, 787, etc.

gold, st. n., gold: nom. sg., 3013, 3053; icge gold, 1108; wunden gold, wound gold, gold in ring-form, 1194, 3136; acc. sg. gold, 2537, 2759, 2794, 3169; hæðen gold, heathen gold (that from the drake's cave), 2277; brâd gold, massive gold, 3106; dat. instr. sg. golde, 1055, 2932, 3019; fättan golde, with chased gold, with gold in plate-form, 2103; gehroden golde, covered with gold, gilded, 304; golde gegyrwed (gegyrede), provided with, ornamented with gold, 553, 1029, 2193; golde geregnad, adorned with gold, 778; golde fâhne (hrôf), the roof shining with gold, 928; bunden golde, bound with gold (see under bindan), 1901; hyrsted golde (helm), the helmet ornamented with, mounted with gold, 2256; gen. sg. goldes, 2302; fättan goldes, 1094, 2247; scîran goldes, of pure gold, 1695. —Comp. fät-gold.

gold-æht, st. f., possessions in gold, treasure: acc. sg., 2749.

gold-fâh, adj., variegated with gold, shining with gold: nom. sg. reced ... gold-fâh, 1801; acc. sg. gold-fâhne helm, 2812; nom. pl. gold-fâg scinon web äfter wagum, variegated with gold, the tapestry gleamed along the walls, 995.

gold-gifa, w. m., gold-giver, designation of the prince: acc. sg. mid mînne goldgyfan, 2653.

gold-hroden, pret. part., (covered with gold), ornamented with gold: nom. sg., 615, 641, 1949, 2026; epithet of women of princely rank.

gold-hwät, adj., striving after gold, greedy for gold: näs he goldhwät, he (Beówulf) was not greedy for gold (he did not fight against the drake for his treasure, cf. 3067 ff.) 3075.

gold-mâðm, st. m., jewel of gold: acc. pl. gold-mâðmas (the treasures of the drake's cave), 2415.

gold-sele, st. m., gold-hall, i.e. the hall in which the gold was distributed, ruler's hall: acc. sg., 716, 1254; dat. sg. gold-sele, 1640, 2084.

gold-weard, st. m., gold-ward, defender of the gold: acc. sg. (of the drake), 3082.

gold-wine, st. m., friend who distributes gold, i.e. ruler, prince: nom. sg. (partly as voc.) goldwine gumena, 1172, 1477, 1603; goldwine Geáta, 2420, 2585.

gold-wlanc, adj., proud of gold: nom. sg. gûðrinc goldwlanc (Beówulf rewarded with gold by Hrôðgâr on account of his victory), 1882.

gomban, gomel, gomen. See gamban, gamal, gamen.

gong, gongan. See gang, gangan.

gôd, adj., good, fit, of persons and things: nom. sg., 11, 195, 864, 2264, 2391, etc.; frôd and gôd, 279; w. dat. cyning äðelum gôd, the king noble in birth, 1871; gumcystum gôd, 2544; w. gen. wes þu ûs lârena gôd, be good to us with teaching (help us thereto through thy instruction), 269; in weak form, se gôda, 205, 355, 676, 1191, etc.; acc. sg. gôdne, 199, 347, 1596, 1970, etc.; gumcystum gôdne, 1487; neut. gôd, 1563; dat. sg. gôdum, 3037, 3115; þäm gôdan, 384, 2328; nom. pl. gôde, 2250; þâ gôdan, 1164; acc. pl. gôde, 2642; dat. pl. gôdum dædum, 2179; gen. pl. gôdra gûðrinca, 2649.—Comp. ær-gôd.

gôd, st. n.: 1) good that is done, benefit, gift: instr. sg. gôde, 20, 957, 1185; gôde mære, renowned on account of her gifts (Þryðo), 1953; instr. pl. gôdum, 1862.—2) ability, especially in fight: gen. pl. nât he þâra gôda, 682.

gram, adj., hostile: gen. sg. on grames grâpum, in the gripe of the enemy (Beówulf), 766; nom. pl. þâ graman, 778; dat. pl. gramum, 424, 1035.

gram-heort, adj., of a hostile heart, hostile: nom. sg. grom-heort guma, 1683.

gram-hydig, adj., with hostile feeling, maliciously inclined: nom. sg. gromhydig, 1750.

grâp, st. f., the hand ready to grasp, hand, claw: dat. sg. mid grâpe, 438; on grâpe, 555; gen. sg. eal ... Grendles grâpe, all of Grendel's claw, the whole claw, 837; dat. pl. on grames grâpum, 766; (as instr.) grimman grâpum, with grim claws, 1543.—Comp.: feónd-, hilde-grâp.

grâpian, w. v., to grasp, to lay hold of, to seize: pret. sg. þät hire wið halse heard grâpode, that (the sword) griped hard at her neck, 1567; he ... grâpode gearofolm, he took hold with ready hand, 2086.

gräs-molde, w. f., grass-plot: acc. sg. gräsmoldan träd, went over the grass-plot, 1882.

grædig, adj., greedy, hungry, voracious: nom. sg. grim and grædig, 121, 1500; acc. sg. grædig gûðleóð, 1523.

græg, adj., gray: nom. pl. äsc-holt ufan græg, the ashen wood, gray above (the spears with iron points) 330; acc. pl. græge syrcan, gray (i.e. iron) shirts of mail, 334.

græg-mæl, adj., having a gray color, here = iron: nom. sg. sweord Beówulfes gomol and grægmæl, 2683.

græpe. See ät-græpe.

grêtan, w. v. w. acc.: 1) to greet, to salute: inf. hine swâ gôdne grêtan, 347; Hrôðgâr grêtan, 1647, 2011; eówic grêtan hêt (bade me bring you his last greeting), 3096; pret. sg. grêtte Geáta leód, 626; grêtte þâ guma ôðerne, 653; Hrôðgâr grêtte, 1817.— 2) to come on, to come near, to seek out; to touch; to take hold of: inf. gifstôl grêtan, take possession of the throne, mount it as ruler, 168; näs se folccyning ænig ... þe mec gûðwinum grêtan dorste (attack with swords), 2736; Wyrd ... se þone gomelan grêtan sceolde, 2422; þät þone sin-scaðan gûðbilla nân grêtan nolde, that no sword would take hold upon the irreconcilable enemy, 804; pret. sg. grêtte goldhroden guman on healle, the gold-adorned (queen) greeted the men in the hall, 615; nô he mid hearme ... gästas grêtte, did not approach the strangers with insults, 1894; gomenwudu grêtte, touched the wood of joy, played the harp, 2109; pret. subj. II. sg. þät þu þone wälgæst wihte ne grêtte, that thou shouldst by no means seek out the murderous spirit (Grendel), 1996; similarly, sg. III. þät he ne grêtte goldweard þone, 3082; pret. part. þær wäs ... gomenwudu grêted, 1066.

ge-grêtan, w. acc.: 1) to greet, to salute, to address: pret. sg. holdne gegrêtte meaglum wordum, greeted the dear man with formal words, 1981; gegrêtte þâ gumena gehwylcne ... hindeman siðe, spoke then the last time to each of the men, 2517.—2) to approach, to come near, to seek out: inf. sceal ... manig ôðerne gôdum gegrêtan ofer ganotes bäð, many a one will seek another across the sea with gifts, 1862.

greót, st. m., grit, sand, earth: dat. sg. on greóte, 3169.

greótan, st. v., to weep, to mourn, to lament: pres. sg. III. se þe äfter sincgyfan on sefan greóteð, who laments in his heart for the treasure-giver, 1343.

grim, adj., grim, angry, wild, hostile: nom. sg., 121, 555, 1500, etc.; weak form, se grimma gäst, 102; acc. sg. m. grimne, 1149, 2137; fem, grimme, 1235; gen. sg. grimre gûðe, 527; instr. pl. grimman grâpum, 1543.—Comp.: beado-, heaðo-, heoro-, searo-grim.

grimme, adv., grimly, in a hostile manner, bitterly, 3013, 3086.

grim-lîc, adj., grim, terrible: nom. sg. grimlîc gry[re-gäst], 3042.